Venice: April 1526

Pages 535-545

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 3, 1520-1526. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1869.

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April 1526

April 2. Sanuto Diaries, v. xli. pp. 141, 142. 1236. Andrea Rosso, Venetian Secretary in France, to the Doge and Signory.
Today had audience of the King in Council. His Majesty said he was content to stipulate the league to assist Italy, provided the Pope, the Signory, and other powers do not fail [doing the like?]. His Majesty will have great regard for the Signory, towards whom the Emperor bears ill will, for when the agreement with Spain was being treated, the Emperor never would consent to the inclusion of Venice (notwithstanding the King's utmost efforts), saying he had other accounts to settle with the Republic; so the King made the convention as he best might, without naming the Signory. The Emperor with his own lips told him that he was perfectly resolved upon coming into Italy for his coronation, but lacked funds for the purpose. The King is therefore content to make the league with Italy, but with fewer articles than were stipulated with Madame the Regent, as he is now at liberty, and regardless of his sons' remaining three or four years in Spain, because he knows they will be well treated, and, being lads, will learn the language and form friendships, which one day or other may be of use to them. The King then said he would make the Switzers attack the Milanese; send 500 spears into Piedmont, and troops towards Fonterabia; and cause the King of England, who would join the league, to send forces through France (di qua), to the frontiers of Narbonne and Bayonne.
Mont de Marsan, 2nd April. Registered by Sanuto, 18th April.
April 3. Sanuto Diaries, v. xli. pp. 142, 143. 1237. The Same to the Same.
The English ambassador here at the Court, by name Dr. Tayler, has persuaded the King not to ratify the clauses.
3rd April. Registered by Sanuto, 18th April.
April 3. Sanuto Diaries, v. xli. p. 168. 1238. Lorenzo Orio to the Doge and Signory.
On receipt of the Signory's letters dated 2nd March, announcing the reply given to the Imperial ambassadors, and the mission of Secretary Rosso to the most Christian King, together with the summary of the articles, went to Cardinal Wolsey, acquainted him with the whole, and requested him to desire the English ambassadors in France to communicate all events to Rosso, who had been charged to do the like by them. The Cardinal replied he had already done so, but would repeat the order, and that the Doctor [Tayler] wrote to him that the most Christian King had not ratified the articles. He commended the answer given to the Imperialists, and said nothing about the summary of the articles; but solely that he (the Emperor?) might possibly go to Rome, or cross over to Sicily with his forces, instead of marching into Hungary.
The Cardinal then said the Pope had written about the Turkish preparations, wishing his Majesty to contribute a certain sum of money for transmission into Hungary for its defence. He was expecting Dom. Giovanni Gioachino from France, who will be the bearer of the most Christian King's intention and will.
London, 3rd April. Registered by Sanuto, 26 h April.
April 4. Sanuto Diaries, v. xli. p. 104. 1239. English Ambassador in Venice.
Motion made in the Senate by the councillors, chiefs of the Forty, and sages of the council, for the English ambassador to import, duty free, five kilderkins (anfore) of wine.
Ayes, 191. Noes, 7. Neutrals, 0.
April 4. Senato Terra, v. xxiv. p. 78, tergo. 1240. French Ambassador in Venice.
The French ambassador, the Bishop of Bayeux, having imported 24 kilderkins, two buckets (bigonci), and three quarts of wine, for his own use and that of his household,— Put to the ballot, that the duty on the wine be charged to the Signory.
Also the duty on five kilderkins imported by the reverend ambassador of the King of England.
Ayes, 191. Noes, 7. Neutrals, 0.
April 9. Navagero Despatches, Cicogna copy. 1241. Andrea Navagero to the Signory.
The Imperialists are much perplexed about the duchy of Milan. They would fain have Italy to guarantee them against France, in whom they do not trust; and wait to see what the King of France will do. The Emperor's advisers are few, and their opinions conflicting.
Yesterday an express was sent to Germany about the Lutheran affairs, which are raging more than ever. Some say the Princes of Germany will renounce the Pope; but the Emperor has written to them not to do so. This may be a feint to intimidate the Pope and make him consent to the Emperor's wishes. The Infant [the Archduke Ferdinand] urges the Emperor strongly to go to Italy to obtain the duchy of Milan for him, and hopes after the Emperor's coronation to be elected King of the Romans. Were the Emperor to be crowned, the Electors would never elect the Archduke Ferdinand because they deem him too dangerous a man.
Seville, 9th April 1526.
April 10. Lettere del Collegio (Secreta), File no. 10. 1242. The Doge and College to Lorenzo Orio, Ambassador in England.
In pursuance of the Cardinal's advice, have elected two ambassadors to congratulate the most Christian King.
One of these will reside with his Majesty, and correspond with him (Orio), so that he may communicate such intelligence as expedient for the general good to the King and Cardinal.
In pursuance of the custom of the State, have elected two ambassadors, who are to go to the Emperor to congratulate his Majesty and his most Serene Consort on their marriage; after which, one is to return, and the other to go to the King of Portugal, to congratulate him. To communicate this to the King and Cardinal.
Add their satisfaction at his Majesty's having sent an ambassador to the most Christian King. Anxiously await what Giovanni Gioachino may report concerning the disposition of his most Christian Majesty. The more assiduous he (Orio) is to keep the King and Cardinal well pleased, the better will he comply with the desire of the State.
Have heard from Milan that the Imperialists continue besieging the castle as usual, and that the garrison lack provisions, but are in hope of succour the delay of which would be very perilous.
April 10. Sanuto Diaries, v. xli. pp. 204, 205. 1243. Andrea Rosso to the Doge and Signory.
Arrived here from Mont de Marsan with the Papal Nuncio Dom. Chiapino on the 6th. Found here the ambassadors from the Emperor, from England, from the King of Portugal, and from the Duke of Savoy. The King came by the Garonne, in a handsomely decorated fuste (fusta). On disembarking he entered the city in state, under a canopy of cloth of gold, between the Cardinals of Lorraine and Vendôme. The Pope's ambassador, Dom. Chiapino, walked with the Grand Master of Rhodes, the Emperor's with the Duke of Vendôme, the English ambassador with Saint Pol, the Portuguese ambassador with Mons. de la Guiche (Gisa). The Portuguese put himself forward to precede the Englishman. He (Rosso) was with Mons. de Lautrec, and the Savoyard did not make his appearance. The English ambassador, (fn. 1) perceiving that the Portuguese ambassador proceeded to take precedence of him, complained loudly (brontolava assai), saying, “That is not his place.” So the King, on hearing this, sent to tell the Portuguese to take his own place, and he not choosing so to do, the King sent him a second message, to go home and retire (li mandò a dir I'andasse a casa e si levasse). The Portuguese said he would do so, but continued in the procession, saying it was going straight the whole way to his house. So the King lost patience (si stancò), and sent the archers to compel him to give way; and thus he departed. On entering the cathedral the Te Deum was sung, and the King swore to observe the privileges of the city, which was hung with tapestry, &c. The King was then accompanied to his dwelling. Was told his Majesty chose him to attend the ceremony that everybody might know how well the King was disposed towards the Signory, and that he had caused the Savoyard ambassador to absent himself an account of the controversy about precedence.
Lautrec told him that he hoped the mandates would come soon, and that the King was sending presents to the Queen [Eleanor of Austria], to keep the marriage negotiation on foot until the mandates arrived.
Bordeaux, 10th April. Registered by Sanuto, 1 st May.
April 11. Sanuto Diaries, v. xli. p. 206. 1244. Andrea Rosso to the Doge and Signory.
The envoy from England [Cheney] came to offer congratulations on the King's release, and requested him not to ratify the articles stipulated with the Emperor.
Bordeaux, 11th April. Registered by Sanuto, 2 nd May.
April 12. Sanuto Diaries, v. xli. pp. 238, 239. 1245. Dom. Chiapino, Papal Envoy in France, to the Marquis of Mantua.
Invited by the King to attend his entry into Bordeaux. On disembarking his Majesty mounted a mule, and placed himself under the canopy, (fn. 2) between the two cardinals, Bourbon on the right and Lorraine on the left. By the side of Lorraine was the Grand Master of Rhodes; he (Chiapino) came next, with Mons. de Vendôme; then the Imperial ambassador with Saint Pol, followed by the English ambassador with Mons. de Glissa [Guiche?]; and last of all the Secretary of the Venetian Signory with Mons. de Lautrec. The ambassador from Portugal was also there, who, wishing to precede the English ambassador, the master of the ceremonies told him repeatedly to go to his lodging or else to give place to the Englishman. As would he do neither one thing nor the other, the King sent the Lord Steward, Mons. de Montmorency, who, being unable to convince the Portuguese by fair words, told him plainly to go his way (che se ne andasse al suo viaggio), as the most Christian King did not choose to offer such an affront to the King of England for the sake of honouring Portugal. To this he replied that he would go his way, which was that they were taking; and he continued advancing on a line with the Imperial ambassador, so that the Lord Steward was compelled rudely with a push (con suo urto da male), and by force of four halberdiers, to thrust him out of the procession. At this, by his countenance, the Imperial ambassador evinced very great displeasure, though he said nothing. It seemed very strange to everybody, even supposing the Portuguese to have been in the right, that he should not have departed immediately when desired to do so in the King's name.
Bordeaux, 12th April. Registered by Sanuto, 11th May.
April 15. Sanuto Diaries, v. xli. p. 139. 1246. The Bailiff and Captain of Crema to the Doge and Signory.
A gentleman of Crema last night met a servant of Alvise Triulzio on his way from France to his master at Brescia.
The servant told the gentleman that on the arrival of the most Christian King in France, Madame the Regent presented him with two millions of gold, and counselled him not to observe any of the promises which he had made to the Spaniards. It was also said that the most Christian King was increasing his fleet (armata); and at Lyons, and throughout that part of France which the servant traversed, it was said publicly that the King of England had sent to offer his forces to the most Christian King against the Emperor.
Crema, 15th April. Registered by Sanuto, 17th April.
April 16. Deliberazioni Senato Secreta, v. li. p. 8, tergo. 1247. The Doge and Senate to the Venetian Ambassadors in Rome.
As the most Christian King suggests the transmission of a power (syndicato) to England, the Signory approves of the measure.
The ambassadors are to impart this to the Pope.
Ayes, 179. Noes, 17. Neutrals, 7.
April 16. Sanuto Diaries, v. xli. p. 135. 1248. Motion made in the Senate.
That a letter be written to the Signory's ambassador in England, with a modified copy of the letter from France, desiring the ambassador to request the King to be the protector of the league; announcing also that the Signory had written to Rome.
The motion was carried unanimously.
April 17. Deliberazioni Senato Secreta, v. li. p. 60, tergo. 1249. The Doge and Senate to Loeenzo Ohio, Ambassador in England.
Heard from their secretary Andrea Rosso, resident with the most Christian King, that the King is inclined to conclude the league with the potentates of Italy, and desires that the King of England do join it, and be its protector and conservator. Informed also by their secretary aforesaid that the most Christian King had written to the King and Cardinal. To make this announcement in the name of the State. As the Pope is to be one of the chief parties to the league, wrote to Rome in conformity with the suggestions of the King and Cardinal, and await a reply, that they may know how to regulate their conduct with regard to sending the mandate to him (Orio) to conclude in England, according to the request made to the Venetian secretary by the most Christian King. To return thanks to the King and Cardinal for their good offices with the most Christian King in inducing him to league with the potentates of Italy; for, as they well know, he will be stimulated by the conviction that the King of England will co-operate for the attainment of so salutary a result. Know what great authority and esteem the powerful crown of England has always enjoyed both with the most Christian King and with the Pope and the rest of Italy. It is important to use despatch, seeing that the castles of Milan and Cremona are ill provisioned, so that unless speedily succoured the Duke cannot long hold out. To beseech the King and Cardinal speedily to complete so good and necessary a purpose. To give advices to the secretary Rosso, with whom he is to correspond, for the furtherance of the present undertaking.
Ayes, 184. Noes, 5. Neutrals, 2.
April 17. Sanuto Diaries, v. xli. pp. 206, 207. 1250. Andrea Rosso to the Doge and Signory.
The King of England is expected to join the league. Dom. Giovanni Gioachino is gone to him, and will return with the King's decision. The English ambassador here says that his King will not declare himself against the Emperor for the present, but will render pecuniary assistance.
Cognac, 17th April. Registered by Sanuto, 2 nd May.
April 18. Deliberazioni Senato Secreta, v. li. p. 12. 1251. The Doge and Senate to Andrea Rosso, Venetian Secretary in France.
Pleased to hear it has been settled to send D. Giovanni Gioachino to England with offers to the King, who, as stated by him several times to the Venetian ambassador at his Court, cannot be better inclined than he is, to join the league for the benefit of Italy. The King and Cardinal urge the Signory to effect it.
Although they have written many letters to the said ambassador announcing their intention to join the league, and their wish for the King to be a party to it, have not failed now to write again, as suggested by his most Christian Majesty, alleging the account in which the power of England is held universally; wherefore the King's adhesion to the league will confirm the Pope's intention of doing what he can—and ought to do—for the benefit of Italy, as they believe to be his wish, and thereby establish a similar determination on the part of all the other Italian powers, and of the Switzers. Commend him much for having written to the ambassador in England giving him notice of what happens; he is to continue doing so, they having desired Orio to do the like by him.
April 19. Sanuto Diaries, v. xli. p. 173. 1252. Carlo Contarini to the State.
All the Swiss cantons have pronounced against Luther, except Zurich, which requires that its vicar, by name Zuinglius, who has written and printed many things in favour of Luther, should first of all be confuted; and therefore a council has been convoked at Basle, which will be attended by many noblemen, and take place on the 15th of next month.
Tubingen, 19th April. Registered by Sanuto, 28th April.
April 21. Sanuto Diaries, v. xli. p. 259. 1253. Andrea Rosso to the Doge and Signory.
Yesterday afternoon went to King Francis, who drew him aside to a window, and swore on the word of a gentleman that he will make the league with the Pope and the Signory, and also comprise the King of England, not so much for his Majesty's own advantage as for the liberty of Italy. The King said that, in order to make the King of England join the league, he has sent to promise him the money due to his English Majesty from the Emperor.
Bordeaux, 21at April. Registered by Sanuto, 18th May.
April 22. Sanuto Diaries, v. xli. p. 226. 1254. Lorenzo Orio to the Doge and Signory.
Having received three letters from the Signory, went to Cardinal Wolsey, and spoke to him about joining the league. His Lordship assured him of his King's goodwill towards the preservation of Italy, and the weakening of the Emperor's supremacy. He then said that Dom. Giovanni Gioachino had arrived from France, with the confirmation of the articles of the peace between his most Christian Majesty and the King of England, as approved by all the four estates of France (li 4 stadi dilla Franza).
This matter had been discussed by them; but nothing was said as yet about current events, Giovanni Gioachino having merely told them that the most Christian King was in the right path, and would not observe the articles [of the agreement made with the Emperor].
Then imparted the news of the Turk to the Cardinal, who said it was very important, and that Sultan Solyman would take Hungary, as it did not seem that any provision was made to resist him, which was a bad thing for Christendom. In conclusion, the Cardinal said that on the morrow he should go to the King at Greenwich. Will proceed there himself the day after, as on the preceding day his Majesty will be occupied in giving audience to the French ambassadors.
The Papal Nuncio, the Prothonotary di Gambara, has arrived in London to exhort the King to join the league. Gambara has been with him (Orio), and said he would communicate all that passed.
London, 22nd April. Registered by Sanuto, 7th May.
April 24. MantuanArchives. 1255. King Henry VIII. to Frederick [Gonzaga], Marquis of Mantua.
Is aware of the Marquis's wish to render him service from his letters, and from many other indications of good will.
To mark his (the King's) sense of this affection, salutes him (the Marquis) through the present letter, and by means of his well-beloved attendant Tarabin, a Modenese warder, (fn. 3) who is going to Italy for his own affairs, and those of the King himself.
Tarabin is charged to acquaint the Marquis with the King's goodwill by word of mouth, and to present him with two hobbies (gradarios equos), and some mastiffs and hounds (molossos venati-cosque canes).
The King considers these gifts very small, but trusts the Marquis will accept them as a testimony of sincere affection.
Should there be anything which the Marquis would wish to receive from England, he is to let the King know, through Tarabin, and he (the King) will have the pleasure of contenting him immediately.
Waltham, 24th April 1526.
Signed: Henricus Rex.
Countersigned: Petrus Vannes.
[Original, Latin.]
April 25. Deliberazioni Senato Secrota, v. li. p. 16, tergo. 1256. The Doge and Senate to Lorenzo Orio, Ambassador in England.
By their last of the 16th, sent him a copy of letters dated 24th and 28th ultimo, received from their secretary Rosso, resident with the most Christian King. He will thereby have fully understood the firm resolve of his Majesty to conclude a league with the potentates of Italy, for the maintenance of her liberty, and his great wish that the King of England should join the league, and be its protector and conservator. Suppose he will have heard the whole from the King and Cardinal and from the secretary Rosso. Also informed him that after the perusal of Rosso's letters they sent an express to their ambassador at Rome, desiring him (the Pope having to join the league as its chief), to urge his Holiness to draw up the articles and transmit them immediately to his agent in France, so as to effect so desirable a conclusion. Yesterday received letters from the ambassador, dated the 22nd, enclosing the articles, of which they forwarded a copy to the secretary in France for the prevention of any delay.
In their last letter they informed him that on receipt of the clauses from Rome they would send them to him, together with power to ratify, according to the intention of his most Christian Majesty. Now transmit to him a copy of the clauses as re-settled by the Pope from those drawn up by the Regent [Louise of Savoy] before the release of the most Christian King, together with an instruction apart from his Holiness, addressed to his Nuncio in France.
By these clauses he will perceive the honorable place reserved for the entry into this league of the King of England as principal, and also as protector and conservator, with other honorable and suitable conditions deserving the magnanimity of his Majesty, and the consummate prudence, experience, and counsel of the Cardinal.
On the receipt of letters from Rosso announcing the ratification of the clauses by the most Christian King, to announce their contents in the Signory's name to his Majesty and the Cardinal, and urge the King immediately to join the league as principal contracting party, and also to be its conservator and protector, according to the desire of the other confederates, and to the holy purpose of his Majesty, as also in accordance with his well-deserved title of “Defender of the Christian Faith.”
Ayes, 184. Noes, 4. Neutrals, 3.
April 25. Deliberazioni Senato Secreta, Filza, no. 6. 1257. Power from the Doge and Senate for Lorenzo Orio, Ambassador in England.
To stipulate in their name a perpetual league, confederacy and union with the Pope, the most Christian King of France, the King of England, Defender of the Faith, the Lord Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, and with any other kings, princes, states, commonwealths, and nations, even ultramontane.
To act as shall seem fit to him, having full power for the purposes aforesaid, and for all others. The State promises to ratify all his acts, and not to infringe them under any pretext; as security for which have ordered the present document to he furnished with their pendent leaden seal.
Dated 25th April 1526.
Read to the full College, and published in the Serate.
[Original draft, Latin.]
April 25. Sanuto Diaries, v. xli. p. 286. 1258. Lorenzo Ohio to the Doge and Signory.
Went to the King at Greenwich, having been preceded by the Papal Nuncio, the prothonotary Di Gambara, who had audience first; after which entered and communicated the contents of the Signory's letters to his Majesty, who said, “The Emperor does not wish for peace with your Signory.” The King suspects he will cross over to Italy, and that he is intent thereon. He then said that Giovanni Gioachino had returned from France, and that the most Christian King asks whether, having his two sons prisoners with the Emperor, he ought to make the league with Italy, and what he should do to obtain their release. His Majesty wishes him to join the league, and says he himself will be a party to it, in order that the Emperor may not become monarch of the universe. The King acts thus, moreover, by reason of the love he bears the Signory. He also said he was sending the Cardinal to London to speak with the French ambassadors about this league, and that he would conclude it in England; wherefore he (Orio) was to write to the Signory to send mandates to that effect. His Majesty declared that he had the interests of the Signory at heart.
Sends [the list] of Cardinal Bessarione's Greek books, which Cardinal Wolsey wishes for; and above all the Cardinal begs that a rare book belonging to Dom. Marco Dandolo may be sent to him. (fn. 4)
London, 25th April. Registered by Sanuto, 24th May.
April 26. Navagero Despatches. Cicogna copy. 1259. Andrea Navagero to the Signory.
The English ambassador [Edward Lee] states he can come to no settlement with the Emperor about the money due from him to his King. The Imperial ministers have spoken to him about making a new league, but his King will not consent unless he can pacify Christendom. His King will not easily brook (patir) the Emperor's coming into Italy.
Seville, 26th April 1526.
April 27. Lettere del Collegio (Secreta), File no. 10. 1260. The Doge and Senate to Lorenzo Orio, Ambassador in England.
He will receive their last letters through the Secretary in France, whom he is to acquaint with the English news, the French intelligence being communicated to him in return.
April 29. Sanuto Diaries, v. xli. p. 260. 1261. Andrea Rosso to the Doge and Signory.
Was told by the King that as the King of England has not yet declared himself, he has written to him again, and hopes he will join the league. Told the King the Signory had written to England. His Majesty said he was sure of the Signory, adding, “but the Pope?” He also announced the receipt of letters from England, purporting that the King enters the league.
The King will therefore wait ten days for the mandates after the arrival of the Viceroy.
Cognac, 29th April. Registered by Sanuto, 18th May.
April 30. Sanuto Diaries, v. xli. p. 286. 1262. Lorenzo Orio to the Doge and Signory.
The French ambassadors, that is to say, the President of Rouen and Giovanni Gioachino, have no mandate to conclude the league in England.
Yesterday high mass (una messa solenne) was sung by Cardinal Wolsey, and the King swore to the agreement with France. He then gave a dinner, and danced the whole day, after which he dismissed the ambassadors that they might write for the mandates. Has sent his letters by a foot post (uno fante), to whom he gave 25 crowns.
Subsequently went to Cardinal Wolsey, who spoke about the league, saying it would be well to stipulate it in England, and to insert two clauses; first, that none of the allies be allowed to make terms with the Emperor without the consent of the other parties to it; and, secondly, that the sum to be paid by each of the colleagues for the release of the French King's sons be specified. A captain of the league to be also appointed. The prothonotary Gambara said he would write to the Pope, and he (Orio) said he would do the like by the Signory, and hoped to receive the mandates.
Cardinal Wolsey has also written to France, urging the stipulation of this league, and that on account of the present danger the conclusion should be effected speedily. He says that the Emperor is acquainted with all and each of the current negotiations, and recommends the Signory to keep this design secret.
London, 30th April. Registered by Sanuto, 24th May.


  • 1. Dr. Tayler. Sir Thomas Cheyne, who succeeded Tayler, arrived at Bordeaux on the 6th April, and delivered his credentials on the 9th April, the day of the King's entry; but could not have had audience until after the ceremony of the procession. (See State Papers vol. vi., p. 531 note.)
  • 2. In the original, “smontato sua Maestà di have, montò sopra una mula, et erano sotto baldachino in megio delli due Cardinali,” etc.
  • 3. “Castellanum Mutinen'.” By Mr. Brewer's Calendar, 14 April 1515, it appears that Tarabin was then a messenger employed by the deputy of Calais.
  • 4. In Tomasini's Catalogue of the contents of Venetian libraries I do not find any clue to the title of the rare hook in the possession of Marco Dandolo, of which Cardinal Wolsey wished to obtain a copy in the year 1526.