Index: C

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 31, 1657-1659. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1931.

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'Index: C', in Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 31, 1657-1659, ed. Allen B Hinds( London, 1931), British History Online [accessed 23 July 2024].

'Index: C', in Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 31, 1657-1659. Edited by Allen B Hinds( London, 1931), British History Online, accessed July 23, 2024,

"Index: C". Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 31, 1657-1659. Ed. Allen B Hinds(London, 1931), , British History Online. Web. 23 July 2024.


Cadiz [Andalusia, Spain]:
-, English fleet off, menace to treasure fleet, 24; English watch outside, 30, 65, 101; English fleet leaves station off, 81, 87.
-, small craft bring treasure to, from Canaries, 81; cloth taken from England to, 100.
-, defensive measures at, 81; arming of ships at, proceeds with deliberation, 87; slackness over and then abandoned, 93.
-, troops might be sent secretly to ships off, 89; reinforcements for fleet off, 129; orders to fleet off, 132.
-, officers for ships at captured by Blake, 95; ships off recalled to Downs, 147; English propose to blockade with part of fleet, 260.
-, fleet from to escort treasure ships, 260.

-, governor of. See Cerda, Antonio de, duke of Medina Celi.

Cairo, Egypt, Bendish worried by affair of nation of, 190.

Calabria, Italy, French designs on, 161.

Calais, Cales [Pas de Calais, France]:
-, news from, 113, 222.
-, despatches dated at, 206, 212–3, 215, 219, 222–3.
-, Lockhart goes to, to meet wife, 21; English troops to land at, 49, 55.
-, warships of capture Dutchmen, 25.
-, ship of, captured, 54n; Mardick garrison sent as prisoners to, 117.
-, Spaniards offered to Cromwell, 114.
-, winter quarters for troops established at, 133; king and court at, 204; Mazarin returns to, 220.
-, Lockhart crossing to, 197; Falcombridge starts for, 208; his mission to, 210, 215, 217.
-, Mazarin detains all letters for London at, 227.

-, governor of. See Bethune, Louis de, count of Charost.

camel skins, Dutch trade in, at Smyrna, to make camlet, 138.

Canary Islands:
-, ships of plate fleet arrive at, 39, 52; Dutch reported going to, to rescue, 57.
-, Blake holds council of war about attack on, 63; Blake found Dutch ships at, 66.
-, confidence of power to resist attack, 63; report at Florence of victory at, 77; victory at alluded to, 81.
-, English possession of would cut off Spain from Indies, 65; Montagu has too few men for landing in, 89.
-, suspicion that Dutch may remove treasure from, 66; English capture treasure on Dutch ship from, 73, 106; and another with treasure and Spanish sailors, 81.
-, plate taken from to Cadiz in small craft, 81; English eager to capture treasure at, 92.
-, Montagu has favourable wind for, 91; 2 ships with gold reach Amsterdam from, 94.
-, Dutch squadron reported for, 105; English ship from taken and carried into S. Sebastian, 107.

Candia. See Crete.

-, war of. See under war.

Cape of Good Hope, S. Africa, Dutch stop and search E. Indiaman off, 163n.

Caracena, marquis of. See Benavides, Don Luis de.

Cardenas, Alonso de, ex ambassador of Spain to England:
-, rumour of peace move by, 39.
-, secretary left England at same time as, 40.

Cardinals, relations with English ambassadors, 25.

Carmelites, captured, paraded through London, 54.

Cartagena [Colombia, S. America], ship from, 54n.

Casimir, king. See John Casimir, king of Poland.

Castello, English merchantman, encounter with Venetian squadron, 207.

Castile, army of. See Spain, army.

Castelnau Mauvissière, Jacques de, marquis de Castelnau, sieur de Castelno, commanded left wing at battle of the Dunes, 212.

Catalonia, Spain, ship for captured, 178; fear of English attack on, 237.

Catholic king. See Philip IV, king of Spain.

Catholicism, Roman Catholic faith:
-, English government aspires to extirpation of, 34; German princes to be moved to destroy, 39; Cromwell wants to unite Sweden and Denmark against, 107; vast designs meditated against, 112, 212, 234.
-, French protest at alliance with enemies of, 124; Spanish revival would relieve from threatened scourge, 197.

Catholics, papists, recusants:
-, gunpowder plot promoted as excuse for severity to, 9; government wishes to be rid of, from Ireland, 157.
-, sequestrations from, help to supply revenues, 32; exhausted and downtrodden, 73; offer to Cromwell of additional revenue, 78.
-, frequent Venetian embassy, 36, 38; parliament orders watch on, 38; bill against before parliament, 68, 72; suggested by preachers, 69; Lambert opposes bill, 78.
-, captured Spanish friars depend on charity of, 54; Spanish sympathies of, 72–3.
-, Bordeaux's efforts on behalf of 72–3; Cromwell gives assent to bill against, 82; bill printed and put in. force, terms of, 89, 90.
-, Venetian embassy only chapel open to for worship, 80; resident adorns it for benefit of, 187.
-, three gentleman sent to Tower, 105; priests arrested at houses of, 144; houses searched for priests, 150.
-, offer Cromwell 50,000l. for suspension of act against, 116; French clergy refer to act against, 124; Bordeaux exerts himself for, 147.
-, Protector and Council order suspension of act against, 125; act not operating, 144; government treating very harshly, 150, 160.
-, proclamation for all to leave London, 173; question of getting rid of before Council, massacre suggested, 185; likely to suffer by establishment of High Court of Justice, 189.
-, compared with relative position of Huguenots, 186; encourage emperor against Swedes, 288.
-, Cromwell can injure Spaniards most by treating well, 229; English render respect to, at Dunkirk and Mardick, 247.

cattle, captured by Dunkirk garrison, 249.

cavaliers. See royalists.

Cavallo Volante. See Flying Horse.

Cecil, Robert, secretary of state, James induced to egg on Catholics to plot, 9.

Cephalonia, Ionian Island, Friendship bringing currants from, 143.

-, Proveditore of, English consul recommended to, 218, 230.

Cerda, Antonio de, duke of Medina Celi, governor of Cadiz, ordered to hasten arming of fleet, 81.

Ceremonies, Master of the. See Finet, Sir John; Fleming, Sir Oliver.

Ceylon, Zeilon, island of, India, reduced by Dutch, 76.

Chalons sur Marne, Scialone [Marne, France], despatch dated at, 126.

Champagne, treaty of, name for renewal of Anglo French alliance, 184.

chaplain, of Venetian Resident, salary of, 299.

Charles I, king of Great Britain, the late king:
-, servants of disqualified, 22; Cromwell blames long parliament for making war on, 48; treason act made at death of, 60.
-, French debt paid to commonwealth as standing in place of, 51.
-, sons of, as much Protestants as Cromwell, 184.
-, those who sentenced appointed to High Court of Justice, 194.
-, quarrel about control of army brought about ruin of, 292.

Charles II, King of England, the King of Scotland:
-, 1657:
-,-, supporters busy in London, 1; at bottom of plot to fire, Whitehall 8; all plans revealed to Cromwell, 13.
-,-, returns to Bruges from wanderings, 2; York quarrels with and leaves, 10; York reconciled with, 15.
-,-, sending Digby to Spain, difficulties over, 2; money at Madrid for may delay, 13.
-,-, 200 Scots mutiny and go to serve, 6; fear that Irish levied for France may desert to, 25; escaped Scots nobles may join, 31.
-,-, supporters contemplate every means to restore, 9; seconds Spanish efforts to egg on Dutch against England, 24.
-,-, Spanish pay inadequate for designs, 13; money received by promotes reconciliation, 16; hopes languish for lack of money, 29; plans injured by Spanish decision to attack Portugal, 24.
-,-, hopes that Cromwell's assumption of crown will pave way for return, 23.
-,-, application for help at Vienna, hopes from diet, 32.
-,-, troops sent to coast to prevent landing, 33; Cromwell anxious about landing by, 37.
-,-, reported well provided for invasion, but hopeless without a port, 33; preparations in Flanders cause uneasiness, 43.
-,-, suspicion of Buckingham's loyalty excludes from council, 38; Hewson and other prisoners may enlighten about Cromwell's plans, 73.
-,-, troops might go over to, for lack of pay, 43; reported offer of army to, if Cromwell takes crown, 45; likely to try and draw away English troops abroad, 52, 70; hopes may prove delusive, 56.
-,-, expelled from France by treaty, 51; Falconbridge corresponded with and sent money to, 134; perhaps to betray, id.
-,-, Sexby promised great things to, 96; Catholic gentlemen admit acting on instructions from, 105.
-,-, staying at Dunkirk, suspicion of designs, 126; takes part in night attack on Mardike, 126.
-,-, arrested priests accused of holding correspondence with, 147; desire for return, 153.
-, 1658:
-,-, stir among supporters through proximity, 154; search made for, in London, 156; officer in London in regular communication with, 169.
-,-, supposed design of invasion by, 162, 165, 173; plan of invasion, 168; bets on successful landing, 174, 184.
-,-, friends of, in parliament, 167; Council busy to thwart designs, 173, 176, 179.
-,-, mails stopped to prevent disclosure of designs, 169; Dutch preoccupation with the Sound will prevent helping, 174; suspicion of Dutch help for, 177, 182.
-,-, alleged arrangement with citizens of London, 176; Cromwell warns city of danger from, 178–9; fears of government about designs, 182.
-,-, plan to kidnap young St. John and Haselrig and carry off to, 180; hoped to exact large ransom for, id.
-,-, gives garter to Marsin, 180; Cromwell's pensioners spy upon, 184.
-,-, disappointment at delay in executing plans, 182; Cromwell's vigilance thwarts hopes of, 184, 188, 191.
-,-, royalist delight in getting Monk as recruit for, 188; Ormond suspected of betraying to Cromwell, 210.
-,-, Stapley admits having commission from, 188; reluctance to pronounce sentence against those with commissions from, 196; attempt to trap gentleman with commissions of, 199.
-,-, plot to throw London into confusion, for return of, 201; said to have stores of arms and. munitions in London, 202.
-,-, Slingsby defends loyalty to, 208; speeches of Slingsby and Hewet urge people to pray for return, 213; many gentlemen attached to, in London for Cromwell's funeral, 265.
-,-, lost many officers at battle of Dunes, 214; likely to find employment in Dutch army, if war, 244.
-,-, leaves Antwerp for Breda, 244; returns to Antwerp via the Hague, 246.
-,-, Mazarin offered help to Queen Henrietta, for restoration, 245; on hearing of Cromwell's death left Holland to treat with Spanish ministers, 251.

Charles X, King of Sweden:
-, Dutch suspected of instigating Denmark against, 28; advantageous proposal made by Lisola to, 77.
-, English levy promised to, 29; English wish to leave free for war with. Poles, 34; England bound to ward off anything that threatens, 65; question of England's attitude to, 86; Bradshaw's mission to reconcile with Muscovy, 90.
-, Denmark keeping back main body to observe, 86.
-, appeals to Cromwell to help, 92, 98; promise of help from Cromwell, 98; Cromwell grants 2000 men from army to, 110, 129.
-, Barkman going to see, 98; sends particular secrets to Cromwell by Frisendorff, 108.
-, mission of Jepson to, 98, 107; English delight at successes, 172.
-, Denmark disposed to accept English mediation with, 127; why Cromwell induced to promise money to, 204–5.
-, Dutch feeling strong against, 150; Brandenburgers seize ship of, 163.
-, Queen Christina sends gentleman to, to move against Naples, 161; English levies for, sail, 189.
-, victorious advance against Denmark, 172, 177; harsh terms imposed by, 178.
-, Barckman leaves to join in Germany, 204; successes endanger Dutch trade in Baltic, 215.
-, Cromwell sends Jephson to German princes, at instance of, and to Muscovy, 205; news of peace with Muscovy, 212; employed Duval for formalities on Cromwell's death, 263–4; Duval returns to, 268.
-, close unions of interest with England, 215; pamphlet on case of against Brandenburg, 232; efforts of minsters to raise credit of, 270, 279.
-, Schlezer offered services to, 232; government anxious for news of, 252, 262, 265, 267; no news of, 279.
-, invades Denmark, 241; less confidence about success, 246; reports capture of Kronburg, 248–9, 252; going to join army before Copenhagen, 249.
-, Ayscue engaged to serve, 260, 267, 283; English squadron sent to help, 274, 277, 281–2.
-, Dutch contemplate embassy to for adjustment, 277; French will try for an adjustment between, and Denmark, 278; negotiations with Denmark vanish, 286.
-, Bordeaux goes to inform Court of English decision to help, 281; English sailors enlisted to serve, 284.
-, Boreel protests Dutch do not desire ruin of, 281.
-, not so well placed, threatened with disaster, 286; English prepared to help vigorously, 296.
-, French hoped to hear of relief by English fleet, 287; repulsed in assault on Copenhagen, false reports of victory, 299; much weakened by repulse, in need of reinforcements, 302.

Charles Emanuel II, duke of Savoy:
-, minister justifies attitude to Vetoes, 56; Vetoes starting another rising against, 186.
-, France would like to have Vaud from in exchange, 186.

Charles Louis, elector Palatine of the Rhine:
-, Cromwell expresses regard for, 99; Eilenburg returning to, 135.
-, expects success in England, 102; manifesto in favour of claim to vicarship of the empire, 104.
-, asks restoration of pension, 122.

Charost, count of. See Bethune, Louis de.

Checchi. See Blanquefort, Charles de, duc de Crequi.

Chiverton, Sir Richard, lord mayor of London, Cromwell asks to form guard of horse for city, 152; Cromwell sends for, and represents danger of invasion, 178; asks to put militia in order, 179; attends Richard's proclamation, 242; goes to protest loyalty, 248.

Chrechi, Chrichi. See Blanquefort, Charles de, duc de Crequi.

Christina, ex queen of Sweden:
-, staying at Fontainebleau, 156; instigating attack on Naples, 158–61.
-, sends envoy with letters, to England, 156; sends to Sweden also, 161; Passerini takes back reply to, 180.

Christmas day:
-, decree against celebrating disobeyed, 150.
-, those who went to church on, arrested, 150; some released others detained, 152.

churches, petition for demolition of, 6.

Church, States of the, Papal States, proximity of English undesirable for, 268; English could easily raid shores of, 275.

Chute, Sciute, Chaloner:
-, chosen Speaker, 288–9; partisan of Cromwell, 295.
-, adopted another question for vote on Upper Chamber, 295; falls sick, substitute appointed for, 298–9.

cinnamon, Ceylon chief source of supply, 76.

Clarence, duke of. See George.

Claypole, Cleipol, Cleipul, John, master of the horse, to have seat in Upper House, 140.

-, -, Elizabeth (Cromwell) wife of, illness, 231; death and funeral, 236; final rally of, 240.

clergy, assembly of in France, disposed to make offer to Queen of England, 47; dissolves, collection of grants by, 53.

Clerville, Louis Nicholas de, chevalier, count of Clerville, sent to London to concert arrangements for campaign, 175.

-, taken from England to Spain, 100; cost of, for Cromwell's funeral, 248.
-, scarlet, presented to Aga from Algiers, 79.

coal, supplies held up, becomes very dear, 197.

colliers, sailors taken from for navy, 71, 75.

Cologne [German Empire]:
-, news from, 150, 160.
-, duke of York goes to, 10; he leaves, 15.

Colombo, Ceylon, Zeilon, India, Dutch capture, 76.

commissioners, by French treaty should have been appointed to settle claims for losses in war, 274; Bordeaux asked to have sent, 275.

-, of the treasury, accounts rendered by, 295.

-, See also under ambassadors; Sweden, ministers.

Compiègne [Oise, France]:
-, despatches dated at, 53, 56, 59.
-, king leaves, for Amiens, 58.

Condé, prince of. See Bourbon Condé, Louis II de.

conspiracy. See plot.

Constantinople, Turkey:
-, news from, 26, 100n.
-, Turks at not trying to get English ships, 41.
-, Barbary depredations have approval of, 101.
-, letters to for restoration of ship, 125; threat if not favourably answered, 138.
-, English ship from, fights and takes papal corral, 250.

consuls, names of:
-, English at Algiers. See Browne, Robert.
-, English at Genoa. See Incham, John.
-, English at Leghorn. See Longland, Charles.
-, English in the Morea. See Holdipp, Richard.
-, English at Venice. See Hobson, John.
-, Venetian at Genoa. See Tasca, Paris.
-, Venetian at Leghorn. See Armeno, Giuseppe.

Contarini, Girolamo, captain of the ships:
-, despatch to the Senate, 193.
-, captains promise to follow everywhere, 193–4; supplies them from own pocket, 194.

Cook, Cuch, ? Coke, Colonel:
-, negotiations with for levy, for Venice, 156–7, 163, 166, 189, 209; terms considered excessive, 178.
-, connection of Cromwell and Fleetwood, 156.

Copenhagen, Denmark:
-, threatened by Charles X, 172; he sits down before, 241; reported fall, 243.
-, Meadowe leaves, with honours, 215.
-, Dutch fleet sighted near, hopes of relief, 243; reports vague about, 246; Dutch merely wish to introduce troops into, 262; succeed in so doing, 265, 269.
-, expected fall, 249, 252; Opdam to return after relieving, 267; Opdam's flagship taken to for repairs, 270; Opdam to winter at, 276–7.
-, Swedes keep blockaded, 279; false report of capture, 299.
-, Swedes repulsed at, 299; serious though minimised in England, 302.

Corker, Francis, revealed royalist plot to Protector, 202.

Corraro, Anzolo, Venetian ambassador at Rome, despatch to the Inquisitors of State, 160.

Corselles, Nicolo, London merchant, intervention in Arson case, 244, 246.

Corsica, island of, Algerians capture shipwrecked Englishmen off, 289.

Coruña, Galicia, Spain, English watch off, 24, 65.

Cosenza, archbishop of. See Sanfelici, Giuseppe Maria.

Council of State, Secret Council, 25.
-, 1657:
-,-, Cromwell too ill to attend, 3; returns thanks for Cromwell's escape, 8.
-,-, Giavarina's memorial to be laid before, 4; not yet done, 6; put before but no decision, 8; mass of business prevents dealing with, 40.
-,-, decree against royalists contrary to Act of Oblivion, 4; parliament unwilling for privileges to be usurped by, 16; decision concerning parliament left to Protector and, 19; to have share in approving members, 22.
-,-, proposed deputation of army to deal with, 60, Lambert excluded from, 88; Fleetwood a member of, 140.
-,-, Cromwell devoting all attention to re-organisation of, new oath and changes in, 87; difficulty over oath, fresh members take, 92; numbers fill up slowly, 96.
-,-, question of Barbary depredations before, 101, 103; Giavarina's proposals considered by, 103; question of Tripoli pirates to be dealt with by, 110.
-,-, fast ordered by, for epidemic, 105: order of committing Buckingham to prison, 127.
-,-, Catholic gentlemen brought before, 105n; many councillors away, 106; meetings will be resumed, not held because no quorum, 109; orders suspension of Act against Catholics, 124.
-,-, whole week taken up with Flanders operations, 113; meeting with greater assiduity since Lockhart's visit, 118; discuses nothing but Flanders, 126.
-,-, Cromwell busy at all hours in, 118; Lockhart and Montagu in, Cromwell very agitated after meeting, 124.
-,-, White proposed in, for Mardike, 122n; question of holding or abandoning Mardike considered in, 127–8.
-,-, opinion in divided about Dutch, 125; Schlezer appealed to, about arrest, 139.
-,-, decision to make collection for Polish refugees, 129; sent for Salvetti about letter to Grand Duke, 141n.
-,-, Falconbridge to have seat in, 134; considering constitution of Upper House, 139, 140, 142, 149.
-,-, busy over opening of parliament, 151, 153; Richard Cromwell takes seat in, 154–5.
-, 1658:
-,-, only met once since dissolution of parliament, 168; in constant session to prevent disorders which considered inevitable, 173, 179, 185; conjectures about, 176, 186.
-,-, White arrested by order of, 171; discussing how to get rid of royalists and Catholics, 185.
-,-, expected to issue decree for Cromwell's coronation, 176.
-,-, devising way to summon new parliament, 185; decides to summon new parliament, 189.
-,-, proposal to set up High Court of Justice, 188; decision to do so, 191.
-,-, appoints day of prayer for success in war, 224; question of royal title raised in, 226.
-,-, summoned to Hampton Court to meet there, 225; thought to be about Lockhart, 227; meets as frequently as in London, 228.
-,-, prescribes oath to be taken by Dunkirkers, 228; stops Nieuport sending news of Cromwell's death, 244.
-,-, issues orders to reinforce fleet in Mediterranean, 234.
-,-, will not deal with case of Arson, 241.
-,-, met at once on. Cromwell's death and stopped letters leaving, confirmed succession of Richard, 241.
-,-, constant meetings to preserve the peace, 245; instruction that foreign powers expected to observe usual formalities, 246.
-,-, advises proclamation for continuation in office of present holders, 245.
-,-, Doyley's report read in 253n; resolution to pay troops what is due to them, 259.
-,-, Henry Cromwell made lieutenant of Ireland by advice of, 256; Lockhart confers with, about coming campaign, 283.
-,-, Richard promises to appoint commissioners of, to consider any proposals of Giavarina, 263; Thurloe slow in laying case of Angelo before, 282.
-,-, debate on news of battle in Sound, 265, 268; decides to send strong squadron thither, 266; issues orders for fleet, 296.
-,-, parliament writs under consideration of, 277, 280; busy preparing for parliament, 282.
-,-, appoints fast day, about parliament, 277, 280; parliament opened on day fixed by, 287.
-,-, asked to render account for assignment to Cromwell's widow, 285; beyond powers, 286; petition that shall be chosen by parliament, 292.

-, President of. See Lawrence, Henry.

Courland [Latvia], Bradshaw in, 205; no English minister in, 218.

-, duke of. See Ketteler, James.

Courtney, Curtene, Hugh, Anabaptist leader, sent to Tower, 165.

Crequi, duc de. See Blanchefort, Charles de.

Crete, Candia, island of, danger of pirates running rampant if Turks capture, 148, 230.

Crisp, Crips, Henry, carried off to Dunkirk and held to ransom, 96.

-, Sir Nicholas, raid on house of, 95–6.

Cromwell, Elizabeth, widow of the Protector, to live at Somerset House with daughter, 248; parliament questions authority for grant of pension to, 285.

-, Frances, marriage to Robert Rich, 131.

-, Henry:

letter to, 133n.

not popular with army, not capable of taking father's place, 239; fear that may cause trouble to brother, 243; increase of dignity for, 256.

Richard sends for, conjectures about, 257; not certain if coming, 259.

-, Mary, affianced to Lord Falconbridge, 131; ceremony performed secretly, 133, 138.

-, Oliver, the Protector, 254–5.

Colonel Cook connection of, 156; loyalty of army to, 251.

letter of the Senate to, 218; letter of king of Sweden to, 249; letter of Doyly to on Spanish attack, 253; frequently promised help against Turk, 256.

mordant writings issued at Rome against, 275; Thurloe refers to mediation between Sweden and Denmark, 295.

Lambert bitter enemy of, 285; Richard lacks the vigour of, 286; Overton exiled by, 292.


distracted by fear of disturbances, 1; discovers lighted train at palace, 7; sends account of plot to parliament, 11.

question of rendering his house hereditary, 2; may dissolve parliament 4; need of grant of money prevents dissolving, 5, 45.

pleased at thwarting Digby's mission to Spain, 2–3; likes to take a hand personally in everything, 8.

indisposed and unable to attend Council, 3; impossible to obtain audience of, 40; sudden indisposition, 44.

assurances to, about Galilee, 3, 29, 47; willing to grant soldiers and sailors to Venice, 36.

ready to stop English ships serving Turks, 4, 40; advised to send envoy to Muscovy, 34n.

sharp letter to parliament about death sentences, 4; in bad case if army disaffected, 12.

sends Lockhart back to France, 7, 14; Bordeaux asks for levy, 25.

thanksgivings for escape, 8, 11, 14, 20; plot to shoot on way to Hampton Court, 9.

permanence of major generals would be dangerous for, 12; will prefer to see them abolished, 13; pleased at defeat of Militia Bill but not at decimation, 16.

will never be at a loss for means to reduce royalists, 13; subsidy voted as sop to, 16.

all Charles' plans revealed to, 13; Charles' hopes of stroke against dashed, 20; every plot against discovered, 54.

uncertainty about conspirators keeps in constant apprehension, 18; Sinderc31omb says many ready to attempt life, 20.

expected to continue existing parliament, 19; entertains members at banquet, 21.

Fisher making verses to celebrate, 21; Giavarina to follow example of other ambassadors concerning, 35.

wrongly believes Lambert a supporter, 22; question of leaving control of army to, 27, 33.

proposal to make king before parliament, 22, 27; elevation considered certain, 23, 38, 42; kingship voted, 35.

autocratic power an obstacle to revolt, 25; does everything possible to prevent disturbances, 31.

wants alliance longer than France desired and insists on share of conquests, 26; France will do little without help of, 36; wished Sweden included, 43; but gives in, 44.

reply to Lambert and officers about change of government, 27–8; Lambert expected to overawe, 28; reluctant to be king, as has more authority, 32.

Charles's envoy sceptical about plot against, 32; attitude to kingship, 36, 38, 44; acceptance expected, 50; objections not sincere, 53; betrays ambition for title, 62.

deputation to offer crown to, 35; crown offered to, his reply, 37; asks time to consider, 38; gives written reply, 41; parliament presses request on reply, 42; Meadowe waiting for issue, 43.

question of recognition by foreign powers, 36; not true that Spain sounding about embassy, 39.

Buckingham making up to, 38; condemns action of long parliament, 48; allowed Buckingham to return to England, 296.

unwilling to act in despite of army, 44; possible reason for, 45; army threatens to abandon if takes royal title, 56.

new plot of Fifth Monarchy men against, 45; interest of Senate in coronation of, 53.

communication to parliament for consideration, 48; demand of, id.; parliament considering articles of, 50.

drawing friends and supporters towards London, 48; Lockhart returning because of elevation, 50.

hears of resumption of negotiations between France and Spain, 50; expected to reward Lockhart, 52.

parliament returns articles to, promises reply, 53; can settle business of crown without scruple, 54; asks unexpectedly for another title, 55; persists in refusing royal title, 56, 59.

Aga from Algiers has audience of, presents skins, 54–5; also present of animals for, defrays Aga's charges, 58, 67.

military ask parliament not to confer title of king on, 55–6; will try to win army's consent, 57.

would be surprised if parliament dissolved and went home, 55; division in parliament about reply, 56–7; may dissolve parliament, 57.

keeps alive claim to protect Piedmont Protestants, 56.

Grand Duke's present of wine not valued by, 58; affects unconcern “Killing no murder,” 60.

in constant apprehension, trusts no one, 58; Lambert's desire to unseat, 60.

orders Lockhart to be at hand when troops mustered, 58.

parliament decides to confirm as protector, question of powers, 59; parliament votes royal powers for, 61.

army asks appointment of general in place of, 60; strongly opposed to this, id.

Giavarina to inform of Venetian victory, 61, 80; Lockhart offered levies to Venice without knowledge of, 71.

petition and advice presented to, 61–2; speech in reply, 62; missions postponed till after confirmation of title, 66; announcement of dignity for to be made, 68, 71.

Nieuport to see about suspicion of helping Spaniards, 66; question of interposition touching differences between France and Holland, 74.

Bordeaux sees about English troops, 67; asks for reinforcements, id.; Bordeaux presses for levies, 75.

decides to continue parliament, 68; asks them to hasten deliberations, wishes adjournment to give them breathing space, id.

parliament discusses how to provide revenue for, 68; goes to parliament and assents to acts, 71; refuses consent to Bill for Catechising, 72.

has not confirmed bill against Catholics, 68; Bordeaux has audience of, protest against, 69; altercation with him over, gives assurances, 72; creatures of promote bill, 78.

Buckingham comes to make peace with, talk of marrying daughter, 70; delighted at grant to Fleetwood, 75; obstacles prevent adjustment with duke, 77.

instrument for confirming in position, 71; bills ready for assent of, 78; gives assent, 82; most of bills signed by, for money, 84.

Venice wishes to cultivate friendly relations with, 74; Danish minister has secret audience of, 86, 92.

ready to grant parliament extension of time, 74; prolongs session a week, 77; date of adjournment fixed to please, 81.

ministers of Sweden and Brandenburg urge to send ships to Baltic, 77; Bradshaw sent to Muscovy by, 90.

Catholic gentry offer increased revenue to, vague reply, 78; proclamation of in country said to be well received, 94.

elevation of involves Giavarina in expense, 80; parliament wishes investiture of, before separating, 82; ceremony of, id.; none of foreign ministers goes to congratulate, 83; Giavarina's conduct about not approved, 93.

allows levy of Scots for Portugal, 86; Swedish ministers have frequent audience of, to ask for help, 92.

busy about establishing Council, 87, 92; sends for Lambert, dismisses him from appointments, 88; fears Lambert may cause trouble, 96.

keeps his own counsel, 92; Venice not encouraged to hope for ships from, 93.

Lambert begs not to dismiss officers, 96; gave Blake leave to return, 101; cannot trust all, to command mand fleet, 102.

Sexby questioned by, 96; plans of Gardiner to murder, 103.

proposed Venetian embassy to, to get help, 96–7; Giavarina urges glory that would win by helping Venice, 100.

likely to promise considerable help to Sweden, 98; Sweden sends envoy to impart particular secrets to, 108; has audience of, 109.

selects Jepson for Sweden because of knowledge of art of war, 98; confidence in him, 99; Dutch urged to send to Sweden, 107.

Palatine minister has audience of, 99; audience postponed, 104.

incensed at audacity of Barbary corsairs, 100; Levant Co. petitions to act, promises speedy answer, 101.

can easily ruin Lambert, 103; Catholic gentry make offer to to suspend act, 116; said to have ordered suspension, 124.

staying at Hampton Court, for rest, 104; better, expected back in London, 106; detained longer than wished, 109.

subject to frequent catarrhs, 104; malady increased by use of waters, 106.

delays decision about Tripoli pirates, 104; merchants put out by long delay of, 109; Levant Co. petition about promise to, 110, 121.

orders day of humiliation, for epidemic, 105; thanksgiving for Dunbar and Worcester, 108.

to be told of English ship helping Turks, 106; representations to against English ships serving Turks, 272.

Melo lodged and defrayed by, 106, 108; constant business in Council prevents seeing foreign ministers, 118; they have audience, 122.

returns to London in perfect health, 109; people do not love, except by force, 117.

grants levy to Sweden, 110, 129, 156; allows seizure of Danish ships and goods, 116.

Talon sent to, 111; confers with Reynolds, Talon and Bordeaux, 112; decision to besiege Dunkirk, 112; sends Reynolds back, 114.

Mazarin promises Dunkirk to, 112; insists on prosecution of campaign, 114; Bordeaux tries to persuade but persists, 114.

Lockhart comes to confer with, 115, 118, 120; complained exceedingly about French, 120.

capture of Mardike reported to, 116; said to have bought it, 117; measures to retain it, 121; advantage of possession to, 180–1.

Barckman brings letters for, 118; treating with Muscovite about company for whale fishery, 150.

letter to doge to give facilities to Mediterranean squadron, 119; letter to doge for Galilee, 123–4; assurances to, upon, 142, 144, 159.

Dutch closely watching proceedings, 122; Nieuport takes leave of, 131; present to Nieuport refused, 134, 149.

promises consideration of Palatine's pension, 122; orders arrest of Buckingham, arrangement with Fairfax, 127.

very heated after conference with Lockhart and Montagu, 124; energy devoted to keeping conquest and pushing further, 126.

Melo presses for levies, 125; Melo importunes to settle differences with Dutch, 146.

promise to Levant Co. if cannot get redress, 125; E. India Co. appeals to against Dutch, releases Dutch ship detained by them, 135; conducts affairs of Levant Co. with great secrecy, 160.

Levant Co. threatens to appeal to if Venice does not satisfy claims, 125, 145; Giavarina to prevent appeal to, 133.

decides to get auxiliary troops from Protestant friends, 128; France may treat for peace without informing, 133.

Polish Protestants appeal to, 129; present to Palatine's envoy, 135.

unwilling to miss wedding festivities of daughter, 131; more pleased with Mary's marriage than with that of Frances, 133.

Dunkirk and Gravelines promised to, by treaty, 133; Bordeaux has frequent conferences with, 141.

favour to Falconbridge, 134; infatuated with him, 139.

Giavarina has audience of, complains of help given to Turks, 136; reply of, 136–7 accuses Dutch of supplying munitions, 137–8; Giavarina to cultivate goodwill at every opportunity, 148.

discussing setting up Upper House, 139; arranging orders for nominations to parliament, 140; lords composed of creatures of, 149, 153.

coronation of, one of first questions for parliament, 140, 155; expectation that will assume royal title at opening, 149, 152.

writes to Grand Duke demanding restoration of ship, 141; allows sequestration of Portuguese prizes, 149; Melo sees about, 151.

sends squadron to Mediterranean to secure trade, 141–2, 146.

wants Downing to start as soon as possible, 143, 149; merchants ask leave to privateer against Dutch, 146.

Reynolds and others ask permission to return during winter, 143.

orders arrest of priests, 144, 147; resents French representations in favour of, 147; Bordeaux goes to see about, 148.

France may not make peace overtures without consent of, 145; wants to continue union with France, 147.

envoy from Florida to move against Spaniards, 147; orders to Bendish required for benefit of Venice, 153.

orders officers at Mardike to keep on good terms with French, 147; ordered Bradshaw to Muscovy, 205.

wants to have share in adjustment between Portugal and Holland, 149; Rebello took leave of, 156.

indifferent health of, 150; recovered from chill, 151; confidence in and affection for Thurloe, 169.

busy about opening of parliament, 151, 153; resistance of Catholics to, 160.

asks city to form guard for own security, 152; parliament asked to set up Upper House, 164.


way clear for assumption of crown, 155–6; labours alone, devising expedients to prevent disorder, 168, 171.

Passerini brings letters for from Queen Christina, 156, 161; receives him very privately, 158; queen wants to attack Naples, 161; no inclination for, 171; reply to queen, 180.

Denmark asks leave to make levy, 156; Pudsey has permission to make levy, 157.

opens parliament in state, 157–8; sends for members and addresses them, refers to unfriendly behaviour of Dutch, 162; request to have speech printed, 164–5.

Grand Duke writes to about relations with Stoakes, 161, 200; Venetian reply to about facilities for fleet, 181.

incensed at sinking of ship at Pillau, 163; writes to elector, 163n.

dissatisfied with parliament, 165; dissolves it, speech, 165; motives for dissolving not stated in speech, 167.

foreign ministers cannot get access to, 166, 169, 170–2; Nieuport's secretary brings letters for, 182.

anxiety and isolation, taking meals alone, 168; sleepless, health affected, 169; recovered, 170; very disturbed and sleepless, 202.

accurately informed of king's plans, 168; uneasiness constantly increasing, 173.

officers dismissed for improper answers to, 170; acting with great moderation to avoid irritating people, 172.

desire for friendly relations with Dutch, 170; Denmark applies to, for mediation, 177.

thinks of calling another parliament, 172; difficulties in way of, 172; French think violence of may upset campaign, 175.

very short of money, supplied by private merchant, 174.

army remonstrates with, reinstates dismissed officers, 175; growing feeling in army against, 175; protestations of loyalty to from regiments in Scotland, 177, 179.

exceeding unpopularity of, 175; reported disaffection of Monk to, 177; report a trick, Monk devoted to, 188.

incessant consultations with Council, surmises about, 175–6; previous parliaments of, not free, 185.

report to be proclaimed by army as emperor, danger of, 176, 189; reviews troops, 182.

summons city council, represents danger, urges measures for defence, 178–9, 181; reply of city to, 179; protests of loyalty to from troops and city militia, 191.

Charles's plans thwarted by measures of, 182, 184, 188; Spaniards blamed for failure to surprise, 188.

attitude to peace and the pope, 183–4, 191, 193; concern for Vaudois, 186; reasons for sending Bradshaw to Muscovy, 205.

can do nothing for Venice, 186; English at Leghorn fear Grand Duke may complain to, 187; demands compensation from Grand Duke, 227.

Stapley makes confession to and reveals plot, 188; displeased at delay over new Court of Justice, 195.

parliament to be called on purpose to raise to throne, 189; measures taken to consolidate power, 191.

Lockhart writes to about Hesdin surrender, 191; Courland sends to ask protection, 192.

successes reported to, from Jamaica, 192.

guarantee of, to Hesdin rebels, 193; claims Dunkirk, 203; dispute with Mazarin about spoil, 203–4.

pleased to know of plan against Ostend, 195; knew of failure at, but suppressed news, 197; supplied money for plan, 199; dislikes losing men so, 200.

difficulty of members of Court of Justice taking oath to, 195–6, 198; laughs at scruples, will nominate others, 196; invents conspiracies, to arrest opponents, 198–9.

means to persevere energetically with Flanders campaign, 197; Lockhart reports capture of fort to, 203.

orders day of fast and humiliation, 197, 206; orders thanksgiving for successes in Flanders, 224.

orders force against Tripoli if refuses agreement, 200; release of Angelo out of regard for, 207; question of informing about, 218, 221, 240.

foreign ministers cannot get access to, 201, 217, 225, 229, 230–1.

Dutch dismiss Stuart princes to mollify, 201; sends mission to pay respects to Louis, 204, 209, 212; and present of dogs, 209.

royalist plot revealed to, 202; sound measures in dealing with, 207.

unable to discover royalist stores of arms, 202; commuted punishment of Slingsby and Hewet, 213.

cries in London, to kill, 202; Slingsby denounces tyranny of, 208; would not move in Slingsby's favour, 210.

exhorts merchants to send provisions to Flanders, 203; sends over provisions for French Court, 204; French complimentary mission to, 215; reception of, 217; leave taking, 230.

Barkman goes to assure Sweden of friendliness of, 204; reasons why promised money to Sweden, 204–5; sends Jephson to urge German Protestants to unite with Sweden, 205, 215.

letters to Venice on behalf of consul in Morea, 206, 218; reply to about, 218, 229, 230.

Ormonde suspect of betraying king's plans to, 210; his wife successful in pleading with, 211.

had speeches of Slingsby and Hewet torn up, 213; suspends execution of sentence against conspirators, 219, 222, 224.

gratified by news of battle of Dunes, 214; informed that Dunkirk parleying, 216; informed of surrender, 219.

will faithfully observe treaty with France, 215; Lockhart takes over Dunkirk in name of, 222; Dunkirkers to take oath to, 228.

delighted at successes of allies in Flanders, determined to follow up, 222; Boreel speaks of need to bridle, 223.

Pell hopes for advancement from, 223; letter to Genoa about plundering of ship, 224–5.

orders release of Dutch ships seized by Montagu, 224; gave Swedes permission to hire ships, 233.

goes to Hampton Court, prolongs stay there, 225; anxiety over daughter's illness, 231; grief at her death, 236.

question of royal title for discussed in Council, 226; crowning of confidently expected, 228; expressions in gazettes foreshadowing, 239.

army purged and completely devoted to, 228.

Servient justifies alliance with, 229; expected mission from Grand Duke to, 235.

question of help for Venice, great desire to serve, 230; need to avoid possibility of refusal, 231.

sends for Nieuport who confers with him privately, 232; Nieuport tries in vain to see again, 235, 237.

exchange of Galilee promised to, 234.

in bed with gout, 235–6; and suffering with stone, 237; illness changes to tertian fever, 238.

returns to London, proposes to reside at St. James' palace, 238; great anxiety over illness, rallies, hopes of recovery, 240; death, 241; Nieuport prevented from sending news of, 244.

says parliament must deal with Buckingham's case, 240–1; nominated Richard to succeed, 242.

day of fast for death, foreign ministers to be informed of, 242; foreign ministers expected to observe usual formalities about, 246.

preparations for funeral, 243, 245, 248; cannot be soon because of magnificence intended, 246, 253.

death greatly regretted by France, 245; recommended son to preserve union with French, 247.

condolences on death, 248, 251, 258; fast for, 258; audiences postponed until after funeral, 262.

lying in state, 248; all ready for funeral, 261; postponed for fear of tumult, 265; date announced, 267; account of 268–9.

hope in Germany that death will remedy past ills, 251; reasons for not openly refusing to help Venice, 263.

new members of parliament all creatures of, 282; lords nominated by, not approved by parliament, 284, 295; all members for Scotland and Ireland creatures of, 288.

Harrison burning to avenge affront from, 285.

-, Richard:

letter to, 231n.

injured by collapse of staircase, 14; accident to, when hunting, 106; life in danger, but mending, 110; recovered, back in London, 154.

takes place in Council, 154–5; appointed general in Scotland, 170; appointed to govern Scotland, 179.

state ship launched before and named after, 209; not popular with army, 239.

father makes generalissimo, High Admiral and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, 238; not capable of taking father's place, 239.

-, -, Lord Protector, 289.

father nominated to succeed, proclaimed, 242; position at accession, 243; proclamation to continue all office holders, 245.

foreign ministers must have new credentials for, 242; none has audience of, waiting for credentials, 246.

nothing said about parliament since accession, 244; eager to have a parliament, 255.

France will do utmost to uphold, 245; father recommended to preserve union with French, 247.

Senate's letters of credence for Giavarina to, 247, 258; Nieuport to have audience of, 248, 251, 256, 258.

reception of proclamation of, protestations of loyalty, 248; proclaimed at Dunkirk, 249; paper from army promising loyalty to, 251, 254.

will live at Whitehall, 248; to celebrate fast for parliament, 277, 280.

Riccard threatens to ask for letters of reprisal against Venice, 250; Giavarina's audience of, 260, 262–3, 267, 273; cordiality of, its meaning, 263.

duke of York tears up letters of, to States, 251; Lockhart presents new credentials from, 257.

Capt. Barry presents captured Spanish flag to, 253; new lord mayor presented to, 257.

quarrel with army over appointment of Montagu, 254; rates officers for conduct, 255.

army paid to make things serene for, 255; doubtful altitude of army to, 257; gains ground by industry and vigilance, 259.

grants increase of dignity to brother, 256; not at father's funeral, 269.

Bordeaux has audience of, 258; serious preoccupations prevent giving audience, 262, 293, 298.

will not give way about generalship, 261; no sign of settlement of difference about, 264–5; will do utmost to get satisfactory solution, 283.

gives no indication of wish to break with Turks, 263; wants Venice to send embassy, 264; representations to against ships serving Turks, 272.

gives audience to foreign ministers, 264, 267; gave ring to Duval, 268.

decision to help Sweden astonishes Nieuport, 266; sends fleet to help Swedes, 273, 281, 295–6.

Lockhart does not give good account of Mazarin to, 270; Lockhart asks for money for Dunkirk garrison, 271.

Lockhart knighted by, 271; ready to break with Dutch over Sweden, if helped by France, 276.

Venice wants specified help against Turks, 273, 286; representations to about Rand's action, 276–8, 281.

embassies projected to, 277; Thurloe refers to mediation between Sweden and Denmark, 295.

reports of peace arranged with Spain, 281.

does utmost to maintain present quiet, 283; may reject royalist members of parliament, 284; promised parliament should be free, 285; goes to open parliament, 287; his speech, 288.

parliament to settle question of succession to, 285; discussion upon, 291; act of recognition of carried, 293, 295.

had no authority to make settlement on mother, 286; appoints third keeper of seal, 288.

not the man to take such vigorous measures as his father, 286; some speak with scant respect for, in parliament, 292.

exclusion of members from Scotland and Ireland would be very prejudicial to, 288; all devoted to him, 290.

will not know what to do to meet disturbance, 292; orders arrest of Overton, 298, 300.

move to take army out of hands of, 292; likely to dissolve parliament and convoke lords alone, 300.

parliament considering measures to reduce powers of, 293; displeased at parliament's proceedings, but suffers them, 294, 300; things likely to turn out well for, in end, 295.

to have execution of decision to send out powerful fleet, 296.

Fairfax gives bond to, for Buckingham's good behaviour, 296; regrets death of Speaker Chute, 299; Chute devoted to, 300.

Cronemburgh. See Kronborg.

Crook, J., secretary of the Ambassador Nieuport, arrives with letters for Cromwell, 182; Cromwell too busy to receive, 185.

Croy, M. de la, interpreter of Venetian Resident, arrested as priest, 144; Giavarina does not repeat request for, 147; instructions to Giavarina about, 153.

Cuba, island of, West Indies, raid on, from Jamaica, 192; watch to be set off, for sailing of treasure fleet, 233.

-, Lieut. governor of. See Proenza, Don Francesco de.

Cuch. See Cook.

currants, cargo of, from Cephalonia, taken by Tunis corsairs, 143; report of Savii on proposed remission of duty on, 236.

Curtene. See Courtney.

Cussein Basha. See Hussein.

customs and excise, committee of parliament for, no one willing to farm, 84; efforts to come to terms, 85.