Cardiff Records: Volume 4. Originally published by Cardiff Records Committee, Cardiff, 1903.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
Formerly the property of the Cymreigyddion of Abergavenny.
Mostly transcripts in the handwriting of Edward Williams (Iolo Morganwg); copied by him in 1808, from the original in the possession of Thomas Truman of Pantlliwydd, Esq.
[13mo. paper book, bound in dark red canvas cloth; in fair condition.]
I., p. 1.
Topographical Anecdotes of Penmark Parish, 1808. (fn. 1)
* * * *
II., p. 19.
An Account of the cause of the Conquest of Glamorgan by Sir Robert fitz Haymon and his twelve knights. By Sir Edward Mansel of Margam. [1591.]
IESTIN the son of Gurgant (fn. 2) was Lord or Prince of Glamorgan about the year of our Lord 1046. He had a son that had a many yeares before obtained the Kingdome of Southwales Whose name was Rytherch otherwise Roderick. This Rytherche had been killed in Battle and the Southwales Kingdom had reverted to its former right of possession. But about the year 1089 Iestyn and his sons made war on Rhys son of Theodor (fn. 3) Prince of Southwales, for the recovering of that Kingdom to his great-Greatgrand . . . who made claim of Southwales in the right of his Grandfather who had won it by conquest, and who did also claim under a right descent from the first Princes of Southwales who were the ancient possessors of the Rule and Power in the Time of Cadwalader King Sole of the Britains, holding under him; out of this ancestorial right they had been ousted by those that claimed sole monarchy in right of Cadwalader, and who had possessed north and south Wales for many ages. In this war Iestin was unlucky. And it Happened at this time that one Enion the Son of Calloyn (fn. 4) was at some variance with Prynce Rhys. Which caused him to take part with Iestin Lord of Glamorgan and his party, and with him came also one Cedrych son of Gwaethvoed Lord of Cardigan, and they both Joined their forces with Iestin. But thinking still that Rhys who was assisted from Northwales and Ireland, might be to hard for them, Enion did propose to Iestin to ask the aid of a Famous Knight and valiant Soldier whose Name was sir Robert fitz Haymon, Lord of Corboil in Normandy, a person in favour with King William Rufus and with whom he the said Enion was well acquainted, as he had been brought up with him in some part from Boyhood. To this Iestin agreed, and thereupon Enion made haste on his Message and went to the King's Court at London and bargained with Sir Robert fitz aymon to assist him and Iestin. Sir Robert came and brought with him 12 Knights, 24 Squires and three thousand men. With this Einon ab Collwyn brought 1000 men, and Cedrych ap Gwaithfoed 2000, and to this Iestin could add only 300 men or a few more, for the Lords and Knights of his owne Country had refused him much aid. When these men were all Joined together they soon overcame Prince Rhys and his men, in a bloody fight on the Moor of Herwenorgan (fn. 5) and the neighbour hills, and Rhys was killed and his head Sawed off by an English soldier one of the men of Syr Roberts army. When the Battle was ended Iestin paid handsome rewards to Syr Robert and his men, fullfilling his Bargain and much more. So they went away in peace every one towards his own home. But he refused to compleat his promise with Einon and Cedrych, which was this: Einon was to have his Daughter Nest to wife and for her dowerment the mannour of Denys Pywys, (fn. 6) and Cedrych was to have the Lordship of St Tathan and 300 pound in Gold for his Aid. But all this he refused to perform, so Einon and Cedrych went after Sir Robert and his men and made a complaint. On this Sir Robert seeing their Cases hard, came back and reasoned with Iestin. But now he had won victories and abundance of wealth he was not to be reasoned with but gave churlish answers and hard words to Sir Robert and many hard ungentlemanlike words which angered Sir Robert, and this he reported to Einion and Cedrych who told him that the Country was rich and fat, very full of Corn and Cattle, and large houses and strong Castles which the Children of Iestin had built for themselves on Lands which they had cheated and taken by force from the right owners, and that Iestin was badly beloved and had no armies, and that it was a very easy thing to take the Country from him, especially if they would restore to the right owners one half of what Iestin and his sons and friends had taken by force of their Lands and possessions. Sir Robert and his men were pleased with this thing, and seeing the Land very Good and fat in all sorts of Corn and Grass and Cattle, resolved on the matter, and after sending once again to Iestin to advise [him] to fullfill his promise with his friends, which advice Iestin scorningly laughed at, Sir Robert and Einon and Cedrych Joined their Armies and beset the Castle of Cardiff and burnt and tore it to the Ground, and took to all the Lands and Rights and riches of Iestin and forced him to fly away. Now Sir Robert had so contrived the matter as to allow the Welsh soldiers of Cedrych and Einon the right they claimed of fighting foremost in battle, and so more than half of them were killed before the battle was over, and this gave Sir Robert and his followers to pick and Chuse for themselves in the parting of the Country between themselves. Of the Lands that were in possession of Iustins Sons and relations unlawfully Sir [Robert] took half, which he divided amongst his knights and squires, but to such of the sons of Iestin and others who had a true right-lawful possession he left them it, on condition that they should hold in fealty of him. After giving out this agreement with the Lords and franklens of the Country, they all came to him and took him for Lord, and it was in this manner that he divided the wealth.
1st THE kept himself all the Royalty and the Lands that were to support it, and the Towns and Castles which did appertain to it, which weere the Castle and Town of Cardiff, The Castle and Town of Kenffig, The Castle and Town of Cowbridge, and the Castle and Town of Lantwit and with it the Lords Mannor and Grange of Boverton he kept for Corn and provisions where he built a fine place of pleasure to dwell in at times, out of the old Court house of the Lords of Glamorgan that was there, and here he kept Netherds and shepherds and plow Men and Gardeners, to tend Cattle and till the Ground. He kept also the Lordships of Tir Iarll (fn. 7) and Glynrhondde, (fn. 8) which [he] parted between Welsh franklens to hold of him by knight-service and paying to him a free rent every year.
2d To Sir William De Londres he lotted the Castle and Mannor of Ogmore, with its Lands, and the Town of Corntown, with its Mannor and domain for his Granary and provisions, and here he raised so much Corn that he and his franklens held a large Market of Corn every week and it was for this that the place was so called Corntown. This Sir William gave his Butler, whose name was Arnold, the Castle and Mannor of Dunraven (fn. 9) with Lands for twenty franklens who were to attend him when he went out of the Lordship on solemn occasions, and he was from his calling when he was in the household of Sir William De Londres called Arnold Butler and after having his Lands and Chivalian rights made a knight and called Sir Arnold Butler.
3d To Sir Richard Greenvill (fn. 10) he gave the Castle and Town of Neath with its Lands and Mannor, and he had also the Mannor of Monks Nash for his Granary and provisions, where he planted fair orchards, and built many fair houses for the Welsh franklens, to whom he gave Lands of six marks a year, to keep his Court. This Sir Richard went a Pilgrim to the Holy Tomb in Jerusalem, and in his return home in the Island of Cyprus he had a dream and it seemed to him that a grave old man stood by him and said that he had done wrong in taking the Land in Wales from the Welshmen and that if he did not do them Justice his pilgrimage would be of no good to him. He then returned to Jerusalem and did swear on the holy Tomb that if he lived to return to his home, he would do right to all who could prove a rightful claim, and other of the Land unclaimed he gave to God and his Saints for ever. He did bring with him a famous Sarasin that was turned Christian and baptized whose name was Lales, and he was a curious man in masonry, for which reason Sir Richard gave him Lands for building the Abbey of Neath, and other Churches and holy places. And this Lales also built the New Church of Landaff, for lestin in his fury had burnt down the old Church. This Lales was afterward employed by the Lords to build their Castles in a better way than they were by the Welsh Lords, and had Lands given him by Langewydd where he built a fine Town which he called Lalestown (fn. 11) and removed the Church from Langewydd to that place. After that he became famous for fair buildings in the Towns and Castles and villages of Glamorgan, and he was sent for by King William Rufus to be his chief builder, after he had with much good will brought up many masons as good as himself. After this Sir Richard died in his Abbey of Neath, and the Rights of high Lordship fell to his Brother, who gave the same to God and the Saints forever and went to Bideford in Denshire (fn. 12) where his posterity remain to this day. After this gift the Abbot of Neath became one of the twelve high Lords of Glamorgan and continued to be so for long ages, till within our memory. (fn. 13)
4th To Sir Pain Turberville he gave the Castle and Mannor of Coity, with the Mannors of New Castle and Court Coleman for his Granary and provisions. He built the New Castle of Coyty and with it a fair Church and village, and the old Castle he kept for a place of store and provisions which he sold to all that wanted, and for this he and his heirs kept high market once a week till the Castle was demolished by Sir Richard Beauchamp. After that open market was kept in the high way near by, and it so remains to this day. This Pain Turberville married Sara Daughter of Myrig (fn. 14) the Son of Iestyn Lord of Coyty, and so obtained a right of inheritance in the place, and for this Reason he would never hold of the Chief Lord of Glamorgan nor render him fee and tribute. Which caused quarrelling, but Pain assembled the Welsh together, who loved him more than all the other Lords and took his part. And so they beset Cardiff Castle and broke into it, and Sir Robert was struck by him on the head with his fist till he was taken for dead, and he never had his right senses afterward and it did cause madness at Last of which he died. Upon this it was agreed between Sir Robert with other Lords and Pain, that he should hold his Castles and Mannors of Coyty and New Castle and Court Coleman of himself, and pay no tribute to the Chief Lord of Glamorgan, but that he should sit in Court as the Substantiate of the Welsh Franklens and Lord of Coyty, with one right of speech for himself and another for the Country. And so it was with his heirs and Remained till the time of Sir John Beauchamp when they Lost the Royalty sole and were subdued to hold of the Chief Lord. For these Reasons, that is of his courage and resoluteness, was Pain Turberville called Pain the Devil. (fn. 15)
5th To Sir Robert St Quintin he gave the Castle and Lordship of Llanblethian all but the Town of Cowbridge and its Castle, and with Llanblethian Lordship he gave him the Grange and Mannor of Canlinstion for his Granary and provisions. This Sir Robert new builded the Castle of Lanblethian three times, and at the last time made it but Little to what it had been before of him, saying it was men with strong hearts he wanted for he had found Castles with strong walls of no Service against the Welsh, for he had builded the Castle very large and strongly walled two times, and it was beaten to pieces by the Welsh of the mountains. This Sir Robert was the worst beloved of any Norman Lords by the Welsh, for he gave them no Lands in frank pledge as others did, but his Son after him bestowed much Land in freehold and so became strong in the Country, and well beloved.
6th To Sir Richard Syward he gave the Castle and Mannor of Talyfann with Rights Royal in fee, and the Mannor of Merthyr mawr for his Granary and provisions. This Sir Richard brought vines and Vinedressers from france and made fair vinyards at Merthyr Mawr, where he made much wine and from there Sir Robert fitzhamon took trees and men to plant them and went to his Estates in Glocestershire at Thucksbery, (fn. 16) out of the way of the Welsh, and it was there he died of madness.
7th To Sir Gilbert Humphreville he gave the Castle and mannor of Penmark with the Mannor of Coomb Cidi for his Granary and provision. This Sir Gilbert built a fair Church and village by his Castle, and settled peace in the Country about. But he and his heirs lived more in a house (fn. 17) of theirs in Cardiff Castle than they did at Penmark which was more of a strong hold than of a homestead.
8th To Sir Roger Bercrolls he gave the Castle and Mannor of St Athan, and the Mannor of Lanffe for his Granary and provisions. This Sir Roger planted two fair orchards of all sorts of Apples and fruits with Castles to defend them, which places were called East Orchard and West Orchard, the great Castle of Saint Athan and the Castle of West orchard were destroyed by Ifor Petit, (fn. 18) but East orchard still remains and was the homsted of the family till it fell for want of heirs male to the family of Stradling. It was Sir Roger Bercrolls that made such fair Orchards and Gardens on all his Lands, that King Harry the first being invited to see them said that he feared that some Devil of A Welsh Lord would tempt his men to eat of them, and so great was the fame of these Orchards and the Orchards of the Grange house at Boverton that the Country came to be called the Garden of Wales, and it was from those Orchards that fruit was carried to the King's house, and trees from them was planted at his palaces in London. And so they were planted every where thro the Kingdom and it was this Sir Roger that first of the Norman Lords hedged about having men from flanders to do the work, which men were afterwards with Sir Robert Fitzhamon at Boverton and Theuckesbury to hedge his lands, and make his orchards, and these men were all Rewarded with Lands in frankliege fee, (fn. 19) by six Marks in the year, and so became Gentlemen whereof were the Nerbers at St Athan in high esteem, for they had a right of chief evidence in cases of dispute about Woods and hedges and Orchards.
9th To Reginald Sully he gave the Castle and Town of Sully with the Mannour of it, and the Mannours of St Andrews and Dinas Pywys for his Granary and provisions. This Sir Reginald bestowed much Land in fee frankliege to his Men and came to be a man of wealth and fame. He had at Sully besides his Castle a fair Mannor house built after a new manner, where he did live the most of his time, which house as well as the Castle was broke down by Owain Glendowr. (fn. 20)
10th To Sir Peter le Soare he gave The Castle and Town and Mannour of Peterston Super Ely, (fn. 21) with the Mannour of St Fagans for his Granary and Provisions, and it was he builded the Church of Peterston, and he made fair stone houses for his franklens who were his Grangers and Haywards and yeomen of Guard.
11th To Sir John Fleming he gave the Castle and Mannour of St Georges with the Mannors of Gwaynvo, (fn. 22) Leckwith, and Part of Caereu for his Granary and provisions. And he built a strong Castle at Wenvoe, where he lived a half of his time. This Sir John brought men of husbandry from the Low Countries to be his Grangers and his heardsmen, of whom come the delehays and Lugs and withers and many more.
12th To Sir Oliver St John he gave the Castle and Mannour of Fonmon and the Mannors of Lancadle and Porth Ceri (fn. 23) for his Granary and provisions. And at Lancadle he had a fair Grange house, and good dwellings for his Grangers and Yeomen, whom he chose from amongst the Welsh franklens, with some flemings and Normans. He kept a Large house of Stores and provisions, which he sold twice a week to those who wanted them, and to where the English came by water from England for what they had want of, and he was very rich.
13th To Sir William Le Esterling (fn. 24) he gave the Town and Castle and Mannor of St Donats, which Castle had been builded of old and was accounted the Bravest place in the Land of Britain, for the fairness of the house and the delightsomness of the place about it, which place Sir William greatly adorned with fair parks and orchards, and groves of trees as we see them at this day. And with St Donats he had the Mannors of Colwinston and Lanmaes, both sides of Ely in St Fagans, for his Granery and provisions. Which Sir William builded fair manor houses at Lanmaes and Colwinston where he had fair Groves and Orchards and Ponds of water for fish. And this family changed their names to that of Stradling, (fn. 25) and they alone of all the rest of the Norman Lords remain still in possession of their Ancient places.
BESIDES these places which he gave his own knights and others, he bestowed the places that follow on some Welsh Lords such as these.
1st To Caradoc the Eldest Son by his 3d wife of Iestyn he gave the Lordship of Avan, that is the Lands between Neath and Avan, to hold in Right Royal, of the fœderate Power and not of the Lord Sole in Homage. This Caradoc had his Castle in [the] Town of Aberavan which he corporated a Burgher Town, as it remains to this day.
2d To Madoc the second son of Iestin by the same Wife he gave the Lordship of Rhuthyn, to hold in the same manner as his Brother Caradoc did.
3d To Rhys the third son by the same wife, he gave the Lordship of Reeding or Sofflen, (fn. 26) between Neath and Cremlyn to hold of his brother Cradoc.
4th To Einon ab Collwyn he gave the Lordship of Misgin with the Castle and Town of Lantrisant to hold of the federate Royalty, as Caradoc ab Iestin did. To Einon he also gave Nest the Daughter of Iestin to Wife, and the above Royalties for her Dowage.
5th To Cedrych ab Gwaethfoed King of Cardigan he gave the Lordship of Senghenydd. This Cedrych was a neighbour of Einon's, and came to assist him and the Normans. He maried and Issued Cadifor ab Ced rych that married Gwenllian Daur of Einon ab Collwyn and Nest his Wife Daur to Iestin ab Gwrgan, and Issued Ifor called Ifor petit Lord of Lower Senghenydd, and his chief place was the Red Castle upon Taf above Tonn Gwenglais. (fn. 27) This Ifor Petit was a bold man of great Courage and very valorous, and in his Time some of the Norman Lords were oppressive, of whom was Robert Earl of Gloucester and his wife and Son. Those Ifor took and held prisoners, and also possessed himself of the Castles of Cardiff (fn. 28) and Cenffig and the Grangehouse of Boverton, which all he detained till the[y] gave full satisfaction and Justice to the freemen of the Country, who complained that they were debarred of their Just rights and claims. Upon being overcome in this manner the Lord Robert yielded to the Country their lawful claims, and to be ruled by their ancient Laws and customs. And the Lords were forced to return to their Just owners a great many places and to dispossess the foreigners to whom Lands had been given. And it was then settled that all Lords Barons should have seat and speech in the County Courts, and high sittings of Glamorgan, and that all holders in frankpledge should have seat and speech in their own Lordships and Mannors. So Ifor took to his own home in peace, and in his Castle of Castle Coch he kept twelve hundred Men, who he used to say were able to match the best twelve thousand in the world, for valour &; hardiness.
6th To Howel ab Iestyn he gave the Castle and Mannor of Lantrythyd, which castle was demolished by Meredydd ab Rhys ab Gruffydd ab Rhys ab Tewdwr, (fn. 29) and the place was never afterwards built Castle fashion, but in form of a Great Place (fn. 30) house as it is at this day to be seen 1591, though it be not in the owning of those descended from Howel ab Iestyn. It is a fair place and has to it a fair Domain, with Parks warrens &; Orchards and groves of goodly trees in abundance, and is seated in a goodly Country for Corn and Grazure.
7th He gave Bewper (fn. 31) to a great Welsh Lord who took part with him, whose name Is torn out in my Book of Pedigrees. And Sir Philip [Basset] (fn. 32) was descended from him by marriage. Some say his mother, and others say his grandmother was Daughter of Bewper. Be it as it may, this Sir Philip Basset was Lord of Bewper and Saint Hillary, and was Chief Judge and Chancelor to Robert Fitzroy (fn. 33) and William his Son, Lords of Glamorgan, and others. And he was for his great skill and Justice made Lord Chief Justice of England. He built the Castle of Bewper, a fair Place, which is possessed to this day by those who be descended from him. And to this family belong also the goodly Mannor house of Beiswal, hard by Bewper, and also now the fair Place of Lantrithyd and the Lands thereunto belonging. And we account the Bassetts a truely worshipful family, who keep Hospitality in all their Houses as it is meet for Gentilmen so to do.
8th Cornelly Waelod was given by Sir Robert Fitzhammon to the family of Loves, (fn. 34) the name of the first of them I cannot Learn. It is said in old Book[s] of a goodly Castle or place that they had there, but the place of it I never had to know of. This Love was one of the Gentilmen Grangers of Boverton, of whom there were twelve, whose office it was to oversee and have special Care of the Lords Cornlands so that there might be enough provided for all his occasions.
9th To Simon Bonville, his chief Steward he gave the Mannor of Bonvilston. This Simon it was that first builded it, a fair village much like a Town, and from him the Welsh called it Tresimon, and the English call it Bonvilston and for shortness Bowlson.
10th To one Deere one of his Parkers he gave Lands in Lantwit and at Deerurst [struck out] a place by Tewksbury, and from him come the Deeres.
11th To one Lales his Chief Mason he Gave Lands at Langewydd, which Lales built the Town of Laleston a goodly place, and pulled down the Church of Langewydd and moved it to his new Town of Laleston. This place after the Death of Lales went by escheat to the Chief Lord, who parcelled it to others.
12th To one of the Walters he gave Lands at Boverton for holding the office of Pomarian. He also gave him Lands at Corboil in Normandy, and of this family there be still remaining some of worshipful account.
13th To one Estecotte from whome Came the family of Estecottes, Gave he Lands for holding the calling of chief provider of wood and Coal, to all his Castles and houses. And of this family there be still some poor people.
14th To one Lugge he gave the office of Chief Messenger, with Lands to hold by that service.
15th To one Punter (fn. 35) he gave the Calling of overseer of all the Bridges in Glamorgan, with Lands to support him.
And to others as you will see in their Pedigrees he gave Lands and Estates, to hold by worshipful service. But of those here spoken of, little is known, as far as I have seen.
IT behoveth here to speak of the order of Rule and governance that Sir Robert set up and of such Laws as were settled upon, and to make all plainer here followeth the names of the Lordships of Glamorgan which were twelve, that is to say
1. Gwenllogue, (fn. 36) extended from the River Tave, to the River uske, in its length from West to East. And in the west part from the Sea to the hills of Ceven Onn, (fn. 37) and in the East from the sea along Uske River to the Avon loid, (fn. 38) that runs into usk a Mile above Carleion, and along that river up to the hills to high Went, and across from there west to the River Remney. This was the greatest of all the Lordships, and was called Cantre Breniol, (fn. 39) for that it was Guildable in the Chief Lords Courts, which were held of old in Caerleion, but after that at Cardiff and often at Kenffig Castle and at the Lords Hall at Lantwit.
2. Senghenithe Lordship was next, and in it a strong Castle where were kept the Courts of the Lordship.
3. Meiskin where was the Town and Castle of Lantrisent, where the Lord of Meiskin held his Courts.
4. Glyn rhodney lay among the hills and had Lords who kept Court on the Top of a Hill called Cefen Sulseig, as we have a late rememberd.
5. Was Talavan a small Lordship but it had a fair high Castle, and in it the Lord of Talavan held his Court.
6. was Lanblethian which had in it the Town of Cowbridge and the Castles of Lanblethian and Langwyan, where in their Turn were kept the Courts of the Lordship.
7th was Lantwit a goodly Town in times Past, (fn. 40) where was a fair Court house of the Lord of Lantwit, and another Princely Hall standing where the Chief Lord held Courts when he chanced to be for stay at his house of Boverton. And it was there of old the yearly high meetings of all the Country were held to consider of the making of new Laws, and such weighty matters which wanted the Countrys Judgment, because Lantwit was the nearest of all other Towns to the middle of the Country. (fn. 41) This Lordship reached from Lar River in the East to the River Alain in the West where it Joined with Lanbleithian Lordship.
8th was Ruthen, a small Lordship that had a Castle at Ruthen, where lived the Lord and he there held his Court. He had another Castle house at Llanilid, of which nothing now remaineth.
9th was Coity, a great Lordship for number of Men. There was in it a Castle, and the new Castle stands in the now village of Coyty, where were kept the Lords Courts. There were held in this Lordship two Courts in the month.
10th was Tiryarlh, which had of old for its Castle and Court Hall the Castle of Cenffig, and alate a Castle in Langynwyd (fn. 42) and after that Bettois (fn. 43) Court. This Lordship was second for place and Royalty, till the time of Robert Fitzhamon when it was Joined to the Royalties.
11th Was the Lordship of Avan, where was the Town Royal and Castle of Aberavon (fn. 44) where the Lord had his Court. This Lordship Lay between Avan and Nethe Rivers.
12th was the Lordship of Nethe which went from Nethe River to the River Cremlyn as some say, and so it was of late times, but of old it went over the River Tawy and had all Este Gower. But the Norman Lords were never able to win Gower to their Power, and for that reason it fell into the hands of the Princes of South Wales and so remained till it fell by conquest to [blank.]
Now of these Lords before the time of Robert fitzhamon there was one Chief Lord of Glamorgan whose were the high Royalties, and he assembled the other Lords every month to his Court, (fn. 45) where all matters of Justice were determined and finally settled. These Lords sat in Judgment on all matters of Law, with twelve Freeholders from every Lordship to give opinions after what came to their knowledge, and the Bishop of Landaff sat in the high Court as a Councellor of Conscience according to the Laws of God. This Court was formed they say by Morgan who was Prince of the Country after King Arthur, in the manner of Christ and his twelve appostles, (fn. 46) and this form of Law was kept by Sir Robert fitz Hamon according to the old usage of the Country. After the high Court was held which lasted three days, the Courts of the twelve Lordships were held in turn, and from them an appeal might be made to the high Court of the County, the Lord and his yeamen, in the same form and manner as in the high Court.
Besides the Royal Cantred as much of it as lay between Tâf and Remney, there belonged to the Royalties many fair mannors, all members of the Chief Lords Portion. The tennants and freeholders within these mannors were under the high Court with respect to matters of Law, and in each of these mannors were held once in the fortnight mostly, courts of frankpledge, where sat the Reeve of the Mannor as Judge, and with him the freeholders of the same mannor. After the winning of the Country by Sir Robert Fitzhamon, he took to him his twelve knights to supply the places in his Courts of the Lawful and right Lords of the twelve Lordships, which caused discontent insomuch that the Welsh lords took arm under Pain Turberville and Caradoc ab Iestyn and Madoc his Brother, and they came to Cardiff Castle and surrounded it insomuch that it was on the point of being taken when King Henry the first going to the top of the Raven Tower, (fn. 47) to enquire concerning the tumult which was heard, he saw the place all encompassed by fierce armed men. Whereupon he called a parley, when Pain Turberville told him the reason, saying that if rightful orders were not made, to restore the Laws of Morgan the first, that he and Robert fitz hamon should feel at the ears very soon of what stuff the Castle walls were of at the heart. On which all in the Castle councelled together, and it was seen best to Yield to the Country that request. And soon after Sir Robert sent a band of Men to bring Turbill a Prisoner to the Castle, where he was bound in chains for that he would not pay what had been charged of him in tribute, which was a noble in the year. This noble Pain had paid to Caradoc, which gave offence to Sir Robert and the other knightes. But after they had taken Pain all his men and the men of Caradoc took arms and beset the Castle of Cardiff, whereupon Sir Robert was compelled to let go Pain Turbill and to give him free of the Noble a year. Which after that nevertheless came by Joint agreement to be paid the Chief lord what time Ifor Petit rose up the Country for that the old laws were not kept to. And at this time it was again settled for the proper Courts to be held in all the Lordships, and the lords of the Courts to Join with the Chief Lord in his high Court, which Laws had been a second time broke by the Norman Lords. And in this engagement as was said before, the Welsh Lords won the right and it so remained till wales and England were united in one Realm and the Laws were altered. About the same time Came Meredith ap Gruffydd into possession and Rule in Gwenlloge, and then that Country began to be under its own Lords and Courts, and its Lords would not give attendance in the high Court of Glamorgan, but they parted it in three parts that is to say, Wenlloge, Aber Carn and Dylygion, which were under the Lords of Caerlleon who were of Right Chief Lords of Glamorgan and to whom some of the Welsh Lords besides those three of Gwentloge, paid at times a noble a year. And it came at Last that the Lords of Senghenythe and of Misgyn and of Coity, and those of Ruthyn and Avan, put themselves under the Lords of Caerleon, as it was in the time of King John, and other times. But in common all but Gwentlogue, eleven in number, held of the high Court and Chief Lord of Glamorgan. And this also did Wentloge in times after, that is from the days of Sir Richard Beauchamp to the time of King Henry the eighth, who altered the Laws and brought all wales under the same Laws as were in England alate. So good was the Rule and Government in Glamorgan thought of, that many things were taken from it to add to the Laws of England, and more specially in the time of King Elfred. Now the high Lordship of Glamorgan is formed into a County and makes one of the thirteen Counties of Wales.
The County of Glamorgan doth now reach from Remney River to the River Aman, and Gower is a part of it with special priviledge, (fn. 48) and Gwentlogue with all its Members together with the Town of Caerleon makes part of the Shire of Monmouth. And these Countries be all Good and fruitful, full of Corn and Good Grazure, with abundance of kine and sheep, and a great many fair Castles and places of worshipfulness having Parks and Warrens and Orchards, and Ponds of fish, in as good plenty as any other shire in England or Wales, excepting that we account for lean and rough in part the Lordships of Senghenydd and most of Misgin with Glynrhoddeney and some of Tiriarll and the high parts of Gwentlogue, which lye among high hills and Mountains but not without what is wanting of Corn and abundance of kine and Sheep, and numbers great of Rivers full of trouts, with large woods and plentuous vains of good Coal. These good things I say be in the worst parts, and if anything be wanting, the lower parts lye to the south hard at hand ready to afford in supply all that may be wanted, whether it be of Corn of all sorts or of dainty fruits and good fullfated flesh of Oxen or of Sheep. And running to the sea find we many fair Rivers full of Good salmons and suins (fn. 49) and trouts and many more sorts of dainty fish, and having at their fall into the sea many safe places for sheltering ships, that bring in useful and costly merchandize. All which things being put together make the land of Glamorgan in all its twelve Cantons a very plentiful and Goodly Country, insomuch that for Corn and good fruits they Call it in England the Garden of Wales, and for good Cattle of all kinds the nursery of the West, and for its good fires we have a saying by way of proverb, in calling a good fire Glamorgan Sun, (fn. 50) there being so great a fullness of Wood and Coal.
And thus endeth the story of the Coming of the Norman Lords here and of the sway they obtained. And be it at this day observed that there are but a very small number of families of them and their tenants now in being, their Lands having for the most part passed in long course of time to other families, of whom are many welsh, and some of them come of the Welsh rightful owners of the Lands from first. And this I gathered from numbers of old Books, with much Labour and Pains of Study.
Another Account of the Coming in of the Normans, in a shorter story than before, by Sir Edward Mansel of Margam. (Thos Trueman.)
IESTIN ab Gwrgan was Prince of Glamorgan, which Country in his days was reckoned to reach from the River Uske in the East to the River Tawe in the West and from the Severn Sea in the South to the foot of the Black Mountain in the North which divide[s] it from Brecknockshire. This was a fair and strong Country having great fullness of Wheat and Barley and such other kinds of Corn as the Climate affords, with fatness of Land in the south part yielding Grass in such abundance that it fed great numbers of kine and sheep. Iestin was besides this Lord of all the Country between the River Uske and the Bridge of Glocester, that part of it between the Severn and the Wye he had by way of Dower Portion with his second wife Angharad Daughter of Elystan Glodrydd, Earl of Ferlix or Hereford. To the Country of Gwent which lay between Uske and Wye did belong the Lordship of Ewyas and Ystradew, all which had for many ages been in the hold of the Lords or Princes of Glamorgan. Now the Country of Glamorgan came to be first a Royal Lordship from one Morgan a Prince who Lived in the time of King Arthur and was his son as some have it, others say he was cousin of Arthur This Morgan had under him all the Country of Glamorgan as aforesaid, which Country he called from his own name, signifying as the Welsh importeth the Country of Morgan. Now I am aware that there be others who say that it was of the Lordship of Morgan or Margam, that the Country took its name, but this is not true. Now as to this Country it passed in the family from the said Morgan down to Iestyn the son of Gwrgant, which Gwrgant was Prince or Lord of Glamorgan and was a good and Liberal prince. He gave much to Churches and built many ones. He also Gave a large Plain in the Lordship of Glynrhondde to his poor Tenants for their use to sow Corn and rear Cattle, which plain was free to all who had done fealty to the Lord of Glamorgan, now to return to Iestyn his son.
[Here follows an account of the coming of the Norman Lords, which differs but slightly from the former version. Einion ap Collwyn is here styled "Prince of Pembrokeshire which was called Dyfed in those days." He is represented as going to the Court of King William Rufus (at which he had "good acquaintance, for there had he been brought up,") and obtaining the King's leave to invite Sir Robert Fitzhamon], who agreed for a round summ, to come to the aid of Iestyn so come he did, and with him twelve knights of approved worth and valour. Upon their coming to Bristow they took ships, and in one day and a night they came to land in Porth Kery, where was then a Good haven for ships before the fall of the clifft there which was in our Grandfather's days. Here it was they landed ashore, and went with speed to meet Iestin who received them with honourable entertainment at Cardiff Castle. [The refusal of Iestyn to confer upon Einion the hand of his daughter Nest] angered Sir Robert very much, and so he resolved to battle it out with Iestyn with sword and steel, and a bloody battle was fought near Cardiff on a flat plain there called the little Down, (fn. 51) the marks of which battle they show to this day. And in this fight Iestin was overthrown and forced to fly for his Life, and he afterwards turned Monk in Kensam Priory.
[Describing the lands kept by Fitzhamon in his own hands as his demesne, the Castle of Dinas Powys is included; and it is stated that] it was at his Grange house of Boverton that he made practice of giving entertainments to his friends, in dainty board and noble divertisements, and here he spent much of his private time. But [at Cardiff] (fn. 52) he kept his Court in solemn pomp and grandure and held there Courts of Law and Justice and a Chancery for cases of conscience the first monday, tuesday and wednesday of every month, and where all the twelve prime Lords attended to give assistance in passing Judgement. And that it might be done with fairness, by consent and in presence of the Country, a great number of freeholders were there in attendance, who by twelves were appointed to search out the truth and report it to the Lords and their Chancellor. Who after the tenor of such report gave sentence which could not be avoided or put aside, but firmly remained, and the Chancellor on the Wednesday set the punishments and fines. And after this Courts of like nature were held by turn in all the other twelve Lordships, where sat the Lords in Judgment with their yeomen as substantiates of the Country to prove evidence and report, very much of the nature of the Juries that now are in the Kings Courts of Sessions. From the Lordships members Courts might appeals be made on some reasons to the high Court of Glamorgan, after leave obtained by the Chancelor of Glamorgan. And once in the year was held a Grand Council of all the Lords and frehold to enquire what was needful of new laws and of ammendment in the old ones, and this was always held at the Lords hall at Lantwit till the same was broke down with fire and force by Owen Glendore. After that it was held always at Cardiff Castel. This great Court was called the Court of King and Country, or, the Parliament, and so far of the Lords Courts.
To return to Sir Robert Fitz Hamon, he also kept to himself the two Lordships of Glenrhondde and Tiryarll, as the first of them had been by its Lord given to Howel ab Ithel elder brother of Gwrgant father of Iestin, which Howel having no Child, Gwrgant his Brother inherited after him, and Tiryarll had fallen by escheat to Iestin by the death of Cadrod ab Owain farf hir (fn. 53) its last lord of the Ancient race. So by the possession of all this Sir Robert came to have great power and wealth, and all this with much more in the Lordship of Gwentlhogue had Iestin in Glamorgan, and with this he had all Gwentland and that part between Glocester bridge and Wye river, called of old Ferlex but now the Forest of Dene, (fn. 54) which Countryes with all Gwentlogue except what lies between Tave and Remney River south of Senghenydd sir Robert fitz Hamon Could not win from Owen ab Caradoc ab Rhytherch eldest son of Iestyn by Denis his first Wife Daughter of Blethyn ap Convyn Lord of Powys.
[Caradoc, eldest son of Iestyn ap Gwrgan by his second wife Angharad verch Elysdan Glodrydd, Earl of Ferlex or Hereford, and her mother who was Gwladys verch Rhun ap Edwyn ap Hywel Dda, Prince of South Wales 41 years, and of Powys 39, and of North Wales 8 years. His genealogy is here more fully recited than in the former account.
Cedrych ap Gwaethfoed is here said to have received] the Lordship of Senghenythe with two Castles which he [with the] upper Senghenydd now called Morleis Castle, and lower Senghenydd called now Red Castle upon Tave. But Caerfilly Castle Sir Robert kept in his own hands and it always remained in the possession of the Lords of Glamorgan, as a strong holt of defence.
A seventh Lordship is Tiryarll. It is most of it middling ground that gives good encrease of Corn and Cattle. In it is Margam and Cenffig. Some of it is middling plain Country and some mountainy, having much wood and coal, with some lime, and many Rivers of clear water that yield much good fish. This Lordship kept also the Lord of Glamorgan in his hands, being most pleasant for sports of hunting and such like divertisements, having deeres and hares and Patriges and Pheasants the most of any part.
[The Lordship of Lantwit is described as so fertile] that as Glamorgan was called the Garden of Wales was this Lordship called the Garden of Glamorgan . . . . and it is the flower of all the Country . . . . and it was very full of goodly villages and Courtly houses, most of them still in remaining. The Lord had in this Lordship a noble Castle at Dinas Powys and one at Barry, with his Court house of Lantwit and Grange house of Boverton, so that in the whole it is a most Goodly Country.
[Of the Lordship of "Tal y vann" it is stated that] the Lords homested was the Castle of Tal y fan, which was when it stood notedly high, having three Towers each of which was forty six yards high. Of this Castle little now remaineth but a picture of it in the hall of my worshipful friend Sir Edward Stradling of St Donats Castle.
[The Lordship of Coyty] was held by Morgan ab Meyryg ab Gruffydd ab Iestin who had an only Child which was a daughter called Sarah. This Morgan was very powerful in his Castle and men and riches, so Sir Robert fitzhamon durst not meddle with his lordship any more than with some mannors in it part of the chief Lords domain and so belonging to Iestin, which he gave to eleven of the knights. After all had been endowed with Lands for their service, Pain Turbervil Asked sir Robert where was his share, to which Sir Robert answered here are men and here are Arms, go get it where you can. So Pain Turbervill with the men went to Coity and sent to Morgan a messenger to ask if he would yield up the Castle. Upon this Morgan brought out his Daughter Sara in his hand and passing thro the army with his sword in his Right hand came to Pain Turbill and told him if he would marry his Daughter and so come like an honest Man into his Castle that he would yield it to him quickly. And if not said he, let not the blood of any of our men be lost, but let this sword and arm of mine and those of yours decide who shall call this Castle his own. Upon this Pain Turberville drew his sword and took it by the blade in his left hand and gave it to Morgan and with his right hand embraced the Daughter, and after settling evry matter to the liking of both sides he went with her to church and married her, and so came to the Lordship by true right of possession.
The twelfth Lordship was that of Gwentlogue. It lay on the west between the hill of Ceven onn and the sea and by the River Tave, and towards the East it reached to the river uske and so by the side of it up to Carlion, and a mile higher to the River Llwyd, which coming from the mountains parts Gwentloge from high Went, up to above Pont Pool. And from there along the hills to the west as far as Remny River head, lay the bounds of Gwentlogue to the North. All this Lordship had good lands for Corn and Cattle of all sorts with abundance of very Good Wood and some Coal, and Lime, with great numbers of Rivers and brooks of clear water having rich stores of fish, and south it has the severn sea with all sorts of saltwater fish in plenty, and some good havens for ships. Here for Towns are Newport on Uske, and Caerleon on Uske an Ancient place and the small market Town of Pont pool. Excepting the Castles of Newport and Carleon it had only Machen that I know of.* * * When the new Shire of Monmouth was formed alate it was made part of that, however by common account it is still reckoned part of Glamorgan. This Lordship was before the time of the Norman Lords the immediate property of the Lord for maintenance of his Eldest Son, who at mans age used to have full possession of it all but the Town of Cardiff (fn. 55) and its Domain, and Sir Robert won no more of it than as far as Remney River.This was called Cantref Breniol (fn. 56) for the said reasons.
[The treatise now goes on to deal with the twelve Norman Lordships, the account of which follows with few material variations from that previously given. Sir Roger Berkerolles, Lord of St Athan,] brought over from Normandy fine goodly trees for fruit such as apples and grapes and other fruits, and planted them about his new Castles of St Athan which from that were called Westorchard and East orchard, the last place being remaining to this day in possession of Sir Edward Stradling of St Donats Castle. From these orchards came fruit trees to spred about the Country in such plenty as to be planted every where, that Glamorgan came to be called the Garden of Wales. For it was from there that all the Lords and Knights had fruit trees to plant by their Castles and places of homstead. These two Castles were built in a goodly manner by sir Roger, and after the Possession of three hundred years it went by marriage right to the Stradlings of St Donats Castle as it now remains.
[Having concluded his enumeration of the Norman Lordships, Mansel gives the minor manors as before, prefacing his account of them with the following remarks.]
There belonged to the Segniory many fair mannors in sundry parts of the Country. These were reckoned of the Segniory or chief Lordship and parcells of Gwentloge, as some say, others say that the segniory was all seperate from Wentlogue, but so long is the time since that many things are gone to forgetfulness, and what we find in ancient Books and Rolls do not agree one thing with the other. In my searching I have looked for the truth, in such manner as to give pleasure to men and Glory to God.
[Bewper is here stated to have been given to Sir Robert Seysyllt, by Sir Robert Fitzhamon.]
Some say that he gave the manor of Guarinston by Wenvoe to Guarin (fn. 57) de Metz, which Guarin built there a Castle and Town, which was called after his name and that the great Soldier Sir Fulke Fitzwarren was born in that Castle, which manor was parcel of the Segniory.
[Finally, in later writing of the same hand, comes this paragraph:—]
To Blondel De Mapes he gave the lands of Gweirydd ap Seisyllt hen, Lord of Llancarvan. This Blondel married Tiflur the daughter of the said Gweirydd who was his only child and heiress, for his son Arthal had been killed in the war against Rhys ab Tewdur. To this Blondel by the said Marriage was born a son named Wallter de Mapes who built the Village of Trewallter and restored the greatest part of his Lands to the right Owners, and was afterwards ordained a priest and was by Henry 2d. chosen for his Chaplain when he passed thro Wales in his way to Ireland.
N.B.— The above and the next following account are referred to in the footnotes to the "Iolo MSS.," where several passages are transcribed by Taliesin ab Iolo from this MS. (Ed. publ. by Foulkes at Liverpool in 1888; p. 358, note.) "Iolo MSS." contains (inter alia) a Welsh document, with English translation, entitled "Llyma Enwau a Hiliogaeth Brenhinoedd Morganwg", "These be the Names and Genealogy of the Kings of Glamorgan"—which was copied by Iolo Morganwg from a MS. of the bard-antiquary Llewelyn Sion of Llangewydd, temp. Eliz. It is evidently derived from the same source as the MS. of Edward Mansel.
III., p. 93.
The names of the Kings of Glamorgan from Morgan Mwynfawr.
MORGAN Mwynfawr was King of Glamorgan and a valiant, a Just, a wise and a generous humane gentle and merciful prince. He made very good Laws and was so beloved by his subjects that no one would leave him or stay at home behind him whenever he went to war. He made a Law that all men who had Lawsuits &; quarels should before they would try them by the law of the land, refer the matter to 12 pious merciful men and the King to be their director. This Law was called the apostolic Law because the King &; his twelve elders acted in the manner of Christ & his apostles, that is by mercy and gentleness. By this law every one was to be deprived of the priviledge of saying a word on any public occasion, or of being believed what ever he said, if he had dared to use any one whether friend or foe in any manner ill by abuseing with weopon hand word or any other act, untill a full year was expired after his public recantation, and this also on condition that he had behaved in all things well during that year.
The County [sic] was called Glamorgan, and the gentleness which his good law produced in the Country was called the gentleness of Glamorgan (fn. 58) and became a proverb all over Wales. He had his palace at Margam and erected there a bishopric which lasted five success'ons, and was then united to Landaf. He was very wild of nature and hasty in his youth, but repented of his wickedness and became the best King that ever was.
2d Einydd Son of Morgan mwynfawr, succeeded, and was a very good King but did not live long. He gave much towards encouraging religion especially to the Churches of Landaf Morgan (fn. 59) St Cadoc's by Neath, and St Iltud's. (fn. 60)
3d Rhys son of Einydd, was a valiant prince and drove out the saxons from wales.
4th Arthfael son of Rhys succeeded. He was slain in a battle against the saxons but his army won the victory.
5th Meyric son of Arthfael was a very great and worthy King, and kept his foes in awe by his weopons and his subjects in aw by the forcing of them to obey the laws of Morgan mwynfawr. And for his good government his name became a proverb enw mawr yw enw Meyric the name of meyric is a great name.
6th Brochmael son of Meyric succeeded. He built many Churches and did many great actions both good and bad.
7th Gweirydd son of Brochmael succeeded, and was unfortunate in his wars tho valiant, for bad seasons and sickness greatly injured his Country.
8th Arthfael the second son of Gweirydd succeeded and had better luck than his father for he freed his Country from the English.
9th Rhys son of Arthfael, succeeded. He caused many Castles to be made and built many ships and oblidged every one that had land in the vale (fn. 61) to sow corn in half of it and that all Land which was neither corn nor grased by Cattle should be forfeited to the King, except it was wood and forest according to the limits of the Law. This Law caused such a great plenty of Corn and Cattle in Glamorgan that it came to be called the Lady of all Countries, (fn. 62) so fruitful was it then reckoned.
10th Hywel son of Rhys made war with the Lord of Brecnock for the lands of ystrad yw &; Eyas which by rite were Howels, but the lord of Brecnock gave his right to Cadell King of Southwales and so Hywel was oblidged to yield up a great part of his right and to extend his Country no farther than Cerrig hywel, (fn. 63) which place was so called from great stones which were set up there for boundary marks betwen Hywel and Cadell. Morgan his son succeeded him.
11th Morgan Mawr son of Hywel was a very great king he married Nest Daur of Rhodri Mawr and obtained a restitution of his right in ystrad yw &; ewyas from Hywel Dda after the Death of his father Cadell. But Hywel dda after that lay claim to them and took them so that both Kings prepared for war but the Bishop of Landaf reminded them of the Laws of Morgan mwynfawr and so they both consented to be tried by them and Hywel brought six elders &; Morgan six and because neither of those princes could direct the Elders it being their own case they Chose Edgar King of London. (fn. 64) And he with the twelve Elders gave a verdict for Morgan and so peace was made between them. This Morgan was the first that built the Castle of Cardiff and the Town where an old Town had been beefore built by Didi Gawr (fn. 65) a Roman Conqueror, which Town had been destroyed by the Saxons. He had also a palace at Radyr &; Braigam, (fn. 66) where he often held Courts & dwelt.
12. Owain son of Morgan mawr of Morgan Hén (fn. 67) had war with Owain ab Hywel dda, but King Edgar and the Bishop of Landaf made peace between them.
13. Ithel son of Owain was a valorous prince and had a palace at ystradywain and another summer house called Ton Ithel ddu. He was called Ithel Ddu from his black Hair, &; beard.
14. Gwrgan son of Ithel succeeded and was a very liberal prince. He put in force the Laws of Morgan Mwynfawr &; Rhys ab arthfael, and the Country greatly flourished under him. He was a good Poet and made good Laws for ruling the Poets, which are to be seen now. He gave a large piece of ground in the Lordship of Glynrhonddau to his subjects for Ever to set corn on it or feed Cattle, and this place is a large plain called Hirwaen Wrgan.
15th Iestin son of Gwrgan succeeded. He was a very cruel King and not beloved by his subjects. He fell out with Rhys ab Tewdwr prince of Southwales, and went to warr with him, and hired Sir Robert Fits Aymon to assist him.
[Here follows an account, abbreviated from the earlier one, of the Norman conquest and partition of Glamorgan. The only new matter is the following:]
17. To Einon ab Collwyn he gave Nest the Daur of Iestyn by the said 2d Wife in marriage and with her the Castle and Burough of Lantrisaint, with the Lordships of Misgyn, Clyn, Pentyrch & Trewern, and from Caradoc the Eldest son of Einon &; Nest come the Gibbons of Trecastell, Craig vathan, Pryse, &; the Pritchards of Colleneu, (fn. 68) and from Richard the second son of Einon &; nest come the Powels of Landw, of Llwydarth, Goetre hen, Penyvai, genau'rglyn, Maesteg, Lysworney, Lanharan &; Ton Du. And Einion's Arms belongs to all those branches, 3 fleurs de lis argent with a Chevroon argent in a field sable, (fn. 69) the Crest a blue boars head.
[From Ifor Bach ap Cadifor ap Cedrych ap Gwaethfoed, whose "chief seat was at the Red Castle upon Taff above Ton Gwynlais,"] descended the Pritchards of Lancayach, and Lewises of Vann and St Fagans Castle, which was built by Dr Gibbon, and the said Pritchards and Lewises Descended by the female line from Morlais Castle in uper senghenydd.
Lord of Glamorgan &; first of Norman blood, Sir Robert Fits Hamon, after the above division of the Country, he built his new Castle of Cardif by the west Gate and finished the walls round the Town begun by Iestin ab Gwrgan. In this new Castle he built an appartment for all the petty Lords whom he called his peers. Some say it was only for the 12 norman Lords and that he left the Welsh Lords to rule in their own way &; others say that there were Rooms for the welsh Lords as well as Normans. [Here follows a statement of the procedure in the High Court of the Lordship, at Cardiff Castle, similar to that previously given, but with the following addition.] Every Tuesday there was a Court of eschequer, when an account was given in of the number of acres of Corn and number of Cattle, for every gentleman &; yeoman was forced to raise corn &; cattle according to law that the Country might not want food.
[Then comes a list of the Lords of Glamorgan, followed by the Lords of Cardiff. The first Earl of Pembroke of the new line, who acquired the Lordship of Cardiff from King Edward VI., is here said to be "by some called Black Will." The account of him runs thus:]
24th William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke &; Lord of Glamorgan. (fn. 70) He was by King Hen. VIII. for his valour knighted, and afterwards made Baron Herbert of Cardiff and Master of the Horse, by King Edw. VI., 10 October 1551, and the next day created Earl of Pembroke. He was the third son of Richard Herbert of Ewyas in the County of Hereford, Esq., by Margaret his wife, daughter and their to Sir Matthew Cradock of Swansea, knt.
The said Richard Herbert was the fourth son of William Herbert of Raglan Castle in the county of Monmouth, 1st Earl of Pembroke, by Dorothy his second wife, (fn. 71) daughter and heir to Adam Powel Grant, paternally descended from Sir Gwrgi le Graunt, knt.
The said Earl of Pembroke and Lord of Glamorgan [lege of Cardiff] had a natural son named Philip Herbert of Cogan vach.
27th Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, married Susan, daughter to Edward Vere, the seventeenth Earl of Oxford of that family, and issued Philip, Lord Cardif; Henry; Charles, who was slain at the battle of Edgehill, while carrying the Royal Standard; William; Edward; James, died 1677; Anna Sophia, married Robert, Earl of Carnarvon.
[The list closes with this paragraph:]
34th Descent. Lord Mount Stewart, who is now 1777 Baron of Cardiff and Lord of Glamorgan in Right of his Wife.
(from Mr Thos Truemans Book 1782.)
IV., p. 117.
[Here begins another list of the Norman lords and Welsh chieftains, with the possessions assigned to each, and genealogical notes. From this I extract the following additions to and variations from the foregoing accounts:]
The Evans of gnoll near Neath, Price of Briton ferry, williamses of Blaen Baglan, aberpergwm &; Ty'n y Bettws, Thomases of Brigam Loughor from Skerr, (fn. 72) &; Tithegston and the Thomases of Llanvihangel, Pwll y wrach, (fn. 73) &; llwyn y waun, are all descended from this Caradog ab Iestyn, which Caradog had given him by sir Robert, the Lordship of Avan to his part, and his chief place was the Town & Castle of Aberavan, and another Castle in the said Lordship which was destroyed by the South Wales Welsh. [Underlined by the copyist, probably because an addition to the original.]
Howel [ap Madog ap Iestyn ap Gwrgan] had Lantrythyd and Issued Cynfrig Lord of Lantrythyd and from him are descended the old families of Ceven Mably &; the old families of Landaff &; Radyr before the Mathews and Pant y Corraid. (fn. 74) And from that to Monks Castle, (fn. 75) &; Dafydd Llywelyn Cynfrig of Rhydlafar, (fn. 76) and Gruffudd fawr of Caerwiga who was a B. (fn. 77) son to Evan Llywelyn Cynvrig.
Rhys the third son of Iestyn he had the Lordship of Reeding or Sovlen, and the families descended from him are the Williams of Dyffryn, (fn. 78) Llywelyn's of Ynys y Gerwyn, allt-wen, and Llangewydd.
* * * *
Lywelyn John of Langewydd (fn. 79) said that Iestyn ab Gwrgan had ten sons &; three Daughters, by several wives, &; that he was buried at Kensam.
After this division of estates to the Welsh Lords, he divided the greatest part of the vale into 12 Lots, and each of the Lots to the knights according as they fell out, numbering every Lot, and the knights to take precedence according to the number of their Lot, number one being first next to the Chief Lord.
Iestin ab Gwrgan Prince of Glam. who lived at the old Castle of Cardif, mard two wives. 1st Denis Daur to Blethyn ap Cynfyn Prince of Powys, &; for her he built the Castle of Denis powys for her Court, as it had been agreed on when they mard. By her he had Isue 1st Rhydderch whose [sic] descent came Prince of Caerlleon, (fn. 80) at that time in Glam. And some say that the eldest son of the King of Glam. was by Law prince of Caerlleon upon usk. 2d Meredith. 3d Cadwgan. 4th Griffith who had the Lordship of Coyty .... being the wisest and most valiant of his sons, making (fn. 81) the Lordship of Caerleon with the Cantred of Gwaenllwg &; Gwent isa &; Cantref Coch (which was given him with his second wife as a portion). 5th Rhiwallon. 6th Iorwerth. 7th Morgan hir (fn. 82) ab Iestyn. 7th Elen, that mard Trym ab Maenarch, Lord of Brecheinog, &; 8 gwenllian that mard at Lanffwyst (fn. 83) one Ynyr King of Gwent (fn. 84) in the time of Edward the Conffessor.
Some say that it was of the Lordship of Morgan or Margam, which then consisted of the Country from Cremlyn to Ogwyr and was the largest of all the Lordships, which Caradoc had with a deed securing to him the Principality of Glam. after his (Iestin's) death. This Lordship with that of Caerlleon &; Silly (fn. 85) were three which the Prince of Glam. had in his hands to bestow on his 2 eldest sons & wife.
Justins second wife was Angharad Daur of Elystan Glodrydd Earl of Ferlex or Hereford, and had Isue by her 1st Caradoc aforesaid, 2d Madoc, 3d Rees, &; 4th Nest. In the year 1089 was Iestyn treacherously overcome, by the normans, and he died in the year 1090, and was buried at Censam, (fn. 86) or as some say at Cadoxton Juxta Neath. He spent his last days it is said with an old friend of his who had been his chief Bard &; historian, and who lived at Censan, and that it was with him he died of a broken heart.
[The piece concludes with a few further notes respecting the Lordship of Glamorgan.
V., p. 128.
Male descent of Bevan of Trefeurig in Llantrisant, to the year 1778.
VI., p. 131.
Male descent of Kemeys of Kemeys, Beganston, Cefn Mabli, Newport, Lanrumney, Vaindre, Caldicot, Bedminster and Llanfair. Concludes thus:]
Elizabeth Herbert came with her mother to Castellau and met there with her husband Thomas Trueman of near Northampton Town, &; isued Richard &; others, that mard Kate the Daur of Howel Mathew of Landaff Gent. &; Jane his wife Daur to Wm Thomas of Lanbradach Esqr, &; his wife Daur to Thos to Morgan of Machain Esqr, the sd Howel who was the only Child of Thos Mathew and his 1st wife Gwenllian the Daur of Robert Mathew Esqr of Maes Mawr Gent., and the said Thos Matthew who was the 2d son of Moris Matthew of Sweldon (fn. 87) Gent. and Constance windsor his Wife, and their Eldest son who was Walter mard, &; Isued Edward that morgaged Sweldon at Ceven Mably for 100£ and he died without Issue and left his estate to pay his debt, and it never returned back to the right heir afterwards. Howel Matthew his 1st cousin and right heir and Jane his wife died very near the same time and left the said Kate a Child And she never looked after the sd Estate when she came to her age because it was fallen into such powerful hands. Richard Trueman &; Cate his wife Isued Richard the Eldest Son that Mard Elizabeth Giles and Issued Their Eldest Son Thomas Trueman (fn. 88) now of Pant Lliwydd or Dyers Valley in the Parish of Lansanor, who Mard [cætera desunt.]
VII., p. 140.
[A few notes from Leland &;c.
VIII., p. 141.
Male descent of Powel of Maesteg and Llanharan:]
Rees Powel of Maesteg Gent. mard Joan Daur to the Revd Morgan Jones Dr in Divinity, &; Rector of Lanvaes (her mother being Mary Daur of Arthur Yeoman, Alderman of Cardiff), (fn. 89) and Issued John Powel of Maesteg Gent. who died without Isue, Gervase, Anthony, &; two Daurs.
Gervase Powel Gent. the 2d son became Heir of Maesteg after his eldest Brother's death &; mard Catherine Oliver Heiress of the Chapel of St John the Baptist in the Parish of Lantrisant, commonly called Capel Ievan fedyddwr. (fn. 90)
[The pedigree concludes thus:] Florence Powel mard Edmond Lloyd of Cardiff Esq. &; Issued Joanna Daur &; Heiress that Mard Robert Jones of Fonmon Castle Esqr Mary Powel 1st mard Thos Roberts of Landaff Esqr he died without Issue and settled his Estate upon his Wife &; her heirs for ever and she 2dly Mard Thos Edwards Esqr of Cardiff and had no Issue of him. Ales Powel the youngest Daur Mard Wm Gibbon of TreCastle Esqr and Issued Grant that was settled a Lawyers Clerk at Crickhowel &; was buried there ye 12th day Sepr 1778 aged 18, the sd Wm &; Ales Issued Eliz: &; Eleanor.
[Then follows a like pedigree of Powel of Lysworney, who acquired that estate by marriage with the heir of Edward Raglan of Lysworney Gent. (fn. 91) It concludes:]
Susan Durel Heiress of Lysworney mard John Franklen Esqr &; Issued Thomas now living 1772.
VII., p. 148.
[Further genealogical memoranda. Lewis of Creigiau near Neath descend from Lewis of Cil-y-bebyll, and through them from Rhys, third son of Iestyn ab Gwrgan. Other genealogies to the year 1779.]
VIII., p. 159.
Llyma Wehelyth Rial Y Coetty. O Lyfr Thomas Hopkin o Langrallo. (fn. 92) [Pedigree, in Welsh, of Turberville, Berkerolles, Despenser, Gamage and Began, shewing the devolution of the Lordship through those families. Note from Ieuan Deulwyn respecting Turberville of Coety. Verses by Ieuan Gethyn on the same subject, dated 1420.]
IX., p. 171.
Mangoffeion o Lyfr Mr Gamais o Landathan. (fn. 93) [Notes on some architectural antiquities in the Vale of Glamorgan. Also this :]
Jasper Iarll Penfro a wnaeth Glochdy Caer Dydd, a Chlochdy mawr Llandaf, ag a roddes glych i amryw blwyfau ym Morganwg, ag Organ i Gaerdydd a Llandaf, a Llanilltyd, a'r Bont Faen, a Llancarfan, a Llandathan, a Llangynwyd, ac Aberdar, a Chelligaer, a Llanffagan, a lleoedd eraill. Y rhain bob un a dynnwyd i lawr yn amser Harri'r wythfed ac Edward y chwechfed, oddierth un Caer Dydd ac un Llan Daf.
Jasper, Earl of Pembroke, made Cardiff belfry and the great belfry of Llandaff, and gave bells to several parishes in Glamorgan; and an organ to Cardiff and Llandaff and Llantwit and Cowbridge and Llancarvan and St Athan's and Llangynwyd and Aberdare and Gelligaer and St Fagan's and other places. Every one of these (organs) was taken down in the time of Henry the Eighth and Edward the Sixth, except one at Cardiff and one at Llandaff.]
X., p. 175.
The winning of the Lordship of Glamorgan or Morganwc out of the Welshmen's Hands, and first of the Description of the same Lordship.
1. IN primis, the said Lordship in length from Rymny (fn. 94) Bridge on the east side, to Pwll Conan on the west side is 27 miles. The breadth thereof from the Haven of Aburthaw alias Aberdaon, on the south side, to the confines of Brechinockshire, above Morleys castle is 22 Miles.
4. ..... And the town and Castle of Cardyff, or Caer-Dhydh, (fn. 95) in the east part, in which Castle of Cardyff, the Lord did most inhabit; and therein he had his Chancery and Exchequer, and a fair court house, wherein the County court was monthly kept on the Monday for all the suiters of the Shrievalty, that is of the body of the said lordship itself, without the said members.
5. Item, within the said shrievalty, or body of the said lordship, were 18 Castles, and 36 knights fees and a half, (fn. 96) that held of the said lordship of Glamorgan, by knights service, besides a great number of Freeholders.
6. Item, in eight of the said members were ten Castles and and four borough-Towns.
7. ..... The other nine members, with four of the aforesaid knights fees, and all the lands that were in the Lords hands, parcel of the said Lordship and members, the Earl of Penbroke hath purchased. So that there remaineth now to the senior of the said Lordship of Glamorgan (being in the Queen's Majesty's (fn. 97) hands) but the moity only of the manor of Dynaspowys, of the value of 26 pounds by the year. (fn. 98)
The manner of the winning of the said Lordship.
[A very brief account, not materially different from the foregoing.]
The names and sirnames of the
said Twelve Knights were these.
* * * *
The parcells given by the said
Robert Fitzhamon to the said
Twelve Knights and others, in
reward of service.
* * * *
The portion that the Lord kept
for himself and his Heirs.
THE Castle of Cardyff, and Kenfigg, with the foresaid three market Towns of Cardyff, Kenfigg, and Cowbridge, and the Shrievalty, being the body of the said Lordship of Glamorgan, and all the demesnes of the same, with the rest of the said members ..... He dwelt himself most in the said Castle or town of Cardyff being a fair haven town. And because he would have the aforesaid twelve knights and their heirs give attendance upon him every County Day (which was always kept by the Sheriff in the utter ward of the said Castle, on the Monday monthly as is before said) he gave every one of them a lodging within the said utter ward, the which their heirs, or those that purchased the same of their heirs, do enjoy at this day......
The Pedigree of Robert Fitzhamon, and
of his Heirs, Lords of Glamorgan.
[Concludes:] 24. Queen Elizabeth our most dread Sovereign that now is, doth succeed her in the same Seniory, and hath sold the Lordship of Neath from it; so that now there remain no more Lands appertaining to the Seniory, but the moitty of the Manor of Deinaspowys only.
[Pedigrees of Londres, Grenville, Turberville, St Quintin, Syward, Humphreville, Berkerolles, Sully, Le Soer, Fleming, St John and Stradling.]
Memorandum, that of the heirs male of the aforesaid twelve knights that came with sir Robert Fitzhamon to the winning of Glamorgan, the lordship aforesaid, there is at this day but the Stradling alive, that dwelleth in Wales, and enjoyeth the portion given in reward to his ancestors.
There be yet of the younger brothers of the Turberviles and Flemings. Greenefeeld and Syward do yet remain, but they dwell in England, (fn. 99) and have done away their Lands in Wales.
The Lord S. John, of Bledso (although he keepeth his ancient inheritance in Wales) yet he dwelleth in England.
Thus far the copy of the winning of Glamorgan as I received the [same] at the hands of Mrs Blanch Parrie, penned by Sir Edward Stradling, Knt.
Reprinted in Evans's eddition of Wynnes History of Wales 1774, from D. Powel's History of Wales, printed in the year 1584.
There are MS. copies of the foregoing History of the winning of the Lordship of Glamorgan by Sir Edward Stradling, in several hands in Glamorganshire, and some of them a little differing in expression, but not much in the relation of facts from the above. That which I have transcribed from Mr Thos Truman's Book has the most material difference.
Iorwerth Gwilym. (fn. 100)
May 25th 1783.
There is a copy of the above in the British Museum, ending with the accounts of Jasper Duke of Bedford and Thomas Stradling Esqr.
British Museum Duodi Floreal 1795. (fn. 101)
XI., p. 227.
Hen Gromlechau, Crynnau, Kist feini,
gorseddau, Twmpathau, Beddfeini,&c.
[List of 79 "Old cromlechs, rocking-stones, stone chambers, stone circles, mounds, burial stones &;c. in Glamorgan," in Welsh. The only ones occurring within the Cardiff district are :—]
6. Whitchurch mound.
35. Caerau, namely Caerau parish.
37. Gwaun Treoda.
73. Inscribed stone of Llandough by Penarth.
XII., p. 235.
The Signorie or Lordship of Gower,
Situate in the west part of the County
of Glamorgan, in South Wales.
* * * *
Llanover MS. Iolo. 14.
Morganwg y sydd yn ymestyn o afon Wysg ychydig uchlaw Caerlleon hyd afon Tawy, a'r wlad hon a gafas ei henw oddiwrth Forgan Mwynfawr.....cefnder oedd ef i'r Brenin Arthur, a chael a wnaeth ei ddewis ar y rhan a fynnai o Gymry yn dywysogaethau ei gefnder Arthur, a dewis a wnaeth ef ar ddeuddeg Cantref Gwent Essyllt, au galw Morganwg. A chyfiawn, a chall, a hael, a thrugarog, a mwyn ydoedd, ag a wnaeth gyfraith a barn ar bob peth yn ei wlad herwydd Defod Crist ar Apostolion, sef y gwnaeth ar bob achos Barn gwysio Deuddeg uchelwr Cantref o wyr doethion drugarog a duwiolfryd i farnu ar gwyn a hawl a rhoi cynnyg ar gymmod cyn barnu ar yr achos, ag efe Forgan yn Benraith a Phencyngor iddynt ar wedd arfer Crist a'r deuddeg Abostol: ag oni ellid cymmod, efe a'r deuddeg uchelwr a wnaent yn gydrym farn ar y peth, ar gyfraith hon a elwid y Gyfraith Abostolaidd, am ei bod yn ol mwynder a thrugaredd * * * Morgan Mawr ab Hywel ab Rhys .... oedd y cyntaf a wnaeth Dref a Chastell Caerdyf o fewn Caerau Didi Gawr ymherodr Rhufain, lie bu Dinas a losgwyd yn amser Cadwaladr gan y Saeson. Yr [oedd] gantho Blas hefyd ymreigan ag un arall yn yr Adur * * *
Morganwg (fn. 102) extends from the river Usk, a little above Caerleon, as far as the river Tawe; and this country took its name from Morgan the Very-Gentle ....he was cousin to King Arthur, and obtained his choice of the part he might desire of Wales, in the principalities of his cousin Arthur; and he chose the twelve Hundreds of Gwent Essyllt, (fn. 103) and called them, "Morganwg." And just and wise and generous and merciful and gentle was he, and made law and judgment on everything in his country according to the custom of Christ and the Apostles; for, in every cause of judgement, he let summon twelve noblemen of the Hundred—men wise, merciful and godfearing, to judge of complaint and right, and to propose an agreement before judging in the cause; and he Morgan as chief judge and chief counsellor to them, like unto the usage of Christ and the twelve Apostles. And unless agreement could be made, he and the twelve noblemen jointly made judgment on the matter; and this law was called the Apostolic Law, for that it was according to gentleness and mercy * * * Morgan the Great, son of Hywel, son of Rhys .... was the first who made the Town and Castle of Caerdyf (fn. 104) within the fort of Didi the Giant, Emperor of Rome, where was a walled town which was burned in the time of Cadwaladr by the Saxons. He had a mansion also at Breigan, and another at Radur] * * *
Llanover MS. Iolo. 29.
(1806.) p. 14.
MS. Mr Bwttwn o'r Dyffryn.
Cantrefi Morganwg fal y mae'r Rhaniad newydd
a phwy saint y sydd o dal Brenin ar bob plwyf
a chantref yngosodiant Cyfraith a hynn am y
Cantref Breiniol neu Gibwyr y sydd wlad wastad agos i gyd ag yn llawn tir da yn dwyn llawnder o yd gwych a gwair rhywiog a phorfa deg. Mae yma dwysged fawr o goedydd teg a'r afonydd penaf yw yn gyntaf Rhymi a'r afon hynn yw'r rhaniad rhyng Morganwg a Mynwy, ag y mae'n rhedeg ymhlith gweynydd breisiong (fn. 105) mewn dyffryn deg a choedlwyni hyfryd oi hamgylch. Yn ail Taf y sydd afon arw a thrwsgl yn dywad o fanna Breicheinog ag yn rhodio Glyn coediog a llawer o weynydd gleision teg o'r ddau ystlys a gwastad yw'r wlad a berthyn iddi lie rhed i'r mor a thros 6 neu 7 milltir oddiyno tuag i fynydd. A'r drydedd yw Elai un o'r afonydd teccaf o'r dir yn dyfod ar hyd dyffryndir brasdeg o bell o'r blaeneu.
MS. of Mr Button of the Dyffryn. (fn. 106) The Hundreds of Morganwg as the new division is; and what Saints there are of kingly stock over each parish and Hundred in the setting (fn. 107) of Law, and this for the year 1662.
The Privileged Hundred, or Cibwyr, (fn. 108) is a flat country almost entirely, and full of good land bearing abundance of fine corn, and excellent hay, and fair pasture. Here is great plenty of fair woods; (fn. 109) and the chief rivers are firstly the Rhymi, (fn. 110) and this river is the division between Morganwg and Mynwy, (fn. 111) and it runs amidst fertile meadows in a fair valley, and pleasant groves about it. Secondly, the Taf is a rough and turbulent river coming from the peaked hills of Breicheinog (fn. 112) and passing through a woody glen with many green, fair meads on both sides ; and flat is the country which belongs to it, where it runs to the sea, and for 6 or 7 miles thence upwards. And the third is the Elai, (fn. 113) one of the fairest rivers of the land, coming along a fertile, beautiful valley-land from the high lands afar.]