Appendix: Miscellaneous 1530

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 4, 1527-1533. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1871.

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'Appendix: Miscellaneous 1530', in Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 4, 1527-1533, ed. Rawdon Brown( London, 1871), British History Online [accessed 19 July 2024].

'Appendix: Miscellaneous 1530', in Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 4, 1527-1533. Edited by Rawdon Brown( London, 1871), British History Online, accessed July 19, 2024,

"Appendix: Miscellaneous 1530". Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 4, 1527-1533. Ed. Rawdon Brown(London, 1871), , British History Online. Web. 19 July 2024.

Miscellaneous 1530

May 31. Sanuto Diaries, v. liii. pp. 145–148. 1088. Luther's Confession.
Confession of the opinion, or manifesto (resolutio intentionis) of Martin Luther; for proposal in the present Imperial Diet of Augsburg, comprised in seventeen articles. (fn. 1)
Ist Article. Man is to be taught firmly and “unanimiter” that the only (solum unicum) true God is the Creator of Heaven and Earth, so that (ita quod) in the single (unici) true, divine essence, there be three distinct persons, namely, God the Father, God the Son, God the Holy Ghost; which Son begotten of the Father, being eternally by nature from the beginning true God together with the Father and the Holy Ghost, (proceeding ?) from the one and the other, from the Father and from the Son, he likewise from the beginning being eternally by nature true God with the Father and the Son; all which can be clearly and irrefragably demonstrated by Holy Writ, according to the 1st of St. John, “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. All things are made by him,” &c.; and in the last of Matthew, “Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost”
IInd Article. That God's Son alone became man, of a pure virgin born, perfect in body and mind; nor were the Father and the Holy Ghost made man, as taught by certain heretics. Moreover the Son did not assume the body alone, without the soul, as the Phocinians (Photiniani) said; as in the Gospel he himself very often speaks of his soul, as when he says, “My soul is sorrowful unto death,” &c.; and that the Son of God be man is expressly said by St. John, chapter 1, “And the Word was made flesh;” and in the 4th chapter of Galatians, “But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth,” &c.
IIIrd Article. That God the Son, true God and Lord Jesus Christ, be one sole indivisible person, [who] suffered for us men, was crucified, died, was buried, rose again the third day from the dead, ascended into heaven, sat on the right hand of God, Lord over the whole creation (super omnes creaturas) so that it neither may nor can be believed or taught that Jesus Christ, as man, or as having assumed this human form, suffered for us; but it should be believed and taught that under this form, being God and man, not two persons but one person indivisible, God and man, Son of God, he really suffered for us: as in St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, “He that spared not his own son, but delivered him up for us all;” and in the first Epistle to the Corinthians, chapter 2, “for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of Glory”
IVth Article. That original sin be a real sin according to the correct, true quality, nature, or form of sin; and not merely a lack (priracio) deficiency, or want, but sin of such a sort, that it condemns and separates from God all men descended from Adam, had not Jesus Christ presented himself for us, taking upon himself this sin, and all sins proceeding thence, atoning for them by his passion, having thus entirely removed and cancelled them in himself, as clearly written concerning this sin, in the 52nd (sic 51st) (fn. 2) Psalm, and in the 9th chapter of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans.
Vth Article. As now, therefore, all men are sinners subject to sin and death, and moreover to the Devil likewise, it is impossible for any man by his own exertions and good works, to rid, disembarrass, and free himself from them by these works, or by their means justify himself anew, or become assuredly good and just; nor can he prepare or dispose himself for justice or justification; nay, the more he proposes, or intends, labouring of himself to exonerate, free, or purge and justify himself, the worse does his condition become. The. only way therefore to justice (justitiam) and the absolution from sin and from death is this,—without any merit or work to have faith and believe in the Son of God, who suffered for us, etc, as aforesaid. This faith is our justice; for God of his justice, goodness, and holiness commands (Deus cnim. vult) man to believe and hold, that he has chosen to pardon the sins of all men, or give them gratuitously, life, eternal. Those who have this faith in the Son of God are through that Son to be received into his grace, and be sons in his kingdom, etc. All these things are taught diffusely by Saints Paul and John in their epistles, as in chapter 10 to the Romans, “For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness,” etc.; and in the 3rd chapter of St. John, “He that belicveth on the Son doth not perish, but hath everlasting life”
VIth Article. That this faith is not human nor even possible for our strength, but is the work of God, and a gift which the Holy Ghost operates in us given us through Christ; and such like faith, when not feeble, or an infirm opinion, or an obscure adhesion of the heart, such as the pseudo-faithful have, but a vigorous, fresh, lively, essential substance, is a thing bearing much fruit; always operating good things with regard to God, praising, thanking, praying, preaching, and teaching; with regard to man (erga proximum) loving, serving, aiding, counselling, lending, and enduring every adversity until death.
VIIth Article. To acquire for, or to give us men this faith, God instituted the office of preaching, or the word of the allocution of the mouth, that is to say, of the tongue, namely, the Gospel, by means of which he causes the utility and fruit of this faith and power, or virtue, to be promulgated and preached; and for this same word thus sown, he also gives, as the means, the faith, through his Holy Ghost. Notwithstanding the opinion of others, there is no other mode, or way, or path, or road, to acquire the faith. Our meditations, save and except the word of mouth (verbum oris) although they may appear holy and good, are nevertheless vain, mendacious, and erroneous.
VIIIth Article. With regard to this “word” of preaching (predicationis) delivered by the living mouth, or together with it, God also instituted external signs called sacraments, especially baptism and the eucharist, through which, together with the “word,” God also gives faith and his Holy Ghost, and comfort to all who desire it.
IXth Article. Baptism—the first sign or sacrament—is effected by two things—by water and by the word of God. Baptism is performed by water, and by the utterance of the word of God; the effect being produced not by mere water or washing—as now taught by the blasphemers about baptism; (fn. 3) but by uniting the word of God with the sprinkling of water; which washing, based on the word of God, is holy and efficacious; as in St. Paul's Epistle to Titus, chapter 3, and to the Ephesians, chapter 5, “the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost” (Titus, chapter 3, verse 5); “that he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word” (Ephesians, chapter 5, verse 26). And that this baptism be administered and communicated even to infants, (fn. 4) as the Avoids of God, whereon baptism is based, are these, “Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost” (St. Matthew, chap. 28, verse 19). He who will believe, must believe this likewise (qui crediderit et jam ibi oportet credere).
Xth Article. That the Eucharist, or sacrament of the altar, consists moreover in two things, and especially that there be truly (veraciter) present in the bread and wine the true body and blood of Christ, according to the tenour of the words, “This is my Body; this is my Blood;” and not merely the bread and wine, as the appearance would cause it to be believed. These words require faith, and moreover induce it in all who desire that sacrament, and do not act contrary thereto; in like manner as baptism also lends and gives faith, when the desire for it exists.
XIth Article. That secret confession (confessio secreta) ought not to be compulsory as precept and law, but free, neither should baptism itself, the Sacraments, the Gospel (Evangelium) [be enforced]; though be it known that the consolation is wholesome, fruitful, useful, and good; that thereby absolution—which is the word and sentence of God—is given. The conscience, being thus free, relieved, and tranquillized, recovers from its mental disquietude; but it is not at all necessary to enumerate every sin, merely notifying and revealing such as corrode (mordent) the heart and disquiet it.
XIIth Article. That there is no doubt whatever but that the Holy Christian Church will last on earth eternally, as Christ says in the last of Matthew, “Lo, I am with you alway, unto the end of the world.” This Church is formed by the believers in Christ, who maintain, believe, and teach the aforesaid articles and particulars (articulas et particulas) and therefore suffer persecution and martyrdom in the world; for where the Gospel is preached, and the sacraments rightly administered or conferred, there is the Holy Christian Church; nor is it to be fashioned, instructed or bound, by institutions, rights, or laws, by extrinsics, state, pomp, or mode of living, custom or habit, nor by hours or seasons, persons or ceremonies.
XIIIth Article. That our Lord Jesus Christ will come at the end of the world, to judge the living and the dead, and will free his faithful [followers] from all evil, and will lead them into life eternal; he will punish the infidels and those condemned by God, namely bad men; and will condemn them eternally, together with the Devil, to Hell.
XIVth Article. That in the meanwhile, until the Lord shall come to [pass] judgment, and [assume] all power (potestatem) and sovereign dominion (dominavdi superioritatem) the secular and temporal sovereignty and dominion is to be honoured and obeyed, as a Government (statui) thus ordained for the defence of good men and the dispersion of the wicked; so that a Christian man when cited in a regular or legitimate manner for this purpose, without deceit, and peril to his faith and salvation of his soul, may bless or adhere to that Government, and serve it diligently.
XVth Article. From the whole writing, it appears, that the doctrine which forbids marriage to priests and friars—namely the clergy—and to people in general meat and food (carries ac cibus) is all of a piece (una pariter cum omni).
XVIth Article. That amongst all the errors or things to be avoided, there be included the mass, hitherto considered so efficacious and so much reverenced, that thereby one man procured grace for another. Instead of it be the divine ordinance or disposition observed, the Holy sacrament of the body and blood of Christ; be it administered under both forms, to every one, according to his faith and the measure of his need.
XVIlth Article. That the church ceremonies at variance with Holy Writ be abolished. The observance of the others to be optional, in such wise as not to create scandal causelessly or from levity; and that the common peace be not disturbed unnecessarily.
Registered by Sanuto 31st May.
June 16, 27. Sanuto Diaries, v. liii. pp. 189, 190. 1089. Nicolò Tiepolo, LL.D., Venetian Ambassador with the Emperor, to the Signory.
The Emperor went from Inspruek to Munich, and then proceeded to Augsburg, where on his entry the Duke of Saxony would not salute the Legate Campeggio (non rolse far reverentia al Legato Campeggio).
The Duke of Saxony, the Landgrave of Hesse, the Marquis of Brandenburg, and two or three other Princes are Lutherans; the rest are apparently Catholics (il resto monstrano essere Catholici).
During two days after his Majesty's entry, they continued preaching in the Lutheran fashion, which having come to the Emperor's knowledge, he issued a proclamation forbidding them to preach any more, under very heavy penalties; and concerning this, the Duke of Saxony sent his Majesty a writing, the copy of which the Ambassador encloses.
The preachers in like manner made four demands of the Emperor.
First, that the laity might communicate “sub utraque specie,” like the clergy.
Secondly, that the priests and friars might all marry; and that the mass be reformed, cancelling the things introduced by the Popes and others.
Thirdly, that the Host (l'Hostia the consecrated wafer) be not offered as a sacrifice, because it does not, as supposed, contain the body of Christ, but merely its effigy (in figura) and not . . . . . .
Fourthly, that the priests and friars be merely allowed to retain a revenue sufficient for their living, the residue to be transferred to the laity.
The Diet has commenced, there being present . . . . . . (fn. 5) members, and the Emperor proposed . . . . . . (fn. 5) articles, (and he [the Ambassador ?] sends them in writing) narrating therein all his proceedings, and exhorting the Princes to extirpate the Lutheran sect, which had been joined by the Duke of Saxony. (fn. 6)
The Emperor has appointed the Marquis del Guasto his captain, sending for him from the camp under Florence to Germany. He gives him the command of 5,000 infantry, 2,000 Italians to be raised by the Marquis, and 3,000 Spaniards, whose commanders will be appointed by his Majesty. He has also made Paulo Luzasco captain of 500 light horse, 200 to be raised by himself; and of the other 300, his Majesty will name the commanders.
The advices from France announce the full payment to the Imperial agents of the ransom for the most Christian King's sons and . . . . . .
Also concerning the cattle, a reply has arrived from the governor of Austria, and he will discuss the matter with the Cardinal of Trent.
Augsburg, June 16th and 27th. Registered by Sanuto, 3rd July.
May 31. Sanuto Diaries, v. liii. (Original.) 1090. Note presented to the Emperor Charles V., by the Lutheran Princes at the Diet of Augsburg in June 1530. (Copy sent to the Senate by the Ambassador Tiepolo in his letter dated Augsburg, 16th June.)
Concerning the conditions to be imposed there at Augsburg, they most respectfully pray his Imperial Majesty not to enforce them; they being unable with a clear conscience to interdict their preachers, as they teach nothing but the pure (simplex) and manifest Gospel. The Electors would not allow them to mingle with it extraneous and useless disputations; so that it would be very difficult to prohibit to the teacher the word of God and the manifest truth.
Moreover, as all men are in the midst of infinite perils, to guard against which they have nothing but the judgment of God, it would be dangerous on their part in this age and with this salvation (in hue ætate et valitudine) to oppose the word of God; wherefore, if we fear God, and greatly esteem the divine word, we with due respect pray, that the sermons may not be prohibited.
In addition to this, after the sermons, our preachers daily exhort the people at great length to pray God for the welfare of the whole Christian commonwealth, and principally that God may grant to the Emperor (as to a power constituted by divine will and by that of the Princes Electors) and to the other Princes and people of the empire, grace to treat in these perilous times all the ecclesiastical and civil affairs in this Diet, so as to amplify the glory of God, and establish peace and concord.
They also faithfully instruct the people against the errors and impious dogmas disseminated in this city against the sacraments; wherefore, it would be grievous and hurtful to prevent the sermons, as some of the people, being enlightened by these sermons, seem to return to salvation; nor can greater disputes arise from these sermons, as they contain nothing new. This doctrine has been discussed here and elsewhere for many years, and it would, therefore, be difficult to prohibit the manifest Gospel because some persons take offence at it, as they do so without any fault of the teachers; and for the most part, those individuals, in order not to be heard, taught the faith hitherto [preached ?] at the two Diets of Spires (et plerumque tales ne audiantur Jidem hactenus in duobus conventibus Spiritosibus (sic) docueriutt).
No mischief is ever caused by our preachers—no tumult—nor does it seem that any one is rendered worse by them; neither is any preacher known to preach sedition or abuse, or to teach anything that is not catholic.
Be his Imperial Majesty pleased clemently to consider how much greater scandal would be caused were the sermons to be prohibited; as the edict, which was written piously, and doubtless after much consultation, concerning this Diet, and which is spread over the whole world, purports that the opinion and judgment of everybody is to be listened to here; all controversies to be adjusted, and reduced to the sole Christian truth. Were the sermons to be now forbidden, the consciences of many persons would be troubled, the thing being taken as if his Imperial Majesty would oppress this doctrine, without having either understood or judged it. We do not doubt his Imperial Majesty's unwillingness to have this suspicion disseminated, as it would render the authority of his letter doubtful.
If in virtue of our office and allegiance (fide) which binds us to amplify ins Imperial Majesty's honour, and promote all good, we had to give counsel to his Majesty, we could give him none other than this, not to tolerate a change of the promises contained in the letters whereby the Diet is convoked; hut that according to the honour of those letters, diligence be used, and after judging and adjusting the controversies, the enemies be coerced to Christian concord.
Our office has induced us reverentially to give this counsel to his Imperial Majesty from good will and candour; and considering the. condition of these affairs, we are also of opinion that should any one give your Majesty contrary advice, it will neither benefit your Majesty nor the empire, nor the entire Christian commonwealth; and whoever counsels otherwise, is not impartial.
We, therefore, with due respect and obedience, pray his Imperial Majesty, our most element Lord, not to receive this our reply and memorial angrily (inclementer) as we have acted from necessity, nor is it lawful for our conscience to be constrained; and that he will be our most element Lord, as we clemently hope (quem ad modum clementer confidimus).
We also—so long as life shall be granted us—will with God's assistance exert ourselves for that to his Imperial Majesty—as to a sovereign appointed for that purpose—due obedience be rendered by every sort of office, with the utmost faith and good will; and in whatever may be undertaken for the affairs of the empire at all times, we together with the other Electors, our friends, and other Princes, will maintain the grandeur and interests of the empire, comporting ourselves in such wise as to demonstrate our obedience both to God and his Imperial Majesty, and to the whole empire. (fn. 7)
In conclusion, with regard to the other articles, we hope that his Imperial Majesty will clemently consider that we ask for nothing of which anybody can complain, and that he will graciously concede what we request.
We in return will perform every sort of office, even at the peril of our properties and lives, to show his Imperial Majesty, with due respect, our gratitude for these benefits.
Of you—Counts of the Empire—one and all (fn. 8) we request, that with due respect and becomingly, according to your prudence, you will lay before his Imperial Majesty this our necessary reply; and we, on the other hand, will act so as to let you know that this most honourable office has proved highly agreeable to us. Given at Augsburg, under our seal, the last day of May 1530.
Registered by Sanuto 3rd July.
June 4 and 5. Sanuto Diaries, v. liii. p. 161. 1091. Nicolò Tiepolo, LL.D., Venetian Ambassador with the Emperor, to the Signory.
The Lutheran agitation is subsiding; and the preachers who went to Augsburg with the Duke of Saxony and the Landgrave of Hesse preached the true faith, and instead of advocating Lutheranism they rather exhorted all men to take up arms against the Turk; and it seems that at a place called Ornemburg a thousand houses of the Lutherans were destroyed by lightning, so that these Imperialists say it is a miracle wrought by the Almighty.
The Right Rev. Cardinal Lord Chancellor, a Piedmontese [Gattinara], has had an apoplectic stroke. According to the first letter, he was in danger, and the second letter announces his death.
Nineteen great personages (signori) arrived at Augsburg to attend the Diet, and their servants bore a motto, thus—
“Verbum Domini manet in æternum”
On the 6th the Emperor purposes departing for Augsburg, the Cardinal of which city writes to Cardinal Campeggio that they hope Philip Melancthon, one of the chief Lutherans, will be converted to the good faith. Also about the oxen, King Ferdinand has determined to grant free transit through Germany for cattle brought out of Hungary for conveyance to Venice.
Inspruck, 4th and 5th June. Registered by Sanuto 11th June.
July 3. Sanuto Diaries, v. liii. pp. 213–215. 1092. Marco Savorgnano to his brother the Count Constantine.
On the 20th ultimo the Emperor and the King his brother [Archduke Ferdinand, King of Hungary], with the Electors and other Princes, so many as fifty in number, accompanied by the Right Rev. Lords the Legate Campeggio and the Cardinals of Salzburg and of Trent, and by the ambassadors, went to the cathedral and heard a mass of the Holy Ghost performed by the Elector the Right Rev. Cardinal of Mentz, and sung most solemnly; after which the Papal Nuncio accredited to the most Serene King Ferdinand, Archbishop Pimpinella, made an oration in the name of the Apostolic See, which contained these two charges—1st. He exhorted all men to take up arms, and make very great preparation against the Turk, demonstrating to them that the undertaking was not only profitable and honorable, but also necessary. 2ndly. He told them that, should they choose to undertake the expedition, they being inferior in strength and divided, against an enemy more powerful and compact, such as the Turk, they must at least quell all discord, which will prevail amongst them so long as they have a variety of religions, and that therefore they should renounce heresy. This oration seemed in fact finer to everybody, from being both well pronounced and delivered with singular grace and action, as, according to general opinion, Pimpinella in these matters is a very rare man; and, as I said, the discourse seemed finer than it was in reality. It will soon be printed, and when finished I will send it you.
The Emperor and the above-named Princes then went to a palace belonging to the municipality on the public market-place, and the Imperial Diet commenced. The hour being late, they on that morning did nothing but read a very long writing, written in German in the Emperor's name, narrating the causes which had prevented him from coming into these parts sooner, stating that after the Diet of Worms he was obliged to go to Spain and remain there until every thing was settled, and then proceeded to Italy, where he despatched his business as speedily as possible and somewhat to his detriment, for the sake of being sooner in Germany; and that he omitted to go to his kingdom of Naples, which had very great need of his presence, for this reason solely. After this apology, he said he was now come with the intention of making great preparations against the Turk, and that he thought they would all second so holy and necessary an undertaking, exhorting them most earnestly so to do, and promising them, for the benefit of the Christian commonwealth, not only the revenues of his realms, but even such as were personal, and his brother's revenues likewise. It is impossible to say how much the whole Diet was touched by this writing, for they expected him to adopt a much harsher tone; so that the Elector Duke Joachim of Bavaria, by commission from the entire assembly, answered him most respectfully, evineing singular love for his Majesty, who subsequently attended the Diet twice, though the Princes sat often alone, and after discussing certain articles, then went to report their opinion to the Emperor. His Majesty's second appearance in the Diet was on account of the Right Rev. Legate Campeggio, who, after having had a brief from the Pope read, in exhortation of this undertaking, then made a short oration (orationetta) well nigh of the same tenor as that of Pimpinella, which was much commended, and thereby he offered faithfully and lovingly to remind them of what was required for the success of this holy undertaking. On the departure of the Legate, who was accompanied as far as the stair by the whole Diet,—he having been in like manner met on his arrival,—the Lutheran Princes, namely, Duke John of Saxony the Elector, Duke George of Brandenburg, (fn. 9) Philip Landgrave, son of Duke John, and two others, (fn. 10) rose, and presented the Emperor with a very long writing, saying that as it concerned the matter of our faith, they besought him to have it read in public, so that all might hear it, which after many words hine inde the Emperor would not grant them, but said, and thus was it done, that they were to bring it to him on the morrow. This writing contains upwards of fifty articles, and amongst them these—they demand that the laity may communicate sub utraque specie; that it may be lawful for priests to marry, and that they be merely allowed a sum sufficient for the necessaries of life; and they also require the mass to be adjusted (si conzi) saying that certain parts are superfluous.
The Emperor, and subsequently the Catholic Princes, determined to have this writing answered by certain learned and candid men, whose reply is now being drawn up, but not yet completed. (fn. 11)
The Lutheran Princes composed this document for the purpose of bringing about a disputation, and if possible the Council General; and they say that preparations against the Turks are not to be discussed until after a decision about the faith, so it is necessary to answer the writing, which contains fifty articles. This much has been done hitherto.
Augsburg, 3rd July. Registered by Sanuto 26th July.
July 6. Sanuto Diaries, v. liii. p. 209. 1093. Nicolò Tiepolo, LL.D., Venetian Ambassador with the Emperor, to the Signory.
Writes about the Lutheran affairs. The Papal Legate has presented a certain writing to the Emperor, urging him to despatch this sect by force of arms, (fn. 12) and the Emperor with his Council answered him that it is well to do things pacifically. Sends the copy of the writing.
Also that of a very sage writing, sent by Philip Melancthon to the Legate Campeggio.
In conclusion these Lutherans require three things—
1st. That all persons may communicate sub utrague specie.
2ndly. That the mass be reformed (conzà) certain additions made by the Popes and others being cancelled.
3rdly. That priests and friars may marry.
The Landgrave [of Hesse], who is the head of the Lutheran sect, was soundly rated by the Emperor, (fn. 13) who told him he would punish him, and that he has taken upwards of 100,000 ducats rental of church property, so that the Landgrave remained much astounded and confused.
Gives account of the battle between the troops of the Archduke [Ferdinand] and those of the Vaivod [Zapolski], King of Hungary, who has but a small force.
Augsburg, 6th July. Registered by Sanuto 13th July.
August 4–6. Sanuto Diaries, v. liii. p. 333. 1094. Antonio Surian, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Signory.
The Pope has received letters from Augsburg about the two articles required by the Lutherans, so his Holiness has written to the Legate Campeggio to do what he can, and to grant them, and to expunge certain things from the mass.
The Pope purposes making a Cardinal, by name Ghinucci, a Siennese, ambassador from the King of England, Auditor of the Chamber at the Court (of Rome), heretofore papal nuncio in England, he being elected (Cardinal) at the suit of the King of England. (fn. 14) The money obtained by the Pope is as follows—from Florence 80,000 ducats; there at Rome 110,000 ducats; and from the Lucehese he hopes to have 30,000 ducats.
Rome, 4–6 September. Registered by Sanuto, 9th September.
August 7. Sanuto Diaries, v. liii. pp. 291. 1095. Pagin Erizzo (domiciled with the Venetian Ambassador at Augsburg) to Thoma Tiepolo.
The Emperor in the Diet replied to the articles of the Lutherans, exhorting them in fair language to renounce their false opinions, and return to the true and Catholic faith, or he would make them repent. He said that were the whole of Germany—which is not the fourth part of Christendom—to demand the Council for this matter, it ought not to be granted, still less to the Lutherans, who form but the fifth part of Germany; wherefore they must renounce their opinions, or he would convince them of their error by fact, and so forth, telling them to take time to reply until yesterday. In the meanwhile the Landgrave of Hesse, a marquis, son-in-law of the Duke of Saxony, (fn. 15) and one of the principal Lutherans, departed without any leave from the Emperor. It is said he subsequently wrote a letter to his Majesty to the effect that having heard that his consort was dangerously ill, he departed insalutato hospite but that whenever requested by the Emperor, and on the slightest hint from him, regardless of anything else, he would return. It is said that when the Emperor urged him to renounce heresy, or he should be compelled by force, the marquis replied that for many years war had been waged in Italy, and that it was but fair it should come to Germany, for which purpose troops were being raised, and that many of the free towns were with the Lutherans, two of them having signed the articles, intending to maintain their opinions with all then might.
Should this be true, the expedition against the Turks must be renounced, which God forbid.
Augsburg, 7th August. Registered by Sanuto 19th August.
August 10. Sanuto Diaries, v. liii. pp. 291, 292. 1096. The Same to the Same.
On Friday last the Emperor went to the Diet and presented the articles in reply to the Lutherans, drawn up by twenty or thirty most eminent Doctors of Canon Law.
The articles having been read in the presence of the Emperor, his Majesty spoke at. great length, turning towards the Duke of Saxony, (fn. 16) who is the head of the Lutherans, requesting him and the others to renounce their opinions and approve this reply, declaring that they would thus perform a good act before God, and one most agreeable to his Majesty; but should they be obstinate he, as Emperor of the Christians, is bound to defend his faith and Holy Church. In the next place he discussed the Lutheran demands, which have been reduced to two; first, that priests may be allowed to marry, and those already married to cohabit with their wives. To this the Emperor replied that the proposal greatly surprised him, that if the whole of Germany, which is but the fifth part of all Christendom, were to demand the Council General, there would be something to say, but that it would be preposterous for a fraction (alquanti) to demand it, for the purpose of changing a custom which had been observed for upwards of a thousand years. To the other demand made by the Lutherans, for all the laity to communicate sub utraque specie like the priests, he said that as the Lutherans admit that Christ is entire in either form, they must continue the custom which for good reason was instituted by the Church, and had hitherto been observed. His Majesty added, that to gratify them the Council should be convoked if they wished it, giving them to understand that he had the Pope's permission to that effect; and he requested them to reply and state their will. They then said they must have the copy of the verbal answer given them, and that after consideration they would reply.
With the consent of the Catholic Princes the Emperor refused this demand, knowing that the Lutherans would draw up other writings and protract the business; so with the others, as a mode of adjustment concerning the two articles above mentioned, his Imperial Majesty decreed that certain persons should be appointed to confer with the Lutherans and himself, and the six Electors chose four for the Catholics and four for the Laymen (Laici).
Subsequently on Saturday the Landgrave of Hesse departed with four of his attendants, and wrote the letter to the Emperor as mentioned in my last.
This individual is a young man 22 (sic) years of age, (fn. 17)molto tcrribile” in deed and word, and holder of his neighbour's goods, he having seized territories belonging to the Count of Nassau, the chief personage in the Emperor's Court, and much property owned by the Cardinal of Mentz, saying they ought not to have those revenues as they spend them amiss; and he is guilty of other similar improprieties, it being also said that he killed his mother for reproving him about his religion; but he says he killed her for other causes. (fn. 18)
Augsburg, 10th August. Registered by Sanuto 19th August.
August 10? Sanuto Diaries, v. liii. pp. 352, 353. 1097. Lutheran Opinions against the Church of God.
I. The Holy Catholic Church, of which Christ is the head, was born of the word of God, which it still maintains, “nee audit voccm alicnam
II. The Christian Church does not make laws or precepts without the word of God; wherefore all human mandates are called counter-precepts of the Church, but are not binding unless based on the word of God and prescribed thereby.
III. Christ is the sole nature, wisdom, justification, redemption, and atonement for all the sins of the world, so that to acknowledge any other merit for our salvation and any other atonement is to deny Christ.
IV. It cannot be demonstrated by the words of the Bible that the body and blood of Christ are taken corporeally and essentially in the bread of grace (pane gratiarum).
V. The Mass, as now in use, in which we offer Christ to God the Father, for the sins of the living and the dead, is contrary to Holy Writ. To sacrifice to the passion and death of Christ is, from its abuses, a scandal and an abomination before God.
VI. As Christ alone died for us, so is he alone to be invoked as mediator and advocate between God and us; wherefore our invocation of other mediators and intercessors must be looked upon as unauthorized by Holy Writ.
VII. The existence of purgatory cannot be proved by Holy Writ, so that all the eves, the masses, the “operationes” the “septenarius” the “tricesimus,” the anniversary, the lanterns, candles, and other similar things, are useless.
VIII. To raise images to be venerated is contrary to the word of God both in the Old and New Testaments; wherefore such as have been raised to be venerated are to be destroyed.
IX. Matrimony is not prohibited to any state or condition, but every state and condition of man is commanded to abstain from fornication and lasciviousness.
Arbitrators. Arbitrators.
For the Roman Church. For the “Evangelisti”
Princes. Princes.
The Bishop of Augsburg. Marquis George of Brandenburg.
Duke Henry de Praunsberg (sic). Duke John son of Frederick (sic) Duke of Saxony, Elector of the Empire.
Doctors in Canon-Law. Doctors in Canon-Law.
Marquis Erast de Boche, Chancellor and Elector of the Empire. Dr. Pucher, Chancellor of the Imperial Elector Duke of Saxony.
Dr. Coler, “Executor” of the Marquis George of Brandenburg.
Doctors in Theology. Doctors in Theology.
Dr. Eck, of Ingolstadt. The Chief Doctor at the Court of the Marquis George of Brandenburg, by name —.
Dr. Herleus (sic) de Carnus, of Frankfort. Doctor Herardus Switzer, Preacher to the Landgrave of Hesse.
Dr. Cumpina, “Executor” of the Marquis Gioachini, Elector of the Empire.
Augsburg, August 10 ? Registered by Sanuto, 28th September.
August 10. Sanuto Diaries, v. liii. p. 292. 1098. Antonio Bagaroto to the Duke of Mantua.
I send your Excellency the copy of the reply made by the Emperor to the Lutheraus, which will not profit much, as they are “più indiavolati che mai,” in proof of which the Landgrave departed hence, post, on the 6th, and his retinue followed him later. The Count of Nassau is to leave on the 13th to go and see his wife, and also to try and take possession of the territory of the late Prince of Orange for his son. The Count had a law suit with the Landgrave, and three awards having been given in his favour, the Landgrave offered him 300,000 ducats, or territory yielding an annual rental of 15,000 ducats.
Augsburg, 10th August. Registered by Sanuto 19th August.
August 17. Sanuto Diaries, v. liii. p. 320. 1099. The Same to the Same.
The Lutheran sect has not yet formed any decision, and seems now more inclined to moderation. This day his Majesty caused “un parochiano Lutherano,” who was married, to be arrested. It is not known yet what they will do with him.
Augsburg, 17th August. Registered by Sanuto, 28th August.
August 27. Sanuto Diaries, v. liii. p. 329. 1100. Nicolò Tiepolo, LL.D., Venetian Ambassador with the Emperor, to the Signory.
The conference took place, and the twenty-two articles (capitoli) were reduced to three—(1) the sacrament to be administered under both forms; (2) married priests to remain as they are; (3) certain prayers added to the mass to be cancelled; so it is thought they will be pacified, and that these demands will be granted. Bishops, churches, etc., to continue.
Augsburg, 27th August. Registered by Sanuto, 5th September.
Sept. 12. Sanuto Diaries, v. liii. p. 352. 1101. — to the Duke of Mantua.
Concerning the affairs of Luther no determination whatever has been made, and, so far as can be understood, the settlement of this business depends more on the restitution of the Church property than on any other article, but the greater part of these Princes have usurped portions of it for themselves, and to no small amount, so the restoring is a difficult matter; nor will they hear of coming to this pass, save by the decision of the Council.
It is said that the Emperor will depart hence shortly for Frankfort, where the election of the King of the Romans will be made.
Intelligence has been received here that some towns belonging to the Marquis Gioachini of Brandenburg have become Lutheran, which it is believed will greatly displease his most illustrious Lordship, as he is a good Christian, and is expected to punish the offenders as they deserve.
Augsburg, 12th September. Registered by Sanuto, 28th September.
Sept. 23. Sanuto Diaries, v. liii. p. 352. 1102. Gregorio Pizzamano, Proveditor of Cividal di Friul, to the Signory.
The commissioners of King Ferdinand in these parts convoked a Diet at Gorizia, which was attended by all his subjects in that county, both clergy and laity, and some letters from the Emperor were read, wherein his Majesty narrated how to put an end to the Lutheran difficulties. Fourteen sages had been elected, namely, seven for the Pope, and seven for the Lutherans, whom they style “the party of the Evangelists,” and they are to decide nine propositions presented by Martin Luther against the Holy Roman Church. The King commands them to elect two delegates and send them to Augsburg, as has been done by all the other provinces subject to the Emperor, so that they may be present at the aforesaid decision, and also at the debate about the provision to be made for the war against the Turks. At this Diet Luther's said propositions were read, together with the names of the persons elected who were sent by the Emperor.
Cividal di Friul, 23rd September. Registered by Sanuto, 28th September.
Sept. 24. Sanuto Diaries, v. liii. p. 353. 1103. Antonio Surian to the Signory.
The Pope complained to him that the affairs of Germany do not proceed in the manner desired by him, nor will they be adjusted. The Lutherans “voleno” the property of the priests.
Rome, 24th September. Registered by Sanuto, 28th September.
Oct. 2. Sanuto Diaries, v. liv. p. 35 1104. — to the Duke of Mantua.
According to letters from the Imperial Court dated the 15th ultimo, the Lutherans are more obstinate than ever, nor can they he induced to abandon the eight most important articles. In these letters, nothing is said about the Council, though by previous advices it is understood it must be conceded, though before its commencement a long time may clapse, there being many conditions for observance, which will occupy months, and perhaps years.
Rome, 2nd October. Registered by Sanuto 8th October.
Oct. 5. Sanuto Diaries, v. liv. p. 68. 1105. Sigismondo Fanzino to the Duke of Mantua.
Although the affairs of these Lutherans have not been brought to any further conclusion, there has nevertheless been much talk within the last two days of the departure of the Court for Flanders, which it is said will take place in 15 or 20 days; and this is the more credited, because in addition to the 600,000 ducats payable by the States of Flanders for “the service of the Court,” the Flemings have offered, if the journey takes place, to pay all the arrears due to the Imperial household, which are supposed to amount to another 300,000 ducats; so that the idea of departing hence, where breath is wasted, and the sun rarely visible, and where there is “un bestialissimo freddo,” coupled with the mention of money, rejoices the whole Court.
The. people of Augsburg “dicono voler esser boni,” and the day before yesterday commenced opening some churches which have been long closed, the chief of which is that of St. Francis, though as yet there are only two or three “fraticelli” in very sorry plight.
Augsburg, 5th October 1530. Registered by Sanuto 19th October.
Oct. 19. Sanuto Diaries, v. liv. p. 69. 1106. Note by Sanuto.
Advices received from the Duke of Milan that there was dissension amongst the Catholics and that they came to blows, part adhering to the Lutheran opinion, so that the Fmperor sent an ambassador express to the Pope to tell him that he must “al tutto” call the Council, but there are no letters about this from our ambassador [Nicolò Tiepolo].


  • 1. The following document was registered by Sanuto on the 31st May; the Confession of Augsburg was not presented to the Emperor until after the 20th June; and according to Sarpi, it contained eleven articles and seven chapters. Sanuto does not state through what channel he received so early a hint of some of the dogmas contained in the authentic “Confession”
  • 2. Psalm li. 5., “And in sin did my mother conceive me”
  • 3. Namely, the Anabaptists. Concerning the antagonism between Lutherans and Anabaptists, see Mosheim. The Anabaptists insisted on total immersion.
  • 4. The Anabaptists maintained that baptism should be administered solely to those who are able to make a profession of faith.
  • 5. Blank in MS.
  • 6. The articles here alluded to, do not exist in the Diaries.
  • 7. “Pro complitudine et utilitate Imperii conservandâ ita nos geremus, ut speremus nos et Deo et Ces. Mti. et Universo Imperio, officium nostrum probaturos esse”
  • 8. “A vobis comitibus vel utroque vol singulis”
  • 9. George Pius of Anspach, sou of Frederick II. and cousin of Gioacchimo I., Elector of Brandenburg, from 1499 till 1535.
  • 10. Ernest Duke of Lunenburg, and Wolfgang, Prince of Anhalt. (See Mosheim.)
  • 11. This refutation was composed by John Faber (afterwards Bishop of Vienna), with the assistance of Eckius aud Cochlæus. (See Mosheim.)
  • 12. “Che voria si expedisse contra questa secta con le arme”
  • 13. “L'lmperador a fatto un gran rebuffo al Lanthgravio”
  • 14. The election did not take place.
  • 15. George “the Bearded, or the Rich.” His daughter, Cristina, became the wife of Philip Landgrave of Hesse, on the 11th December 1523, and died in 1549. (See Chiusole, p. 316.)
  • 16. John the Constant, the Elector, was of the Ernestinian line of the Dukes of Saxony; Duke George the Bearded, was of the Albertinian line.
  • 17. Philip (called the Magnanimors) Landgrave of Hesse, was 26 years old in 1530, as his birth took place in 1504. (See Chiusole, p. 396.)
  • 18. The mother of the Landgrave of Hesse, was Anna, daughter of Maguo Duke of Mecklenburg. (See Chiusole, as above.)