Venice: April 1557, 16-30

Pages 1016-1027

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 6, 1555-1558. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1877.

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April 1557, 16–30

April 17. Original Letter Book, Venetian Archives. 859. Bernardo Navagero, Venetian Ambassador in Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
The Pope has borne the fatigues of this week (fn. 1) with incredible vigour, such as to promise him long life. It has been remarked that neither yesterday nor to-day were the prayers made for the Emperor; and it is said that the master of the ceremonies has given it to be understood in the Pope's name to all the churches, that contrary to custom his Majesty is not to be prayed for in particular. In the bull “In cenà Domini,” certain additional clauses have been inserted, which are considered of some importance in the article underlined by me.
Rome, 17th April 1557.
April 18 ? (fn. 2) MS. St. Mark's Library. Cod. XXIV., Cl. X., p. 166 tergo. No date of time in MS. 860. Cardinal Pole to Genoa. (fn. 3)
Has received his letter sent by the Venetian Ambassador Surian, and was glad to hear of Genoa's good plight, and how, besides his other ordinary philosophical studies, he does not fail to nourish his soul with the divine nutriment of Holy Writ, which contains the true and perfect wisdom. Desires that the Lord may lead him always from good to better, and protect him and his family. Pole is well, and at his diocese, endeavouring to do his duty by the people there (questi popoli), and to heal the wounds received of late. Thanks Genoa for the ready good will and love shown by him towards that English student whom he recommended to him. Monsignor Priuli is in good health, and salutes Genoa with all affection.
Canterbury [18th April 1557 ?]
April 18. MS. St. Mark's Library. Cod. XXIV., Cl. X., p. 166, tergo. No date of time in MS. 861. Cardinal Pole to King Philip.
Being unable to pay his respects to the King in person during the present holydays as would be his duty, makes amends by this letter, praying God, as he did during Passion week and does always, ever to have the King under his protection, and to favour him to his own honour and for the benefit and quiet of Christendom, and espcially of England, whose welfare he is sure the King has and always will have in such great consideration and care as may be expected from his piety, confirming and constantly promoting the work which the divine mercy, by means of his Majesty and of the most Serene Queen, has done there by redeeming it from such great perdition and ruin, to the good state in which it now finds itself. Humbly kisses the hands of his Majesty and of the Queen, and prays God always to preserve and prosper them in his grace.
Canterbury [18th April 1557?]
April 20. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 862. Giacomo Soranzo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
M. de Montmorency has arrived; he met with a very good reception from the King and from the Constable his father, and says publicly that he no longer wishes for the first young lady (la prima giovane) to whom he had promised marriage. It continues constantly to be asserted that he will not abstain from espousing the most Christian King's daughter, although his Holiness has not given the license, yet this step would be taken very unwillingly, it being a commencement very like what was done by King Henry the Eighth of England, from which there ensued so many difficulties (tanti inconvenienti); so some persons interpret this open declaration of the marriage as a hint to the Pope to avoid their repetition, by giving the license. To this effect the King and the Constable use all possible means, both at Rome, and here with the Nuncio, to whom his Majesty, when complaining of the Pope's refusal to grant him this grace, said, “His Holiness has had no scruple about making a man who has had two wives a Cardinal, namely, the President of the Chamber [Giovanni Battista Consiglieri], and at my entreaty and for a daughter of mine he does not choose to condescend to my prayers (condiscendere alle mie preghiere), most especially (massime) after giving absolution for three similar cases, one of which had more aggravating circumstances than this one has,”
His most Christian Majesty has sent 500 Gascon infantry to Scotland, and will send as many more to keep that kingdom well guarded, anticipating what might come to pass, although here it is considered certain that the Queen of England will not openly assist her consort with troops; and through the last advices from the French ambassador in England, I hear that Cardinal Pole, persevering in his ancient good-will, proposed to the King of England the mode for making some adjustment with his Majesty here, having also done the like with his most Christian Majesty; but I do not hear that any farther reply will be made, although a friend of mine tells me that when talking lately with one of the chief personages of the court about the dissatisfaction caused by this League, and the Neapolitan expedition not proceeding as required, he said to him that as the Constable had not changed his mind, if reasonable teems of agreement were offered him, he would not be arcrse from persuading his most Christian Majesty to accept them.
La Ferté Milon, 20th April 1557.
[Italian, partly in cipher; the portions in italics deciphered by Signor Luigi Pasini.]
April 21. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 863. Michiel Surian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
Since my last of the 12th the King and Queen with the Duchess [of Parma] and other personages went to pass Passion Week and the holidays at Greenwich; and in order not to remain alone during those days in the midst of people, who, from fear rather than from will, appear to be Christians (gente che par christiana più per paura che per volontà), I went to Canterbury, where, through the goodness, prudence, and doctrine of the Right Reverend Legate the affairs of the [Roman Catholic] religion have prospered so much that, although that part of England had been more corrupted than all the rest of the kingdom, it is now nevertheless so well reformed that it can set a great example not only to the whole of this island but to France likewise, and to some part of Italy.
I presented your credentials to Cardinal Pole, and he answered me in terms most complimentary and affectionate towards the Republic, commending the religion, justice, and prudence of its government, and especially the offices performed by the Signory to effect the peace of Christendom, expatiating thereon in very flattering language; and your Serenity may rest assured that in these parts this mediation has so greatly increased the Republic's grandeur and repute that all nations and all people speak of your Serenity with great and unusual reverence, bearing the Signory very great respect.
I returned yesterday to this city, where the King is expected to-day. (fn. 4) I have merely heard that the hope of peace with the Pope has come to nothing (è rissoluta in niente), and there is more talk of war than ever; but as yet words are more abundant here than deeds, preparations being greatly procrastinated; and no army will be mustered until after the next harvest has been gathered, for never in the memory of man was there ever such a scarcity of everything in these countries (in questi paesi), and although for a long while it has been said that great supplies, most especially of grain, were coming from Denmark and Sweden, and from the Hanse Towns (et dalle terre marittime), but were stopped by the ice, the seas being so frozen, yet no succour appears, although by this time they might be supposed to have free passage; so hope begins to fail, nor does the price of food diminish, the cost of everything increasing more than can be told; and as there are no means of providing for the ordinary consumption of the people either in Flanders or in England, still less could provision be made for so great an army as the one now being mustered.
There has been some disturbance on the frontier towards Clermont (Chiaramonte (sic), Charlemont ?), where there was a skirmish between the Flemings and the French, in which the latter were worsted; but the French Ambassador has sent me word that they [the French] routed the enemy. Whichever side was victorious, this is the first stir of war as yet on those confines, the dispute hitherto having been whether the Spaniards or the French were the first to break the truce, both one and the other wishing to justify themselves before the world; and as the King of England thinks of availing himself of assistance from this kingdom, so the French seek to prevent it, and would not wish the old treaty between England and Flanders (fn. 5) (which has always been reserved when making peace with France) to be carried into effect, as it is thereby stipulated that in any case should war be waged on the provinces of Flanders, the English are bound to succour them with a certain amount of paid infantry and cavalry for four months, unless I err. On this account the French will not own to having commenced the war, but say they remain solely on the defensive.
London, 21st April 1557.
[Italian, partly in cipher; the portions in italics deciphered by Signor Luigi Pasini.]
April 22. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 864. Michiel Surian, Venetian Ambassador in the Doge and Senate.
In confirmation of what was told me by the Count de Feria, no decision has yet been formed about the assistance to be given by this kingdom to his Majesty, as England will not declare herself openly against France, though she will not fail to aid the King, and the chief help is expected to be given in money, of which there is great need. I hear from Brussels that King Philip's agents there are endeavouring to obtain a loan from all monied persons in that province, according to their means, the like being done at Antwerp also; but although these agents make great promises they nevertheless find much difficulty, as all excuse themselves to their utmost. I am also informed on good authority that Don Ruy Gomez found the same difficulties in Spain, because the people still continue obstinate (duri) under pretence of not infringing their privileges, whereby they cannot be compelled to hold the Cortes unless his Majesty is present, nor contribute money for expenditure abroad. Unless opinion change, these difficulties, in addition to the others, will further delay supply for the war, great part of which is founded upon these Spanish moneys, as the affairs of the Indies are usually tedious, and for the most part uncertain, although so many miracles are narrated about them; whilst the assistance from England cannot suffice for such great preparations; so that this burden of Flanders and the adjoining provinces would be too great were this entire undertaking to rest on their shoulders (se questa impresa restasse sopra le sue spalle). Some days ago I was told that the French have given it to be understood that they are not much afraid of subsidies from Spain, and still less of those from the Indies, hoping moreover to prevent those from this kingdom either by negotiation or, should that fail, by force.
The supply of money hitherto, nevertheless, is very small, and that of victuals smaller still, notwithstanding which nothing is talked of here but war, horse and foot being expected here from Germany, raised they say by Don Juan Manrique, he having also had money for their maintenance (et ha havuti danari per darsi intertenimento); and should these troops come, they in a few days will consume that which, if divided with great thrift, would not have sufficed for the inhabitants of the country; so the scarcity, which is now very great, will become yet greater.
The Court has received intelligence that the Turks in Barbary have taken several places and are marching towards Tunis, where they have a certain understanding, and think of occupying that kingdom, which here is considered of importance, the King of Tunis being the vassal of the King of England; so the loss of that province might easily cause all the Christian possessions in those parts to fall into the hands of the Turks, and consequently predominance in the Mediterranean (e per consequenza il dominio di quel mare).
The Venetian merchants here are informed that the Admiral of France has directed that their goods seized on board the Flemish schooner (seuna) are to be kept in deposit until the receipt of an order from the most Christian King; and an agent, sent by the parties concerned, has been commissioned to make a compromise with the corsair who made the plunder (che ha fatto la preda), and if unable to do so he will take a letter from me to the Ambassador Soranzo to obtain favour through him from his Majesty.
London, 22nd April 1557.
[Italian, partly in cipher; the portions in italics deciphered by Signor Luigi Pasini.]
April 23. Original Letter Book, Venetian Archives. 865. Bernardo Navagero, Venetian Ambassador in Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
When I went to the Pope to-day to complain of the corsair Moretto, and of the Gascon commander of his Holiness' galleys, he said to me, “It was in our hands to take Anagni and Frosinone, but in order not to employ our forces against those places, with loss of time, and that we might send them to join the French army, we would not attempt those undertakings”; and then after a pause he added, “We will tell you our conceit, we in fact would never consent to attack those places, so that, being in the power of the enemies of God, and everybody seeing that they occupy them, we, choosing to proceed to condemnation and sentences against them, might not have cause to commence with citation and monitions, as the injury being so manifest as it is through the occupation of the aforesaid towns, there is no necessity for the form preparatory to a sentence and condemnation in doubtful and uncertain cases. On Holy Thursday, in our bull, we also chose to proceed more mildly than their error and impiety required, though we indeed willed to denote them tacitly, saying as you will have heard, that we saw there very near to us, qui occupant, qui mandarunt, qui mandant et si Ducali, si Regià, si Imperiali dignitate fulgerent; we have also chosen to show them their impiety, negatively, but not positively.”
By this I believe he meant to say that he had not caused the usual prayers to be said. He then added, we have this consolation in the troubles and destruction caused by the present war, that we have been forced into it; you know it, but the whole world likewise ought to know it, that when that Pirro dell' Offredo, whom we have in the castle, came hither to evince a wish for peace, and under this pretext, went making the Cardinals mutiny (andava mutinando li Cardinali); at which same time the army was on its march, occupying the State of this poor Church, with a design moreover on this unfortunate city; God assisted us, for that army, without our forces, wasted away, the horses suffering so much that they have not yet recovered, so that laqueus constrictus fuit et nos liberati sumus. Even now we are advised that in the Abruzzi and those places they have no forces, nor do they know where to muster them (nè sanno ove far testa), nee denique quo consilio sint usuri.
“At the commencement of his reign over so many states and kingdoms given him by God, that luckless youth Philip (quell' infelice giovine di Filippo) ought to have returned thanks for such great benefits, by gratifying (intertenir) all the Princes, and your most illustrious Republic, acknowledging this Holy See, and the Vicar of Christ on earth, and not to have acted thus, as was his duty (and everybody sees that he ought to have done so); we cannot believe it to be without mystery of the eternal Providence of God (senza misterio dell' eterna Provvidenza di Dio). Thou, O Lord ! knowest what men do not know, and to Thee, everything is present, nor does it become man to investigate Thy secrets more than Thou willest; but it is well to believe that such public and impious errors would not be permitted were it not for the sake of eliciting good from them, as will be the case in the present instance, through the release of Italy, and her return to that harmony which was so much desired by those most prudent elders, who often came to see me when I was with them at Venice, and you are their sons; and indeed there must be still living many of those who wished to see an Italian Duke of Milan, the one who was so honoured and caressed by you in your city, and of whom we remember that such great care was taken, that he was recommended to be very cautious about his food. (fn. 6)
“It has pleased the Lord God to inspire this good son the King of France to assist us, and contrary to the peculiar nature of that nation, which is not wont to be steady, we find him very firm in this resolution; for this his promptitude and obedience we are bound to do what we can; we shall invest one of his sons with the kingdom of Naples, and in order the better to establish him, and to give cause for the people to accept him willingly, we shall free him from the homage and from the oath of allegiance, so that Philip, who is feoffee, having forfeited the fief, the population may no longer be bound to any but the direct Lord, as we ourselves are. This personage will shortly become an Italian Prince, and we already understand that when talking together, when the Dauphin says he shall be a great King, his brother, although young, replies, 'Should I be King of Naples I shall have little need of you;' and really the Almighty has provided the King with so large a family, to enable him to make the number of Italian Princes what it was formerly; viz., a King of Naples, a Duke of Milan, my most illustrious Signory (la mia illustrissima Signoria) and this Holy See; and in truth were there present here Philip and his father, who is no longer of this world, we would say to them, 'The injuries done by you to God, the want of respect shown by you to His Vicar, the extortions practised by you against your poor subjects, and your designs about swallowing-up (de ingiottir) the rest, compel us to expel you, if not from elsewhere, at least from this province, heretofore Domina Gentium, (fn. 7) and by you rendered tributary (et per voi facta sub tributo); and if unable to do it, we have at least this desire.'
“Our belief is, that they would not know what to answer us, and that internally they would commend this our project and this our intention; and this also I must either tell you (who are so dear to us) or else be silent, which I would never do;” and he then continued (laughing), “We with the King have divided the world between us, and have left Sicily to my most illustrious Signory, should they choose to enter this League.” His Holiness then expatiated on the advantages of Sicily, in conformity with what he said heretofore adding, “For the present we do not wish for anything from you, because we are your true friend, and true friends love each other, not to obtain, but to confer benefits, one on the other. When it shall seem fit to you, and should it seem fit to you, you have a Pope, who is as much your friend as you could possibly desire, and who has also toiled and continues toiling for you with a King of France. The praise will be all yours for having put the finishing hand to so honourable an undertaking, and therefore you may demand and obtain from everybody whatever you please.” He then proceeded to say that great feats are not performed without great risks, and that pericala non sine periculis citantur; for which confidential communication I thanked his Holiness.
Rome, 23rd April 1557.
April 26. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 866. Giacomo Soranzo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
On St. George's day (23rd April) the most Christian King performed the ceremony (fece la solennità) of the Order of England as usual, we ambassadors being present, and having gone to his Majesty after dinner, when talking about several things, he said that he thanked God for this seasonable weather, which promised a good harvest, that of last year having been so bad that all the provinces had suffered so much, that one could not assist the other, a thing which had never happened in France before. The English ambassador having then returned with the Constable to demand the release of sundry goods captured on board a cutter (scutta), as by the accompanying letter, the Nuncio, I, and the ambassador from Ferrara, remained with the King, who said he supposed we had heard of the capture of Valfeniera (sic), (fn. 8) giving us account of its importance, and how it was taken &c. When we asked his Majesty what troops Marshal Brissac had, he answered laughing, “I know that in Piedmont I pay 35,000 men, but the Marshal will doubtless have 18,000 men in the field.” He then added that what had been written hither, that the Marquis of Pescara had slain a nephew of the Cardinal of Trent, was not true; and his Majesty then said that in these parts of Picardy and Champagne matters were proceeding very quietly, as although King Philip kept some German captains there, they were not known to make any stir nor to give money, or anything else (nè di altro) (sic); but a few days ago, the said King's troops went and made a survey of Marienburg and the new fortress which is in course of construction there, but did not injure them.
His Majesty added that he had advices from his ambassador in England, that the Queen had used every effort (haveva fatto ogni officio) with her Council to make them determine on waging war against this kingdom, together with the King her husband; but that they had in fact (in effecto) determined not to do so, but merely to adhere to the old treaty made heretofore with the Emperor, and which was subsequently confirmed on King Philip's marriage, whereby they are bound in case of need, for the defence of Flanders, to furnish a contingent (di concorrer con) of 5,000 infantry and 500 horse; and he said his ambassador had also written to him (as his Majesty had heard previously through another channel) that the cause of the going to England of the Duchesses of Lorraine and Parma was that they might bring back with them “Madama” Elizabeth to this side of the sea, to marry her to the Duke of Savoy; and then, complaining of the heat and discomfort of that large mantle (quel gran manto), his Majesty withdrew.
During Passion week, (fn. 9) the King of Navarre having retired to a place of his called Fère, very near the frontiers of Flanders, some thirty Englishmen (in the service of his most Christian Majesty as light horsemen) laid a plot to carry him off to Flanders, and purposed effecting it on a certain day when he went out hunting, after which, on the way home he intended to fly his falcons, the Englishmen having arranged to seize him in the hawking field; but after the hunt, the King feeling tired would not hawk and went home, where a few hours afterwards he received a message from the Admiral telling him of this plot; and the Englishmen (the King not making his appearance at the expected time), supposing themselves discovered, all made their escape in safety to Flanders. (fn. 10)
La Ferté Milon, 26th April 1557.
[Italian, partly in cipher; the portions in italics deciphered by Signor Luigi Pasini.]
April 26. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 867. Michiel Surian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
On St. George's day, the King held the solemnity (fece la solennità) of the Knights of that Order, and on Saturday three other Knights were elected; one the Earl of Sussex, Deputy of Ireland (che è al Governo d' Hirlanda); another the Queen's Controller, who is the principal person of her Majesty Household, by name the Magnifico Rochester; and the third was Lord Grey, Governor of Guisnes; all three Englishmen, nor hitherto have men of any other nation been mixed with them.
It is said that the Duchess of Parma will depart in two or three days, and I went to visit her. According to the agreement made, her son will remain at Brussels, so she cannot depart otherwise than dissatisfied. As yet the King is not known to have altered the agreement (la capitulatione) in any respect, though it was believed he would confer some favour on his sister, who in all her actions has shown herself most respectful towards his Majesty; and being a very prudent lady and full of spirit (et perchè e Signora molto prudente et piena di spirito) it is still incredible that she should depart until she has somewhat improved the state of her husband's affairs and her own. (fn. 11)
Don Ferrante Gonzaga's son, Don Cesare, has arrived here, having left his brother, Don Andrea, indisposed at Antwerp. Their father is awaited shortly, as told me by the Count de Feria, and he assumes service here with very great general expectation, although until now he has always been hated by the entire Spanish nation.
The ambassador from Florence, who was also at Brussels, has arrived, and had audience of his Majesty this morning. It is not yet known what he negotiated, but, as written by me heretofore, his Duke continues to be greatly suspected here, and although they know what happened to his Secretary at Rome, their opinion of him is by no means good; all he has gained is that they vituperate him less openly; and thus, if the Pope likewise suspects him, he will have rendered all parties his enemies, whilst wishing to make it appear that with each of them, he had a fellow-feeling.
Monsignor Fantuccio, who had been ordered not to leave Brussels, has been dismissed by a letter from the Count de Feria, telling him that as the Pope is more than ever determined by no means to make either peace or an agreement, his further stay in these parts would be a loss of time; yet do the provisions for the war proceed very slowly.
London, 26th April 1557.
[Italian, partly in cipher; the portions in italics deciphered by Signor Luigi Pasini.]
April 27? (fn. 12) MS. St. Mark's Library. Cod. XXIV., Cl. X., p. 167. 868. Cardinal Pole to Cardinal [Alessandro] Farnese.
Pole being here at Canterbury at his Church, whither he went as written in a former letter, the secretary of the Duke, Farnese's brother, when passing through gave him his loving letter, and especial account of his State (Stato). (fn. 13) May God preserve and prosper him always, and vouchsafe of his mercy speedily to relieve Italy and Christendom from so many perils and dangers!
With regard to the other business about which the Secretary spoke in the Cardinal's name, refers himself to his verbal statement, nor need Pole say how anxious he shall always be to do whatever may give pleasure to Farnese.
They are expecting the Duchess of Parma at Canterbury in two days. She departs leaving the Queen and the whole Court very affectionately disposed towards her. May God conduct her prosperously to the end of her journey.
Canterbury [24th April 1557?]
April 27? (fn. 14) MS. St. Mark's Library. Cod. XXIV., Cl. X., p. 167. 869. Cardinal Pole to the Duke of Parma.
Has received his letter from his secretary, and heard with pleasure of the Duke's state and of that of his family, which may God prosper always. When quitting the Court to come hither to his Church; saw, much to his consolation, the Duchess, his Consort, and the Prince, his son, (fn. 15) who, in truth, shows such a disposition as to give the best hopes of him. Is expecting the Duchess at Canterbury in two days; and in like manner as her coming was very agreeable to the Queen, so does her Excellency on her departure leave her Majesty and the whole Court very much attached to her. May God grant her prosperity and an auspicious journey, and comfort everybody by soon putting an end to so much tribulation in Italy and all Christendom. Thanks the Duke much for the love he shows him.
Canterbury [24th April 1557?]
April 29. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 870. Michiel Surian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
After my last of the 26th there arose in this kingdom a sudden tumult, caused by an English gentleman of noble birth, by name Stafford, (fn. 16) who was an outlaw, and now came to England with two French ships and some 100 soldiers, part French and part English rebels.
He seized a castle called Scarborough, 150 miles hence towards Scotland, and had himself proclaimed king (et s'è fatto gridar Principe), but in like manner as the tumult was sudden, so was it suddenly quelled, for it is heard this morning that the militia of the province, having marched against him by the Queen's order (per ordine di questa Maestà), under the command of the Earl of Westmorland, (fn. 17) who is said to be the brother of the said Stafford's mother, captured him and the greater part of his followers. Although this was effected so immediately, it has nevertheless revealed the disposition (animo) of many persons, who could not refrain from showing themselves desirous of a change in the present state of affairs, as usual with the people and the commonalty (come è parte del populo, et di homini vulgari), who, according to the natural custom of this realm, delight in riots and sedition; but as this opportunity has placed within the power of the law not only this ringleader, but others likewise who were with him, and who will end their lives on the gibbet, it has freed the Queen (questa Maestà) from suspicion of them, and frightened others who were meditating rebellion in England.
An express has arrived from the Cardinal of Trent to acquaint the King with the condition of the Milanese, and to let his Majesty know that unless he provide him with what is necessary, and most especially with money, he is in very great danger, and that assistance is expected solely from this quarter, where there is no less need, nor any greater abundance.
London, 29th April 1557.
[Italian, partly in cipher; the portions in italics deciphered by Signor Luigi Pasini.]
April? St. Mark's Library, Cod. xxiv. Cl. X. p. 183 verso, p. 184 recto. 871. Cardinal Pole to “Signor” Stefano Sauli, very magnifico Lord as a brother [honoured].
The Reverend Father President of the Congregation of Monte Cassino had requested him by letter to obtain from Sauli the receipt which he has never given for the 800 crowns paid at Magunzano by the late Don Lorenzo Sauli, who shortly before disbursed that sum at Rome to the Proctor the Reverend Don Entitio. Requests him to make out the letter of acknowledgment and cancel the contract by which the congregation is still bound, an act which in like manner as Cardinal Pole supposes Sauli to have omitted hitherto, not without some suitable reason, so is he certain that Sauli will not fail doing it in conformity with justice, and the sooner it is done the better will the Cardinal be pleased; wherefore he with all earnestness prays him thus to do, as he greatly wishes to hear speedily of the congregation's release from all cost and trouble in this matter, most especially as its members were induced at his (the Cardinal's) suggestion to make this agreement with him, to whom he recommends himself with all affection.
London, (blank in MS.) April 1557?


  • 1. “Passion Week. In the year 1557, Easter Sunday was on the 18th April. (See L'Art de Vèrifier les Dates, p. 32. ed. Paris, 1770.)
  • 2. By the correspondence of the Ambassador Surian it appears that he passed the Easter of 1557 with Cardinal Pole at Canterbury.
  • 3. “Al Genoa.” Genoa was a family name. In vol. 6, Venetian Calendar (part 1, p. 393), it appears that he was a layman, as Cardinal Pole congratulates him on the marriage of his daughter.
  • 4. The xxij of Aprell the Kyng and the Quen removed from Grenwyche unto Westmynster. (See Machyn, p. 132.) From this it seems that the King's return was postponed for a day.
  • 5. The treaty of 1546 between England and the Empire. (See Froude, Vol. VI., pp. 473, 474. ed. London, 1860.)
  • 6. Che era consigliato a mangiar con molto rispello. Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan, arrived at Venice on the 11th October 1530, and his reception was formally announced by the Republic to Henry VIII. (See Venetian Calendar, vol. 4. p. 261.) Gian Pietro Caraffa was Provost of the Order of the Theatines in Venice, from August 1526 until September 1527, as mentioned by Flaminio Corner, p. 408; and from the Pope's own lips we now learn that be was still there in October 1530, and these precise notices of his familiar intercourse with the Venetian aristocracy render it probable that he really wished well to the Republic, and unbosomed himself more freely to Navagero than to other ambassadors at his Court.
  • 7. Romanos rerum dominos ? (Virgil. Æneid. Lib. I. v. 285.)
  • 8. Query, Valvera, between Cuneo and Asti.
  • 9. Easter Sunday, 18th April 1557.
  • 10. Concerning this first plot, see also a letter from Dr. Wotton, date 27th April 1557. (Foreign Calendar, Mary, p. 229.)
  • 11. From several entries in the Venetian Calendar showing that the maternal grandmother of Margaret of Austria was a Venetian gentlewoman, by name Michiel, the Ambassador might he suspected of national partiality, were not his panegyric confirmed by all the biographers of Margaret, Duchess of Parma, mother of the Great Captain, alluded to in this letter, and who probably inherited a taste for war from his grandfather, the Emperor Charles the Fifth.
  • 12. No date of time in MS., but by a letter from the Ambassador Surian, dated London, 26th April 1557, it is seen that the Duchess of Parma purposed departing towards Canterbury on the 28th or 29th April.
  • 13. In the month of October 1556 King Philip consigned Piacenza to Octavio Farnese Duke of Parma, whose secretary probably gave Pole details of the circumstance. See also Foreign Calendar 1556, p. 271.
  • 14. No date of time in MS.
  • 15. Alessandro Farnese, born in the year 1544, one of the greatest military commanders of the 16th century.
  • 16. “Thomas Stafford, second son to Lord Stafford, and grandson to the last Duke of Buckingham.” (See Lingard's History of England, vol. 5, p. 250. ed. London, 1854.)
  • 17. Henry Neville, 5th Earl of Westmorland.