Venice: June 1557, 26-30

Pages 1181-1191

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 6, 1555-1558. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1877.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying and sponsored by the Arts and Humanities Research Council. All rights reserved.


June 1557, 26–30

June 26. Venetian Archives. 944. Motion made in the Senate by the Sages of the Council and the Sages for the Mainland for a Letter to the Venetian Ambassador at Rome. (fn. 1)
By your letter of the 18th instant we learn that his Holiness has given, as coadjutor in the bishopric of Brescia to Cardinal Duranto, a nephew of his right reverend Lordship. This act (cosa) having caused us such indignation (dispiacer) as you of yourself may imagine, we, with the Senate, charge you to go to his Holiness and tell him that, although we had heard some months ago of the provision made by him to repeal all the “accessi,” we nevertheless would not have anything said to him then, as we could not believe it, and, on the contrary, we considered it certain that, in this general repeal there was not to be included the especial favour of the “accesso” to the said bishopric of Brescia, conceded to our Signory by Julius III. in the person of the Reverend D. Alvise di Prioli, one of the four Venetian noblemen who, at his Holiness' request, were nominated by us, with the Senate. But now, when we hear that a coadjutor has been appointed to the said bishopric, we cannot but feel great indignation (displacer grande), as the Pope thus annuls the favour which, for the important and necessary respects then declared by us, was reasonably conceded us in Consistory by a former Pontiff. Although, after the death of Cardinal Andrea Cornaro, who held that see, the said Pope Julius thought fit to confer it on Cardinal Durante, his Holiness nevertheless would not gratify his right reverend Lordship without giving us assurance that after his death the said bishopric should revert to one of our patricians. You will beseech his Holiness to maintain our Signory in possession of the aforesaid favour for the necessary and very important interests of our State, as our city of Brescia being a fortress of great consequence, it is necessary for us to have in it a bishop from our own bosom. All these things will, we doubt not, be taken into consideration by his Holiness, from whose goodness we hope that no difficulty whatever will be raised to this our just demand. Either before or after speaking about this to the Pope, if you think fit, mention it to Cardinal Caraffa and the Duke of Paliano.
Put to the ballot, to send to the ambassador the copy of Cardinal Durante's letter presented to our Signory by his secretary, and of the reply made to him by the most serene Prince, for his (the ambassador's) instruction.
For the letter, 105.
Amendment moved by the Sages for the Mainland, Benetto Pesaro and Dominico Bollani.
Approve the letter now proposed, with the under-written addition:—“And should his Holiness tell you that he has suspicion about the said Priuli's religion, you will answer him that you know that he has at all times been considered by us a religious person and of good life; closing your discourse thus, that our Signory is certain that in like manner as Pope Julius III. granted us the aforesaid favour, so for the important and necessary respects which induce us to desire this, his Holiness will preserve it for us, that we, who are his devoted and reverent children, may remain content and satisfied.”
For the amendment, 78. Noes, 2. Neutrals, 5.
June 26? Venetian Archives. No date. 945. Bernardo Navagero, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
When the “censo(fn. 2) was discussed in the Congregation General, the Cardinals-canonists said it might be accepted, under protest of its being sine præindicio caducitatis, in which case the “censo” would be understood as received on account of all the “fruits” of the kingdom of Naples, which (King Philip having lapsed from the fief) devolved to the Chamber Apostolic; but the Pope having said in Congregation that those who took part with these schismatics would be considered as their fellows, the Cardinals knowing his Holiness will, determined by their votes, that neither the tribute nor the hackney should be accepted.
On Thursday, although it was the festival of St. John the Baptist [24th June], the Pope called the Congregation of the Inquisition, and at his request Cardinal Puteo [alias Pozzo] attended it, notwithstanding his very serious indisposition. His Holiness informed them that he was about to reply to the letter written by the King and Queen of England (as mentioned by me on the 18th), and after greatly praising the Queen, he said he should address the letter to the King likewise, although he was in disgrace with God and this See, as from letters written by him to several Cardinals, some sign of repentance (recipiscenza) was visible, so he would open the road whereby he might return to reconcile himself to God and His Vicar. The Pope did not say anything farther about the contents of the letter, but I have heard through a very good channel that Berengo, who writes it to them (qual li scrive (sic)), said to a cardinal that it would be better not to send it, as he suspects that instead of increasing King Philip's wish to demand the adjustment with his Holiness, it will produce a contrary effect.
The English Ambassador [Sir Edward Carne] has not yet despatched the courier who is going (che viene (sic)) about the affair of the legation, being unable to obtain a safeconduct from these Lords (questi Signori), who wished the said courier to convey their packet, to which (as written by me) the ambassador would not consent.
In the above-mentioned Congregation the Pope also said, that although he had appointed the four Cardinals for the affair of Cardinal Morone, that they may form the process, he chooses it to be seen by the whole congregation; the which Cardinals went into the Castle yesterday morning to examine his right reverend Lordship.
The agent of the most illustrious and right reverend Pole has told my secretary that amongst the writings of Cardinal Morone were two little treatises (due operine), the one “De Sacramento,” the other “De Bonis Ecclesiasticis,” in which he touched on the important points of freewill, of predestination, and of purgatory (nelle quadi tocca i passi importenti di libero arbitrio, de predestinatione et de purgatorio).
The same person also said that there are advices from England, dated the 7th instant, purporting that on that day in London, war, by fire, sword, and bloodshed (a ferro, sangue, e faoco), against the King of France was proclaimed there. It is not known how far this determination will please the Pope, nor whether it may make him change his opinions, including those which he is now having written to the King and Queen.
Rome, 26th June? 1557.
June 26. Original Letter Book, Venetian Archives. 946. Bernardo Navagero, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
To-day at audience, when I requested the Pope to annul the bull appointing Paolo Lovo rector of St. Vio, after admitting the justice of my demand and promising compliance with it, he said, “God forgive these children of the devil who have prevented us from effecting the reform, which by this time would have been completed, for we were entirely devoted to it (perchè v'eramo tutti dentro), and at every Consistory we published some bull, and enforced its observance, not choosing to fall into the errors of our predecessors, who made their bulls with so many provisoes that they were vitiated before publication, by the words non-obstante;” and talking thus, his Holiness sent for Cardinal Trani and the reverend Berengo, and gave them such orders as necessary to cancel the bull appointing Lovo rector of St. Vio.
After dismissing the Cardinal and Berengo, the Pope said to me, “Magnifico Ambassador, that you may be able to advise the most illustrious Signory of the present important affairs, we tell you that we persevere in the purpose of receiving Philip, the prodigal son, into our favour (accettare in gratia), should he choose to return in fact, which may God grant, for as yet we see no other good sign than words, and fear they will persist as usual in justifying themselves before the world by vanities, and by sending to Venice and elsewhere, even to the Diet of the Switzers, and have it proclaimed that we fail to make the peace; and they lie (e dicono la bugia), because, as so often said by us, we are most ready to embrace him, should he come, and to pardon all the past offences. And in order yet more to open the road for him, we have answered the Queen of England's letter and his, as we told you we intended to do, and at the fitting moment we will give you a copy of it, as we wish a few days to elapse before exhibiting it, lest the copy arrive before the original; and because for a Pope to speak with one who is excommunicated and 'deprived,' is the bestowal on him of I know not what favour; and they can always avail themselves of that letter, which we made in such a way that we think it will do well, and so far from injuring us, will on the contrary, as we told you, open the road for his reconciliation to us, which we wish to be accomplished without our losing the King of France, as we told you heretofore, so that we may one day treat the universal peace; and for this reason we so studiously seek to entertain the one, as we in like manner toil to recover this other. For this purpose we sent him [the King of France] that lad (quel putto), for whom both the King and Queen [of France] wished, and he is a youth whose vivacity and intelligence surpass his years, as otherwise we should not have sent him; and we in the next place let him go the more willingly, under the guidance of Marshal Strozzi,” whom he praised for valour, goodness, and prudence, preferring him to any other Italian for military matters, counsel, and fidelity; declaring that with regard to the peace, it is not to be told how much he desires the quiet of Italy, adding wonderful things about his obedience to the Pope's commands, as were his Holiness to tell him to go and present himself to the Duke of Florence, he is sure he would do so. (fn. 3)
Rome, 26th June 1557.
June 27. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 947. Michiel Surian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
The second fleet, which was expected from Spain, has arrived, bringing 1,500 Spaniards. Much is said about the money on board, but I nevertheless understand that for the account of the most Serene King it does not exceed 300,000 ducats, and is perhaps of less amount.
The first fleet is returning to Spain, and will bring hither Don Ruy Gomez, with the rest of the supplies, about which I can say nothing certain, so variously are they reported. It is expected back in three weeks, when the English troops now being mustered will cross over to Flanders. I do not yet know what preparation has been made for ammunition and victuals, nor can I ascertain it, which makes me believe that everything will not be ready so soon, those supplies being the principal ones, and requiring time; notwithstanding which the most Serene King told me this evening that he shall depart hence speedily; and Don Ferrante Gonzaga was to arrive at Brussels yesterday.
The agent of Duke Ottavio [Farnese] came hither lately from Brussels, and spoke to the King immediately on his arrival. On the morrow he despatched an express to Italy, by whom I sent my last letters. I have been told that Duke Ottavio will be governor general of the Milanese, and that this matter was already treated by the Duchess when she was here; but it was not made known to me whether he will have the government of the whole state, or only of the war department. Although this advice is not so well grounded as possibly not to be false, there being most especially so many reasons to the contrary, I have not chosen to omit saying this much to your Serenity, who from other corroborative sources will be more easily able to learn the truth of it, and above all because the secret resolves of princes are sooner known on the spot where executed than in the place of their formation.
London, 27th June 1557.
[Italian, partly in cipher; the portions in italics deciphered by Signor Luigi Pasini.]
June 27. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives (2nd letter). 948. Michiel Surian, Venetian Ambassador in England, to the Doge and Senate.
I have received two sets (due mani) of letters from your Serenity, the first, dated the 4th instant, containing the account of what was announced by Don Ferrante Gonzaga, and your Serenity's reply; the other of the 8th, (fn. 4) concerning the affair of the peace. Yesterday when I asked for audience of the King, it was not given me, his Majesty apologising on account of a slight indisposition, but I had it to-day, although this morning his Majesty did not appear in public as he usually does.
I began by executing the commissions received from your Serenity lately, reading the news-letters, and then narrating the affair of the galliot taken by the Proveditor of the Fleet, and its release for the gratification of his Majesty, requesting him to give efficacious orders prohibiting similar vessels from doing mischief (a far danni) in those seas. The King replied that his ambassador had given him notice of it, but that his occupations had prevented him from forming any resolve on the subject, though he would take the whole into consideration as soon as he could, and would willingly do what was to be done for your Serenity's satisfaction.
I then spoke about the peace, performing the office enjoined me by your Serenity on that subject. His Majesty answered me that the courier he was expecting from Rome had not yet returned, which surprises him, but that he will soon be here, and on his arrival it will be seen what the Pope's will is, and whether he is inclined towards the peace as I had told him, and that your Serenity would know that his Majesty on his part would never fail (non mancherà mai). He said he had advices from his agents that the Cardinal Santa Fior, who has this negotiation in hand, does not find any inclination to make peace on the part of the Pope; and although at first, being driven by necessity, he had spoken about it, he nevertheless at present shows himself more harsh than ever (più dura che mai). To this I rejoined, that by your Serenity's letters I understood that our ambassador had spoken to his Holiness and found him well inclined to attend to the agreement, and that it must be considered certain that your Serenity would not write what you did not know to be true, but it might possibly be that on some fair account of his own, the Pope had not chosen so openly to declare his mind to others; adding that I knew it was unnecessary to pray his Majesty to incline towards the peace, as I had always seen him thus disposed, and had written many letters to your Serenity to that effect; but that I merely besought him to carry this his will into execution and advance this affair, from the settlement of which there would result the most precious thing that the world can have, namely, peace, that being also the most honourable to his Majesty, the most profitable for his subjects, and the most advantageous for Italy and all Christendom, and that the greater the difficulty to effect this the greater will his glory be, everything proceeding from his hands.
The King repeated to me that he had this wish, but that he could not form any decision until the return of the courier expected from Rome, and who, to say the truth, has not yet arrived, but I understand that from time to time his Majesty has very recent advices from Rome, and also from Venice, his last being dated the 15th, and they were brought by the same courier who brought mine of the 8th, so it would be no wonder should the Pope have changed his mind during that interval, and your Serenity's letters are too long on the road. Notwithstanding all this, the King seems well inclined, and he told me that by his order the Duke of Alva has sent to Rome to put the affair in course of negotiation (per metter la cosa in negocio). I remarked that when I said that by your good offices your Serenity would be ready to favour and aid this business, his Majesty, contrary to his custom hitherto, made me no reply; nor did he drop any hint to me about the promise made by Don Ferrante Gonzaga, and still less would I be the first to mention it, but will obey your Serenity's order.
London, 27th June 1557.
[Italian, partly in cipher; the portions in italics deciphered by Signor Luigi Pasini.]
June 29. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 949. Giacomo Soranzo, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
As a sequel to what I wrote on the 25th about Strozzi's going to Rome, I heard subseqaently that after the Duke de Guise determined to retreat from the kingdom of Naples, he sent him to tell the Pope of this his resolve, which he was compelled to make, having no hope of succeeding in any enterprise, either to the honour or benefit of the league. The Pope immediately on hearing this sent to protest to his Excellency that his Holiness remaining thus abandoned, and a prey to his enemies, he therefore charged the Duke de Guise with all such loss and damage as might befall him (et perciò che li protestava de ogni danno et interesse che li potesse avvenire). The Duke on receiving this protest was doubtful what he ought to do, and determined to obtain fresh advice of the most Christian King's mind, so to gain time he sent Strozzi to tell the Pope again that the cause of his retreat was the impossibility of the undertaking, both because the places were very strong, as also because the Duke of Alva was his superior in the field; and, although M. de Guise might say that his Holiness had failed (non havea osservato), not only with regard to his contingent of troops, but also about the “privation” of the kingdom [of Naples], having neither made the promotion of Cardinals, nor sent the Duke of Paliano's son to France, as promised by him; yet nevertheless should the Pope really effect the mission of such troops as he was bound to contribute, as also the money for their pay, he M. de Guise was content to do what could be done for the benefit of the league; and that he prayed his Holiness to send Strozzi to his most Christian Majesty, that he might form such resolve as fitting about the execution of the enterprise (impresa), and that in the meanwhile he would halt with the army, prepared to defend his Holiness in any emergency. No other advice having been received subsequently, they are expecting Strozzi.
Having heard this from a person who has profound knowledge of the negotiation, I asked him what the King thought about the Pope's resolve. He answered me that his Majesty was certain the negotiation between the Pope and the King of England was far advanced, and that he thought his Holiness would conclude it, though should it not take effect, the King believed that it would not be the Pope's fault (che non haverebbe mancato dal Pontefice). When I asked him if his Holiness were unable to come to terms [with the King of England] what he could do, he replied, “Raise troops and send money to the camp, should he have any, but the most Christian King is very suspicious of his proceedings, and will no longer accept words.” I rejoined, “Should the Pope have no ready money, as probable, may it not be already supposed that the most Christian King will abandon him?” My aforesaid friend replied, “In that case I do not believe that the most Christian King will desert his Holiness, but he will choose to make sure of what may happen” (vorrà essere sicuro delle cose che possono occorrere); adding, “The Duke de Guise might possibly remain in Romagna, and will perhaps choose to make sure of Ancona or some other place.” I asked if anything had been said about this at present. He said, “No, the negotiation is certainly not farther advanced than I have told you, but the most Christian King is so greatly dissatisfied with the Pope that he will no longer believe anything but deeds.” He told me afterwards that it had been discovered that the Pope's designs were, not the kingdom of Naples (che li dissegni del Pontefice non erano il Regno), but that his whole intention always had been to get Sienna, for which purpose he treated so much with the Duke of Florence, and that by his agreeing with the King of England it might be supposed the most Christian King would lose Montalcino and the other fortresses held by him in the Siennese territory, having very small means for succouring them, so that they must fall either into the hands of the aforesaid Duke or of the Pope, if by the agreement he might make with the King of England they should be promised him. His most Christian Majesty therefore remained in trouble, seeing that he had lost the hope of the Tuscan expedition, which, had the Pope proceeded differently to what he has done, was of very easy achievement.
Some 400 cavalry of the King of Spain having gone lately to garrison Bapaume whilst a certain part of the fortress which had fallen down was being rebuilt, when the work was completed they returned to their garrison at Bethune, and yesterday they made a foray in Picardy, which having come to the knowledge of the troops in Peronne, 400 men-at-arms went out to give battle, killing 100 of them and capturing as many more, and the rest having been put to flight, the French troops went back into their garrison. For the rest things in this quarter as yet pass very quietly, but the King has caused the whole of his stable department to come hither, and they go (si vanno) putting in order all the provisions usually made when his Majesty joins the army, the Constable doing the like, though hitherto it is not heard that his Majesty intends going, save in case the King of Spain also proceed thither. His most Christian Majesty has given free leave to Britany and Normandy for as many ships as choose to put to sea, that they may openly assail all his enemies; and it is understood that a great number of vessels of every sort are already fitting out. The like is also said of the English, who have done much damage, and amongst the rest they landed in Normandy at a place called Cherbourg, where they sacked and burned a very rich abbey, carrying off all the friars as prisoners.
Five ambassadors have arrived from the Swiss Protestant cantons, viz., Berne, Zurich, Lucerne, Uri, and Basle, but they have not yet had audience of the King, nor is the cause of their coming known, it being merely supposed that their cantons have some dispute about religion.
Compiegne, 29th June 1557.
[Italian, partly in cipher; the portion in italics deciphered by Signor Luigi Pasini.]
June 30. Original Letter Book, Venetian Archives. 950. Bernardo Navagero, Venetian Ambassador at Rome, to the Doge and Senate.
On Tuesday the ambassador from Florence had a courier from his Duke with the news of his having received Sienna in fief from King Philip on the conditions as by the articles, which have not yet arrived from the court; and his Majesty again tells the Duke to urge the Pope to make the agreement, letting his Holiness know that should he wish for peace he shall have it on such terms as he himself shall demand. Should he still choose to wage war, he might have too much of it, and unless it be now ended the Duke will no longer mediate, but attend to his own affairs. To-day the ambassador executed this commission with the Pope, who he says by word of mouth expressed his readiness to make peace, telling him to speak with Cardinal Caraffa; and for this reason, although the enemy are well nigh at the gates of Rome, and the least evil will evidently be the loss of the entire harvest hereabouts, I nevertheless delay the despatch of the present courier until tomorrow, in the hope of hearing the Pope's decision.
The said Florentine ambassador showed his Holiness some intercepted letters written by the Duke de Guise and the colonel of the Switzers to the Swiss cantons (a quella natione), telling them that the government here (questi signori) are double-dealers (doppij), and that their agreement with the Imperialists will soon be manifested; he therefore exhorted the King's friends not to grant him any levy of troops; and, as written by me heretofore, (fn. 5) I heard this also from Cardinal Caraffa.
At the request of Cardinal Caraffa, the Cardinal “Camerlengo” [Guido Ascanio Sforza] sent his intimate attendant, Zuan Battista, a Milanese, to pray Marc' Antonio Colonna to abstain from ravaging the Roman Campagna, as similar operations, which would be bad at any time, because they bar the way to his obtaining pardon from the Pope, are much worse at present, when the agreement is being treated more stringently than ever.
According to the anticipations of the news-letters sent by me to your Serenity, Marc' Antonio Colonna attacked Valmontone, which surrendered yesterday, and he then went to Palestrina, which had been abandoned, except the citadel, where there were two companies. The enemy's quarters being only 20 miles from Rome, their cavalry advanced within a mile of Longezza, a place belonging to the Strozzi family, eight miles from this city. The Papal troops, numbering 1,000 foot and 300 horse, but all panic-struck, have retired to Tivoli, and Matteo Stendardo has been brought hither very ill of ague.
The Roman government (questi signori), having sent all their forces in that direction, intend the Roman people to defend Rome, and have made them muster 3,000 infantry of their militia (ordinanze), a medley of servants and shopkeepers, a measure which on former occasions proved itself more injurious than beneficial.
Cardinal Pacheco, having had letters from the King of England dated the 9th instant, was a long while with the Pope on Sunday and according to the report of a person to whom Pacheco made it known, he laid before the Pope the very great danger in which he finds himself, the troops of Marc' Antonio being at the gates of Rome, and the Duke of Alva having so considerable a force that there are about 70 galleys altogether, and troops, which in two days can be conveyed by him to any part of the Papal States he pleases. He also told the Pope that the Duke of Florence, owing to this fresh demonstration in his favour on the part of King Philip by giving him Sienna, will be compelled to do what his Majesty pleases; besides which, England is determined on war, as proclaimed throughout that kingdom. The Pope, after answering in his usual vague manner about peace, came also to some detail saying that were his own restored to him he would make peace, telling Pacheco to despatch a courier to the King to that effect. His right reverend Lordship was busy writing all yesterday, and after speaking a second time with the Pope, to ascertain his mind better, he will despatch the courier from England, who is still here, Sir Edward Carne (as written by me) never having been able to obtain the safe-conduct for him.
Then on Monday at 4 a.m. there arrived here postwise the Duke of Paliano, who went to dismount at the apartments of Cardinal Caraffa, and in the afternoon conferred with the Pope. His Excellency's coming seemed a momentous event. What has been heard, and what Marquis Montebello told my secretary, purports that he came to let the Pope know that the French army is almost entirely disbanded (è quasi tutto sbandato), the Duke de Guise having sent some 2,000 infantry to Ferrara, and a great part of the nobility having departed. He told the Duke of Paliano that he had not been able to remedy this untoward proceeding (che esso non ha potuto remediare a questo inconveniente), so that the Pope must provide for his affairs, in like manner as he Guise himself, and the few who remained with him (perchè anco la sua persona con quelli pochi, che sono restati). The Marquis added that the knot had got to the teeth of the comb (che 'l groppo era pervenuto al pettine), as was always said by him; that at present it will be necessary for the Pope either to make terms with the Imperialists, or that within a month from this time he must flee from Rome to Venice, or Avignon; and when he Montebello laid on the Duke of Paliano the blame of having broken off the negotiation for agreement, by stipulating with the Duke de Guise to send his son to France, Paliano replied that it was untrue that anything had been concluded by them there, but that Marshal Strozzi returned to the camp with this decision made by the Pope, nor could he Paliano oppose it. I went to-day to visit his Excellency, who told me that to-morrow evening, or on the following morning, he should go back to keep company with those French lords (a stare in compagnia de quelli Sigri Francesi), whom he had left at Morano, together with the Duke de Guise in person, though they purposed shifting their quarters two miles in advance for change of air, and on account of the stench generated in the encampments of armies. The Duke of Alva's forces were posted on a hill near the Tronto, many men having died in their first quarters at Giulia Nuova.
The French Ambassador having, in the name of the Duke of Guise, offered Cardinal Caraffa a certain amount of cavalry to protect the Campagna against the forays of Marc' Antonio Colonna, his right reverend Lordship replied that it was unnecessary, as it would suffice Marc' Antonio Colonna to get in his own harvest without seeking to hinder that of others.
Rome, 30th June 1557.


  • 1.
  • 2. In an omitted paragraph at p. 56 verso of Navagero's Letter Book, it is seen that on the 11th June 1557 the Duke of Alva wrote from the camp under Giulia Nuova to his uncle Cardinal San Giacomo, that King Philip had ordered him to pay the Pope the annual tribute for the kingdom of Naples, and to send him the hackney, and that the Pope would accept neither one nor the other.
  • 3. Pietro Strozzi's father, Filippo, headed the conspiracy against Alessandro de Medici, whose successor Duke Cosmo having captured him, he destroyed himself in prison in 1538. Pietro Strozzi was killed at the siege of Thionville in 1558.
  • 4. See Deliberazioni Senato Register, page 96, date 7 June 1557.
  • 5. This refers to an omitted paragraph in a letter dated 19th June (Original Letter Book, p. 57 verso), as follows: dicendo, “If Duca di Guisa al tempo che era entrato in diffidenza con noi, e volva partire, scrisse all' huomo de Re co' Sguizzeri, che 'l Papa cra accordato con Imperiali a' danni del suo Re, e che faccese ogni opera che non potessero levar gente alcuna, forse dubitando che co 'l giungere di questi in Romagna non se li serrasse la strada del ritorno, il qual capitolo di lettere m' è stato mandato da quel Colonnello di Sguizzeri che fù qui, ma rengratio Iddio che non hanno potuto prohibirne a leva.”