Notes to the diary: 1550-51

Pages 313-323

The Diary of Henry Machyn, Citizen and Merchant-Taylor of London, 1550-1563. Originally published by Camden Society, London, 1848.

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Page 1. Thomas Wriothesley, earl of Southampton. The first person noticed by our funereal chronicler was one of the most remarkable men of his age: one who had attained the summit of the law, and who was aspiring to the summit of the state. The historian Carte attributes his death to mortified ambition, and so does Lord Campbell in his recent Lives of the Chancellors: on this part of his history see the Archæologia, vol. xxx. p. 468.

It should be remarked that, though the body of the earl of Southampton was at first buried in Saint Andrew's Holborn, it was afterwards removed to Tichfield in Hampshire, where a sumptuous monument with his effigy still exists. There is a fine portrait of him in Chamberlain's Holbein Heads.

Ibid. Funeral of alderman sir William Locke. He was a member of the Mercers' company, and sheriff of London in 1548. Not living to be lord mayor, he died "in his howsse in Bow lane the xxiiijth of August in the 4. of Edward the 6, and buryed 27. day of the same mounth in the Mercers' cherche St. Thomas of Acres." MS. Harl. 897, f. 15. Stowe notes "Locke his armes in the windowes" of that church. Lady Locke died on the 5th Dec. 1551; and the imperfect funeral in p. 12 perhaps belongs to her. See an historical account of the Locke family in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1792, vol. LX. p. 799; also Lord King's Life of Locke, and the Autobiography of sir John Bramston, where at p. 9 are some traditional anecdotes of sir William Locke (but for 1530 read 1533).

P. 2. Funeral of the countess of Hampton. Mabel daughter of Henry lord Clifford, and sister to Henry first earl of Cumberland. Her husband William FitzWilliam, earl of Southampton, K.G. died without issue in 1543, and was buried at Midhurst in Sussex. Strype, Mem. vol. ii. p. 283, has appended this lady's funeral to the particulars he had taken from our Diary of the funeral of the first earl of Southampton of the Wriothesleys (as mentioned in p. 1). "And Sept. 1," he says, "his Lady and Widow was buried at Farnham: Who had sometime been the wife of sir William Fitz-Williams, Lord Privy Seal to King Henry VIII."—evidently unaware that sir William Fitz William had also been earl of Southampton, and that it was from the lady's union with him that she acquired the title of countess, and not from sir Thomas Wriothesley, to whom she was not related.

P. 2. Funeral of judge Hynde. Sir John Hynde, made a serjeant at law 1535, a judge of the Common Pleas 1546. When Nicholas Charles surveyed the church of St. Dunstan's in the West, the armorial insignia of sir John Hynde (made by our diarist) were remaining over his tomb: see them described in Collectanea Topogr. et Geneal. 1837, vol. iv. p. 100. Nicholas Charles was wrong in styling him "Chief Justice of the Common Pleas."

Ibid. Funeral of the countess of Derby. Anne, daughter of Edward lord Hastings and Hungerford, and sister to George first earl of Huntingdon of that name, was married (before 1503, when her eldest son John was buried, at St. James's, Garlick Hill) to Thomas Stanley, second earl of Derby, who died at his house at Colham in the parish of Hillingdon, Middlesex, May 23, 1521, and was buried in the neighbouring monastery of Syon. She was the mother of Edward third earl of Derby. It is stated in Collins's Peerage (edit. 1812, iii. 69) that she was married secondly to John Ratcliffe, lord Fitzwalter, but that is impossible, for he died in 1495. Sir Edward Hastings, who attended her funeral, afterwards lord Hastings of Loughborough and K.G., was her nephew. The The word se—left imperfect (p. 2) was probably sectur (executor).

P. 3. Funeral of sir James Wylford. The blank in this passage may be filled up with "Scotland." See the Memoirs of Lord Grey of Wilton, by Sir Philip Egerton, p. 47. Sir James Wilford was knighted by the duke of Somerset after the taking of Leith, Sept. 28, 1547. Holinshed also mentions the circumstance of his being taken prisoner at Dunbar in 1549, by a Gascoigne of the country of Basque called Pellicque, "that won no smal commendation for that his good happe, in taking such a prisoner, whose name for his often approved prowes was so famous among the enimies." This noble captain was of a city family, which had buried for some generations at St. Bartholomew the Little. James Wilford, taylor, one of the sheriffs 1499, founded by will a sermon there on Good Friday for ever. John Wilford, merchant-taylor, alderman, was buried there 1544. (Stowe.)

Ibid. Funeral of sir Richard Manners. The paragraph of the diary partly defaced belongs to the funeral of an uncle of the earl of Rutland, whom we find thus noticed in another place: "Sir Rychard Manners knight dyed the ixth of February a°. r. E. vj. vto. and was beryed at Kateren Cryst churche the 14. of the same mounth; and the right honorable Henry erl of Rutland was his hole executer and over-syer of his last wyll, to whom he gave all his goodes and landes." (MS. Harl. 897, f. 14.) Sir Richard Manners was twice married, as may be seen in the peerages.

Ibid. Funeral of lord Wentworth. "March 3. The lord Wentworth lord chambarlaine died about tenne of the cloke at night, leaving behind him 16 children." (King Edward's Diary.) "Thomas lord Wentworth, lord chamberlan of the kinges majesties most honerable houshold, dyed in the kinges majesties paleys at Westmynster on tewsday the 3. of Marche in the 5 yere of E. the 6. and from thence broughte to his house at Westmynster and was buryed in the mynster there on Saterday the 7. of Marche folowing." (MS. Harl. 897, f. 78b.) A longer account of his funeral is preserved in the College of Arms, I. II, f. 115. He was buried in the chapel of St. John the Evangelist (Dart ii. 60), but has no monument. There is a portrait of him among Chamberlain's Holbein Heads.

P. 4. Proclamation for keeping Lent. A printed copy of this proclamation is preserved in the valuable collection of proclamations, &c. in the library of the Society of Antiquaries. The word printed "co[ndemned?]" in the text of our Diary should be altered to "commonly accepted or reputed as a fishe day."

Ibid. The murder of master Arden of Feversham. The particulars of this memorable domestic tragedy will be found very fully narrated in Holinshed's Chronicle; and from the Wardmote Book of Feversham in Jacob's History of that town, 8vo. 1774, p. 197. See also a long narrative among Stowe's transcripts, MS. Harl. 542, ff. 34–37. It created so great a public interest that it became the subject not only of a Ballad which will be found in Evans's collection, 1810, vol. iii. pp. 217–225; but also of a Play published in 4to. 1592, again in 1599 and 1633, and lastly in 1770, when the editor, Edward Jacob, esq. who afterwards published the History of Feversham above mentioned, in his preface offered "some reasons in favour of its being the earliest dramatic work of Shakspeare now remaining." Mr. Collier's remarks on this subject will be found in his History of the Stage and of Dramatic Poetry, iii. 52. Lillo also began a tragedy founded on the same story, which was finished by Dr. John Hoadly, and printed in 12mo. 1762.

The concern taken by the government in the prosecution of the parties guilty of this murder, is shown by the following extracts from the Privy Council book:—

"1551, 5th Marche. A Lettere to the Justyces of Peace in Kente, advertesinge them the order taken for the punishmente of those that murdered Mr. Ardeyrn; Videliset, Sicely Pounder, widowe, and Thomas Mosbye, to be hanged in Smithfield, in London; Alice Ardeyrn, to be burned at Canterburye, and Bradshawe, to be hanged there in cheanes; Michaell Saunderson, to be hanged, drawne, and quartered, at Feversham, and Elizabeth Stafford to be burned there." (MS. Harl. 352, fol. 156b.) On the same day, "A Letter to the Sherifes of London, to receave of the Sherife of Kent, Cicelye Poundere, widowe, and Thomas Mosbye, to be hanged in Smithfield, for the Murder of Thomas Ardeine of Fevershame; and a Letter to the Maiore of Canterburye, to receave of the Sherife of Kente Alice Ardeine, to be burned at Canterburye, and Bradshawe, to be hanged there, for the Murder of Mr. Ardeine." (Ib. fol. 157.)

The actual murderer, and also one Greene, a confederate, had escaped. The following entries will be found to correct and explain Holinshed's account of their capture.

"1551, 28th May. A Lettere to Mr. North, to enlarge one Bate out of the countere, who convayed away one Greene, of Fevershame, after the Murdere of Mr. Ardeine was ther don, and undertaketh to brynge forthe Greene again, yf he may have libertie; providinge that he take sufficient sureties, either to become prisonere againe, or else to bringe forthe the said Greene." (Ib. fol. 174.)

"1551, 15th June. A Letter to Sr. William Godolphine knighte, of thankes for his dilligence in the apprehencione of Blacke Will, that killed Mr. Arderne of Feversham, and to send him in saufe garde, with promise of paymente for the charges of the bringeres." It appears from Holinshed and from our Diary (in which this person is called Black Tom,) that he was not sent home, according to this request, but was "burnt on a scaffold, at Flushing, in Zealand."

"1551, 20th June. A Lettere to the Lord Chancellor, to directe out a Comission for gaoll delivery unto the Maiore of Feversham and otheres, for the attaynder of Greene, alredie indicted for the Murder of Mr. Ardeine." (Ib. fol. 180.)

"A Warrante to the receiver of the Wardes, to pay unto them that apprehended Greene of Feversham, xx markes, for their costes in bringing him hether, and conveying him to Feversham, to be hanged.

"A Lettere to the Maiore of Feversham, and certain otheres, upon the attainder of Greene, to see him hanged in chaynes." (Ib. fol. 180b.) This direction was complied with, Greene being hanged in chaines, according to Holinshed, "in the high waie betwixt Ospring and Boughton against Feversham." (Holinshed, iii. 1030. edit. 1808.)

P. 4. The lady Mary rode to St. John's, her place. That is, to the house of the late knights hospitallers at Clerkenwell. On the circumstances of the princess's visit to court at this time see her brother's diary in Burnet.

P. 5. A great triumph at Greenwich. Thus noticed in the King's diary:

"March 31. A chaleng made by me that I, with 16 of my chaumbre, shuld runne at base, shote, and rune at ring, with any 17 of my servauntes, gentlemen in the court."—

"May 3. The chaleng at running at ringe performed, at the wich first came the kinge, 16 footmen, and 10 hor[se]men, in blake silk cootes pulled out with wight tafeta; then al lordes, having three [sic. qa. their] men likewise appareled, and al gentlemen, ther footmen in whit fustian pulled out with blake taveta. The tother side came al in yelow tafta. At lenght the yelow band toke it thrise in 120 courses, and my band tainted often, wich was counted as nothing, and toke never, wich seemed very straunge, and so the price was of my side lost. After that turnay folowed, betwen 6 of my band and sixe ofthers."

Ibid. Chester the receiver took possession of the hall of the company of Clerks of London. Sir Robert Chester was receiver of the court of augmentations. This proceeding is notified a few months before in the minutes of the Privy Council: "16 March, 1550. A lettere to the Chauncelor of the augmentacion to put the kinges majestie in possession agayne of the Clerkes hall in London, if the law will suffer it; yf not, to repaire to the Lordes to shewe cause of the impedimente therof." The company of Clerks seems to have been more liable to this attack than the other city companies, from being regarded as a religious foundation. Their hall stood in Bishopsgate street, and Stowe has related the story of its subsequent fate, sir Robert Chester pulling it down, when the fraternity had commenced a suit for its recovery in the reign of queen Mary.

P. 6. Funeral of lady Morice. Stowe mentions the interment at St. Peter's Cornhill of sir Christopher Morice, master gunner of England, temp. Henry VIII. His lady appears to have had a previous husband, and, though she lived and died in that parish, was removed to the church of St. Olave's to be laid by his side. There was a family connection between sir Christopher Morice and Arthur Plantagenet, viscount Lisle: see Miss Wood's Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies, ii. 76, iii. 35. "The Skott the curate" was of St. Peter's in Cornhill; see p. 13, and note hereafter.

P. 6. Earthquake. "The 25. daye of May, beyng Monday, betwene the howers of eleven and one of the clock at afternoone, was an earthquake of halfe a quarter of a howre long at Blechynglye, at Godstone, at Croydon, at Albery, and at divers other places in Southery and Myddlesexe." Stowe's Summarie.

P. 7. The king supped at Deptford. Machyn has dated this event two days too late. It is thus recorded in the king's own diary: "4. I was banketted by the lord Clinton at Detford, where I saw the Primrose and the Marie Willoughby launched."

Ibid. Death of lord Cromwell. Gregory lord Cromwell died on the 4th of July 1551, and was buried at Laund in Leicestershire: his mural monument there is engraved in Nichols's History of that County, vol. iii. pl. xlv.

Ibid. Death of lord Powis. Edward third lord Grey of Powis. The funeral of his widow, a daughter of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk, occurs in p. 163.

Ibid. Sir John Luttrell, of Dunster castle, co. Somerset, knighted at the taking of Leith in 1547, and made a knight banneret soon after, at the taking of Yester. Just before his death he had been divorced from his wife, for Strype notices "A Commission to sir William Petre, secretary, sir Richard Read, &c. upon due proof of the manifest adultery of the lady Mary Luttrel, to separate and divorce her from sir John Luttrel her husband. Dated in June, 1551." (Memorials, Book ii. chap. 29.) She was the daughter of sir John Griffith, K.B. and was remarried to James Godolphin, of Cornwall.

Ibid. Proclamations for depreciation of the coinage. Printed copies of these proclamations are in the collection in the library of the Society of Antiquaries, and their substance is stated in Ruding's Annals of the Coinage, 4to. 1817, ii. 107. Mr. Ruding, in a note in that page, throws some discredit on king Edward's accuracy as to dates in his Diary; but on that point it may be remarked that the proclamations were clearly prepared by the privy council some days before it was thought proper to make them public. The proclamation which according to the present diary was made known in London on the 8th of July, is printed with a blank date, "the of June."

A remarkable example of the effect produced by this depreciation of the currency is given in the account of Arden's murder in the Wardmote book of Feversham. The proceeds of the murderers' effects, after the payment of expenses, amounted "after the old rate," to 120l. "whereof there was lost by abasing or fall of the said money 60l." In consequence of this act of government rumours were current that further abasements were contemplated; and "By the letteres from London" it was reported "that on the 25. daye of July, or on St. James' daye, was a proclamation declaringe it was not the kinge nor his counseles intente to altere or abase any more his coynes yet; for heare wee greate rumors that in all haste, and that prively, the kinge and counsell was busye aboute the alteringe thearof, to be done out of hand, whearuppon many men wane their debts, which else would not have byn payde this vij. yeares." (MS. Harl. 353, f. 107.)

In the journals of the Privy Council are frequent entries relative to the prosecution of persons guilty of predicting further depreciations.

Ibid. Funeral of sir Thomas Speke. Sir Thomas Speke was an eminent lawyer: he was steward of the royal manors of Greenwich, &c. and keeper of Eltham palace. His funeral achievements were remaining in St. Dunstan's church in the time of Nicholas Charles, as described in the Collectanea Topogr. et Genealog. iv. 98; and from them it appears that he married a Berkeley.

P. 8. Death of sir John Wallop, K.G. He died and was buried at Guisnes. Full particulars of him will be found in Collins's Peerage, edit. 1779, v. 64, with an abstract of his will, dated May 22, 1551, in which he styled himself "lievtenant of the castill and countye of Guysnes." See "The Chronicle of Calais," p. 203.

Ibid. Death of the two young dukes of Suffolk. Henry and Charles Brandon, the only sons of Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk. Their mother was his second wife, Katharine, daughter and sole heir of William lord Willoughby de Eresby. (See some excellent letters of hers in Miss Wood's collection, vol. iii.) The report which reached our diarist is incorrect in two respects: the noble youths did not die "in one bed" nor "in Cambridgeshire." Their deaths took place at the bishop of Lincoln's palace at Bugden, in the county of Huntingdon. A narrative, entitled "Epistola de vita et obitu duorum fratrum Suffolciensium, Henrici et Caroli Brandon," written by sir Thomas Wilson, was shortly after printed. Two interesting extracts from this rare volume will be found in the Gentleman's Magazine for Sept. 1825, vol. xcv. ii. 206. The young men, accompanied by their mother, had just arrived at Bugden, when the duke was suddenly taken ill of the fatal sweat, which in five hours deprived him of life. The younger brother Charles, though placed in a distant chamber, immediately learned what had happened, and being asked by the physician upon what he was meditating, replied, "I am thinking how hard it is to be deprived of one's dearest friend." "Why do you say so?" said he. He answered, "How can you ask me? My brother is dead. However, it is of little matter, I shall soon follow him." And so he did, in half an hour. Sir Thomas Wilson admits the title of duke to the younger brother immediately on the elder's demise, and so we find from our Diary "the ij. dukes" were so called in London. The other extract given in the Gentleman's Magazine is a very high character (in Latin) of the young duke Henry, written by Dr. Walter Haddon, regius professor of civil law in the university of Cambridge: of this Strype (Memorials, Book ii. c. 4,) has given the substance in a translated form. Sir Thomas Wilson, in his Arte of Rhetorique, has also an interesting passage describing the characters of these young noblemen; and some Latin verses on their death, "Carmina in Mortem," &c. were written by Michael Reniger, and printed in 1552, 4to. The circumstance that their mother the duchess was the great patroness of the reforming divines accounts for the extraordinary interest excited by their death. An engraving in Chamberlain's Holbein Heads is taken from two miniatures, supposed to represent these brothers: but if the dates given in the inscriptions are compared, they will be found both to belong to the elder boy.

Ibid. Mortality from the sweating sickness. Two other reports of this have come down to us, and, though the figures do not exactly correspond, yet they seem all to have been derived from official returns, and there is also some difference in the periods of time. "Letters from London reporte there died in London of the sweatynge sicknes from the 7. of July till the 20. of the same 938 persons, but howe many have died since to this daye, beinge the 23., I knowe not. I truste it is nowe cleane gone." (MS. Harl. 353, f. 107.) Shortly after the disease had terminated, the celebrated Dr. Caius wrote a treatise upon it, which was printed in the following year, under the title of "A boke or counseill against the disease commonly called the sweate, or sweatyng sicknesse. Made by John Caius, doctour in physicke. 1552." Printed by Richard Grafton in black letter, 40 leaves, 12mo. The Dedication to the earl of Pembroke is dated 1st April, 1552. (Caius also wrote a Latin treatise on the same subject, of which a late edition, entitled "Johannis Caii de Ephemera Britannica liber unus," was printed in London, 8vo. 1721.) From this curious volume we learn that the disease first appeared with the army of Henry the Seventh, which arrived at Milford, out of France, the 7 Aug. 1485; next in 1506; again in 1517; a fourth time in 1528; and a fifth in 1551, shortly before the composition of his treatise. On this occasion, "Beginning at Shrewesbury in the middest of April, proceadinge with greate mortalitie to Ludlowe, Prestene, and other places in Wales, then to Westchestre, Coventre, Oxenfoorde, and other tounes in the Southe, and suche as were in and aboute the way to London, whether it came notablie the seventh of July, and there continuing sore, with the loss of vijC.lxi. from the ix. day until the xvi. daye, besides those that died in the vii. and viii. dayes, of whom no registre was kept, from that it abated until the xxx. day of the same, with the loss of C.xlii. more. Then ceasing there, it wente from thence throughe al the east partes of England into the northe, untill the ende of Auguste, at which tyme it diminished, and in the ende of Septembre fully ceassed." The following singular passage relating to this disease occurs in a report of the preaching of Thomas Hancocke, minister of Poole in Dorsetshire. "—in his doctrine he taught them that God had plagued this Realme most justly for their sins with three notable plagues. The first plague was a warning to England, which was the Posting Sweat, that posted from town to town thorow England, and was named Stop-Gallant: for it spared none. For there were some dauncing in the Court at nine a'clock that were dead at eleven. In the same sweat also at Cambridge dyed two worthy imps, the duke of Suffolk his sons, Charles and his brother." (Strype, Memor. iii. chap. vii.) The singular name here noticed occurs also in the register of Uffculme, Devonshire, where the disease prevailed in the month following its devastation in London. "Out of 38 burials entered in that year, 27 were in the first 11 days of August, and 16 of them in three days. The disease of which these persons died is called, in the parish-register, the hote sickness or stup-gallant." Magna Britannia, by Lysons, who adds that he had not been able to find the term elsewhere.

P. 8. Funeral of sir Peter Negro. "Sir Pyter Negro knight dysseased the xiiijth day of July in the yere of our Lord 1551, in the vth yere of the raigne of our soveraigne lord kyng Edward the 6. His crest is a castell broken, and upon the castell a man with a shert of male and a sword in his hand." (MS. Harl. 897, f. 14b.) He was one of the knights made by the duke of Somerset after the taking of Leith, Sept. 28, 1547.

Ibid. The xxvij of July was the new bishop of Wdivorced from the butcher wife with shame enough. Though the name is burnt, this appears to belong to John Ponet, bishop of Winchester, who had been translated to that see on the 23d March preceding. He had published "A Defence of the Marriage of Priests" in 1549, which is noticed in Strype, Memorials, Book ii. chap. 18. And it seems that he married again very shortly after this divorce, the following entry occurring in the register of Croydon: "1551, Oct. 25. Reverendus pater Johannes episcopus Wynton' duxit Mariam Haymond generosam in ista ecclesia coram multitudine parochianorum, presente reverendissimo patre Thoma Cantuar' archiepiscopo cum multis." (Collectanea Topogr. et Geneal. iv. 91.)

Ibid. Funeral of master Harry Williams. Sir John Williams, his father, was master of the jewel-house; and by queen Mary was created lord Williams of Thame, and made lord chamberlain of the household. The son had married Anne, daughter of Henry lord Stafford, but died childless, leaving his father without male heirs.

Ibid. Funeral of master Sandys. Henry Sandys esquire, eldest son of Thomas second lord Sandys, and father of William third lord Sandys: see Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 303. There is a portrait of a master Sands in Chamberlain's Holbein Heads which perhaps represents this person.

P. 9. The French king installed at Windsor. This was of course by deputy. He had been elected of the Garter on the St. George's day preceding, and the marquess of Northampton had conveyed the insignia to France. See various documents relating to his election described by Strype, Memorials, 1721, ii. 512.

Ibid. Death of the lord admiral's wife. This lady was the mother of the duke of Richmond, the natural son of king Henry the Eighth: to whom she gave birth at Jericho, a manor near the priory of Blackmore in Essex, in the year 1519. She was married shortly after to sir Gilbert Talboys, who was summoned to Parliament as lord Talboys in 1529, died 15 April, 1530, and was buried at Kyme in Lincolnshire. She became secondly the wife of Edward lord Clinton, lord admiral of England, who after her death was in 1572 created earl of Lincoln. She had issue by her first husband two sons, Robert and George, who both died without issue, and one daughter, Elizabeth, who became his heir, and was, first, the wife of Thomas Wymbish (who claimed the barony of Talboys jure uxonis), and, secondly, of Ambrose Dudley, earl of Warwick. By lord Clinton she had issue three daughters: viz. Bridget wife of Robert Dymoke of Scrivelsby co. Linc. esquire, Katharine wife of William lord Burgh of Gainsborough, and Margaret wife of lord Willoughby of Parham. Her royal offspring the duke of Richmond died on the 24th July, 1536, at the age of seventeen years.

P. 9. Price of provisions. The imperfect lines in this page refer to this subject, thus noticed by the king under "Sept. 9. A proclamation set furth touching the prises of cattel, of hogges, pegges, befs, oxen, muttons, buttyr and chese, after a reasonable price, not fully so good-cheap as it was when the coyne was at the perfeictest, but within a fift part of it, or ther abouts."

Ibid. The king wearing the order of St. Michael. "The fest of Michelmas was kept by me in the robes of th'ordre." (King Edward's Diary.) The following minutes are from the register of the privy council:

"14 June, 1551. This daye the French ambassador had accesse to the lordes, to whom he declared that the kinge his master and the company of the ordere of Saint Michael had appointed the kinges majestie to be of the same order, for which purpose the marshall St. Androwe was enjoyned to bringe the same order to his majestie, prainge his majestie that he would accepte the same accordinglye." (MS. Harl. 352, f. 160b.)

"June 22, 1551. A Letter of apparance to the deane of Windsore, that for asmuch as there shall arive here shortely a nobleman sente from the French kinge wth the order of St. Michalle to bee presented to the kinges Matie, and to bringe wth him such recordes as remayne in his custodie, as well for the acceptacion of the said order by his majesties behalfe, or for any other thinge by ceremony concerning the said order; and that all thinges there may be put in good order for the celebracione of St. George's feaste, and to bringe wth him also a note of so muche money of the poore knights as he hathe in his custodie." (Ibid. f. 161b.) King Edward was invested by the ambassador at Hampton Court on the 16th of July, as detailed by himself in his diary, and more fully in Ashmole's History of the Garter, pp. 368, 369. The documentary instruments brought to England on this occasion are still preserved in the Chapter House at Westminster.

P. 10. Creation of new peerages. The intended creation of the dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk, the marquess of Winchester, and the earl of Pembroke, was made known to the Privy Council on the 4th Oct. 1551, as thus recorded in their minutes: "This daye the lord chamberlen together wth the lord chamberlen (sic), beinge sente from the kinge to the lordes, declared on his majesties behalfe, that, for asmuch as the lord marques of Dorset hath lately opened to his highness the occasyones of his inhabilletie to serve in the place of generall warden of the marches towardes Scotlande, and therefore besought his majestie to call him from that place; his majestie, thinkinge the same lord marques' suite reasonable, and mindinge not to leave such a rowme of importance unfurneshed of an able personage, hath resolved both to revoke the said marques from that offyce, and to appointe the earle of Warwicke in his steed, who for his greate experience, and namly in those partes, his highnes taketh to be moste meeteste for that rowme. And hath further determyned, as well to th'ende that the said earle of Warwicke may the rather be had in the estymacione he deserveth for his digneties sake, as for that also his majestie thinketh necessarye, the noble houses of this his realme being of late much decayed, to erect other in their stead by rewardinge such as have alredye well served, and maye be therby the rather encowraged to contynewe the same, to call both his lordship and other noble personages to hier estates and digneties; and therfore hath appointed to advaunce firste the said earle of Warwicke to the degree of a duke; the lorde marques Dorsett, as well for his service sacke as for that he is lyke by waye of maryage to have claime to the tytle of duke of Suffolke, his highnes is pleased to call to that degree; the lord treasuror nowe earl of Wiltesheir to the degree of a marques; the master of the horse [sir William Herbert] to the degree of an earle; which his majesties mynd and determenacion his highnes pleasure is shalbe gon through with all, and these personages to be created on Sondaye nexte; to the assistance whereof his majestie willeth that such of the lordes and nobles as shalbe thought needfull, to be presente," &c. (MS. Harl. 352, f. 188b.)

P. 10. The three new knights. Mr. Sidney and Mr. Neville had been made gentlemen of the privy chamber on the 18th April 1550, and Mr. Cheke held the same appointment. (King Edward's Diary.) Sir Henry Neville was the first settler at Billingbere of his name and family. He married Frances, only daughter and heir of sir John Gresham, and died July 13, 1593.

Ibid. The duke of Somerset, &c. sent to the Tower. On the particulars of these state trials it is only necessary to refer to several passages in the King's diary, and to Strype and our general historians.

P. 11. Visit of the old queen of Scots. The queen dowager of Scotland (Mary of Guise) embarked at Edinburgh to visit her daughter in France, Sept. 7, 1550. On her return she landed at Portsmouth on the 2d Nov. 1551. (Lettres de Marie Stuart, edited by the Prince Alexandre Labanoff, 8vo. 1844, vol. i. 5.) The privy council addressed, "25 Sept. 1551. A Letter to the lord chauncelor requiring him to passe under the greate seal a saulf-conduct graunted by the kinges majestie to the dowager of Scotlande, and to retayne with him for a record the originall thereof sent him signed by his highnes." The saulf-conduct itself is printed in Rymer's Collection, xv. 290: it bears an earlier date, viz. 17 Sept. Some subsequent minutes of the Privy Council relating to preparations for this visit are given by Strype. There are many particulars of it in king Edward's Diary, and a narrative of the queen's reception is in MS. Harl. 290, art. 2.

P. 11. Funeral of sir Michael Lyster. The name of the lord chief justice of the king's bench was sir Richard Lyster, but that of his eldest son, here recorded, was sir Michael. See the memoir on the monument of sir Richard Lyster at St. Michael's church, Southampton, by Sir F. Madden, in the Winchester volume of the Archæological Institute. There is a portrait of a lady Lyster among the Holbein Heads: it may be doubtful to which lady of the name it belongs (see the pedigree given by Sir F. Madden); but Mr. Lodge, in his accompanying memoir, supposed it to be that of lady Mary, daughter of the earl of Southampton, wife of sir Richard, grandson of the chief justice. (See her funeral afterwards, p. 273.)

P. 12. Funeral of lady Locke. The imperfect funeral in this page probably belongs to the widow of sir William Locke, who has been noticed in p. 313. She was buried by his side on the 5th Dec. 1551. (Malcolm, ii. 156.) "Lady Elyzabeth Locke, latte wyf of sir William Locke knyght, decesyd on saynt Androwes daye at iij. of the cloke at afternone in good memory, the v. yere of the rayne of kyng Edward the vj. executors Rycharde Spreyngham and Thomas Nycolles the elder: and buryed in the churche of our laydy of Bowe within the quyre. Cheffe morner, Mary Spryngened (sic); [other mourners,] Elyzabeth Nycolles, Elyzabeth Fyld, Ellen Meredyth, Jone Rawlyns." (MS. I. 3. in Coll. Arm. f. 846.)

Ibid. Muster in Hyde Park. This is described nearly in the same terms in the King's diary. Burnet has misprinted the date Dec. 4 instead of 7.

P. 13. The Scot of St. Peter's in Cornhill. This preacher has been before mentioned in p. 6 as "the Skott the curett" of St. Peter's. Whether he was the same as Richardson, whose popularity as a preacher is mentioned in p. 91, has not been ascertained.