Henry VIII: September 1541, 21-25

Pages 553-560

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 16, 1540-1541. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1898.

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September 1541, 21–25

21 Sept. 1191. The Privy Council.
P.C.P., vii.
Meeting at York, 21 Sept. Present: Norfolk, Suffolk, Privy Seal, Gt. Chamb., Gt. Admiral, Durham, Treasurer, Comptroller, Mr. of Horse, Vice-Chamb., Wriothesley, Chanc. of Augm. Business:—Upon occasion of the proclamation of the day before sundry bills were exhibited against the President and Council in the North, but found to be false.
22 Sept. 1192. The Privy Council.
P.C.P., vii.
Meeting at York, 22 Sept. Present: Norfolk, Suffolk, Privy Seal, Gt. Chamb., Gt. Admiral, Durham, Treasurer, Comptroller, Mr. of Horse, Vice-Chamb., Wriothesley, Chanc. of Augm. Business:—A complaint of Thos. Scaveceby, a groom of the King's chamber, that the abp. of York had forcibly intruded upon the King's hospital of Kynwoldegraves, Yorks., and that the barons of the Exchequer had not indifferently weighed the matter, was heard at length; but Scaveceby could show no proof that the King ever had title to the said house, and it appeared that he had imagined the matter to vex the Abp., and also that he had acted irreverently to the President and Council and other the King's commissioners here, and was a seditious person. The Council, by the King's special command, decreed (fn. 1) that he should be committed to ward and discharged from the King's service. The abp. of York was “commanded to cause all the shrines with their hovels,” to be taken down throughout his province.
22 Sept. 1193. Franciscus Driander to Edm. Crispin, at Oxford.
Foxe, vi. 139. Wrote to him before leaving Paris. Spent 10 days at Louvain with old friends. Today, did Garbrand's commission with the bookseller, and encloses a letter for him. Came last night to Antwerp. Will write further when he arrives at his destination. The bp. of Winchester came with great pomp (magno cum strepitu) to Louvain, as became the ambassador of so great a King, and was received “apud Jeremiam” in a private household. The theological faculty presented him with wine in the name of the University. But when their attention was called to his oration de Vera Obedientia they determined to recant what they had done and affront him. Ric. Lathomus and others attacked him on the primacy of the Pope. The Bp. vigorously defended his oration, and they denounced him as a schismatic, and when he proposed to say mass at St. Peter's Church, the necessary ornaments were refused him. The Bp., offended, hastened his journey, and the Dean on the following day, in an elaborate oration, “famam hominis pro concione misere proscindit.” Antwerp, 22 Sept. 1541.
23 Sept. 1194. Henry VIII. to the Deputy and Council of Ireland.
R. O.
St. P., iii.
Has received their letters, acts, and writings by Sir Thos. Cusake. Trusts to have cause to commend their discreet training of the Irishmen to obedience; yet, considering that the revenues will scant bear a moiety of the charges there, and that the whole benefit of these submissions goes to Irishmen who have been usurpers and traitors, thinks well, before resolving upon such gifts of lands, to give some part of his opinion, to be by them duly pondered. Gives this opinion (grounded upon the contents of § 3).
As to the rest of their letters, Cusake shall bring the Acts for the Parliament, and money for the army. Is well content that Parliament be kept at Limerick. Cusake is to be sworn of the Privy Council there. Takes in good part the hosting upon Oneyl. Is content with ODoneyll's suit for his lands and the earldom of Tyrconel if something reasonable can be gotten of him. Approves their device for O'Chonour and his brother, Kayer. Grants Odoneyl's suit for the bpric. (fn. 2) for his chaplain. The Deputy is to receive such bishops and priests as will leave their provisions, and to authorise the Chancellor to deliver them provisions under the Great Seal. Grants the Deputy the monastery of Grayn, as lord Leonard had it. Understands that there has been some question between the Deputy and Chancellor as to the gift of benefices. As there are no express words in the Chancellor's patent to “bear” him in this, henceforth the Deputy shall have the whole gift of benefices—bishoprics and deaneries reserved to the King. The Deputy shall have in farm such port corn as comes to the King by the avoiding of abbots' leases near Kilmainham or Maynooth. Gives directions for the repair of castles at the discretion of the Deputy, Chancellor, and Chief Justice. Custody of Ramore and Three Castles to be given by the Deputy's discretion. They must send a minute of such commissions as they require for granting leases of Crom and Adare to Desmond; also a lease for John (sic) Alen for the farm of the things contained in the proviso.
Their letters seem to set forth some device how, after the hosting upon Oneyl and the Parliament at Limerick, part of the retinue may be revoked. Thinks it unwise to be too quick in this, and asks them to write what force is meet for the sure stay of the country and the advancement of the commenced civility amongst the Irishry. Marvels that they write so many letters in favour of every man's suit, and desires them first to weigh and report upon such suits; also to devise how revenues there may be sooner paid after they fall due, for he marvels that so much is yet unpaid that was due at Easter last.
Draft, pp. 20. Endd.: “Minute to the Deputy and Council in Ireland xxiijo Septemb. 1541.”
R. O.
St. P., iii.
2. Sir Thos. Cusake's advice to the Council touching gifts of lands and titles of honour to Irishmen.
As Irishmen think the English will one day banish them, and as they won their lands by encroachment upon the King's progenitors, especially the earldom of Ulster, they stand in no assurance. To grant them their lands by letters patent would assure them that they were accepted as subjects, not enemies, and secure that the “eldest mulier born” should inherit his father's lands and so prevent the lord of the country from robbing his inferiors to provide for his bastards. Also if none but “mulierly born” shall inherit, they will cease to live, as they do, “diabolically without marriage.” Describes other commodities, viz., the abolition of the Brehons' laws and encouragement of husbandry. As long as Desmond, Obrene, MacWilliam Burke, and Odonell are sure to the King, the rest of Irishmen can do no great harm. Advises beginning with Oconor, Kedaghe Omore, the Ferrolles, and Orayley, and then with MacWilliam, Odonell, and others as time shall serve; for as all reckon Oconor most wise, they will be guided by his example, and the rather as to their lands the King has best right. Describes Oconor's country of Yfaley and the conditions on which it should be granted, and the course to be taken with Kedagh OMore, the Kavanaghs, Birnes and Orayley. A commission should be sent to the Deputy, Chancellor, and others to grant such gifts and creations. Conditions which might be obtained from Odonell and MacWilliam.
Every order fails through lack of knowledge of the laws of God and of the King, “for they never hear the Word of God preached among them and in divers places little or no christening used.” It should be enacted that every bishop preach certain times a year or find one to preach for him.
Pp. 7. Begins: “Cusackes device to your most noble and honorable wisdoms” (the Council). Endd.
R. O. 3. Report to the King by his Council beginning “Sir, upon such discourse as it pleased your Majesty to make unto us the last day touching the matters of Ireland, we have sithens, according to our duties, both debated the same more groundly amongst ourselves and also communed thereof at good length with Sir Thomas Cusake.”
Think that as the King has condescended to take the title king of Ireland, that land should be so trained as to bear the charges there and yield some profit. Nothing but conquest would wrest the King's lands there from those who have usurped them, and, until a propitious time for conquest, 8,000 or 10,000 marks yearly must be spent to stay the land. Seeing therefore that Desmond has come to the Parliament, and that Odonell, McWilliam, Orayle, Ochonour, and all others of havour, Oneyle only except, show great conformity provided they have their lands of the King's gift, this opportunity should not be lost, so as “regard be had to your honour, by the tenor of their grants according to your Grace's device in your last despatch thither.” Give their advice, in which they deal with the lands as of two sorts, the one lying within the King's power, as Ochonour and Orayle, where rents may be levied, civility enforced, religious houses suppressed, &c. The other and greater part, lying remote from the King's strength, to be received upon as good conditions as may be won by persuasion, and where the suppression of religious houses may be secured by granting some of them in farm to the great men, and other profits obtained as the Deputy and Council can devise.
Think this should be written to the Deputy and Council there with a discourse upon the duty of good councillors and a command to debate the matter and signify their advice hither upon every article. Also that they conclude with no Irishman of any strength till they know and have sent hither the conditions upon which he will be bound. Until some resolution is taken upon their answer, none of the King's power there should be withdrawn.
Draft in Wriothesley's hand, pp. 8. Endd.: A discourse of matters of Ireland.
R. O. 4. Fair copy of § 3, with the same endorsement.
Pp. 3.
24 Sept. 1195. Henry VIII. to Francis I.
MS., 597,
p. 4.
Intending to employ lord William Howarde, his ambassador, upon other affairs, revokes him and sends Wm. Paget, one of his secretaries, to reside there in his place. Prays Francis to grant him favourable audience as affairs shall require, and to impart news and give him credence. York, 24 Sept. 1541.
French. Letter-book copy in the hand of Paget's clerk, p. 1. Begins: Treshault et trespuissant, &c.
24 Sept. 1196. Henry VIII. to Lord William Howard.
R. O.
St. P., viii.
Revokes him and sends in his place Wm. Paget, secretary of the Privy Council and Parliaments, to whom he is to deliver the King's plate which he has, and also three muletts which were the bp. of London's. York, 24 Sept. 33 Hen. VIII.
Draft in the hand of Paget's clerk, with corrections by Wriothesley, pp. 2. Endd.: The minute to the lord William Howard for his return home.
Caius Coll.
MS., 597, p. 1.
2. Letter-book copy of the preceding in the hand of Paget's clerk.
P. 1.
24 Sept. 1197. The Privy Council to Lord William Howard.
R. O. The King, minding to use your service here, has sent this bearer, Mr. Paget, to supply your place, being the rather induced thereto by considering what personage you are, and of how small estimation Mons. Mariliac, the French ambassador here, is. This the King proposed, and we all thought very prudently considered; so that on Mr. Paget's arrival you may take leave. Be assured the King is your good and gracious lord.
Draft in Wriothesley's hand, p. 1. Endd.: The minute of a letter from the Council to the L. William Howard for his return home, 24 Sept. 33 Hen. VIII.
1198. Paget's Instructions.
MS., 597,
p. 2.
St. P., viii.
The King having determined to employ elsewhere the lord William Howarde, his ambassador resident with the French king, sends “the said William Paget” to reside as ambassador in the French Court, who shall (taking the writings prepared for his despatch) repair thither with diligence, confer with lord William, according to the King's letters to the said lord, and, thereupon, they shall repair together to the French king. Lord William shall first declare his revocation and the sending of his colleague, and then Paget shall deliver the King's letters and hearty commendations. As the Admiral of France, after long absence from Court, is restored to his master's grace, and has chief authority about him, Paget shall make him the King's hearty commendations, and say that the King, who has always had a good opinion of his loyalty, is glad to hear that he is restored to favour, and doubts not but he will have better regard to his master's affairs than has of late days been given. Likewise, he shall make the King's commendations to the Queen of Navarre and such others as lord William shall advise.
Finally, he shall travail by all means to know the state and mutations of the French king and his Court, and his proceedings with the Emperor, Scots, Rome, Turk, Venetians, and other states and occurrents; and report them diligently.
Letter-book copy, in the hand of Paget's clerk, pp. 2.
24 Sept. 1199. Lord William Howard to Henry VIII.
R. O.
St. P., viii.
The taking of Fragoso and Rancon has caused much business, as the answer given to Mons. de Tayse was that the Emperor was not privy to their taking, but if the King could find where they were, he would do his best to have them restored. The King still keeps the bp. of Vallaunce prisoner. If Fragoso and Rancon be dead “he shall go the same way.” A gentleman is sent to Luke, where the Emperor and bp. of Rome are to meet, to declare to the Bishop in the Emperor's presence, the wrong done to Francis by the taking of his servants; and meanwhile Francis remains about Lyons hunting. Today the Emperor's ambassador told Howard that the Emperor and the Bishop were already met at Luke, and that the Emperor would not tarry, but go with his army towards Africa. When the French king heard of the Emperor's going with 25,000 or 30,000 men to take shipping at Genoa, he put his garrisons in those parts in readiness, and sent the Countye de Lyniez, captain of the Scottish garrison, to Avignon. He will muster the gentlemen of these quarters at Bourgh in Brasse or Dygeon, and if the Emperor proceed into Africa, he will go to Paris for the winter. The bp. of Rome left St. Mark 17 Aug., and went thence, by Popolo, to Formello, and next day to Ronsiglion, next day to Vitarbo, Tuesday the 20th to Capo a Monte, and so to Luke, where he purposed to be on Our Lady Even; and after the Emperor's departure he would return to Rome by Bologna, Romagna, and Loretto. The Emperor's daughter left, 19 Aug., to see her father, going from Civita by sea in Dorria's galleys. The Cardinal of Carpi remains in Rome as legate, and with him Sir Alex. Vitelli with 2,000 foot. All the princes of Italy, on hearing of the Emperor's coming with such an army, provided for their surety; which the Emperor thought strange. He caused Sir Lodovike delle Arme to go to Genoa, who is accused of a design to betray Sienna to the French. At Rome are taken two Florentines, who sought to kill the Emperor at his last being in Naples. The Italians in Lyons say the Emperor will give Sienna to the bp. of Rome's nephew (grandson) for 1,000,000 of gold; and some say the Bishop will give him Avignon, but few think he will take it. The duke of Florence is gone to the Emperor very sumptuously, and will give him 150,000 crs.; the duke of Ferrara is likewise gone, and lends him 100,000 crs. “and forty pieces of artillery called cannons.” Milan gives 150,000 crs. The Emperor will, if the war continue, leave Don Fernando and Ferranti Gonzaga in Algiers and go to Spain. Fray at Naples between Ant. Doria's men and the Spanish garrison. Doria left very ill-content with the Viceroy, and went to Civita for the Emperor's daughter. The Turk has arrived at Buda, overthrown the king of the Romans' men, burnt the bridges, and compelled those who took refuge at Pesta, on the other side of the Danube, to surrender. The Emperor has charged the marquis of Musso, the countie Philip Torniello, and Ant. Dorye to muster men for Hungary. The Emperor's ambassador at Venice has informed the Signory of the Emperor's displeasure at their aiding the French king to send Captain Poullyne to the Turk.
There is no more speech of the Dolphyn's going to Provence, or Orleans' to Piedmont, nor has Mons. Hannyball returned from thence. Madame de Estampes bears all the stroke now about the King, “for all the rest be afraid of her.” Then comes the Admiral, to whom the writer declared how glad Henry was of his return to favour. The Constable is clean out of favour. The cardinal of Tournon, Mons. Sentpoull, Mons. Mareschall Hanniball, and the Chancellor are in favour. The Dolphyn has no great affection to the Admiral, because of his familiarity with Madame de Estampes, “which the Dolphyn favoureth in no wise.” The cardinal of Lorraine is in the greatest favour, but meddles most in matters of pleasure. He has returned from the marriage of the duke of Lorraine's son to the duchess of Milan. Did not write in his last of the arrival of the cardinal of Scotland, because it was said he came through England. He showed Howard that he was in doubt whether he would go to Rome. As for the coming of Mons. de Ville from the Emperor; heard, indeed, that he would come, “but not without taking leave of him.” Wrote from Bourgis of the taking of him that was Norfolk Herald. He was delivered at Lyons, on St. Matthew's Even, to Howard, who sent him over the water to the prison; and by the way he leaped out of the boat, and would have drowned himself if “one had not taken him with a hooked staff.” It is said the bp. of Rome is wholly Imperial and only dissembles with France, for which cause the King refuses audience to the Bishop's ambassador, who has followed him for a fortnight seeking it. Lyons, 24 Sept. Signed.
7. Add. Endd.: 1541.
25 Sept. 1200. William Lord Parr.
See Grants in September, Nos. 25, 26.
25 Sept. 1201. The Privy Council.
P.C.P., vii.
Meetings at York, 23 and 24 Sept. Present: Norfolk, Suffolk, Privy Seal, Gt. Chamb., Gt. Admiral, Durham, Treasurer, Comptroller, Mr. of Horse, Vice-Chamb., Wriothesley, Chanc. of Augm. No business recorded.
Meeting at York, 25 Sept. Those present not named and no business recorded, but a note in the margin: “Md. that this day the decree for Scaveby.” (fn. 3)
25 Sept. 1202. Henry VIII. to Sir Wm. Eure.
Add. MS.
32, 646, f. 225.
B. M.
No. 87.
The Scots have made raids, taken spoils, slain seven of the Fenwekes who went to rescue spoils, and fired Jak a Musgrave's house, although they lately pretended a fervent love and amity. Directs him to set watch and be prepared for like incursions on his borders.
P.S.—He must get into Berwick as much victual as he can, and, if the Scots attempt an enterprise, “slip as many under his rule as shall do to the Scots, in spoils, burnings and killings, three hurts for one.”
A like addition to Sir Thos. Wharton for the provision of Carlisle.
Draft in Wriothesley's hand, pp. 2. Endd.: Minute to Sir Wm. Evre, xxvo Septemb. 1541.
25 Sept. 1203. Sir Thos. Wharton to the Council.
Add. MS.
32, 646, f. 222.
B. M.
No. 86.
On the 25th inst., received at Carlisle before 9 a.m., their letters, dated York the 24th inst., requiring information upon a report that lord Maxwell had “blown out at the horn Scottishmen to the number of xlti” and made a raid within Wharton's office and fired Jak of Musgrave's house. There has been no such blowing out and only one horse spoiled out of Bowcastell; but, on Tuesday 20 Sept., they of Liddersdell burned some barns about Bowcastell castle, to the great hurt of John Musgrave. Explains that redress should be had by the officers of the Middle March. In default of redress has devised an exploit against the offenders. Redress is unlikely because fire and blood in peace time is referred to the princes, and also there is great displeasure between Dand Car of Farnyhirst, now warden, and lord Maxwell, governor of Liddersdell. One of the chief offenders is Anton Armstrang, Englishman, who fled out of Gillesland when the earl of Cumberland was warden. They of Liddersdell have this week killed seven of the Fenwekes in the Middle March. Keeps vigilant watch and is to meet lord Maxwell on Monday, 26th inst. Describes his proceeding upon hearing that Maxwell meant to send some of Liddersdell to inhabit the Debateable ground, and had practised with the Fosters, who are tendering their submission to Wharton. The captain of Carlisle castle refused to receive a prisoner Wharton sent thither. It is a great hindrance to his office to have no gaol at Carlisle. The Debateable ground is very strong. Reminds them of his suits for the advancement of his office. The master mason for whom they wrote departed to the King two hours before their letter arrived. Karlisle, 25 Sept., 2 p.m. Signed.
4. Add. Endd.: 1541.
25 Sept. 1204. Richard Hilles to Henry Bullinger.
Zurich Letters,
i. 216
(Parker Soc.)
Dated Frankfort, 18 Sept. 1541.—Thanks him for his consolatory letter of 31 Aug. received three days since. Sends the black and red cloth written for by Falckner, who owes him already about 100 fl., besides 45 that he writes Froschover ought now to pay me, &c. Is here alone. At Strasburgh likewise, has no domestics except one female servant. I brought one servant from England, who appeared most zealous, but when he saw the simplicity of religious worship in this country, having no friends with him nor abundance of meat as in England, he longed to return home, and I discharged him with a letter to enable him to obtain another master. I hope he still savours of Christ in some measure. He is now living with a merchant who, in the time of liberty, three years since, professed the Gospel among us after his way. But what am I saying? I scarcely know any one who had greater knowledge of religion than our friend Peterson. Please send to Clare the letters of my late servant which I have already sent you by Froschover, enclosed in mine. “After he returned home from Strasburg, from which place he fled with the greatest danger, he could not be compelled by the severest threatenings of his master, but said that things were optional and indifferent, and I know not what.” How he has been thus infatuated I know not, but I know, before my departure, he attended voluntarily masses for the dead, and does so now every feast day through almost the whole autumn, as is the custom here. He had a tolerable fortune indeed by his wife.
A commission about butter, &c., and a message to brother B[utler].
P.S.—I am not a citizen of Strasburg, for fear of losing the privileges I already enjoy in England and Brabant. The senate of Strasburg is very well disposed towards me. Before this letter was sealed Chr. Froschover has paid me the 45fl. owing by Falckner, which were to be paid at this fair, &c. Sends with this the opinion of our friend Capito on Original Sin. Has no news from England this fair except that the King has not yet returned to London from the Northern parts, whither he proceeded with 1,000 soldiers after the French fashion to reduce a rebellious and very superstitious people. About 20 persons (of whom about 12 had been monks) endeavoured five months since secretly to raise a new disturbance in those parts. They were beheaded, hung and drawn, after our custom, the June following, at London and York. The King, before setting out, beheaded also the mother (fn. 4) of our countryman, the Cardinal, with two other of our oldest nobility (fn. 5). I do not hear that any of the royal race are left, except the nephew of the Cardinal (fn. 6) and another boy (fn. 7), the son of the marquis of Exeter. They are both children and in prison and condemned, I know not why, except that it is said that their fathers sent letters to the Pope and their kinsman, the Cardinal. The King's son by his third wife is still alive. There is also living a natural son (fn. 8) of King Edward whose daughter Henry VII. married; but shortly before I left England he was sent from Calais, where he had been the King's lieutenant, to the Tower of London, where he was imprisoned when Cromwell was condemned, and where he still awaits the King's pardon. At Calais he was a most grievous persecutor of the Gospel. Edward left two sons, who were put to death by their uncle Richard, who usurped the Kingdom for nearly three years. Another of the chief nobility, a most cruel tyrant, fell from his horse, which was galloping of its own accord, and broke his neck. This was the earl of Essex, whose property Cromwell immediately obtained, but not for any length of time, as my former letter by Froschover will show.
Strasburg, Sept. 25.—The King has appointed Thomas abp. of Canterbury and the Chancellor of the Kingdom (both of whom are now considered our friends) as his deputies in the South of England. But just after the King's departure they burned at the stake, in London, a young man of eighteen (fn. 9) for Lutheran opinions on the Eucharist. He did not altogether deny a corporal presence, but said, like Wycliffe, that the accidents of bread could not remain without the substance. The son of Zuinglius is dead here, like many others, of whom there were the greatest hopes in the college of Strasburg.


  • 1. Note in margin that this decree was made on the 25th.
  • 2. Of Elphin. See No. 1127.
  • 3. See No.1192.
  • 4. The Countess of Salisbury, mother of Cardinal Pole.
  • 5. Lord Leonard Grey and Thos. Fienes, lord Dacre.
  • 6. Henry Pole, son of lord Montague.
  • 7. Edward Courteney, who was restored in blood and created Earl of Devon in 1553.
  • 8. Lord Lisle.
  • 9. Richard Mekins.