Wills: Mary I (1553-58)

Calendar of Wills Proved and Enrolled in the Court of Husting, London: Part 2, 1358-1688. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1890.

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Citation:

'Wills: Mary I (1553-58)', Calendar of Wills Proved and Enrolled in the Court of Husting, London: Part 2, 1358-1688, (London, 1890), pp. 655-668. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/court-husting-wills/vol2/pp655-668 [accessed 20 June 2024].

. "Wills: Mary I (1553-58)", in Calendar of Wills Proved and Enrolled in the Court of Husting, London: Part 2, 1358-1688, (London, 1890) 655-668. British History Online, accessed June 20, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/court-husting-wills/vol2/pp655-668.

. "Wills: Mary I (1553-58)", Calendar of Wills Proved and Enrolled in the Court of Husting, London: Part 2, 1358-1688, (London, 1890). 655-668. British History Online. Web. 20 June 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/court-husting-wills/vol2/pp655-668.

In this section

ANNO 1 MARY.

Monday next before the Feast of S. Benedict, Abbot [21 March].

Bolton (Christopher), skinner.—To be buried in the parish church cloister of All Hallows "the more" in Thamystrete. To his natural (fn. 1) mother, Johanne Bolton, widow, he gives an annuity of forty shillings, to be paid to her by Thomasyne his wife. To Walter his brother forty shillings and all his raiment. To his "vyse" (fn. 2) Jane Artur a certain sum of money, to be paid to her on her marriage. The residue of his goods, together with his lands and tenements, he leaves to his wedded wife Thomasyne. Dated 16 June, A.D. 1546.
Roll 246 (152).

ANNO 1 MARY.

Monday the Feast of S. Leonard, Abbot [6 Nov.].

Wylkyns (Robert), the elder, turner.—Bequests of money and goods to his cousin Johanne Myddleton, Johan Peck his sister, and others; and the residue of his goods and chattels, not otherwise disposed of, he leaves to Helen his daughter. To Thomas Marrowe, esquire, lands, tenements, &c., in Philpot Lane in the parish of S. Andrew Hubbert near Eastchepe, charged with an annual payment of three pounds to Robert his son for the term of twenty years. Dated 28 May, A.D. 1552.
Roll 247 (16).

Monday next before the Feast of S. Petronilla, Virgin [31 May].

Armestronge (John), citizen and cook of London.—A sermon to be preached for him where he is buried, and the preacher thereof to have towards the buying of his books six shillings and eightpence. Bequests to the hospital in Southwark, and for the repair of Mapes Lane, which is between Kylborne and Wilsdon, co. Middlesex. Among various bequests to individuals are the following:—To John Styrley, vintner, his best gown faced with damask, and also "a Jerkyn of Braunched Velvett (fn. 3) to shote in." To Robert Watles, citizen and grocer, a pot parcel gilt with a cover with his name, with an arm and a hand open on it. To John Sturtle, citizen and cook, his bow "with small pynnes and half a dossen shaftes"; also his "gowne of browne blewe faced with lezardes," (fn. 4) also a pot with ears without cover, parcel gilt, and "a dogeon molde." To his sister Mawde Frisingefelde "half a garnysshe of vessell." (fn. 5) To John Mors his brother-in-law" a puke gowne forefaeed with conye and furred with black lambe." To John Starkye, citizen and fletcher, (fn. 6) his gown without velvet faced with foynes; and to his cousin William Armestronge, a man at arms, "a Targett with a mase." To the Company of Cooks he leaves forty shillings to make them a recreation or banquet. To a former servant of his he leaves "two moldes, the one of pere tree beinge dise square, and the other havinge a pellycane with a cluster of grapes." Alice his wife to enjoy a life interest in all his lands and tenements in the City of London and the county of Middlesex. To George Frisingefelde the reversion of a messuage in Brigestrete in the parish of S. Leonard Eastcheap, on condition that the said George and his successors continue to keep it as a cook shop for ever; remainder over in case of default. To Katherine, sister of the said George, the reversion of a tenement called "the Peacock" in the parish of S. Leonard aforesaid. To Oliver Armestrong his brother the reversion of his lands and tenements in Wilsdon aforesaid. Dated 16 March, A.D. 1552.
Roll 247 (44).

ANNO 2 MARY.

Monday next after the Feast of S. Etheldreda, Virgin [23 June].

Clayton (Thomas), citizen and baker of London.—To be buried in the parish church of S. Mary at Hill, near Johanne his first wife. To the Master, Wardens, and Company of the "Lyverie" of White Bakers (fn. 7) of London for them to come to his burial he leaves twenty shillings for a recreation among them. Forgives "wife mampuddinge," (fn. 8) otherwise called "goodwif Odye," and others the debts they owe to him. Leaves sums of money to his servants, comprising Christofer Strongman his "furner," William Swifte his "whitehewe," his journeymen, apprentices, and others. To his cousin Thomas Lee, vintner, he leaves his chain of gold, weighing eight ounces and valued at thirty pounds, so that the said Thomas pay the sum of ten pounds to each of the two daughters of Sampson Clayton his late brother against the time of their marriage. To the governors and rulers of the house of poor children founded in the parish of Christchurch (fn. 9) within Newgate he leaves twenty pounds. Ellen his wife to immediately enjoy all leases, &c., of lands and tenements to which she was entitled in the right of her former husband. To the Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of the Craft or Mistery of White Bakers he leaves his leasehold land in the marshes of Olde Forde, Hackeney, and Edelmeton "mershe," in the parishes of S. Leonard, Hacknaye, and Edmonton, co. Middlesex; also a goblet with a cover all gilt, with a "Clement" (fn. 10) on the top, weighing thirty-one ounces and a quarter, and another goblet gilt belonging to the same, weighing eighteen ounces and a quarter. To Thomas Clayton his cousin, citizen and grocer, a cup with a cover all gilt, compassed with a garland about the lid, weighing twenty-five ounces "downe waight." To Thomas Barbour of Tarlinge, co. Essex, a cup with a cover all gilt, with a round "knoppe" and a garland about the lid, with a crown under the bottom, weighing twenty-two ounces and a half. To Master Hans Brand, Master Reignolde Strowse, Master Alderman, and to the house master for the time being within the house of the Stiliarde, (fn. 11) for the use of the fellowship and company of merchants in the said house and their successors, he leaves a basin with ewer parcel gilt, weighing sixty-four ounces, and four gilt spoons weighing eight ounces, with the mark of "T" and "K." To William Brayfelde, baker, a goblet with a cover parcel gilt with a "Clement," with the letters "T" and "J." To Cecilie Eynes, his wife's daughter, a "salte" with a cover all gilt with a Clement in the top, and with the letters "T" and "J," weighing twenty ounces and three quarters. To the parson and churchwardens of the church of S. Mary at Hill he leaves two goblets with a cover gilt, with roses and flowers on the "knoppe" of the same cover, on either of which goblets is the mark of a hand, for the purpose of making therewith two chalices of silver gilt for service in the said church. Bequests also of various ale pots, some being of antique work, and one of them having a cover gilt with two ears marked with a "Clement." To the master of his company he leaves an ale pot with a cover all gilt, with two axes on the top enamelled. Dated 23 March, A.D. 1554.
Roll 247 (129).

Clayton (Thomas), baker.—To the Master and Wardens of the Guild of the Fraternity of Our Lady and S. Clement of the Craft or Mistery of White Bakers in the City of London he leaves his "backehouse," &c., in the parish of S. Mary at Hill, charged with the observance of his obit, with charitable gift of "halfe pennye white bread," ale, &c., with. "potacioun" at "Bakers Halle," (fn. 12) in manner as directed. And if it should happen that such bequests for keeping his anniversary or obit should be illegal—" as of late yeres in the tyme of Kinge Edwarde the Sixte the prayeinge for the dead and all ceremonies for and concernynge the same in the saide maner and fourme to be used were abrogated and disallowed "— the sums of money so bequeathed are to go over to the governors of the house of the poor children within Newgate. The said master and wardens are also to distribute a certain quantity of coal at Christmas among the poor of the parish of S. Mary aforesaid. To the parson and churchwardens of the said parish church he leaves a tenement within the parish for the maintenance of the said church and of divine service therein. To Eleyn his wife a tenement in the same parish for life; remainder to William Brayfelde, baker, in tail; remainders over. Dated 30 March, A.D. 1555.
Roll 247 (130).

ANNO 2 & 3 PHILIP AND MARY.

Monday next after the Feast of S. Alphege, Bishop [19 April].

Elder (William), plasterer (gipsarius).—To the Master and Wardens of the Guild or Fraternity of the Playsterers of the City of London he leaves his messuage called "the Pynners Hall" (fn. 13) in Adelstrete in the parish of S. Alban the Martyr, which he acquired from the Master and Wardens of "Merchaunttaillours" of the Fraternity of S. John Baptist, to hold the same to them and their successors for ever quietly and in peace. Dated 14 May, A.D. 1545.
Roll 248 (43).

Sheparde (Robert), plasterer.—To the Master and Wardens of the Gruild or Fraternity of the Blessed Mary of Plasterers of London he leaves certain tenements in Adelane or Adelstrete in the parish of S. Alban in Woodstrete, situate near "le Plasterers Hall," to hold the same to the use of the said master and wardens and their successors for ever. Dated 20 April, A.D. 1556.
Roll 248 (44).

ANNO 3 & 4 PHILIP AND MARY.

Monday next after the Feast of S. Gregory, Bishop [12 March].

Assheton (John), "talloughchaundler."—To be buried in the "queare" or chancel of his parish church of S. Botolph without Algate. Bequests of money and charcoal to the poor of the said parish. To Elizabeth his wife his messuage or inn called "the signe of the three nonnes" in the same parish for life; remainder to Jane Turnour his kinswoman, wife of Richard Turnour, in tail; remainder over. Also to the said Jane he leaves divers household chattels, comprising beds, tablecloths, pewter platters and dishes, pots and pans, goblets, mazers, the hanging of the hall of the aforesaid messuage of "paynted steynynge" (fn. 14) of the story of Joseph, &c., to be delivered to her after the decease of his aforesaid wife. His wife may let the above messuage for a term of thirty years or less without any hindrance from the aforesaid Richard and Jane, during which time she is to be allowed to enjoy the rent. Also to his said wife he leaves other tenements in the same parish for life; remainders to Katherine, Johanna, and Robert Assheton his kinsfolk. Also to his said wife three tenements in Houndesdiche next to Busshoppesgate for life; remainder to the Master and Wardens of the Art or Company of "talloughchaundlers" of London and their successors, to the use of the same company and for the maintenance of their hall. (fn. 15) Bequests also to the said company for a recreation, and to the yeomanry of the same. Among other bequests are the following:—To Humfrey Frithe his sword and an angel noble of gold. To John Transfelde his gown furred with "conye." To various individuals he leaves angel nobles of gold (fn. 16). To Richard Jewe his servant forty shillings and his bows and shafts appertaining to them, so that he be a good servant to his wife. His present tenants are not to be evicted so long as they continue to pay their present rent. Dated 5 April, A.D. 1555.
Roll 248 (114).

Monday next after the Feast of S. Barnabas, Apostle [11 June].

Denham (Sir William), Knt., merchant of the Staple of Calais. —To the Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of Iremongers in the City of London he leaves divers messuages situate in the parish of S. Olave in the Old Jewry, which formerly belonged to the late dissolved monastery of Berkinge, (fn. 17) co. Essex, and which he bought of the Lord the King by letters patent under the Great Seal; to hold the same charged with the annual payment to him or his assigns during his lifetime (fn. 18) of the sum of twenty pounds, and after his decease with the observance of his obit within the chapel or within the parish church of "Our Ladie Barkinge" in Tower Ward, for the good of his soul, the souls of Nicholas and Elizabeth his father and mother, and others, in manner as directed. The master, wardens, and fellowship aforesaid to yearly bring their best cloth to lie upon his "herse," (fn. 19) and bestow certain gifts to poor parishioners of Barkinge and others, as set out; also they are to pay yearly the sum of forty-one shillings to the parson and churchwardens of the parish church of Lyston, co. Devon, where he was born, for pious uses; also ten shillings to the Wardens and Commonalty of Grocerie, to the intent that the clerk of the said Company of Grocerie or their beadle attend his mass, whereof two shillings and fourpence is to be given to seven poor people dwelling within the precinct of Grocers' Hall. In case of default made in carrying out the terms of his devise the whole of the above property is to go over to the Wardens and Commonalty of Grocerie aforesaid for similar uses, and in case of further default to his right heirs. Dated 12 September, A.D. 1544.
Roll 248 (134).

Lewen (Thomas), "Iremonger."—To Agnes his wife his messuages in the parish of S. Nicholas Olave, as well as his lands, woods, &c., in the village of Sypnam, (fn. 20) in the parish of Burnam, co. Bucks, for life. To the Master, Wardens, and Company of the "mysterie or occupacion" (fn. 21) of the Iremongers of the City of London and their successors the reversion of his messuages aforesaid, to hold the same charged—until such time as a new monastery be erected at Sawtrye, co. Huntingdon, of the same order of monks as were there in the old monastery before its suppression—with the maintenance of a mass priest in the church of S. Nicholas aforesaid to pray and preach therein, and perform other services as set out. The said priest to dwell in the fairest of the five new tenements which he purposes newly to erect within the churchyard of the said parish of S. Nicholas; the other four tenements (fn. 22) being set apart for dwelling-houses for four poor and honest men of the company aforesaid, who are to be allowed to live rent free, and to receive, each of them, twenty pence quarterly. The said master and wardens are further enjoined to pay yearly to the Friars Observants (fn. 23) within the realm of England the sum of five pounds, and a like sum to two poor scholars, one to be of Oxford and the other of Cambridge, (fn. 24) towards their maintenance; they are also to observe his obit, and expend various sums of money upon tapers, bread, ale, &c., in manner as directed. Immediately after the rebuilding of a monastery at Sawtrye as aforesaid, the said master and wardens are to pay to the abbot or prior the money previously devoted to the mass priest and the maintenance of tapers, who shall cause a mass daily to be said, and four sermons yearly to be made within the said monastery, for the good of his soul. To the Provost and Fellows of the College of Eyton, (fn. 25) co. Bucks, he leaves the reversion of his lands and tenements in the village of Sypnam aforesaid, charged with the observance of his obit in the parish church of Burneham, and with the payment of six shillings and eightpence to the poor of Burneham yearly upon Good Friday, &c. In default the said lands and tenements to go over to the Master and Wardens and Company of Iremongers aforesaid. Dated 20 April, A.D. 1555.
Roll 248 (135).

Monday next before F. of Nativity of S. John Baptist [24 June].

Downe (Robert), "Iremonger."—To be buried in the church of S. Mary Colchurche, to the use of which church he leaves twenty shillings for his "layestall." To each of twelve poor men to carry twelve" staffe-torches" at his burial a gown ready made of "mantell frise" and eightpence in money. To the livery of his company attending his funeral six pounds for a dinner. Bequests to the inmates of hospitals and prisons of money, coal, &c. To Richard Chamberleyn his son [in law] and his daughter, wife of the said Richard, and their children, to his cousin William Downe of Yawlynge, co. Kent, tanner, Margery his sister, living at Madestone, co. Kent, Margaret Alcham his sister, and others, he leaves money and gowns. To the Master, Wardens, and Commonalty of the Company of Iremongers in London his messuage called "the signe of the horsehed" in the parish of S. Sepulchre without Newgate, beneath the inn called "the signe of the Sarazeins head," together with the alley called "the horsehedd alley," and also his tenement called "the signe of the shippe" in the parish of S. Mildred in the Poultry; to hold the same to their own use for ever, charged with the observance of his obit, with specified gifts. To Margery his wife he leaves all his other lands and tenements within the City for life, so long as she remain unmarried; remainder, to the aforesaid Richard. Also to his wife his leasehold shops lying by Colchurche, on condition she occupy the same and do not alienate them; remainders over upon decease or remarriage. Dated 4 August, A.D. 1556.
Roll 248 (136).

ANNO 4 & 5 PHILIP AND MARY.

Monday next after the Feast of S. Martin, Bishop [11 Nov.].

Laxton (Sir William), Knt. and Alderman. (fn. 26) —Bequests to the Hospital of S. Bartholomew, Christ's Hospital, and to the inmates of various prisons. To the Company of Grocers he leaves ten pounds to make them a dinner at his burial. To several of his former servants, the deputy of his ward, and others, a black gown respectively. To William Laxton of Gretton, "mydlesonne" of Thomas Laxton, Thomas, another son of the same, Alice and Agnes their sisters, to Thomas, son of Robert Laxton of Gretton, and to Robert, Henry, William, Richard, and Edward, brothers of the aforesaid Thomas, to Crystian Webster of Owndell, (fn. 27) widow, William Presgrave of London, haberdasher, his servants, and others, he leaves divers sums of money, gold rings, &c. To "my lorde" Mayor of London, the Swordbearer, to Sir Thomas White, Knt. and Alderman, and others, he gives respectively a black gown. The Lord Mayor and Aldermen to dine at his house on the day of his funeral. To Nicholas Luddington his wife's son, Johane Machell his wife's daughter, wife of John Machell, Alderman, (fn. 28) and Anne, wife of Thomas Lodge, Alderman, (fn. 29) another daughter of his wife, he leaves basins and ewers. After the decease of Dame Johane his wife his manor called "Rose hall" in Sarrett, (fn. 30) co. Herts, and all his other lands and tenements in the same place, are to go to Nicholas Luddington aforesaid, and his lands and tenements in Stoke and Naylond in the counties of Suffolk and Essex to Anne, wife of Thomas Lodge aforesaid. To William Mayson his tenements in the parish of Aldermary in the City of London. Dated 17 July, A.D. 1556.

By codicil he devises to the Wardens and Commonalty of the Mistery of Grocers within the City of London certain lands, tenements, &c., in the parish of S. Swithin at London Stone, and in Sherborne Lane, S. Nicholas Lane, Abchurch Lane, Candlewyckstrete, Eastchepe, and elsewhere in the said City, upon condition they take proceedings to obtain at the hands of the King and Queen the messuage or tenement late called "the Guilde or fraternity howse" in Owndell for the purpose of a school house, provide a master and usher for teaching grammar at a specified stipend, and also appoint seven poor honest men dwelling in Owndell to be "beademen" for him in the said messuage or house called "the free grammer Scole Howse of me the sayd Sr William Laxton, Knight," (fn. 31) providing them with free lodging and paying each of them eightpence weekly. Dated 22 July, A.D. 1556.
Roll 249 (18).

Monday the Feast of S. Valentine [14 Feb.].

Ettes (William), girdler.—Has already given to each of his children as much as their child's part would amount to; what is left is not so much as he would have given to his wife nor so much as she deserves, he therefore disposes of his lands and goods in form following:—To Margaret his wife certain lands, tenements, &c., in the city and town of Brystowll, and his messuage and garden in Churche Strete in the parish of Westham, co. Essex, absolutely; also his dwelling-house and adjoining tenement in Frydaystrete in the parish of S. Matthew in the City of London for life, with remainder to William and Alexander his sons. To the Warden and Fellowship of Gyrdelers of the City of London twenty shillings for a recreation among such as should attend his exequies in their liveries. To Laurence Otwell and Elizabeth his wife, the testator's daughter, and others he gives black gowns. Dated 1 November, A.D. 1550.
Roll 249 (33).

ANNO 5 & 6 PHILIP AND MARY.

Monday next after the Feast of S. Leodegarius, Bishop [2 Oct.].

Dobson (William), "talloughchaundler."—To Katherine his wife all his lands, tenements, &c., in the City of London and realm of England for life; remainders over. To his son-in-law James Stoke, goldsmith, and to William Nooke, goldsmith, the reversion of tenements in Tower Street. To William Rowkyn, "cowper," and Agnes, wife of the same, the reversion of houses, &c., in the parish of S. Andrew Hubberde. To William, son of John Dobson his brother, tenements in the parish of S. Dunstan in the East. Dated 7 September, A.D. 1558.
Roll 249 (60).

Monday next before the Feast of SS. Simon and Jude [28 Oct.].

Watson (John), clothworker.—To be buried in the church of Aldermarye "under the place wheras the lampe dyd hange under the greate stone," if so be he die within ten miles of London. To Richard Maunsell, Christopher Jackson, and others he leaves divers goods, comprising his gown furred with budge and a "Jerkyn of Cremesyn velvett with sleves of Crymsyn satten," a "Jerkyn of tawnye velvet" with sleeves of the same, and his "foxe furred gowne," also two hundred "handelles" (fn. 32) and a thousand "tasylles" or "tassilles" (fn. 33) and gilt spoons. To Katherine his wife his house, shop, &c., in Basing Lane in the parish of Aldermary for life; remainder to the Mayor and Commonalty and Chamberlain of the City of London and their successors for the maintenance of their conduit pipes and water-course. Also to his aforesaid wife certain other tenements in the same lane and parish for life, with remainder to the Master, Wardens, and Company of the Clothworkers of London and their successors, charged with the yearly payment of twenty shillings to the poor of the aforesaid parish, (fn. 34) and the residue to poor freemen of the company, the same being distributed the week before Christmas. Dated 16 December, A.D. 1555.
Roll 249 (67).

Footnotes

  • 1. 3 Meaning legitimate.
  • 2. 1 Mistress (?).
  • 3. 2 Velvet with figured pattern.
  • 4. 3 Probably the same as "lewzernes," or "lucerns," met with elsewhere, and supposed to be the fur made from the skin of the lynx.
  • 5. 4 See note supra, p. 629.
  • 6. 1 Maker of fleches or arrows.
  • 7. 2 The bakers of London were chiefly of two classes, viz., the White Bakers or bakers of white bread, and the Brown Bakers or bakers of brown bread, who also enjoyed the monopoly, temp. Eliz., of making a coarse kind of bread known as "horse-bread" (Letter-Book Z, fol. 174). Ordinances regulating the trade are set out in 'Liber Albus' (Rolls Series, i. 356-8) and in the 'Liber Cust.' (Rolls Series, i. 104-5). The price of bread of all kinds, annually settled by the Mayor and Aldermen of the City, with the assistance of discreet men sworn for the purpose, is also to be found in a MS. known as the Assisa Panis, preserved among the City's Records. The bakers were incorporated by letters patent of Henry VII. (not Henry VIII. as stated in the Company's Return to the Commissioners in 1884), dated 22 July, A.D. 1486, as a perpetual guild or fraternity to the glory of God, the Virgin his mother, and of S. Clement (Letter-Book I, fol. 227 b).
  • 8. 3 A woman of this nickname, says Stow, for many years kept a victualling shop in Tower Street Ward in or near the street called Petty Wales ('Survey,' Thoms's ed., 1876, p. 52).
  • 9. 1 Now known as Christ's Hospital, built upon a portion of the site of the suppressed monastery of the Grey Friars.
  • 10. 2 S. Clement was the patron saint of the Guild of Bakers. A similar guild existed at Bristol, where "Saint Clement's money" was devoted to the maintenance of wax tapers in their chapel, the same being collected by two officers called "waxmen," who are found in other guilds also.
  • 11. 3 Corrupted into Steelyard, an enclosed place situate near Dowgate, where the foreign merchants known as "Easterlings" and "Emperor's men" lived in seclusion and warehoused their goods. Its name was obtained from the "stiliard" (Lat. statera, Ital. stadera, Span, stadiero, Eng. stalier) or beam used for weighing merchandise, and not, as some German writers would have us believe, from stapelhof (markethouse), nor from any process of manufacture known as "steeling" cloth. A suggestion that the Easterlings were probably the successors of the Emperor's men mentioned in the laws of King Ethelred, and were so called, not from their having come from the eastern shores of the Baltic, according to the popular notion, but rather from Egypt and the Archipelago, whence they brought the pre-eminently Eastern art of weighing and the "sterling" silver penny or "standard" coinage (//?^//), whereby goods were weighed, has been shown to be not altogether unreasonable by the writer of the Introduction to the Grocers' earliest Minute-Book (facsimile), already alluded to.
  • 12. 1 In Hart Lane, or Harpe Lane, running down from Tower Street to the Thames. It was, says Stow, sometime the dwelling-house of John Chichley, Chamberlain of London, a relative of the archbishop of that name ('Survey,' Thoms's ed., 1876, p. 51).
  • 13. 1 "Then is Adle Street, the reason of which name I know not, for at this present it is replenished with fair buildings on both sides; amongst the which there was sometime the Pinners' Hall, but that company being decayed, it is now the Plaisterers' Hall" (Stow). This property, which is situate in Addle Street and Philip Lane, is now tenanted by Foster, Porter & Co., Limited, on lease.
  • 14. 1 Painted cloth as a species of hangings for rooms was cloth or canvas painted in oil with various devices and stories fabulous or historical. It was often so painted as to represent tapestry; the latter, being too costly for ordinary use, was reserved for the more splendid apartments of the mansion house. Instances of stained cloth have already occurred in the wills of Thomas Madefrey, Canon of Wells (supra, p. 190), and John de Coggeshale (p. 250). Those engaged in the art or mistery were incorporated by charter of Queen Elizabeth, 19 July, 1581, under the name of "The Master and Wardens and Commonalty of the Freemen of the Mystery or Art of Painters, commonly called Painters' Stainers, within the City of London, and suburbs and liberties thereof."
  • 15. 2 The Tallow-chandlers' Company was one of the few Livery Companies which declined to make a return to the Livery Companies Commission appointed in 1880 of their corporate property, income, and expenditure. Hence it is impossible to trace the property here devised.
  • 16. 3 The value of the angel or angel noble varied from 6s. 8d. to 10s. Derived its name from the figure of the archangel driving a spear through a dragon.
  • 17. 1 Founded by Erkenwald, afterwards Bishop of London.
  • 18. 2 It appears that the testator's will was to take effect immediately after its execution, and not from the time of his death.
  • 19. 3 Chaucer uses the term "herse" to denote the decorated bier or funeral pageant, as here. Originally it signified a pyramidal candlestick, or frame for supporting lights, so called from its resemblance to a harrow (hercia), and used in the solemn services of Holy Week as well as at funeral obsequies. The corpse of John Islip, Abbot of Westminster, who died in 1552, was placed "undre a goodlye Herse wt manye lights.....which was left standing until the monethes mynde" (Way's 'Prompt. Parv.,' s.v. Heerce).
  • 20. 1 Cippenham.
  • 21. 2 Here we have the right interpretation of the word "mistery" as so often applied to the Livery Companies. It has no connexion whatever with mystery (μvδτηpiov) or secret, but is rather to be referred to Lat. ministerium, a ministry, office, or occupation. The mediæval Latin term for it is, however, mestera (Fr. métier).
  • 22. 2 These tenements, which were situate on Bread Street Hill, having been destroyed in the Fire of London, the Company appropriated four houses in S. Luke's parish, Old Street, for the pensioners; and these being burnt down in 1785, the Company rebuilt them at their own cost, and four poor members of the Company reside therein (Return made to the Commissioners appointed in 1880, vol. ii. p. 570).
  • 23. 4 Or Observantines, a reformed Franciscan order, called in France and Belgium "Recollets." About the beginning of the sixteenth century the Franciscans split into two bodies, (1) the Conventual, who indulged in the laxity permitted by the Pope, (2) the Observants, or Sabbotiers (so called from their wearing sabots or wooden shoes), who rigidly adhered to their founder's rule. In England they had an ill repute as spies on behalf of the Pope, frequenting the Court and noblemen's houses for the purpose of prying (Walcott's 'Sacred Archæology,' s.v. Franciscans).
  • 24. 5 The sum of 15l. is now paid yearly to each of the exhibitioners, instead of 2l. 10s.
  • 25. 1 Eton.
  • 26. 1 Of Langbourne and Lime Street Wards.
  • 27. 2 Oundle, co. Northampton.
  • 28. 3 Of Vintry Ward.
  • 29. 4 Of Cheap Ward.
  • 30. 5 Sarratt.
  • 31. 1 The school and almshouses are still maintained by the Grocers' Company. When first the Company took possession of the property here devised the rental only amounted to 50l. per annum, and other sums specified in the codicil to 38l. per annum. At the present day the property brings in about 4,000l. per annum. In 1843 an information was filed by the Attorney-General, at the relation of several of the inhabitants of Oundle, seeking to have the whole increased rents applied to the charitable purposes contained in the will (Attorney-General v. the Grocers' Company, 6 Beaven, 526). This information was dismissed with costs. The Company, notwithstanding this, have not availed themselves of what they could justly claim, as is shown by their Return to the Livery Companies Commission of 1880, where their expenditure on capital account upon the school within the preceding eight years is stated to have exceeded 11,000l., with a further prospective outlay of 24.000l.
  • 32. 1 Can this mean hand-ells or cloth-measures ? The great number seems to be against such an interpretation.
  • 33. 2 Thistles, now called "teasels," used for carding wool in the place of cards of iron, which were found less advantageous. According to Stow, a piece of land in Bishopsgate Ward called "Tasel Close" was planted with them ('Survey,' Thoms's ed., p. 63). In order to encourage home production of cloth, in 1326 the King forbade the exportation of teasels and fuller's earth (Riley's Memorials,' p. 150).
  • 34. 1 The sum of 1l., Mr. Hare reported in 1860, continued to be paid to the church wardens of the parish of S. Mary Aldermary, and the residue was distributed, with other charitable gifts, to the poor of the Company on S. Thomas's Eve.