Venice: May 1560

Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 7, 1558-1580. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1890.

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'Venice: May 1560', Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 7, 1558-1580, (London, 1890), pp. 201-212. British History Online [accessed 14 June 2024].

. "Venice: May 1560", in Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 7, 1558-1580, (London, 1890) 201-212. British History Online, accessed June 14, 2024,

. "Venice: May 1560", Calendar of State Papers Relating To English Affairs in the Archives of Venice, Volume 7, 1558-1580, (London, 1890). 201-212. British History Online. Web. 14 June 2024,

May 1560

May 6. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 157. Giovanni Michiel, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Besides what I wrote on the 2nd instant (fn. 1) about the affairs of Scotland and England, I heard subsequently that the French Secretary brought word from his Ambassador, who also wrote, that after the office performed by M. de Glajon in the name of the King of Spain, to persuade the Queen to assent to a truce for the sake of treating the agreement without any suspicion or danger of some fresh accident, she sent for the said Ambassador [Gilles de Noailles] and said to him very good humouredly (molto piacevolmente), that although things had gone so far, yet seeing with how much warmth and earnestness the King of Spain exerted himself to effect the agreement for the reciprocal advantage of these two kingdoms, she herself also knowing the many inconveniences which might occur to one side and the other if they entered on open war, she determined, in case fair terms were offered her, not to close her ears, but to listen and accept such terms, being much more desirous of peace than war; and she invited the Ambassador openly to make known this her intention, in order to obtain that some person or sufficient authority might be sent hence to proceed with the treaty. The Ambassador adds (as was told me by one who says he saw his own letters) that having endeavoured to ascertain the cause of this change of mind, and why the Queen, having previously been quite bent on war, was now on the contrary so much inclined to peace, he discovered several causes for it, the first of which was that she had been greatly deceived about the insurrections in France, and the conspiracy on account of the religion, which disturbances (from positive assurances written to her hence) she believed to have had greater foundation, and that they would be the commencement of open sedition and civil war, first one province and then another detaching itself and rebelling entirely, so that the King of France and his Ministers would have had more than enough to think of in providing for affairs here.
Secondly, she had been given to understand that in Germany likewise some commotion was about to take place with regard to the affairs of Metz, a certain amount of troops being mustered there; which necessarily would not only limit but prevent reinforcements for Scotland.
Thirdly, which was of more importance, there was the great jealousy caused here by the King of Spain, from whom not only did she not anticipate any demonstration in favour of the French, except by words, but she believed that tacitly he would give assistance for the union of Scotland with England; so when she heard, on the contrary, that he had destined 3,000 Spaniards to assist the French in Scotland, and that they had already embarked on board seven large ships in Flanders, the news greatly agitated her.
Fourthly, and this disturbed her most of all, was to have heard from Lord Grey that immediately on entering Scotland and declaring himself in favour of the Scots, the French on his approaching Little Leith, instead of waiting for him would abandon it, thus rendering the expedition very safe and speedy for him; but seeing on the contrary the stout defence and resistance made at every hour more and more by those few French troops and the little progress which he (Lord Grey) had made, the Queen remained yet more in doubt, not knowing what the result of matters might be, most especially as she was informed by hourly advices hence from her Ambassador [Throckmorton of the efficient naval and military preparations in Normandy and of all other necessary supplies for the expedition under the command of M. d'Aumale.
For these and other causes the Queen, persuaded by her Council, whose members were divided amongst themselves, seemed to incline to the agreement.
Owing to these advices, which are held in great account by reason of the authority and trust placed in the said Ambassador [Gilles de Noailles] through the good name and opinion he has gained for himself with these Guise lords, the most Christian King, by their advice, determined to send thither forthwith a personage express, having made choice of M. de Randan, (fn. 2) his Majesty's Chamberlain, who is in great favour with these Guise lords, and he departed post-wise this morning very well accompanied; but as the Ambassador's Secretary who came thence, preceded him, he will give this news of his mission in England, and endeavour to have ships sent to Boulogne or Calais, and ascertain how and in what way he will be admitted and received. The English Ambassador resident here [Throckmorton] has also despatched an express to announce the departure of M. de Randan, who from what I hear is commissioned to speak very clearly and in a very high tone about peace or war, to decide on one or the other, his most Christian Majesty not choosing any longer to tolerate the mode of proceeding practised by the Queen hitherto and still persevered in, of making war by deed, and by word denying it, their Ambassadors resident continuing at liberty to send and receive couriers and advices as if there was a firm and well established peace between their principals. On the return of M. de Randan a declaration of peace or open war is expected, but from the Queen's wish for the agreement, they believe and hope it will take place, as if any slight concession be made by the Queen to this side even in appearance, provided it save the honour and dignity of this Crown, they will for the rest condescend to her demands for the avoidance of quarrel.
On the night before last four of those arrested for the conspiracy who had been brought hither and put in a prison in this town made their escape, and amongst them was the master of the horse (l'homo) of the Prince of Condé, and another gentleman of the King of Navarre, (fn. 3) so much the more to their good fortune as they had been already sentenced to death, and in two days time their execution was to have taken place.
There was also that gentleman of the Stuart family who, as written by me, on discovery of the conspiracy was brought from Paris under such close custody, and a French preacher from Geneva.
Tours, 6th May 1560.
May 10. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 158. Paulo Tiepolo, Venetian Ambassador with King Philip, to the Doge and Senate.
Forwards copy of the declaration and proclamation made by the Queen of England on the 24th March, translated from the French, in which tongue it was published, whereby it appears how difficult the maintenance of peace between the English and French must be, and they write from Flanders that the Queen had already effected a junction of her forces with the Scots to expel the French from that kingdom.
The Duke of Holstein, uncle of the King of Denmark, who offered the Queen 2,000 horse and 30,000 of German infantry, has arrived in England; so he was well greeted and honoured, much to the jealousy and great discontent of the Duke of Finland, son of the King of Sweden, lest he should interrupt his marriage negotiation with the Queen.
The Cortes have determined to increase his Majesty's tenths by an additional 300,000 ducats annually, provided he leave [the collection of] them for another thirty years to the commons, but as yet the King has not chosen to accept this sum, wishing them to increase it somewhat, as they probably will; but the Cortes insist on these moneys being employed exclusively for payment of the King's debts, and to set free the revenues which are mortgaged to various persons.
It is calculated that in rather inure than one year in these kingdoms of Castile alone his Majesty's annual revenues will be increased by about 300,000 ducats; partly by these tenths, partly by a new duty imposed on all exports and imports from Portugal into these kingdoms, partly from the improvement in the gabel of Seville, which in one year has increased upwards of 70,000 ducats, and partly from other less important sources.
His Majesty has not yet given any reply about the affairs of the Caraffas, so their agents here are in despair, and it is said that the King will not decide until the Court of Tendiglia gets to Rome and gives him more certain advice of the Pope's mind about this affair.
Toledo, 10th May 1560.
[Italian; the portion in italics deciphered by Signor Luigi Pasini.]
May 13. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 159. Paulo Tiepolo, Venetian Ambassador with King Philip, to the Doge and Senate.
The King had let it be understood that he should depart last Monday, but early on Friday morning he mounted on horseback, accompanied solely by his chamberlains, and withdrew three leagues from this city, owing to the negotiations, which had so multiplied, that his Majesty was apprehensive of being compelled to remain here longer. The Queen departed only to-day, and will go to her consort, who has already arrived at Aranjuez.
Many negotiators were extremely dissatisfied with his Majesty's sudden departure, and above all the English Ambassadors, who on that same night had received letters from the Queen sent express by sea, it seeming to them that his Majesty having known the fact went away merely to avoid giving them audience.
The Queen of England writes all that had passed with the French about the proposed treaty of peace, and then adds that on the 7th of March M. de Glajon arrived in London from Flanders in the name of King Philip, who required her to recall her forces from Scotland, as his Catholic Majesty had determined to intervene and to send his army to Scotland to pacify matters, and reduce that kingdom to its due obedience to his most Christian Majesty, and to accept becoming terms. This announcement, the Ambassadors say, had greatly surprised the Queen, who had on the contrary expected from his Majesty a reply to the letters which she wrote him last November, requesting his counsel as to how she was to act about the proceedings of the French, who were openly hostile to her; and she also marvelled at the King's mind to send his forces to Scotland, as she does not know with what design, and she has as much suspicion of the vicinity of the Spaniards as of that of the French; so she answered M. de Glajon that to recall her forces from Scotland would be to permit the French to become absolute masters of that kingdom, so as to be subsequently in better position to attack England, but that she did not refuse to negotiate an agreement, and that she believed it would not displease King Philip if concluded on fair terms, which could only be hoped from the French if her army remained in Scotland.
In the meanwhile 8,000 of her infantry and 2,000 horse had joined the Scots, who having sent hostages to England were besieging the French in Little Leith (Petitlith), having killed some of the garrison, and made about fifty of them prisoners. The French Ambassador resident in England had protested on the 20th April that the peace was broken, but it is nevertheless reported that delegates were to meet from both sides to negotiate an agreement.
These Ambassadors, on hearing that the King had departed, followed his Majesty to give him account of all these events, and to keep him, as far as possible, on friendly terms with the Queen; but I understand that the French Ambassador blames the Queen greatly for having been the first to commence hostilities without any legitimate cause, and endeavours to demonstrate that all her hopes and designs are founded on the new religion, which she favours, and which is not only very repugnant to the Kingdom of France but also to the States of his Catholic Majesty, from whom this French Ambassador obtained a promise that his Majesty would assist the French with 3,000 infantry now in Flanders, to consist of Spaniards and Flemings. The Ambassador demanded these forces under pretence of wishing to show that the most Christian King does not design to have greater authority in Scotland than the King Catholic desires, and has no thought for the Kingdom of England, but [wishes] in fact to interest the Catholic King in this war against the Queen of England. It is moreover said that his Majesty has promised to give twenty ships fitted out in Flanders at his own cost for the transport of these troops to Scotland, and that the order is already gone to the Duchess Governor, that she may execute it in case the agreement between England and France do not take effect.
Advices have been received that many English merchants who were at Antwerp, anticipating these disturbances, and fearing also personal arrest and seizure of their goods as security for loans contracted by the Queen on that mart, have withdrawn to England.
His Catholic Majesty's unexpected departure was also complained of by the Nuncio, who feared he might not obtain a decision about the affairs of the Caraffa family, which he had advocated so warmly, and which the King had promised him should at any rate be despatched. After some delay the King sent for the Nuncio and told him that the pension and naturalization as a Spanish subject would be conceded to Cardinal Caraffa, and also suitable compensation made to the Count of Montorio; and the King wished the Pope to allow this compensation to be granted in such a mode as to convince the world that regard for his Holiness alone moved the King to grant it, because the King knew the Count to be unfaithful, as shown by his yet wearing the Order of St. Michael of France. As his Majesty did not specify what compensation he would grant, nor when he would give it, the Nuncio requested him to supply this omission, that he might write with certainty to his Holiness; so the King took three or four days to consider. Signor Fabricio di Sanguini only awaits this decision for his departure, for which purpose he was sent hither by the Pope.
The Nuncio in the Pope's name had given the King to understand that the Pope wishes to hold a council general to devise some remedy for the many disorders generally prevalent about religion, praying his Majesty to give his assent to so pious a work, and grant his aid and counsel. His Majesty therefore assembled the principal prelates and theologians of this realm, amongst whom there was a great dispute whether it was desirable to convoke the council, they perhaps judging the state of other countries by that of Spain, where it seems to them that there is no need of regulation by a council. The King nevertheless answered the Nuncio that he hears willingly this design of his Holiness, and that in case of need he will favour the council by attending in person, but that for the present he cannot enter into any detail with his Holiness as to the time and place of holding a council, as it has seemed expedient to the King to write to the Emperor, who may know better than the King does what is most fitting; but that whatever his Catholic Majesty may say about this matter he wishes it to be understood as uttered with all respect and submission to his Holiness.
As the Pope had requested the King when nominating cardinals to take care to propose persons of ability and worth, such as could do some good service at the council, whereby his Holiness seemed to exclude the brother of the Marquis of Pescara, (fn. 4) who is still young, for whom his Holiness had been already canvassed, his Majesty said to the Nuncio that he would take care to nominate efficient persons, but that it was difficult to find persons who were suited to this dignity, and from whom he and Christendom might hope for useful service, and especially he would be unwilling to propose any Spanish bishop, to avoid, removing him from his see; so Gonzalo Perez, his Majesty's Secretary of State, is much talked of for this appointment, as also the Ambassador Vargas, though there might be some difficulty about the latter at Rome, on account of his wife, notwithstanding her having become a nun.
Together with the Nuncio the Pope sent a collector to recover all the property of deceased Spanish clergy, which belongs to his Holiness, and the Nuncio obtained an order from the King for him to execute his office everywhere; but his Majesty makes two exceptions, one the property of the late Archbishop of Toledo, which is said to amount to 400,000 crowns; the other, the property of the Bishop of Cordova, the value of which is about 100,000 crowns. Having availed himself of these moneys in the last war, his Majesty does not choose the collector to meddle with them, and says that he himself will treat the matter with the Nuncio, to whom he will assign his reasons, to be represented to the Pope, to whose judgment the King will submit; so this business will end with some compromise.
M. de Polvilliers, who was Ambassador here from the Emperor, has departed, and his successor, Don Martin Guzman, has not arrived, either because his Imperial Majesty has changed his mind and will not send anyone else, as reported, or because it does not seem well for the Emperor to keep a Spaniard as his Ambassador at the Court of the King of Spain.
Toledo, 13th May 1650.
[Italian; the portions in italics deciphered by Signor Luigi Pasini.]
May 21. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 160. Paulo Tiepolo, Venetian Ambassador with King Philip, to the Doge and Senate.
I wrote to your Serenity from Flanders that Pope Paul IV. had conceded the creation of three archbishoprics and fifteen bishoprics in the Flemish Low Countries, assigning to them the revenues of such abbacies as from time to time fell vacant, but no vacancies occurring it was impossible to execute this project, which was also impeded by other difficulties. Hearing that the Cardinal Lorraine as Archbishop of Cologne and the Bishop of Liege intend to oppose it in the interest of their respective jurisdictions, of which they would be deprived, the King Catholic in order to thwart their designs has resolved no longer to delay the nominations to the aforesaid archbishoprics and bishoprics, and has lately despatched a courier to Flanders with the nominations to most of them, desiring his sister, the Governess, to send an express to Rome for the confirmation of his nominees, and to have the Pope's consent to the necessary alterations made in the concession of Paul IV. His Majesty also urged the Nuncio to pray his Holiness in the King's name to favour so pious a work, in which the service of God was greatly concerned, because through the care of these bishops the Flemings would be better ruled, considering how confused and troubled they were about religion. The King also requested the Pope to allow him, until the Flemish abbacies fall vacant, to assign to the new bishops some pensions on benefices in Spain, as it would be too burdensome for him to provide for all the sees out of his own revenues; and although there were now vacant in Spain the three bishoprics of Siguenza, Segovia, and Jaen, with an annual rental of 80,000 ducats, he would be unable to avail himself of funds sufficient for a fourth part of what was required for the bishoprics, and therefore he (the King) will have to provide for the rest. This matter is kept a secret, and the names of the nominees are unknown; but his Majesty has given a subsidy of 20,000 crowns to the Bishop of Arras, with a vacant abbacy in Flanders yielding 10,000 crowns annually; so he may possibly be appointed Archbishop of Mechlin, which will be the chief of all the archbishoprics.
The Inquisition here has lately published an edict containing the underwritten articles, translated word for word from the Spanish tongue into Italian:—
That no son or grandson (nepote) of any person burnt, or reconciled to the Church, can hold office in the King's household, or at the Court.
That if he hold a public office in any place he is to lose it.
That he cannot be a merchant, apothecary, or vendor of spices or drugs.
That if any of the aforesaid persons have bought gold or silk, the sale of which had been prohibited them, they are to go to the inquisitors to report themselves within six days; otherwise on the expiration of that term they will be prosecuted with all rigour, and whoever shall fail to accuse them is to be excommunicated.
That no person of this kind can hold office, such as maggiordomo, accountant, carver (scalco), or any other charge in the household of any nobleman.
Toledo, 21st May 1560.
May 21. Original Despatch. Venetian Archives. 161. Giovanni Michiel, Venetian Ambassador in France, to the Doge and Senate.
On the day before yesterday the Secretary of the French Ambassador in England arrived with news that the French troops in Little Leith seeing that they could make themselves masters of a battery of some pieces of artillery raised by the English, and easily bring them into the town, Messieurs de Martigues and De la Brosse with a considerable force made a sudden sally in that direction, and although they met with great resistance on the part of the English they gave them battle, fighting and forcing them, so that they took the artillery and commenced its conveyance towards Little Leith, which they would have gained had not the English been succoured by a great number of Scots, who left Edinburgh and came by a covered road at the bottom of a little valley without being attacked or discovered. Whilst the French were engaged with the English, these Scots on the other side commenced attempting to enter, almost all the French having gone out of it, and remained hemmed in between them and the English. If the Scots had been soldiers and had even less than middling knowledge of military tactics, they would have made themselves masters of the place, but being led in a disorderly manner, and guided solely by fury, according to their usual nature, they delayed so long as to give time and opportunity to the French to retire little by little from the English, leaving the artillery, and to turn against the Scots, closing upon them with good harquebuse shots; and fighting hand to hand they not only prevented them from attempting any longer to storm, but made them retreat with no little loss, although the French likewise left many dead on the field. The Secretary himself says that the loss on both sides was nearly equal.
This feat of arms by the French, besides certain other recent ones in which they displayed great courage and daring, induced Lord Grey to give the Queen his opinion that as he knows the French to be provisioned in Little Leith only for the whole of May, the place should be blockaded, cannonaded, and stormed, so as not to risk the loss, if not of all his forces, of the greatest part of them, seeing the courage of the French in defending themselves, and that being so many in number they may make a very stout resistance.
Concerning the agreement negotiated in England by M. de Glajon in the name of the King Catholic, the Secretary says, as confirmed by M. de Glajon's letters, that he has received an express from Spain, desiring him again most earnestly to represent to the Queen that while it grieved the King Catholic, and could on no account be tolerated by him, that the Queen should be harassed by anyone, his Majesty having a common interest with her, yet on the other hand it was most irksome to him that through her the affairs of Scotland should be brought to their present state against their natural and sovereign Prince and Lord, to whom his Catholic Majesty, from respect for his relationship and alliance with him, as also in all fairness and reasonable right, neither can nor will fail rendering all such favour and assistance as was in his power, without however offence or injury in any way to the said Queen and her kingdom. M. de Glajon told her that as she seemed so well disposed towards the agreement he was of opinion, lest some fresh disturbance in Scotland render it more difficult, that she would do well to consent to a truce and suspension of hostilities for twenty days during which interval not only would Don Garcilasso de la Vega arrive here from Spain, but he (M. de Glajon) have convenience to come to France and get intelligence (pigliar la parola) from the most Christian King and Queen and their ministers, so as the more easily to conclude the agreement.
To this proposal of truce the Queen apparently replied that it not being, a matter for herself to determine, she would first of all write about it to Lord Grey, and have his opinion about it, having referred the whole of this affair of Scotland to him. In conformity with what the King Catholic wrote to M. de Glajon in England, he wrote in fuller terms to the King of France, and sent to tell him so by M. de Lansac, (fn. 5) who returned from Spain two days ago. Whilst here at the Court they say that the King of Spain will declare himself openly in favour of the King of France against the Queen of England, it is told me, nevertheless, by a trusty friend, who hay seen the original letters, that they contain nothing more than very loving words, nor do they go beyond general expressions, such as would be uttered by your Serenity or any other Prince who was the friend of this Crown.
By the advice of his ministers his Majesty here has determined that whether the agreement take place or not he will continue arming, diligent preparations being made, so that the supplies and forces already ordered may be speedily embarked; but he will not openly declare war on England till the fleet be in readiness, which will require time, as it must wait for the galleys which the Grand Prior is gone to procure at Marseilles, in order to convey ten companies of veteran infantry from the five fortresses in Piedmont. M. de Carria was sent two days ago to bring these forces, which will be replaced by an equal number of militia (legionarii). His Majesty, who had resolved to stay in this neighbourhood, and then go leisurely into Guienne and Gascony, has changed his mind, and will proceed to Normandy to be near the fleet, both to hasten it by his presence, and also yet more to urge and encourage these noblemen to embark on board of it, many of them already preparing to do so, so that with those who accompanied the Grand Prior to go across with the galleys, and those who will depart hence, the King will have few attendants, and perhaps be without any except his officials.
The reply to the proclamation of the Queen of England has been prepared, but it is kept secret until it has been seen by all the Princes to whom the most Christian King sent it, including your Serenity.
A courier has arrived from Rome, despatched by.M. de Bourdaisière [Bishop of Angoulême], with news not only of his arrival and honourable reception, but of the Pope's firm resolve to hold the future council, which his Holiness says he will attend in person, be it held either in France or Spain, or in the heart of Germany, or wherever these Princes shall think fit. If the Pope perseveres in this, it will prevent them from proceeding to a national council.
Tours, 21st May 1560.
May 22. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 162. Nicolò da Ponte, Bernardo Navagero, and Giovanni Michiel, Venetian Ambassadors in France, to the Doge and Senate.
Concerning the affairs of England since the advices of the 4th instant, the English Ambassador resident here says that letters of the 13th announce the return from Scotland to England of the Bishop of Valence [Jean de Monluc], and his failure to negotiate any agreement with the Scots. Although he had proposed to them a general pardon, and an interim exercise of religion until the decision of a council general, owing to which offers great hope had prevailed that the agreement might take place; yet when he added that the Scots were utterly to renounce their friendship with the English, to surrender the fortresses, naming, besides Little Leith, Lillemburg (sic) (fn. 6) and Dunbar, to accept the French Ministers and Governors, and to give hostages in confirmation of their obedience, these conditions rendered matters quite hopeless. The Scots replied that they could not separate themselves from the English until all costs were repaid to the latter for their services both by sea and land, under which obligation they had consigned to the Queen as hostages eight of the chief noblemen of their kingdom. As to the fortresses, the Scots said that either they must be razed, or otherwise be garrisoned by Scottish captains named by his Majesty according to the laws of the realm; saying also that the same laws enacted that none but native Scots could be governors or ministers there. The Bishop of Valence, therefore, seeing that his proposal was fruitless, returned to England. By these same advices of the 13th it is stated that when the Queen heard of M. de Randan's appointment with an ample commission about the agreement she evinced pleasure; so orders were sent him to continue his journey, and he has arrived at Boulogne, but not venturing to cross in French vessels he was expecting some offered him by the Queen, who was sending to meet and receive him with honour.
Neither is it heard that Lord Grey since he cannonaded Little Leith has made much progress, it seeming to him perhaps, as reported here, that the garrison resisted his attacks more stoutly than he anticipated.
Here in the meanwhile the English Ambassador, being ill at Amboise, sent his Secretary with the Queen's reply to the French King's Protest, and the Secretary having presented it to the Cardinal of Lorraine, his Right Reverend Lordship told him not very graciously that he would read it to his Majesty, and that when the Ambassador was in a state to come to the Court he should hear from the King his Majesty's determination. (fn. 7)
Garcilasso de la Vega arrived last week, being sent by the King Catholic to bring about the agreement, and having been to visit the English Ambassador, on whose authority we mention the circumstance, he said he was commissioned to let the most Christian King know that in like manner as his King had sent M. de Glajon to England to persuade that Queen to desist from pretecting the Scots, it seeming to him a most shameful act for her to interfere in the affairs of the vassals of others, so he had sent him (De la Vega) hither to France to pray the most Christian King to assure the said Queen and rid her entirely of her suspicion and anxiety lest under pretence of these things he invade her kingdom. Yesterday, together with the Ambassador of the King Catholic resident here, he had his first audience.
Garcilasso says that besides these matters of England he was sent to offer his most Christian Majesty every sort of assistance that could proceed from the King Catholic, even personal, if the troubles about religion continue.
Blois, 22nd May 1560.
May 26. Original Despatch, Venetian Archives. 163. Paulo Tiepolo, Venetian Ambassador with King Philip, to the Doge and Senate.
The English Ambassadors went to the King for the purpose written in my former letters, and his Majesty answered them briefly, as is his custom; but the Duke of Alva, with whom they wished to confer, was more diffuse, and clearly expressed the regret felt by his Majesty that the Queen had given favour and assistance to the Scottish rebels, but declared nevertheless that the conservation of the said Queen was no less desired by the King than that of his own states; yet as at any rate the rebels must be punished, lest other subjects take example from them to be disobedient to their sovereigns, so the King Catholic for this purpose, upon any request from the most Christian King, would give him the promised infantry, which, although they are to be paid by France, would notwithstanding execute the commands of King Philip, who had determined on all this for the benefit of the said Queen, in order to assure her that nothing whatever would be attempted against her, as the King Catholic would give his troops such orders that in case she was molested they would all pass over to her side. But the Ambassadors add that on this account the Queen is but little indebted to his Majesty, because had it not been for her respect for him, Scotland by this time would have been quite rid of the French.
They are now awaiting the result of the interview between the commissioners of both sides, and those appointed by King Philip to intervene as mediators.
Of the three ships expected from the Indies there is news but of one, which, when on the point of foundering, fell in with a caravel, whose crew preferred to throw their own cargo into the sea in order to receive the gold and silver and persons on board the ship; and thus the caravel arrived at the Azores, having on board gold and silver for the King and private individuals to the amount of upwards of 400,000 ducats.
The King has taken time to consider the case of the Count of Montorio; so Sanguini departs with the despatch of the pension and naturalization for Cardinal Caraffa. His Majesty has given orders for the restitution of the artillery and other effects of the Church in Paliano, the inhabitants of which place strongly urge that it should not be dismantled.
The King is still at Aranjuez, intent on the pleasures of the chase, to which he often takes the Queen.
Toledo, 26th May 1560.
[Italian; the portion in italics deciphered by Signor Luigi Pasini.]


  • 1. Letter not found.
  • 2. Charles de la Rochefoucauld, Count de Randan. (See Foreign Calendar, 1559–1560, Index, p. 635.)
  • 3. By name Sesselis. (See Foreign Calendar, 10 May 1560, p. 40.)
  • 4. Don Iñigo Avalos was made Cardinal by Pius IV. on the 26th February 1561, (see Cardella, Vol. 5, pp. 9, 44 and 45,) and proved himself deserving of his grade.
  • 5. Gui de St. Gelais. (Sec Foreign Calendar, 1559–1560, Index, p. 627.)
  • 6. Query, Inchkeith. (See Foreign Calendars, 1559–1560, and 1560 and 1561.) Inchkeith is an island in the Firth of Forth, and the French called it the L'Isle aux Chevaux, which name the Venetian Ambassador seems to have converted into “Lillemburg.” In Foreign Calendar, 1560–1561, pp. 77 and 78. this account of the terms proposed by Jean de Monluc are confirmed.
  • 7. In Foreign Calendar, date 20th April 1560 (pp. 564 to 568), both the Protest and the Queen's reply are published, but neither one or the other are to be found in the despatches from France now in the Venetian Archives. There is however a copy of the Protest among the despatches from Spain. Sec before, No. 152.