Schedule of place names: N - R

Pages 394-413

Cardiff Records: Volume 5. Originally published by Cardiff Records Committee, Cardiff, 1905.

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N - R

NABBS, The. A fishery on the sea-shore in the lordship of Roath (1542.)

NAILOR'S SHOP. An ancient messuage in Smith Street (1817-1843.) It formed part of the block known as the Middle Row to Crockherbtown, and seems to have been originally one of the smiths' shops which gave its name to Smith Street.

NANT-CEDWYN (Cedwyn's brook.) Flows into the river Ely in the parish of Leckwith.

NANT-DRAENOG (thorny brook.) A place in the parish of Llanedern.

NANT-GARW (rough brook.) A hamlet in the parish of Eglwysilan, famous for its former manufacture of porcelain. A brook of this name divides the parishes of Leckwith and Caerau.

NANT-GWAEDLYD (bloody brook.) A stream which rises in the Cefn range of hills, flows in a south-easterly direction through Whitchurch and is, apparently, lost in the Glamorganshire Canal at Mynachdy. It is said, with some probability, to derive its name from the great battle fought between the Welsh and the Anglo-Normans on Cardiff Heath c. 1090.

NANT-LLEICI (Saint Lleici's or Lucy's brook.) A name given to the Nant-mawr, where it flows at and near Pont-Lleici, in the parish of Roath (1772.)

NANT-MAWR (great brook.) A stream which, rising in the Cefn range, flows to the south-east and, joining with the Wedal near Fairoak, flows past Roath church and discharges into the river Rhymny near the right bank of the latter's estuary.

NANT-Y-CYMER (the brook of the confluence.) In the parish of Llanedern, forming a boundary of the manor of RoathKeynsham (1702.)

NANT-Y-GABAL. A brook forming a boundary of the lordship of Roath-Keynsham (1702.)

NANT-Y-MYNYDD (the mountain brook.) On the northern boundary of the manor of Llystalybont (1653.)

NANT-YR-ARIAN (the brook of silver, or money.) A house on the south-western spur of the Garth, in the parish of Pentyrch. The property and country residence of Mr. J. L. Wheatley, Town Clerk of Cardiff.

NANT-YR-EGLWYS (the church brook.) In the manor of Llystalybont, near Llanishen (1653.)

NEKE, The (? neck or nook.) A fishery-place in the lordship of Cogan (1492.)

NETHER FURLONG. Twenty-three acres in the lordship of Whitchurch (1492.)

NETHERHAM, "Nitherham." A place near Dobbinpits (1319.)

NEWCROFT. 12½ acres of land in the lordship of Roath (1492.)

NEW DITCH, "Newediche." A dike in the Sea Land, in the lordship of Rumney, referred to in a Minister's Account of 1402.

NEWMEAD. Four acres of pasture in the lordship of Roath (1492.)

NEW MILL. A fulling-mill within the liberties of the town of Cardiff (1492.)

NEW PATCH, The. A bank in the Bristol Channel, west of the Flat Holm.

NEWPORT ROAD. The principal eastern outlet from Cardiff, running through the parish of Roath, and across the river Rhymny to Newport, Monmouthshire. It is practically identical with the corresponding portion of the Via Julia (q.v.) (fn. 1)

NEWTON. A so-called "commote" in the manor of Rumney (1729.)

NEW TOWN. The immediate south-eastern suburb of Cardiff, constructed circa 1830. It lies south of Bridge Street and east of Lewis Street.

NEW-WALL. A place in the lordship of Roath, mentioned in a Minister's Account of 1492.

NEW-WEIR, "La Niwere." A weir which formed one of the boundaries of Cogan Moor (circa 1290.)

NISHTON. A farm on the eastern slope of the Leckwith hills, near Leckwith church.

NORTHLANDS. A house on the North Road, near Maendy and Mynachdy, about a mile north of Cardiff.

NORTH STREET. The principal outlet northwards from the centre of the town. It runs between Cardiff Castle on the west and Cathays Park on the east, but becomes the North Road on leaving the canal, at the site of the North Gate. The term "Street" is but rarely applied to this thoroughfare, though it occurs in the old Rate Books (1825.) It is the direct road to Merthyr-Tydfil.

OLD BAKEHOUSE, The, or the Cross Bakehouse. In Saint Mary Street, near the Gaol and opposite the Workhouse (1833, 1871.) In terms of the present day this site is adjoining the entrance to the Market, and opposite the Town Hall.

OLD CEMETERY, The. In Adamsdown. Opened 1855, closed 1877.

OLDCROFT. Two acres of pasture, parcel of the farm of the grange in the lordship of Leckwith (1492.) In the Account of 1456 it is styled "Oldefeld," i.e., Oldfield.

OLD GAS WORKS, The, were erected in 1829 on a part of the Town Wall in the Hayes. Since 1858 the "Old Gas Yard" has been used by the Cardiff Urban Sanitary Authority as a stoneyard.

OLD NICK'S HOUSE. A tenement situate north of Cathays, or "behind Cathays" (1817.)

OLD SEA LOCK. The last one on the Glamorganshire Canal, at the Taff estuary.

OLD SKIN HOUSE, The. Belonged to the Corporation and was ordered to be sold, 1851. Perhaps identical with the Tanhouse.

OLD WORKHOUSE, The. In Saint Mary Street, on the site of the late Post Office, now the Borough Surveyor's offices. It was pulled down 1852.

ORAMY, The. Fourteen acres of concealed land demised by the Chapter of Llandaff, in 1612, to Oliver Robotham.

ORCHARDS, The; the Orchard Ledges. A reef off Cardiff Docks, east of the Roath Basin.

ORCHARD STREET. Led from the South Gate north-westward to the North Gate, along the outer bank of the Town Ditch. Its site was taken by the Glamorganshire Canal Company in 1803, when the moat was converted into a canal. It is named in a Minister's Account of 1492.

OUR LADY'S SERVICE. This name is given to a garden near Saint John's church, in a Minister's Account of 1542. It was so called because its rent went to maintain a daily celebration of the Mass and Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the parish church.

OVERHAM. A place near Llystalybont (1319.)

OVER LAYLAND, "Overleilond" (the upper fallow land.) Ten acres held in villenage, in the lordship of Cogan (1492.)

PANDY (the fulling-mill.) A homestead in the parish of Rumney (1731.)

PANT-BACH (little hollow.) A tenement in Whitchurch, on the west side of the road to Rhyd-waedlyd (1733.)

PANTEG (fair hollow.) A farm in the parish of Lisvane.

PANT-GLAS (blue, grey or green hollow.) A farm in the parish of Llanedern.

PANT-MAWR (great hollow.) A messuage and lands in Whitchurch (1708.)

PANT-Y-CORED (the hollow of the weir.) A tenement in the parish of Pentyrch (1550.)

"PANT-Y-CRAPPULL." A tenement parcel of the Treasurer's Manor of Llandaff (1535, 1612.)

PANT-Y-GWYNDON (the hollow of the white leyland.) A tenement in the parish of Pentyrch and lordship of Miscyn (1666.)

PANT-Y-MARL (the hollow of the marl.) A place in the chapelry of Whitchurch.

PANT-YR-YSGAWEN (the hollow of the elder-tree.) A farm in the parish of Llanishen.

PANT-YSCOFAN. A farm in the parish of Llanishen.

PARADISE PLACE. A narrow street off the south side of Crockherbtown, parallel with the west side of Charles Street (1850.)

PARC. A piece of land in the parish of Radyr (1728.) Another in the parish of Llanishen, on which stands a modern house bearing the same name.

PARC-COED-MARCHAN, "Coed marchall." A tenement of enclosed land, with a deer-park, in the barton of Pentyrch, held with Castell-y-myneich (1568, c. 1670.)

PARC-Y-GOFER (the park of the rivulet.) A tenement in the parish of Saint Fagan and lordship of Miscyn (1666.)

PARISH, The. An old name for the southern portion of Saint Mary Street.

'PARKE Y BAY" (? Parc y baedd, the boar's enclosure.) A tenement in the parish of Saint Fagan and lordship of Miscyn (1666.)

PATCH, The. A sand-bank off the entrance to Penarth Dock.

PAVEMENT STREET. In the city of Llandaff, leading from the Green and Bridge Street to Llandaff House and the Saint Fagan's Road.

PAYN'S CROSS. Later called Longcross. A tall stone cross erected on the eastern boundary of the liberties of Cardiff, probably by Paganus or Payn de Turberville (c. 1310.)

PEDAIR-ERW-SANT-FFAGAN (the four acres of Saint Fagan.) In the parish of Llandaff (1709.)

PEDAIR-ERW-TWC (the tuck four-acres.) A tenement in the manor of Roath-Keynsham, named in the Survey of 1703. It consisted of a messuage and land between Roath and Llanishen, on the west side of the Nant-mawr, and belonged to Pengam. The house has been demolished.

PEDWAR-ERW-Y-DRAIN-DUON (the four acres of the black thorns.) Land on the Splot (1764.)

PENARTH (the end of the Garth.) A bold headland forming the southern termination of the Leckwith hills and projecting into the Bristol Channel, three miles west of Cardiff. Also a village (now a populous seaside town,) manor and parish on the headland.

PENARTH, LOWER. A homestead near the cliffs to the west of Penarth.

PENARTH ROAD leads from the south end of Saint Mary Street westwards across the flat land to Cogan Pill. It is the last road in Wales to have a toll-gate in operation.

PENCOED (the head of the wood.) A place in the chapelry of Llanilltern.

PEN-DWY-ALLT (the head of two woody heights.) A house in the parish of Whitchurch, on the east side of the North Road.

PEN-DYWYLL, "Pendowallt" (the dark hill.) Lands in Whitchurch (1712.)

PENGAM (accentuated on the first syllable, with the ng sounded as in "singer.") An old farmstead on the Severn shore, in the parish of Roath, a mile and a half east from Cardiff. It is apparently identical with the ancient Griffithsmoor (1694.)

PEN-HEOL-LLEWELYN-MAERWR (the end of the lane of Llewelyn the dairyman.) A highway leading to Llanishen church, on the northern boundary of the manor of Llystalybont (1653.)

PENHEVED. A farm in the parish of Saint Fagan.

PENHILL. A freehold tenement consisting of a large messuage and lands in the manor of Llandaff and hamlet of Canton. The house stands just within the borough of Cardiff, on the corner of Llandaff Road and Pensisli Lane. The name "Penhyll" occurs in 1535.

PENLLWYN (the head of the bush.) A farm in the parish of Pentyrch.

PENPENTRE (the end of the village street.) A dwellinghouse in the parish of Llandaff.

"PENRETH." Some place which cannot now be identified, within the diocese of Llandaff, to which John Bird was appointed as suffragan to the Bishop of Llandaff in 1534, by the title "Bishop of Penreth." Perhaps Penarth, but more probably Penrhŷs in the Rhondda Valley.

PEN-RHIW-MYNEICH (the end of the slope of the monks.) A tenement in the lordship of Miscyn, apparently held with Castell-y-myneich in the parish of Pentyrch (1666.)

PENSARN (the head of the causeway.) A hamlet in the parish of Rumney, east of the village, and not far south of the Roman road.

PENSISLI, "Pencisley" (Cecily's hill.) A farm in the chapelry of Ely, on the northern boundary of Cardiff borough. In 1543 it belonged to Mathew of Llandaff, and was divided into Upper and Lower "Pencysle." In 1612 it was found to be "concealed land," i.e., to have been granted to the Church before the Reformation and illegally claimed as their freehold by its present holders. It was thereupon demised to Oliver Robotham.

PENSYLVANIA. A wood to the west of Coed-y-gores, in the parish of Llanedern.

PENTREBAEN (Payn's village.) A farm in the parish of Saint Fagan (1829.)

PENTREBAEN (the end of the tump.) A homestead in the chapelry of Whitchurch, near Tongwynlas, a little east of the Merthyr road. This is one of the commonest place-names in Wales.

PENTYRCH (? the headland of the boars.) A manor and parish seven miles north-west from Cardiff, on the southern side of the Garth. It is the nearest thoroughly Welsh-speaking parish to Cardiff. (fn. 2) This is equated by several place-names in England; such as Pentrich in Derbyshire, and Penkridge in Staffordshire.

PEN-Y-BONT (the head of the bridge.) A house near the west bank of the river Taff, on the south side of the road from Llandaff to Radyr (1840.)

PEN-Y-GARN (the end of the rocky eminence.) A hill and hamlet in the parish of Pentyrch (1745.)

PEN-Y-GROES (the head of the cross.) A tenement in Llanedern (1765.)

PEN-Y-LAN (the end of the height.) A gentle eminence to the north-east of Cardiff, lying in the parish of Roath. It is the south-eastern spur of the Cefn-coed. The name is applied particularly to a house and land, near the summit, belonging to Mr. Fedele Primavesi. Also "Penylond," four acres in the lordship of Cogan (1492.)

"PENYLAUNETTS RASEWORTH." A free tenement in the parish of Roath and manor of Roath-Keynsham (1702.)

PEN-Y-PIL (the head of the inlet.) A farm in the parish of Rumney.

PEN-YR-HEOL (the end of the lane.) Land in the parish of Llanedern and manor of Roath-Keynsham (1702, 1731.) The farmhouse lies north of the village of Rumney, on the west side of the road to Newport.

PEN-Y-RHIW (the head of the slope.) The top of the old lane in the city of Llandaff, leading from the Castle down to the Cathedral.

PEN-Y-WAUN (the end of the meadow.) A piece of land at the bottom of the lane (Pen-y-waun Road) which leads up the hill from Roath Park to the main entrance to the Cemetery. It is mentioned as a farm in Roath parish, by the Heath Enclosure Award of 1809. North of it stood Cyndda-bach, an old thatched cottage, which was blown down one stormy night in 1895.

PETTY CALLIS, Pety Callys, Petty Callice (Petit Calais, Little Calais.) An acre of land in the parish of Llandaff, belonging to the Chapter of Llandaff (1604.) From a document of 1624, it appears to lie immediately south of Llandaff mill-pond.

PHILOG, Ffilog. A brook and a hamlet in the chapelry of Whitchurch, near Gwaun-tre-Oda (1811.) The name is applied particularly to an old thatched house on the north side of the highroad to Whitchurch, where a lane branches off eastwards to the Heath.

PIER HEAD, The. The landing-place at the bottom of Bute Street. The sole remaining point at which there is public access to the sea within the borough of Cardiff.

PILGOT-FAWR. A pill, reen or tidal inlet on Leckwith Moor.

PILL. A farm in the parish of Rumney, near the Severn shore.

PLAS-MAWR (the big mansion.) A house in the city of Llandaff (1722.) In 1612 it had four acres of land, and the Chapter demised it to Oliver Robotham as concealed land.

PLAS-NEWYDD (the new mansion.) A large house, constructed in the 18th century and surrounded by elms. Some time after its erection it was termed Roath Lodge, but on its being subsequently castellated or crenellated the name was altered to Roath Castle—whence the name Castle Road. The building is now best known by its original name Plas-newydd. From the family of Mr. Edward Priest Richards this property passed by marriage to The Mackintosh of Mackintosh, its present owner, who has built many streets of small dwellinghouses on the land surrounding the mansion. Plas-newydd stands some distance south of Albany Road and east of Castle Road. (fn. 3)

PLAS-TURTON (Turton's mansion. (fn. 4) ) An ancient mansion, afterwards a farmhouse, which was the capital messuage of an inferior manor bearing that name, in the hamlet of Canton, on the right or west bank of the river Taff (1596.) The farmhouse stood on the west side of Cathedral Road, and was demolished 1895. Plasturton Avenue perpetuates the name. One or two of the documents of the 16th century call it "Place Tiverton." In 1587 it was described as the "manor or lordship of Glaspull alias Tiverton," and in the following century as "Placestourton otherwise Glasspoole."

PLAS-TURTON COTTAGE. An old house which stood by a little lane opposite Plas-Turton, on the east side of Cathedral Road.

PLAS-Y-LLAN (the mansion by the church.) A house at Whitchurch, the residence of Ignatius Williams, esq., J.P.

PLWCA-HALOG (the foul or defiled pleck.) A field on the northern boundary of the borough of Cardiff and the Little Heath, where now Castle and Crwys Roads meet Richmond and Albany Roads—at the corner of the second and third. Here was the ancient place of execution. There was another field of the same name at Whitchurch in 1605.

PLWCA LANE, or Heol-y-plwca was the original name of Castle Road, changed to the latter in 1874. It means "the road to the pleck." This pleck was in a deed of 1811 described as "All that close of 7 acres called Plwca, parcel of the lands of Roath Court."

PLYMOUTH STREET. A narrow thoroughfare off the south side of Crockherbtown, just outside the east wall of the town (1850.) So called after the Earls of Plymouth.

PLYMOUTH WOOD. In the parish of Llandaff, between Caerau and Leckwith.

"POINMER MARY BOOSH." Five acres of land in the parish of Leckwith (1717.)

PONT-CANNA, Pont Cana (Saint Cana's (fn. 5) bridge.) The northern part of the hamlet of Canton (1702.) The bridge from which it takes its name was probably the little rude stone one which here crossed the Whitehouse Brook. Both bridge and brook disappeared in 1896, with the old Pontcanna Cottages hard by, when the northern portion of Cathedral Road was completed.

PONT-DDU (the black bridge.) A place in the parish of Llanedern, where a stream is crossed by the road leading from Ty-y-crwca to Pen-y-groes (1840.)

PONT-EVAN-QUINT. A stone bridge by which the Cefn-coed Road crosses the Nant-mawr between Fairoak and Cymddabach (1653, 1702.)

PONT-LLEICI, "Pont-lickey" (The bridge of Saint Lleici or Lucy.) A small stone bridge by which the Cefn-coed Road crossed the Nant-mawr, in the parish of Roath. The same name was given to a thatched cottage close by (1705.) The cottage has been demolished, the course of the brook altered, the road widened, and the bridge replaced by a level structure of iron (1895-1900.) The very name of the place is almost forgotten. Even the Ordnance Chart has it quite wrong, calling it "Pont-y-llechau" (the bridge of flat stones)—a name which it never at any time bore. Lleici was a female saint of the early Church in South Wales. "Pontlickey Bridge" occurs in documents of 1861, and "Pontlecky Bridge" in 1864.

PONT-MELON (Saint Melon's bridge.) A farm in the parish of Llandaff.

PONT-Y-CELYN (the bridge of the holly-trees); also called the Celyn bridge. A brick structure by which the old footpath is carried east and west across the Nant-mawr, near the Celyn farm. (fn. 6)

PONT-Y-PRENAU (the bridge of the trees.) A farm in the parish of Llanedern.

POOL MEAD. A meadow at Cogan Pill (1586.)

POOR-FOLK'S HOUSE. An almshouse which, according to a Patent of 1616, was a burgage standing in Worton Street.

POOR'S RELIEF. An almshouse which, according to Speed's map of 1610, stood in West Street.

PORRIDGE LANE. An old name for Wharton Street, Worten Street, Broth Lane, or Heol-y-cawl. Speed's map of 1610 calls it "Porrag Lane."

"PORTE ALLENS LONDS." Described (1559) as "a great messuage within the Castell Baiely of Cardyff."

"PORTESLOND." A piece of land in Adamsdown (1440); probably identical with Portmanmoor.

PORTFIELD, The. A piece of meadow land "at the forks" in the lordship of Roath, occupied in 1492 by the Gatekeeper of Cardiff Castle. The accounting Minister at that date did not profess to know where this land lay, but appears to have supposed it and Wardrobe Leas to be identical with Portmanmoor.

PORTMANMOOR. A strip of marshy land along the Severn shore in the parish of Roath, just outside the town of Cardiff, between Adamsdown and the sea. It was the perquisite of the Portman, or Gatekeeper of the Castle, which office seems to have become hereditary in a family thence called by the surname Le Port, or Porter. The earliest whose name occurs, Adam le Port, may be identical with the Adam Kyngot mentioned in the municipal charter of 1331. According to an Inquisition of 1440, Portmanmoor was a part of Adamsdown. The name is preserved in Portmanmoor Road, a fine new thoroughfare leading from Roath to the shore.

PORTWAY, The. The mediaeval name for the Roman road which skirts the shore of South Wales and unites the ancient boroughs; particularly from Cardiff westward through Cowbridge, Kenfig and Aberavon, to Neath. In the vernacular this road was called Y Bwrtwe, by turning the English word into a feminine Welsh noun. It occurs as late as 1763.

POST HOUSE, The Old. Was in Smith Street, and had the said street on the north, Duke Street on the west, the lane called Running Camp on the south, and the house of the Rev. William Llewelyn on the east (1731, 1778, 1804.) In 1820 it still bore the above name; but in 1849 the north portion of it was the General Nott public-house. This was the westernmost house of the middle row in Smith Street.

POTTESMOR. Land near the Splot, in the manor of Cardiff and Roath, referred to in a Minister's Account of 1392.

PRICHARD'S COURT. Quay Lane (1821.)

PRIEST'S WEIR, The; "Prests Were." A weir in the lordship of Roath, mentioned in a Minister's Account of 1492.

PRIOR'S GRANGE, The. The barn where the Prior of Cardiff collected his tithes. It was in "Wotton Street" (Wharton Street), according to a Minister's Account of 1492.

PULKEY. According to Mr. Corbett's annotated map, this was a place on the Severn shore in the parish of Roath, where a brook flows into the sea, east of the Splot.

PUM-ERW (the five acres.) Land on the shore of the East Moor (1764.) J. S. C.

PWLL-CANAU, "Pulthcanau" (Saint Cana's Pool.) A point on the river Taff referred to as an eastern limit of the liberties of Cardiff, in the municipal charter of 1340. It was, no doubt, somewhere near Pont-Canna, in the hamlet of Canton. (fn. 7)

PWLL-COCH (the red pool.) A pool in the river Ely, and a hamlet on the left bank. So called since the battle of Saint Fagan's, 1648, when the river ran red with the blood of the slain Welsh Royalists. Ty Pwll Coch is an inn on the Cowbridge Road at this point.

PWLL-HALOG (the defiled pool), also called Plwca Halog "the defiled pleck," in allusion to the public executions here anciently performed. One of the Gallows Fields (1737, 1796.)

PWLL-HELYG (the pool of willows.) A house in the parish of Whitchurch, on the west side of the North Road.

PWLL-MAWR (great pool.) A place on the Severn shore, at the estuary of the river Rhymny, in the parish of Rumney, where there was a drain, called "Pulmore gowt" in a Minister's Account of 1301. In a charter of 1218 it is referred to as "the Great Pill," and the endorsement speaks of it as lying "in Cardiff Moor."

PWLL-MORYS (Morris' pool.) A deep place in the river Rhymny, north of Lanrumney.

PWLL-TRO (the whirlpool.) A deep place in the river Rhymny, below Bedwas bridge, in the hamlet of the Van in the parish of Bedwas (1755.)

PWLL-Y-STAPSE (the pool of the stepping-stones.) A pool in the river Ely, in the manor of Llandaff (1740.)

PWLL-Y-WENOL (the pool of the swallow.) A tenement in Whitchurch (1840.)

RADYR. Probably y rhâd dir, "the free land"; but perhaps rhaiadr, a waterfall. A church and parish five miles north-west from Cardiff, in the hundred of Cibwr. It is divided into Higher and Lower.

RADYR CHAIN. Cross-roads a little south of Radyr village.

RANIE SPIT, Ranny Point. A bank just off Lavernock Point.

RED FURLONG. Twenty-four acres of land in the lordship of Roath (1492.)

RED HOUSES. (Vide Tai-cochion.)

REDCROFT. Seven acres of pasture land in the lordship of Leckwith (1456.)

REES' COURT. A row of old houses in the north part of the city of Llandaff, built close to the ruins of some mediaeval house of importance—probably the residence of one of the canons or prebendaries of the Cathedral. These houses and ruins are on the west side of the road leading to Radyr.

REVESACRE. A meadow in the lordship of Roath, destroyed by an outbreak of water in 1492. Doubtless it was a perquisite of the Reeve or Bailiff of the manor.

RHIWBINAU, "Rhubina" (the slope of the pine-trees.) A house and land in Whitchurch (1708.)

RHIW-FELEN (the tawny slope.) A tenement in the hamlet of "Trane" and parish of Llantrisant (1799.)

RHIWPERA (the slope of spits; or Rhiw-peraidd, the pleasant slope.) An ancient mansion of the Morgan family, in the township of Llanfedw, now called "Ruperra Castle."

RHIW-SAESON (the slope of the Englishmen.) In the parish of Llantrisant (1742.)

RHOS, Y; "Roose" (the moor.) An old homestead of a cadet branch of the Mathew family, in the parish of Porthkerry (1600.)

RHYD-LEUFER, "Rhydlewar," "Rhydlavar," "Redlaver" (the ford of Lleufer.) A tenement in the parish of Saint Fagan and lordship of Miscyn (1631, 1745.) The name is traditionally, and with some probability, referred to Saint Lucius (in Welsh Lleufer), " the Light-bearer," king of Esyllwg; at whose request Saint Ffagan and his three companions, Dyfan, Medwy and Elfan, were sent from Rome to carry the Christian faith to the Britons.

RHYD-LYDAN (the broad ford.) In or near Llanedern, on the west (1736.)

RHYD-WAEDLYD (the bloody ford.) A ford and hamlet on the Nant-gwaedlyd, where that brook crosses Cardiff Heath, in the chapelry of Whitchurch. Immediately north of the ford is the site of the great battle between the Welsh and the Anglo-Normans. The actual ford is now replaced by a low bridge of stone.

"RHYD-Y-BILLWHE," "Rhyd-y-bilwg" (the billhook ford.) Across a brook forming the eastern boundary of a parcel of the manor of Roath-Keynsham (1702.) It is on the lane called Heol-y-cefn-coed.

"RHYDYBYTHER" (? Rhyd-y-byddar, the deaf man's ford.) In the parish of Eglwysilan (1793.)

RHYD-Y-FFAGLE (Rhyd-y-ffaglau, the ford of the flames.) A freehold tenement on the northern boundary of the manor of Llystalybont, near Llanishen (1653.)

RHYD-Y-MIN-COCH, "Rhyd-y-mincoe" (the ford of the red brink.) (fn. 8) Over the Nant-gwaedlyd, on the Great Heath. A tenement of this name, in the parish of Llanishen, was holden of the manor of Roath-Keynsham at a chief rent (1702.)

RHYD-Y-PENAU (the ford of the heads.) (fn. 8) A farmhouse in the parish of Llanishen, south of the village.

RHYD-Y-SARN (the ford of the causeway.) Across the river at the hamlet of Ely.

RHYD-Y-TYWOD, "Rhyd y twad" (the ford of the sand.) Across the river Taff, from Whitchurch to Pentyrch (1731.)

RHYMNY. In corrupt English spelling Rumney. (1) A river which rises amid the hills of Brecknockshire and, flowing south-eastward, divides the counties of Glamorgan and Monmouth, emptying into the Severn Sea 2½ miles east of Cardiff. (2) A parish, called in Welsh Tredelerch, in Monmouthshire, three miles east of Cardiff, divided from the parish of Roath, Glamorgan, by the river Rhymny. (3) A modern industrial urban district near the source of the said river, in the hills of East Monmouthshire. The name is etymologically allied to Rimini, Rheims and Romney, and implies a boundary stream in a flat country.

RIDGE HENGE, "Rugehenges," The. A fishery on the sea-shore, near the Westerweir, in the lordship of Roath (1492, 1542.)

RIDGELAND, "Rugelonde." Two acres of land at Roath, mentioned in a Minister's Account of 1492.

RISING SUN COURT. Off the west side of the Hayes, near to and parallel with the south side of Wharton Street. At the north-east corner of the court, on the Hayes, stood the Rising Sun public-house. Demolished 1898.

ROATH. Welsh Y Rhâth (the Rath.) (fn. 9) A village, parish and manor, a mile and a half east of Cardiff, bounded on the west by the parish of Saint John, Cardiff, and on the east by the river Rhymny. The easternmost Glamorgan parish on the road to England. It was carved out of the original Cardiff parish of Saint Mary early in the 16th century. The village is now joined to Cardiff by many streets of dwelling-houses, containing a vast population. The earliest occurrence of the name in an extant document is of circa 1102, and its spelling is Raz— the z representing, probably, the hard dental sound of th. There was an early tendency to give the vowel, in English mouths, the o sound. Ptolemy's Itinerary mentions a town called Ratostabios, or Ratostathibios, which it places just about on the site of Cardiff Castle. This seems to indicate that Râth-Tâv was the earliest name of Cardiff. If I am asked in what way the name of the rath was transferred from the site of Cardiff Castle to the Roath of to-day—a parish extending from Longcross to the Rhymny—I suggest that the old name, from the fort on the Taff, was applied to the whole of the flat land lying between Taff and Rhymny, by naming this in terms equivalent to "the District of the Rath"; and that, on the division of the country into parishes, the name was restricted to the eastern half of that district, while Cardiff (already a burgh) became a parish also, under its present name. Some confirmation of this supposition may be found in the fact that Cardiff Castle was anciently reckoned within the original Manor of Roath. Indeed, what might have been expected to be called the "Manor of Cardiff," namely, the Castle and the Burgh, were both within the Manor of Roath. (fn. 10) (Vide Taff et Cardiff.)

ROATH BRIDGE. A small structure of stone, crossing the brook just below Roath Mill, before the alterations of 1899.

ROATH CASTLE. (Vide Plas-newydd.)

ROATH COURT. An eighteenth-century mansion, on an ancient site, which was the manor-house of Roath-Dogfield. The older building, fortified and moated, was ruinous in the reign of Elizabeth. The Court stands a short distance south of Roath church, at the corner of Newport Road and Albany Road, in pleasant grounds.

ROATH COURT FARM. (Vide Cwrt-bach.)

ROATH-DOGFIELD. The manorial name of the original Lordship of Roath, to distinguish it from the portions which the Lord of Glamorgan had granted to the Abbeys of Tewkesbury and Keynsham. The name Dogfield is a modern variant of the mediaeval personal name Doggeville or Docgevel, from Welsh Dogvael, earlier Docmael.

ROATH GREEN. A common of pasture lying on the west and north-west of Roath churchyard. About 1893 the portion nearest the church was planted and enclosed by the Corporation.

ROATH HOUSE. An 18th-century dwelling which still stands, off the west side of the Newport Road, near Roath village, opposite the smithy. Between it and Crockherbtown there was no house, previous to about 1870, except a cottage near the old milestone.

ROATH-KEYNSHAM. The name given to such part of the Manor of Roath as had been granted to the Abbot and Monks of the Benedictine Abbey of Keynsham, Somersetshire, to be holden by them of the Lord of Glamorgan in free alms.

ROATH LODGE. (Vide Plas-newydd.)

ROATH MILL. An ancient water grist-mill which stood on the northern arm of the Nant-mawr, a little north-west of Roath church. It was the lord's mill for the Manor of Roath. Some remains of the original structure were to be seen, but the later building dated from the 18th century. It was demolished 1897, after a useful existence of a thousand years.

ROATH PARK. A tract of land lying along the valley of the Nantmawr, from Pont-Lleici northward to the Dyffryn. In 1894 it was given by the Marquess of Bute, Lord Tredegar and other landowners, to the Corporation of Cardiff for the purposes of a public park.

ROATH-TEWKESBURY. The name given to such part of the Manor of Roath as had been granted to the Abbot and Monks of the Benedictine Abbey of Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, to be holden by them of the Lord of Glamorgan in free alms.

ROBERTSCROFT. Two acres and a half of meadow in the lordship of Roath (1492.)

ROGERSHOOKS, "Rogreshokes," "Roggeshokes." A parcel of land and meadow in the farm of the grange in the lordship of Leckwith (1456, 1492.) It lay in the Leckwith moors, and a ditch divided it from Rusham Mead. Robert Rogger was a cottier of Leckwith manor ante 1456. Mr. J. S. Corbett's map has "Rogershook" as south of Rusham, between Leckwith Moor and Leckwith Grange.

ROGERSMOOR. A wood on the slope just west of Penarth and a little east of Cwrt-y-fil.

ROKE'S LAND. Two acres in the lordship of Roath (1542.)

ROSISTON. Fourteen acres of land in the lordship of Cibwr and Cardiff, mentioned in a Minister's Account of 1537.

ROSTOG, Rossog, Rossag. A field in the parish of Rumney (1731.)

"ROTHEMANLEZ." A field measuring upwards of 4½ acres, in the lordship of Roath (1492.)

"ROTHES-MORE." The name given, in a Minister's Account of 1537, to the marshlands in the parish of Roath. It occurs also in the Llystalybont Survey of 1653.

ROUNDBUSH ROCKS. On the sea-shore in the parish of Lavernock.

ROWLANDS' BUILDINGS. A court of old dwelling-houses off the east side of North Street, behind Queen Street. So called after one Edmund Rowlands, who was landlord of the Rose and Crown inn, close by, in 1777.

RUDDER, The. The west point of the Steep Holm.

RUMNEY. In Welsh Tredelerch. The south-westernmost parish of Monmouthshire, divided from the parish of Saint John, Cardiff, by the river Rumney, which is crossed here by a handsome one-arched bride of 1800. The manor, called Rempney, is under the lordship of Gwentllwg.

RUMNEY COURT. A house and lands north of the village of Rumney.

RUMNEY POTTERY. A very old house, somewhat modernised, with a kiln and outbuildings, on the east side of the highway at the foot of Rumney Hill, between the bridge and the turnpike cottage.

RUNNING CAMP. A narrow thoroughfare which formed the western portion of King Street. It was sometimes called Camp Street, and Camp Lane (1821.) The name is somewhat of a mystery. It is not met with in the records earlier than the close of the 18th century. The most probable solution of its etymology is that some game of that name was customarily played there. In Welsh, and in some English dialects, "camp" means a game; and in some parts of Scotland football is called "kicking-camp."

RUSHAM MEAD. A meadow of 21 acres in the Leckwith moors, reserved for the horses of the lord's servants (1492.) Later Accounts call it "Busham Mead," apparently by a clerical error. Rusham-way was a road in the lordship of Leckwith. Mr. J. S. Corbett's map shews "Rusham" as bounded north by Canton Common, south by Leckwith Moor, east by Cardiff West Moors, and west by parts of Canton Common and Leckwith Moor.

RUSHPLOT. Three roods of land in the lordship of Cogan (1492.)

RYLAND, "Rilonde." Three acres of meadow in the lordship of Cogan (1492.)


  • 1. Remains of the old, deep roadway were still visible down to c. 1880, for a short distance along the north side of Newport Road, a little west of Roath House.
  • 2. Pentyrch parish in 1895 contained not a single English place of worship. There was only a mixed service at the church on Sundays, and an English sermon in the week once a fortnight.
  • 3. Plas-newydd was also the name of a mansion built in High Street by William Mathew, about the beginning of the 17th century. It was demolished only a few years later, after being extolled as the finest house in South Wales by the bard James Thomas.
  • 4. I am not aware of the facts as to the connection of the Turton family with this place; but the place-name is proof that the connection existed.
  • 5. Cana is the name-saint of Canton, and of Llanganna near Bridgend. She was daughter to Tewdwr Mawr of Brittany, and mother to Saint Crallo (Achau Saint Ynys Prydain. Iolo MSS. reprint, p 132.)
  • 6. See the tail-piece, Vol. IV., p. viii.
  • 7. Some authorities have identified "Pulthcanau" with Pwll Conan, an eastern boundary of the lordship of Glamorgan, near Neath. I think the terms of the charter preclude this inference.
  • 8. It is significant that so many of the place-names on Cardiff Heath are referable to the great battle there fought.
  • 9. Rath is a Celtic word, now found only in the Gaelic dialects, meaning an earthen fort.
  • 10. Much of this article is a re-writing of part of my paper on the local place-names, printed in Cardiff Nat. Hist. & Antiq. Soc. Trans., vol. xxxiii., 1900-1901.—Ed.