Venice: October 1527

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 4, 1527-1533. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1871.

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'Venice: October 1527', in Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 4, 1527-1533, (London, 1871) pp. 96-106. British History Online [accessed 13 April 2024]

October 1527

Oct. 2. Parti Secrete, Consiglio X. File 2. 175. The Council of Ten and Junta to Sebastian Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France.
With respect to the remarks made to him by the Cardinal touching Ravenna and Cervia, the matter has been discussed by the Signory's ambassador with Mons. de Lautrec. It was necessary to secure Ravenna and Cervia, to prevent their falling into the enemy's hands. Independently of the benefit which thus accrued to the league, they were induced to take the two towns as the Signory had held them for a long while and peaceably, to the satisfaction of the inhabitants. Considered it a reproach to the State, and an act of negligence, to allow the enemy, to the evident detriment of the league, to seize two towns whose inhabitants earnestly desired to live under their pristine government.
Ravenna had been held by Venice for a long series of years, to the satisfaction, of all the inhabitants. Cervia was left to Venice by the will of the Sig. Domenico di Malatesti, who possessed it legitimately; the Signory binding itself to pay a large sum of money for annual pensions, and charitable and religious purposes, according to the testator's behest. Having spent so much money for the maintenance of the Papal towns, and still continuing the outlay by land and sea, at a cost incomparably greater than the value of Ravenna and Cervia, the Signory consider it fitting that those cities, having returned to their ancient masters, should be retained. Are certain the most Christian King will be well pleased to see Ravenna and Cervia in their hands, rather than in those of others.
Oct. 3. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 156. 176. The Bishop of Apulino (sic) to Altobello Averoldo, Bishop of Polà, Apostolic Legate in. Venice.
Four days ago the Austin Friar Felice, a Spanish renegade Jew, and a confidential dependant of the Cardinal of Ancona, passed through Ancona. He was sent by the Pope to the Cardinals assembled there and at Parma; his Holiness apparently not approving of the congregation of Cardinals being held in France, a measure so earnestly advocated by Cardinal Wolsey, for the satisfaction, of the Kings of France and England. On the other hand, the Pope does not wish their Majesties to despair of the congregation being summoned, and would fain speak them fair lest they delay assisting him and the Apostolic See.
Friar Felice says the Spaniards were fortifying Castle St. Angelo considerably, and had provisioned it with an infinite quantity of victuals and timber. Rome was quite free from plague. The garrison consisted but of some 1,300 infantry; the government being in the hands of Alarcon and Hironimo Morone. Proclamations had been issued for all the friars' vineyards to be uprooted, because they had filled up the trenches round the castle; and for greater security, all the vineyards and houses in the meadows were to be levelled.
Ancona, 3rd October. Registered by Sanuto, 15th October.
Oct. 4. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 127. 177. The Procurator Pesaro to the Doge and Signory.
Arrival of the Prothonotary Gambara, late Papal ambassador in England. He accompanied Cardinal Wolsey to France, and was then sent to Italy. He is going to Rome, to intimate to the Pope on behalf of the Cardinals in France who signed the protest (and they wish the Cardinals in Italy to sign in like manner), that his Holiness, being a prisoner, must not do anything to the detriment of the Apostolic See, nor make Cardinals to obtain his release, as all would be invalid; and to tell him to be of good cheer, as he should soon be set at liberty.
From the Camp, 4th October. Registered by Sanuto, 7th October.
Oct. 5. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 175. 178. Marco Antonio Venier to the Doge and Stgnory.
Cardinal Wolsey having returned to England, went to meet him. The Cardinal complained of the Signory's refusing to pay one-third of the cost of the 15,000 Lansquenets, according to the agreement made with the most Christian King. Excused the Signory, on the plea of the Republic's vast expenditure, and because nothing had been said about this outlay. Wolsey rejoined, “Well! if the Signory refuses to pay them, neither is it fair that our King should furnish his quota.”
. . . . . (blank in manuscript), 5th October. Registered by Sanuto, 22nd October.
Oct. 6. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 126. 179. Letter from England.
Note by Sanuto, that a letter was received from Marco Antonio Venier, Venetian Ambassador in England, addressed to the Doge and Signory, dated London, 11th September. He gives no summary of its contents.
Oct. 7. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 127. 180. Audience in the Venetian College Hall.
The English ambassador [Prothonotary Casal] congratulated the Signory on the prosperous course of events.
Oct. 7. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 128. 181. Letter to France.
Motion made in the Senate by the Sages, for a letter to the Ambassador Sebastian Giustinian, in France, in reply to what he wrote about the fleet which Cardinal Wolsey wished the Signory to send, namely 25 galleys, which is not possible, as orders have been given to send 16, including 8 bastard galleys, which is more than the Signory's share; and with regard to Lautrec's going to release the Pope, orders will be sent when writing to the ambassador (orator) Pesaro.
Oct. 7. Mantuan Archives. 182. Henry VIII. to Federico Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua.
Thanks him for his constant proofs of good will, and is ready to do whatever may prove agreeable to the Marquis, whom he thanks for the permission to retain about his person Scaramuccia and Antonio Nannino, whom the Marquis sent last year with a present of hawks and falcons. Had availed himself hitherto of their skill and assiduity (diligentiam) in his field sports; but as they wished to return home to do personal homage to the Marquis, gave them permission. Subsequently, all Italy being in confusion owing to the wars, and the roads infested with robbers, the King prolonged their stay until the present period of greater security, and trusts that this additional delay will not inconvenience the Marquis. Requests him to receive them with all good will, and to send them back to the King, when he will gladly admit them into his household, and make use of their services.
Richmond, 7th October 1527.
[Signed] Henricus Rex. [Countersigned] Petrus Vannes.
[Original, Latin.]
Oct. 9. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p 142. 183. Domenego Contarini, Proveditor General, and Piero da Pesaro, Procurator and Ambassador, to the Doge and Signory.
On that day Pesaro held a consultation with Lautrec, and showed him the writing drawn up by Count Guido Rangon and Sir Gregory Casal, to the effect that should his excellency march towards Rome, a force of 15,000 infantry ought to remain at Milan, viz., 12,000 Venetian and 3,000 Lansquenets, of those expected on account of the most Christian King; 3,000 Venetian infantry to accompany Lautrec; and the Duke of Milan to supply the camp with 3,000 infantry, and garrison the towns. Lautrec was pleased with the writing, save that he wishes the Signory to pay, in addition, the 3,000 Lansquenets; he paying the 3,000 Italians serving under his command. The Signory's reply had not been received. Lautrec was to depart with the troops for Belgiojoso and cross the Po, on his march towards Rome.
From the Camp under Pavia, 9th October, 4th hour. Registered by Sanuto, 11th October.
Oct. 11. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 141. 184. Audience in the Venetian College Hall.
The English ambassador [Prothonotary Casal] had received letters from Pavia, written by Sir Gregory Casal. The Prothonotary disapproves of the march into Tuscany; and mentioned what his brother wrote to him. The Doge likewise dissuaded him from this movement, and wished him to write that it would ruin the expedition.
Oct. 12. Parti Comuni, Consiglio X., v. iii. p. 103. 185. Importation of Wheat from England.
Motion in the Council of Ten and Junta. Addition to the motion carried on the 19th September.
All importers of wheat or flour from England, Flanders, and all other places beyond the Gut of Gibraltar until the last day of May 1528, to receive 40 “soldi” bounty per bushel, from the Signory, according to the decree made on the 19th September last. These bounties to be given to such as charter the vessels, “either there in the west” (deli imponente) or here, they being allowed to export one-third to the Signory's towns and places.
As an additional caution and security, all vessels bringing wheat beans, and pulse (legumi), and every other sort of victuals, are at liberty to insure as if Venetian, with safeconduct. Provided that on the eve of departure from Venice, the said vessels give security not to damnify Venetian subjects in the Gulf. All beans brought to Venice to be freely exported for any of the Signory's possessions on the mainland.
Ayes, 29. Noes, 0. Neutrals, 0.
Copy given, for publication, to the grain proveditors (provisoribus bladorum).
Oct. 14. Deliberazioni Senato (Secreta), File 7. 186. The Doge and Senate to Sebastian Giustinian, Venetian Ambassador in France.
Give account of the distribution of the forces of the League. Amongst the troops at the disposal of the Pope are the Lansquenets, paid by the King of England. Are convinced that the amount of the Signory's contingent will satisfy the most Christian King and the King of England.
Ayes, 190. Noes, 4. Neutrals, 1.
Oct. 17. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 169. 187. The Procurator Pesaro to the Doge and Signory.
To effect the passage of the Po, and march to Piacenza, Mons. de Lautrec is quartered where the letter is dated. Pesaro told him he ought at any rate to go to Milan. In reply, Lautrec said, “Write to the Signory to prepare artillery, powder, and what is necessary at Crema, so that should the Milanese expedition be determined on, it may not fail to take effect from lack of such provisions.” Remark by Pesaro, that it is easy to say they are awaiting some reply from France; but the English ambassador, Sir Gregory Casal, does his utmost to make the army march towards Rome.
Ponte Morone, 17th October. Registered by Sanuto, 20th October.
Oct. 20. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 239. 188. Marco Antonio Venier to the Doge and Signory.
On that day, the Lord Steward of France (lo Illmo. Gran Maestro di Franca), (fn. 1) the Bishop of Bayonne, and the Chancellor of Alençon, ambassadors from the most Christian King, arrived in London. The King of England treated them with all possible honour; he sent his cousin the Marquis [Courtenay, Marquis of Exeter], and the Bishops of London and Bath, and many other noblemen to meet them at the seaside, and they are lodged in very handsome palaces in the quarter of St. Paul's.
Visited them, and made every demonstration of love and observance towards the most Christian King and the Lord Steward, with whom he was on friendly terms, and therefore met with good greeting.
The King of England having received the order of St. Michael from his most Christian Majesty, sends him the Garter, by the aforesaid Marquis, his cousin, together with Lord Lisle, the Vice Chancellor [Dr. John Tayler], and his Grand Esquire (Gran Scudier) [Sir Anthony Browne]; (fn. 2) and these two Sovereigns, paying each other honour reciprocally, by sundry loving tokens, thus spend much money, which yields good fruit in Italy.
The scarcity in England continues, especially of wheat, which is at 9 livres and 10 soldi per Venetian bushel, a rare occurrence as compared with the usual plenty. This is owing to the superabundant rain which fell last May.
London, 20th October. Registered by Sanuto, 18th November.
Oct. 21. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 176. 189. Andrea Loredano, Bailiff and Captain of Crema, to the Doge and Signory.
The French troops had not yet quitted Castle St. Giovanni, because the Governor of Piacenza withdrew all the victuals [into the citadel]. On this account the English ambassador [Sir Gregory Casal] went post to Piacenza. Should he bring back today a good resolve about quarters, the troops will then march.
Crema, 21st October. Registered by Sanuto, 23rd October.
Oct. 21. Parti Comuni, Consiglio X. v. iii. p. 113. 190. English Ambassador in Venice.
Motion in the Council of Ten and Junta.
The ambassador from the King of England, resident at Venice, having need of 300 Venetian bushels of wheat, and 50 of barley, from the island of Cyprus,—Put to the ballot, that the Government of Cyprus permit the exportation thence of the 300 bushels of wheat and the 50 bushels of barley, for conveyance to Venice, for his use and need.
Ayes, 22. Noes, 2. Neutrals, 2.
Oct. 22. Parti Secrete, Consiglio X. File 2. 191. Sir Gregory Casal.
The Council of Ten and Junta, having been acquainted with the good offices performed by Sir Gregory Casal, respecting the affairs of Ravenna and Cervia,—Put to the ballot, that the Signory's College, in accordance with Sir Gregory's request, do give his brother an additional 50 light horse, so that he will now have the command of 100.
Ayes, 22. Noes, 3. Neutrals, 1.
Oct. 23. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 239. 192. Marco Antonio Venier to the Doge and Signory.
On an invitation from the King, went yesterday to Greenwich where his Majesty appeared in a hall very richly furnished with tapestry, he himself being magnificently arrayed. Over his shoulders (atorno le spale) he wore his jewelled collar, a very beautiful sight, and his dress (vestido) was of black velvet, lined with sables; the apertures of the sleeves had, for jewelled studs, certain diamonds with three pearls in a triangle, in lieu of buttons as generally worn, and they were about 20 in all; a very costly device. The King having seated himself on a raised throne (uno tribunal), the French ambassadors presented themselves before him, whereupon he came to the foot of the platform, and embraced them very lovingly. The Chancellor of Alençon then made a speech, proclaiming the perpetual peace stipulated between the two Kings, from which would result the release of his most Christian Majesty's sons, that of the Pope, and the freedom of Italy. The Bishop of Bath replied in the same tone, saying that both one and the other of their Majesties would always exert themselves to remain thus at peace and in quiet; after which the King said a few words to the Lord Steward (Gran Maestro), evincing towards him all love and honour. The ambassadors then offered his Majesty the order of St. Michael, which will be presented to him next Sunday, when the peace will be sworn to.
The English ambassadors appointed to convey the Garter to France will depart tomorrow, they also being three in number and men of dignity (homeni digni).
London, 23rd October. Registered by Sanuto, 18th November.
Oct. 25. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 239. 193. The Same to the Same.
The Lord Steward assures him Cardinal Wolsey is firmly resolved on freeing Italy, the Pope, and the most Christian King.
London, 25th October. Registered by Sanuto, 18th November.
Oct. 25. Parti Secrete, Consiglio X. File 2. 194. The Council of Ten and Junta to the Ambassador Pesaro.
Sir Gregory Casal has done excellent service by advocating the Signory's rights. To acquaint Sir Gregory how acceptable his proceedings have been to them. To request him to continue bearing witness to the good faith with which the Republic proceeds in this matter. They will keep account of all that he may do in favour of their interests, and prove their extreme gratitude.
Ayes, 25. Neutrals, 0. Noes, 0.
Oct. 25. Navagero Despatches, Cicogna Copy, in the Correr Museum. 195. Andrea Navagero to the Signory.
The plague continuing at Valladolid, the Emperor removed to Burgos, where he and the whole Court now are.
Has frequent interviews with Don Juan Emanuel, whom he finds truthful and anxious for the common weal. The ministers all declare that the Emperor is inclined to peace, and his Majesty himself says so; but many suspect that, being young, and accustomed to see everything proceed prosperously for him, he may change the good will and purpose hitherto evinced by him, now that his affairs do not go on well. Those who negotiate with him must therefore employ great address, and they do so to the utmost.
The French and English ambassadors, now better than heretofore, demonstrate the union between the Signory and their Kings, so that his (Navagero's) suspicions diminish daily, and he would perhaps consider himself quite safe, were it not for the great anxiety felt by him for the Signory's affairs. The ambassadors communicate everything to him; he confers daily with those from Milan and Florence, and they dine together alternately, evincing great friendship.
The Papal Auditor (Auditor delta Camera) [Ghinucci] returned to the Court lately, after having been summoned to France by Cardinal Woisey. He has been sent back to negotiate the affairs of the peace, and protest to the Emperor that, unless he release the Pope, none of the acts of his Holiness shall be considered valid; neither his nomination of Cardinals, nor presentations to benefices, nor anything else. Ghinucci, however, does not think fit to make these protests at once, but will first attempt every thing by fair words. Immediately on his arrival he went to the Emperor with the other English ambassadors [Lee and Poyntz]. His Majesty not only failed to receive him graciously, as on former occasions, but, contrary to his wont, addressed him in very threatening language (li usò molte brave parole), evincing extreme anger. It so happened that on the very day when these English ambassadors had audience of his Majesty, he received news of the capture of Pavia, on which account it is supposed they found him so much disquieted. Amongst other things he said that the most Christian King deceived himself if he expected to compel him to accept his terms; that he (the Emperor) had already conceded as much as he could, nor would he do anything more than he had said; that if they persisted he should, perhaps, even retract that to which he had consented; that the bow might easily break if too much bent, as he did not choose to be compelled to do anything by force; and he blustered much (et bravò molto) against the King of France, threatening the performance of great feats. The ambassadors then quitted his Majesty, having spoken him as fair as they could.
On the arrival of the Auditor, Sir Francis Poyntz, who came to Spain with the Bishop of Tarbes, having received permission from his King to return to England, took leave of the Emperor, and will depart in five or six clays.
The French ambassadors lately received letters from their King, informing them that on receiving the account of what had been negotiated at Palencia, he sent one of his gentlemen to England to notify the whole to the King there, without whose opinion he could decide on nothing; and that on receiving the King's reply he would write to them more positively. In the meanwhile he did not see the necessity for the Emperor's negotiating anything separately either with the Signory of Venice or the Florentines, as it would suffice to name them in the peace as confederates; his Imperial Majesty making express demands if he required anything of them. With regard to the Milanese, unless he left it to the Duke Francesco, he (King Francis) did not know how they could arrive at any conclusion; it being also necessary, before peace could be made between the Christian powers, to release the Pope.
Although these letters were not conclusive, the French ambassadors nevertheless, to keep the negotiation on foot, went to the Emperor and acquainted him with their contents. They found him only a little less choleric than he had shown himself to the English ambassadors. He blustered greatly (parlò motto bravo), demanding the restitution of all the towns taken from him in the Milanese, as otherwise he would no longer speak of peace. The ambassadors replied that their King, even had he the wish, could restore nothing whatever to his Majesty, all that was taken having been consigned to the Duke; the acquisitions having been made not only by the French army, but by that of the confederates; wherefore the most Christian King alone could not do what his Majesty demanded. The Emperor rejoined that words were unnecessary; that the most Christian King must not interfere between him and his vassals, such as the Duke of Milan; that if he expected by such means to get back his children he deceived himself; that he (the Emperor) had already conceded as much as he could and would; that if they fancied he purposed doing more than he had said he would do, they were under a mistake; and he swore two or three times that he would do nothing more; that he had already consented to what seemed just to him; that he did not fear the power of France, and would soon recover everything, and that the friendship between England and France would not last (dureria quanto Bio volesse); that he had good security in his hands, and was not going to relinquish it, unless he knew on what terms; and that were he deprived of all the realms he had in the world, be would never be forced to do anything.
The ambassadors replied throughout most mildly, requesting his Majesty to speak without anger, and at length departed with replies much more at variance with peace than those invariably received until now. They subsequently spoke with some of the Imperial councillors, who all told them that they see little hope of peace unless all that has been taken from the Emperor in Italy be restored to him. If the successes of the allies continue, and the Milanese be recovered, he (Navagero) hopes the Emperor will allow the Duke to retain it, and accustom himself to bear occasional defeat, as he has hitherto been used to constant victory. The whole difficulty is in the duchy of Milan, which being the chief cause of the present war, would, if surrendered to the Emperor, be the grant of what he has constantly desired, and the loss of that which has caused all Italy to incur her present toil and expenditure. In the articles of peace negotiated between the Emperor and France, and in the demands made of the Signory, it was always stated that the Emperor did not want the Milanese for himself. Of the King of Hungary no mention has been made [by the Emperor], but some of the Imperial councillors assert that the Emperor will not give the Milanese to his brother, and the resistance made by him proceeds from his not choosing to submit to the dictation of France, or of anyone else, with regard to disposal of the duchy. The Count of Nassau and Don Juan Manuel have done their utmost with the Emperor to induce him to give the Milanese to his brother, the King of Hungary. The King of Hungary himself requested the Emperor by letter to grant him the Milanese, and sent an annual pension of 4,000 ducats to the Count of Nassau, and one of 1,000 to Don Juan Manuel, that they might exert themselves in the matter, but they could never bring the Emperor to consent. Does not know what the Count of Nassau did, but Don Juan Manuel declined the pension, telling the Hungarian ministers to give it to the Chancellor, Gattinara, who would be better able to obtain anything from the Emperor, and that he (Manuel) has no longer courage to speak on this subject to his Majesty, perceiving that it offends him. It may be hence inferred that the Emperor does not think of giving the duchy to his brother, but will not say for whom he intends it, thus authorizing a belief that he destines it for himself.
Many persons think he might be induced to cede the Milanese to the Duke for a certain sum of money. The Bishop of Tarbes is of this opinion, and said several times to him (Navagero) that the Duke should send a messenger to make the proposal secretly, not letting it appear that he acted without the consent of the confederates, who were, however, to feign ignorance of the negotiation. Whatever the Emperor may say, he would fain have the Milanese for himself, both because it is a very fine province, and also because he considers it a good stepping-stone towards the acquisition of all the rest of Italy, and possibly that of the rest of Christendom.
The Chancellor [Gattinara] arrived at the court three or four days before the Emperor quitted Palencia. He has as much authority with his Majesty as before his departure, and perhaps more. The Chancellor is said to be excellently inclined to peace, but this is not confirmed by the tone of his daily discourse.
Nothing is yet known about the Pope. It is said that Mons. Migliau and the General of the Franciscans have arrived [at Rome], and that they will set his Holiness at liberty, but nothing is known of this release, and many think it will not take place. The news of the coronation, as King of Hungary, of the Archduke, and of the retreat of the Vaivod into Transylvania, causes these Imperialists to threaten Italy vastly, and they say that a great amount of Lansquenets, and King Ferdinand himself, if necessary, will come from those parts.
The English and French ambassadors at Burgos will do everything for the conclusion of peace, and say that, if unable to accomplish it, they will declare war against the Emperor and depart; adding that the ambassadors of the rest of the confederates must also do the like.
Does not know whether they will act accordingly, but if they do, is at a loss what course to pursue. Many months ago the Signory desired him, in the event of the departure of the French and English ambassadors, to follow their example. Since then has heard nothing further, and therefore requests instructions on this subject.
Burgos, 25th October 1527.
Oct. 27. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 187. 196. Audience in the Venetian College Hall.
The secretary of the English ambassador [Prothonotary Casal], came into the College Hall with letters dated Piacenza, the 24th. Sir Gregory Casal thereby announces to his brother, having beard from France, that the Emperor makes such a variety of demands and of so strange a nature to the French ambassadors that he is of opinion the peace will not be made.
Oct. 28. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 190. 197. Audience in the Venetian College Hall.
The English ambassador [Prothonotary Casal] informed the Signory that his King, according to promise, had paid one-third of the cost of the Switzers, and that the period expired with the month of October, after which his payment ceases, it then behoving the Signory to pay.
Oct. 28. Navagero Despatches, Cicogna Copy, in the Correr Museum. 198. Andrea Navagero to the Doge and Signory.
Sir Francis Poyntz departs today for England. Navagero consigns to him a duplicate of his letter of the 25th for delivery in France.
Burgos, 28th October 1527.
Oct. 31. Parti Co muni, Consigtio X., v. iii. p. 119. 199. English Ambassador in Venice.
Motion in the Council of Ten and Junta.
The Rev. Legate has conferred on the Rev. Prothonotary Casal, English ambassador resident in Venice, the abbacy of the Trinity, within the citadel of Verona, vacant by the death of the Archbishop of Corfu, in virtue of a brief of reservation (“una riserva”) by the Pope, to the amount of 2,000 ducats annual revenue, in towns and places under the Signory's jurisdiction.
The Rev. Prothonotary having requested possession of the said abbacy, therefore, considering his deserts, and those of his brother the Magnifico Sir Gregory Casal, and the constant intercession of Cardinal Wolsey, and of Mons. de Lautrec,—Put to the ballot, that the Governors of Verona do give possession of the said abbacy to the Prothonotary Casal.
Memorata fuit lex, 23–31.
Ayes, 23. Noes, 3. Neutrals, 1.
Oct. 31. Sanuto Diaries, v. xlvi. p. 198. 200. Motion made and carried in the Senate.
Possession of the abbacy [of the Holy Trinity] at Verona, vacant by the death of the Archbishop Marcello, to be given to the Rev. English ambassador, Prothonotary Casal, in virtue of the brief of reservation (per la riserva li fe il Papa) conceded him by the Pope for 3,000 ducats annual revenue.


  • 1. Hall styles him, “Great Master of the Frenche Kyng's house.” (See p. 733, ed. 1809.)
  • 2. They were accompanied by Thomas Wriothesley, Garter King-at-Arms.