Henry VIII: April 1543, 1-5

Pages 202-217

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 18 Part 1, January-July 1543. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1901.

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April 1543, 1-5

1 April.
Dasent's A. P. C., 104.
347. The Privy Council.
Meeting at St. James's, 1 April. Present : Chancellor, Russell, Hertford, Winchester, Westminster, St. John, Gage, Browne, Wingfield, Wriothesley. Business :—The earl of Surrey being charged with eating flesh and breaking windows at night with stonebows, alleged his licence for the first, and as to the stonebows admitted that he "had very evil done therein." He was committed to the Fleet. Thos. Wiatt and young Pickering charged with the same offences, alleged their licence for the first and denied the other. Wiatt was sent to the Counter and Pickering to the Porter's lodge.
1 April.
Add. MS. 32,650, f. 111. B.M. Sadler State Papers, I. 108.
348. Sadler to the Council.
Dined this day with the Governor who all "dinner-while" spoke of the abuses of the Church, "the reformation whereof he most earnestly pretendeth." He desired Sadler to write to England for books of the New Testament and Bible in English, and the statutes and injunctions for reformation of the clergy, and extirpation of the Bishop of Rome's authority. After dinner, thought to feel his intention towards the Cardinal, and said that the King, hearing of the proposed removing from Blackness to St. Andrew's, commanded him (Sadler) to dissuade it, thinking that way to win the castle was the readiest way to lose both it and him, for it could not be kept against his friends and he would there have opportunity, with the aid of France and the Clergy and others, to work the overthrow of their purposes, especially the government and the reformation. Said that was the King's opinion; and advised him not to suffer the Cardinal to remain at St. Andrews. The Governor replied that, had he known in time, he would have been ruled by the King's advice; but it was the nearest way to come by the Castle, and Seton was bound for his sure custody. He was sure the Cardinal would work him "no less cumber" than the King predicted, and he would never let him out of prison. Sadler said that, the Cardinal being in his own castle, numbers who were won to him by money, besides the Clergy, in hope of his delivery would stay to conform themselves to reason. The Governor replied that if peace were established no man in Scotland depended so much on the Cardinal as to refuse reason. Sadler suggested that he should send the Cardinal to England. "Hereat he laughed and said 'the Cardinal had liever go into Hell; and', quoth he 'it would be thought strange if I should send him into England, as who sayeth,' quoth he, 'we were not able to punish his fault here; but I assure you,' quoth he, 'he shall be as surely kept here as if he were in England'." Could not persuade him to remove the Cardinal from St. Andrews : and has since learnt that his removing thither was not only to get the castle, but, by the bruit of his delivery, induce the priests throughout the realm, who would neither minister sacraments nor say mass, the rather now at Easter quietly to execute the same. Told the Governor of his wish to visit the Queen Dowager, which he had already intimated by Sir George Douglas. He said that, whatsoever she pretended, she would be found "a right Frenchwoman"; and that Mr. Drummond showed him, from the King, that she sent word by a servant that he meant to marry the young Queen to his son; wherein he sware that she belied him, for if he so minded no nobleman in Scotland would oppose it, and indeed he himself had thought no less than to do so, and had communed with the Queen and found her comformable, but when the prisoners proponed the marriage of England he considered it so beneficial to the realm that he advanced it with all his power, as he still does. Here Sadler pressed him to let it be seen that he proceeded earnestly; but he continued against the Queen, saying that she studied to set the King and him at pique in order to keep this realm dependent on France. "'This' he saith 'is her only drift; which,' quoth he, 'as she is both subtile and wily, so she hath a vengeable ingine and wit to work her purpose : and still she laboureth,' quoth he 'by all means she can, to have the Cardinal at liberty, by whom, being as good a Frenchman as she is a Frenchwoman, she might the rather compass her intent'." Cannot tell which of them to trust, but the ambassadors' proceedings will reveal it.
On leaving the Governor, received the Council's letters of 27 March showing how the King judged the Queen to be frank and plain; and Sadler still thinks it must be so, intending, to-morrow at Linlithgow, when he has heard what she will say, to accomplish his charge in such a way that she may take no advantage if she be not sincerely minded. The rest of their letters, touching the preparations on the Borders, he will declare to Douglas and Angus, who, alone of that band, are now here. Edinburgh, 1 April, at midnight.
Pp. 6. Add. Endd. : ao xxxiiijo.
*** An abstract of this, noting misreadings and omissions in the Sadler State Papers, is given in Hamilton Papers, No. 345.
1 April.
R.O. St. P., IX. 338.
349. Paget to Henry VIII.
Being informed that the English merchants arrested in Normandy were straitly handled in prison, and having commodity of Calais pursuivant (whom the lord Deputy had sent to Diepe), sent him from Depe to Rowen to learn the truth; and also complained to Mons. de Bies, who forthwith wrote to Mons. de la Meilleraye. Calais was not suffered to speak with the merchants, but found means to obtain two letters (enclosed) from them to him and to Paget's clerk. Has seen De la Meilleraye's answer to Du Bies, viz. : that, whereas the latter desired him to release the merchants and allow them the liberty of the towns, as their merchants had in England, he could not do so without command from his master. Also that Bell and Inglis, of Rye, had taken three fisherboats of Normandy and ransomed them at 20l. apiece. Encloses copy of a letter sent lately from this King to De la Meilleraye and proclaimed in Rowen. Calais says 60 sail of Briton and Norman men of war are on the coast towards Spain.
As the King will hear from Guisnes, great provision for war passes daily towards Arde. The towns in these quarters are very strong, but horsemeat scarce. In Picardy are 800 men of arms, which amounts to near 3,000 lances, besides 400 Italian light horse; and lately arrived Mons. Danebault's son, Mons. de Cars and another, with 200 light horse each, who are called Albanoys and wear hats like them, but are really "Gascons, Provenceaulx and of omne gaderum." Boulloyn, 1 April, 1543. Signed.
Pp. 3. Add. Endd.
Caius College MS. 597, p. 283. 2. Letter-book copy of the preceding, in the hand of Paget's clerk.
Pp. 3.
Calig. E. IV. 44. B. M. 3. Another copy of the preceding.
Very mutilated, pp. 3.
2 April.
Dasent's A. P. C., 104.
350. The Privy Council.
Meeting at St. James's, 2 April. Present : Chancellor, Russell, Hertford, Winchester, Westminster, St. John, Gage, Browne, Wingfield, Wriothesley. Business :—Wiatt and Pickering (being confronted by Clere) confessed to walking in the streets with stonebows and were committed to the Tower.
2 April.
351. The Earl of Surrey.
At Westm., 2 April anno 34to.—Mylicent Arundel confesses that once when my lord of Surrey was displeased about buying of cloth she told her maids in the kitchen how he fumed, and added "'I marvel they will thus mock a prince.' 'Why,' quoth Alys, her maid, 'is he a prince?'. 'Yea Mary! is he,' quoth this deponent, 'and if aught should come at the King but good his father should stand for king'." Upon further examination she cannot recollect speaking the last words "and if aught, etc."
Joan Whetnall confesses that talking with her fellow touching my lord of Surrey's bed she said the arms were very like the King's, and she thought that "if aught came at the King and my lord Prince, he would be king after his father."
Both these persons and Alice deny that ever they heard any other person speak of such matters. Signed : J. Russell : Ste. Winton : Antone Browne : Thomas Wriothesley.
In Wriothesley's hand, p. 1.

352. Sir Ralph Longford.
A steward's accounts of receipts and payments for provisions, farm stock, &c., arranged as bills dated 28 Aug. 33 Hen. VIII. and 27 May 34 Hen. VIII. The former includes payments to "my lady when you were at London," payments made at Longforthe, Rudware and Calwich, and 22s. "paid Thomas Doleman for a obligation of Thomas Longforth [whic]h he was bounden for when he was under sheriff," &c.
Fragment, mutilated and faded, pp. 6.
R.O. 2. Fragment of the preceding, containing payments and receipts "sythe iiij day of December unto this present day."
Pp. 2.
R.O. 3. Another fragment, containing receipts and payments for Calwich "sith that I counted with my master," which was 4 Dec., 34 Hen. VIII. [1542].
Pp. 2. Endd. : "Syr Jhon Thornelyez laste bokes of reykenynge for Challwyche."
R.O. 4. Sir Ralph Langfforthe to Mr. Gates.
I learn that Wm Browne, merchant, hearing of my bargain with you for the Houghe, makes avaunt to cast a blot in my way. I beg that you and your friends will foresee that if Browne make any exclamation against me it may take small root until I can make my own answer. From the Fleet, 22 Dec. [1542 (fn. 1) ].
Hol., p 1. Add.
R.O. 5. Sir Ralph Langfforthe to Mr. Gattez of the Privy Chamber.
I stand bound to you in 3,000 mks. for the sale of Hoghe lordship, Lanc. Please write, by my servant the bearer, whether you have moved the King that the bargain may pass by act of Parliament, (fn. 2) 9 Jan. [1543].
Hol. p. 1. Add.
R.O. 6. Sir Ralph Langfforthe to Mr. Gattez of the Privy Chamber.
Borrowed money of Ant. Cowppe upon a farm called Challewyche to pay his debt to the King. Begs a loan to repay Cowppe, or he will lose the farm to his utter undoing. If you have the Hoghe of me, as I trust you shall, and this is taken from me, I shall be unable to keep house and must forsake my native country. The Fleet, 20 Feb.
Hol. p. 1. Add.
R.O. 7. Sir Ralph Langfforthe to Mr. Dacrez of the King's Council.
This afternoon Mr. Cooppe was with me and said he had been with you and Mr. Gattez about the money I owe him for the farm of Chalwich, and Mr. Gattez would pay nothing without further assurance. Cooppe says if he have not the money in 3 days I must lose the farm. Please entreat Mr. Gattez to pay for me. To lose the farm would be my utter undoing, and I should not be able to keep house in my country. Send answer by bearer my servant. From the Fleet, 3 March.
Hol. p. 1. Add.
R.O. 8. Sir Ralph Langfforthe to Mr. Gatez of the Privy Chamber.
I stand in debt to Mr. Cooppe for the lease of Calwiche, and unless I pay he says he must needs put it from me. Please pay the money for me and take the lease and I will be bound to repay you if the bargain of the Hoghe shall go through. Would fain know if the bill will pass. From the Fleet, 4 March.
Hol. p. 1. Add.
R.O. 9. Sir Ralph Langforth to Mr. Gatez.
My friend Mr. Coope has stayed sale of his lease of Callewyche, at your desire in my behalf, and for receipt of his money has tarried in the city 3 weeks at great cost. I beg you to pay him the 200l. agreed upon, and take the lease in gage on my bond to repay you within a year. Brownne or Hollez both offer, if I leave my promise to you, to redeem Calwiche and assist me; but, as I showed you this morning, I shall never swerve from you. I beg you again to pay this money for me. Forgot to show you of this when at Court for haste. From the Fleet, Saturday.
P.S. Please send word by Mr. Babyngton, as the money must be paid to-morrow.

10. Sir Rauffe Langfforthe to Mr. Gatez of the Privy Chamber.
This Monday at the Fleet has been with me Thos. Fitzherbert, who stands enfeoffed of all my lands and has stayed my matter in the Parliament House all this time. He offers with his friends, to enlarge me of my imprisonment and pay my debts; however I will never go from my "bonds to you made." I beg I may know your mind by Mr. Warren. From the Fleet, 2 April.
Hol. p. I. Add.
2 April.
R.O. [Spanish Calendar, VI. ii., No. 124.]
353. Chapuys to the Queen of Hungary.
On the 24th ult. received her letters of the 17th (fn. 3), together with those of Grandvelle and the documents therein mentioned, and need not recount all that passed between the King and Council and him at three visits which he has paid to the Court, from whence he has only just come, as God has conducted affairs according to the Emperor's desire, and, after several days' consultation, the King has resolved, as he has just told Chapuys, to enter war against France this present year, in person if possible (and if the Emperor invades as Granvelle's writing indicates) saying that, although the Emperor's presence would profit much, it was not for him to advise such a prince to put himself in danger and travail. The King would advise that the Emperor's army enter by Champaigne, an open and fertile country lying commodiously both for the Italians and Spaniards and for the men from Germany, and not amuse itself upon any town on the river of Somme. Being told that perhaps there was some neutrality for Champaigne, he said that that would be very ill advised, but, even if it were so, the Emperor's army could pass through, and if those of Champaigne refused passage or victuals they would be unworthy of the neutrality. With his own army he would go to Boulogne and Monstreuil and then to Abbeville, feigning a wish to besiege it but intending to march straight to Rouen, which is scarcely strong, and first win two bulwarks which the French have made on the shore and which are worth nothing from the landward, in order that his army by sea may refresh that by land. To keep the Gascons in their own country, he thinks that the Emperor should double the garrisons about Lipusca or make some show of invasion there. To prove his sincerity, he would advertise Chapuys that he had already sent throughout his realm to enrol men in a new and better order than heretofore.
Gathers that he will not take into his pay other footmen than his own people, but will take horsemen; and he desires the Queen to begin to prepare and equip the necessary ships. Did not speak of his provision of artillery, munition, harness and weapons, nor what assistance of victuals he could give,—to avoid wearying him after their long conversation and because he said that yesterday he had a slight access of fever; and, besides, the Council had said that there was appearance of good crops, and therefore of getting much grain from hence, but scarcity of flesh, because the severe winter killed many cattle, and as for artillery and other things above mentioned they were well provided. Did not enquire what number of men the King would assemble, supposing that he would not make such an enterprise without a sufficient number, which it will be easy to augment as the Emperor may advise.
Has shown the Council certain articles by the admiral of Flanders touching the conduct of ships of both sides. They approve all, but would add that there should be, besides the ordinary banners, some countersign to be changed every month, as the enemies might counterfeit the accustomed ensigns. They are to give him their opinion in writing.
There are in Flanders fugitive Englishmen, wicked wretches, who there get heretical books printed in English and send them hither secretly, to the scandal of good men, and the King begs her to provide a remedy in conformity with that which has been twice capitulated about it. Must not forget that this King is pleased with her advertisement of news and occurrents, greatly praising her prudence and dexterity.
The French ambassador received letters from his master yesterday and thought to have audience to-day, but Chapuys forestalled him. His predecessor has left with no great present (moyennement presenté); and although the King's ambassador may have left Boulogne, he of France is intended to sojourn a little at Calais, as the Council have told me.
Presented her letters touching the safe-conduct of the wines and woad which the Vuychardini would bring from France into Flanders, and declared his credence; but, as yet, the King makes difficulty, saying that under cover of it, French ships could pass into Scotland; and it would be better to let the French lose their crop (denrée), and so molest the people with the war, than to send them money. He thought that she must have been importuned for it by some merchant, and if she wished a reasonable quantity he would condescend to it, but thought that Flemish ships should carry it. London, 2 April, 1543.
French, pp. 5. Modern transcript from Vienna.
R.O. 2. [The articles above referred to?]
"Poinctz et articles a correction sur lesquels l'on pourroit besoigner avecq les Angloix affin deviter toutes questions et debatz que journellement advienent entre les navires de guerre tant dung couste que daultre."
That ships of these parts should carry no other ensigns nor banners than the double eagle and that of the Admiral, "asscavoir le chevalier de mer tenant ses armes;" and those of the King such as they think fit (in another hand "la croix rouge ou la banniere avec les enseignes du Roy"). On sighting each other they shall be bound to fly their flags; and shall wait to board each other. Ships of these parts coming to the coast of England shall do "reverence et obeissance"; and likewise English ships coming to these coasts. Coming into each other's ports they shall be liable to be searched for enemies, but the crews shall not be bound to leave their ships. Ships of either side anchored in any port shall not fire any artillery except, at their entry, three shots for a salute (pour faire la reverence).
French, pp. 2. Endd. in a later hand : "Offer proposed on ye behalfe of the Emperor," &c., 1543.
2 April.
R.O. St. P., IX. 340.
354. H. Lord Maltravers to the Council.
Yesterday, about noon, Marillac arrived, and with him their letters, of 27 March, signifying that in case Mr. Paget were not here the writer should tell him that, being advertised of a promise made by him and his colleague that Mr. Paget was already come hither, which promise was not performed, he must continue here until the King's further pleasure and Mr. Paget's arrival. Encloses the whole discourse of their communication. Marillac would have returned to his lodging without the gate, but Maltravers said that although the lodgings within the town were not such as could be found in Paris they were better than those without the gate; and so appointed him a lodging and bade him to supper. He said he was content and at once despatched a post to Bolon, by whom Maltravers sent letters to Mr. Paget, from whom he has even now received answer (copy enclosed, with copy of an article in the French king's letters to Marshal de Byes). Will not suffer Marillac to depart until Paget arrives, but desires speedy instructions in case De Byes offer delivery on the frontier. Calais, 2 April, 6 p.m.
P.S. (detached).—Marillac having answer from Bolen this afternoon has not conferred with me but despatched the messenger into England to the French ambassador.
Hol., pp. 3. Add. Endd : ao xxxiiijo .
R.O. 2. "The discourse of the communication between Mons. Marillac and me upon his arrival at Calais, the first of April ao 1543." Marillac declared that, upon certain private arrests of ships, Paget took leave of the French king, saying that his successor was already within France; and so departed with reward and passport as far as Bolen, where De Bies, considering that his master had two ambassadors in England and Paget's successor was not come, took upon himself, without other commission, to stay him. The Council in England declared that stay to Marillac, saying that in Paget's place they would stay the French ambassador that came last, and also stay Marillac for the Scottish priest (fn. 4) captive at Deape. Marillac protested against being staid for a private person, but promised to write to his master, who answered "that he had rather contend with the King his brother in amity than rigor" and would deliver the priest although he was a malefactor. This priest (Marillac said) was at Bolen assigned to come hither with Paget.
On this Marillac would have taken leave, saying that when he came to Bolen he would cause Paget to be sent, if they did not meet by the way, as he expected. Maltravers answered that he understood that Marillac and the other ambassador had in England promised that Paget was in Calais, and, as that was not so, desired him to tarry. He seemed abashed, saying this was no place indifferent; but Maltravers said it was as indifferent for him as Bolen for Paget, and he should be suitably entertained. Marillac then said he would write for Paget to meet him at Sandingfield and be exchanged there; but Maltravers said that as Calais was the place appointed by his own promise, he would make no new appointment without command. He then asked for direct answer whether he should be delivered if Paget arrived here, and Maltravers told him that if Paget had been here at his coming, as promised, he should not have been stayed, but as that promise was not performed no other could be trusted. He then asked if he was stayed by the King's commission, and Maltravers said that, since he confessed that De Byes stayed Paget of himself, he had no less authority to do this, and trusted that his master would take it in as good part. Marillac said he was content, melior est obedientia quam victima.
In Maltravers's hand, pp. 4. Add. to the Council.
R.O. St. P. IX., 341. 3. "Double d'un article que le Roy a escript et commande a Monsr. le Marschal du Bies faire entendre a Monsr. l'ambassadeur d'Angleterre estant a Boulougne."
Informs him that his ambassadors in England report that they are arrested and are told by the Council that they will be detained until Francis sends the English ambassador and a Scottish priest (fn. 4) who for his misdeeds is arrested in Normandy. Du Bies shall inform the ambassador that if Francis's [ambassadors] are sent he shall be delivered, and also the priest, for, although the thing is unreasonable, it is better to deliver the guilty than see the innocent suffer. Writes to the Sieur de Mailleraye to send the priest to Du Bies, to deliver together with the ambassador upon receiving his men, or Marilhac alone, provided another ambassador is sent on the King of England's part.
French, p. 1. Add. to the Council and sealed by Maltravers.
2 April.
Add. MS. 32,650, f. 115. B.M. Sadler State Papers, I. 113.
355. Sadler to the Council.
Wrote yesterday that he intended to ride this day to Linlithgow. Found the Queen the same as before. She said she sent for him to declare how the Governor had been with her, and to ask how he found the Governor and the lords inclined to the King and the marriage between the Prince and her daughter. She said that she could perceive that the Governor minded only to take his time to marry her to his son; for he had told her that he would rather die than deliver her to the King, and that he would make fair weather in order to get peace; and had prayed her to give Sadler good words, who was "an haught fellow." She asked how Sadler found the Governor and lords, and he told her he found them well given to the marriage and desirous of peace. She replied that it would be seen that they would not deliver the child; and, as for their means of satisfying the King, perhaps the Governor would offer one of his sons in pledge for the marriage, but he had more sons than one and would, for a kingdom, be content to lose one; and, as for appointing English lords and ladies to be about the young Queen, that would be no security; and, therefore, she hoped the King would insist on having the child, or else sufficient pledges and a sufficient English guard about her to look to her surety, for, whatsoever they promised, they would never perform the marriage. Assured her that the King sought the preservation of her daughter and wealth of this realm, but if his clemency was abused he was ready to use force. She said all the noblemen would be content with the marriage with the Prince, but the Governor rather minded it for his own son; and she feared for the safety of the child (it being rumored that the Governor would convey her to a strong house of his own or into the Isles) and wished that she were in England out of danger. Entered with her in pursuance of the Council's last letters, and told her that the King conceived that she proceeded frankly, &c. Found that she thought Maxwell was chiefly to be trusted and supposed Flemmyng was good. The Cardinal she much commended, saying he would have been a good minister in this (although Sadler said it could not enter into his creed) and she thought that, if at liberty, he would go into England to offer his service "and that he had so sent her word." Asked what she thought of Glencairn and Cassils; and she supposed that they and many more had liever that the King had the government of this realm than the Governor, who was a simple and inconstant man who changed purpose every day. Angus she took to be assured to the King, but "no man of policie and ingene," and altogether directed by his brother, who was as wily and crafty a man as any in Scotland. Could not perceive that she knew enough of any of the lords to affirm which of them minded earnestly the child's delivery. On speaking with Maxwell, who will be here to-morrow, will assay him afar off in it. Finally, she desired Sadler to warn the King if he perceived any devices of the Governor which did not tend to her daughter's surety; and said she would send for him if she learnt anything meet to be signified to the King.
It may be that both she and the Governor mean well enough; for the Governor denies not that he once minded the marriage for his son, and she, supposing him still of that mind, and desiring (as Sadler thinks) the marriage with the Prince, may inveigh against him that the King may insist on sure conditions. "This is my conjecture, as I love to judge the best; but I will have better experience of the fidelity and truth of French men and Scottish than I have had yet, before I will presume to give any certain judgement of their intent." The plot will be seen at the arrival of the Ambassadors.
Forgot in last letters to signify that the Governor desired him to write to the King to send home the abbot of Paisley, his bastard brother. Some think he will make him bishop of St. Andrews. Edinburgh, 2 April, at midnight.
P.S. (fn. 5) —Thinks it not amiss that, with the preparations on the Borders, it were also bruited that the King came himself to York, of which there is great fear here.
Pp. 6. Add. Endd. : aoxxxiiijo.
*** An abstract of this, noting misreadings and omissions in the Sadler State Papers, is given in Hamilton Papers, No. 346.
2 April.
356. Philip De Beures to Pieter Cant.
In the absence of Monsieur (fn. 6), received last night his letter, of 23 March, stating that Monsieur's ship was released but he wanted men to bring it hither. Wille Cost, with the little yacht, shall leave to-morrow with men to furnish him, and Monsieur's other ships will await his arrival before putting to sea. He must do his duty with the King and the ambassador to obtain compensation. News here are none but good. Several of the King of England's ships of war are at sea. Monsieur is still in Court. He writes to us to-day to learn whether the English ships will join ours against the French, as the French do with the Scots against the English. If they will do so, you shall offer them the use of Monsieur's havens of La Vere and Flissinghes. You shall also make some contract providing for equal division of booty taken when their ships and ours are together; using in this the ambassador's advice, and the greatest secrecy. If any Englishmen require "lettres de retenues ou commissions" from the Emperor, Monsieur will be glad to grant them free of charge. La Vere, 2 April 1543.
French, pp. 2. Add. : A Mons. le Viceadmiral de Flandres, le Sieur Pieter Cant, a Londres. Sealed.
2 April.

357. Impost at Antwerp.
Order by Charles V. for proclamation at Antwerp of an impost of 1 per cent. upon the price (with some alternatives detailed) of all exports. To be levied throughout the countries under the government of the Queen of Hungary; the reason for it being the charges which the Emperor is put to by the invasion of the King of France, duke of Cleves, and others. Brussels, 13 Jan. '42.
Dutch. Printed tract of four small leaves, entitled (in Dutch), A new mandate of the Emperor, proclaimed at the town hall of Antwerp the 2nd day of April A.D. '43, touching the impost upon all merchandise.
2. Contemporary translation of the provisions of the preceding. Pp. 3. Headed : "Abbreviation. A proclamation by th'Emperor the ijde day of April anno 1543, concerning the tax of one upon the C." Endd.
2 April.
358. Paget to Lord Maltravers.
This morning I received your letters "containing there (sic) at Calais of Marrillac; whereby I conceive some likelihood that I shall not tarry here very long." As I know not whether I shall depart hence in post or by journey, and have no horses for myself and company of nine, I beg that you will see me provided if you know that I must needs come in journey. I look for Mr. Richardson hourly, but whether he shall come with me Marillac knows best.
Had written thus far when the Marshal's (fn. 7) secretary came to report that Marillac was detained at Calais until the arrival there of Paget and certain other English subjects, whereas the Marshal was commanded not to deliver Paget and a Scottish priest (fn. 8) who is expected to-night until Marillac returned, and of other English subjects than the priest he had no command. He thought it would save delay to make delivery on the frontier. Paget answered that he knew no more than the arrival of Marillac at Calais, but no doubt the mode of deliverance was settled before he left England, and intimated to the lord Deputy, and would not be settled by Marillac and his colleague without their master's consent; and, as for other English subjects, he knew only of the priest, and that through the article which the Marshal gave him "the last day," transumpted out of his Master's letters, by which he saw no prohibition against sending him (Paget) first to Calais, "as reason would, first arrested." Sends copy of the article, "knowing nevertheless that, of your wisdom [your lordship] (fn. 9) will take none occasion thereat to do otherwise than is certainly prescribed to your Lordship by the King's Majesty, whatsoever it be; for if you fall into disputations with Marrillac you shall never have an end, he is so contentious, as the King's majesty and all his Council know well enough, and so do I both before and since my coming hither to France." I beg you to let me have a double both of the article and of this letter for, for haste, I have "reserved" minutes of neither. Boulogne, 2 April, 1543.
Copy, in Maltravers' hand, pp. 4. Endd. : "Copy of Mr. Paget's letters to my lord Deputy of Calais of the second of April ao xxxiiijo.
2 April.
359. Adrien De Croy [Sieur De Roeulx] to Wallop.
I have received your letter, showing that some of our footmen and horsemen of Gravelynes went yesterday to pillage at Boucault, as I also heard from the captain of Gravelines : and I thank you for the passage (adresse) which you gave them. "Quandt adce que me souh Ardrez (souhaitez a Ardrez?) avecq v. ou vjc chevaulx," I thank you for your goodwill and would willingly be there, but am too busy on this side, fearing that, upon pretence of re-victualling Therouenne, the enemies will pillage Flanders. Some of the garrison of Bourbourg took a booty from the French who attempted to rescue it in your Pale and are made prisoners. The deputy of Calais has arrested the said booty "pour ce qu'il y avoit des Anthoiniers et Hubertiers." I beg you to inform him, as I have done, that the booty is good prize, "pource que iceulx previllegies ont rompus leur previllege quilz ont de l'Empereur."
As to news, the enemy are about revictualling Therouenne; which I think they will do, for otherwise I should have to be in the fields daily. They have good hope that the Scots will take their part and will not turn for the King your master. They are about sending them men and money, and will, I think, send them part of their Almains who are between Rue and Abbeville. Sainctomer, 2 April '43. Signed.
French, p. 1. Add. Endd.
3 April.
Dasent's A. P. C., 105.
360. The Privy Council.
Meeting at St. James's, 3 April. Present : Canterbury, Chancellor, Privy Seal, Hertford, St. John, Winchester, Westminster, Gage, Browne, Wingfield, Wriothesley. Business :—John Butlar, servant to lord William, on suspicion of the conveyance of certain gold, committed to the Porter's ward. John Booles certified his accomplishment of the order to deliver the pinnace, &c.
3 April.
R.O. St. P. IX., 342.
361. Paget to Henry VIII.
Perceives by Marillac's discourse with the lord Deputy (copy herewith) that the writer's departure from Francis is untruly described by Marillac in every point except that he received a reward; for he was (as his letters have shown) arrested by Tournon, in presence of Bayerd, and conducted to Amiens (his arrest already known throughout Christendom) and Du Bies has confessed that if he had not perceived him to be already arrested he (Du Bies) would have arrested him, having command so to do. Protests at great length against these sinister reports of his proceedings and begs for leave to avow their untruth openly. Sir Robt. Richardson, the Scottish priest, has just been brought hither like a prisoner and delivered to Paget's keeping. Encloses copy of a letter he sent yesterday to the lord Deputy. Du Bies is gone to Abbeville to confer with Vendôme for affairs of Picardy, the frontiers whereof they store with provisions. To-day 120 pieces of wine passed towards Ardre. Here they say Henry is sending a great embassy to the duke of Cleves, who has won the town of Harlam in Holland; also that Terouenne is victualled for two years and Ardre for 12 months. Describes familiar badinage with Du Bies about the fortification of Ardre. Boulogne is not provided for 12 weeks but it is intended to store it with diligence, to restrain which if the Burgundians do no more than hitherto they shall do their master "but simple service." These men have great intelligence about Mons. de Rues, through a man of arms and an archer of his band who have dwelling houses in Brussels, but Paget cannot learn their names. Boulogne, 3 April 1543. Signed.
Pp. 6. Add. Sealed. Endd. : ao xxxiiijo.
Caius College MS. 597, p. 285. 2. Letter-book copy of the preceding in the hand of Paget's clerk.
Pp. 4.
4 April.
Dasent's A. P. C., 105.
362. The Privy Council.
Meeting at St. James's, 4 April. Present : Canterbury, Chancellor, Privy Seal, Hertford, St. John, Winchester, Westminster, Gage, Browne, Wingfield, Wriothesley. Business :— John Glover, of Barking, fisherman, for disobeying a proclamation, sent to the Counter until Saturday and then to be set on the pillory at Barking.
4 April.
Harl. MS. 442, f. 189. B.M.
363. Hawks' Eggs.
Proclamation against taking hawks' eggs or keeping hawks without licence, made 4 April, 34 Hen. VIII; for one year; eggs already taken to be brought to one of Council within 14 days, under a penalty of £100.
Modern copy, pp. 2.
4 April.
Add. MS. 32,650, f. 123. B.M. Hamilton Papers, No. 348.
364. Henry VIII. to Sadler.
Having received your letters of 27 March, relating how the Governor of Scotland has declared (1) his zeal for the setting forth of God's word, (2) his desire for "extirpation of hypocrisy and superstition maintained in the state of monks and friars" and reducing the clergy to abandon the usurped authority of the Bishop of Rome, and (3) his affection to prefer the marriage of the young Princess to our son rather than to his own; we would instruct you amply how to commune with the Governor upon these three points.
1. He is to be admonished that, as experience has proved, in publishing the Scripture to the people he must admonish them to receive it reverently and humbly, "with a desire [to learn by it how] (fn. 10) to direct their lives and worship [and not by] (fn. 11) carnal fancy to frame vain and evil opinions such as seditious persons have raised in the heads of unlearned people to the "subversion of policy" and confusion of good order in the Church. All books printed in English beyond sea, and all other books tending to that purpose, must be forbidden, and the Scripture alone permitted, until other books may be set forth containing a pure doctrine, "neither swerving to the left hand of iniquity ne to the right hand with other pretence of holiness than is agreeable to God's truth"; wherein, Sadler may say, the King has taken pains and will shortly establish a doctrine maintainable by mere truth which no man shall be able to impugn or disallow. This shall be sent to him to publish, for the conjunction of these realms in one understanding of God's word, "whereby to eschew the fancies and dreams of the inferior people on the one side" and the corruption of hypocrisy and superstition maintained by the Bishop of Rome on the other.
2. The extirpation of monks and friars requires politic handling. First, (fn. 12) the Governor should send commissioners as it were to take order for their living more honestly, without wasting the goods of their churches or alienating their best lands, with a secret commission to groundly examine all the religious of their conversation and living. Thereby, if it be well handled, the Governor shall learn all their abominations; and then, he and the chief noblemen agreeing together for the distribution of some of the abbey lands among them, he should treat with the most tractable of the bishops apart (making them "an assurance of their estate" and offering to augment their portions with such small houses as lie conveniently for them) and devise with them "for the alteration of certain other abbeys to the state of secular priests with sending of poor lame (sic) men of scholars to the university as their portion may serve." Then, with both bishops and temporal lords, he should devise to allot a good portion of the abbey lands to the King and the young Queen, their heirs and successors, whereby they may maintain their estate and not be enforced "to seek such ways as their late King did whereby to grieve and annoy his people." The "plate forme" of disposition of the abbeys being thus known before hand, and reasonable provision made for the religious men now in them, the suppression of them will be easy among such as will acknowledge the abominable life among those who now, in diversities of sects, usurp those places, to the displeasure of God and deformity of the common wealth, "spending their time in all idleness and filthiness with such face of hypocrisy and superstition as is intolerable."
3. Whereas the Governor says that, in proof of his affection, he has forborne to procure by Parliament the marriage of the Princess of Scotland with his own son (the appearance whereof is not great, for it is unlikely that they would so disparage their Queen), Sadler shall tell him that the King has so devised for the advancement of his blood that he may have cause to rejoice in his conformity to the King's proceedings. The King has a daughter called the lady Elizabeth, "endowed with virtues and qualities agreeable with her estate," and means, if he (the Governor) sincerely goes through with all things, to condescend to her marriage with his son, if he desire it, and to bring up and nourish his said son as a son-in-law in this Court. With the reputation thus gained, the Governor shall be able to keep the place he now occupies, which might else be dangerous; for due search of the intention of the lords and bishops who at first would not come in to him will reveal a combination to the destruction of him and Angus and all that party, the delivery of the Cardinal and the seizing of the young Queen,—"and mayhap not without the consent of the Dowager." Sadler may remind him that even now "all draw not by one line and that the Parliament matters have no greater authority than power can uphold them;" that there are privy mutterings against him, and that in his setting forth of God's Word and extirpation of the Bishop of Rome's authority, this marriage and the education of his son will be a great aid to him to proceed the more boldly in "that godly enterprise." The honour and glory of it to himself he can consider. Sadler may say that he has commission to break this to him secretly, to be handled only with his most trusty friends; for divers would oppose it, knowing that, with his son in the King's hands, any displeasure to him would be revenged by the King. This is the only way for the Governor to keep his place in surety; and whereas now he has an office only till the young Queen come of age, he shall by this marriage obtain for himself, his son and their posterity, a "root of foundation" of "perpetual honour," and (whatsoever befall the young Princess) they will be so provided for as he could hardly desire better. Sadler shall set out this overture as proceeding from the King, but the arguments for it as his own; for the Governor might think that the King pressed it for his own commodity, and yet, as "he is a man that seeth not deepliest in these matters," all must be laid before him; insisting always that his son must come hither or it will be thought a mere practice.
Finally, where Sir George Douglas has said that some there expected easier conditions if England should have "to do" with France, and advised forbearing to enter with France till at a point with Scotland, the enclosed copy of a letter lately proclaimed by the French King at Roan will show that the King is "not yet in such terms with France." Sadler may say also that if any there fancy that France might hinder the King's purposes they shall deceive themselves; for, if they took occasion of any dispute with France to abuse the King's gentleness, the King would, after settling with France, so look upon them that they should see their "unkind and deceitful behaviour" requited, to their "extreme damages."
In Gardiner's hand, with corrections by Wriothesley (and two by the King) and the final paragraph in Wriothesley's hand, pp. 19. Endd. : Mynute to Mr. Secr. Master Sadleyr, iiijo Aprilis ao xxxiiijo.
Ib. f. 132. 2. Fair copy of the second article of the above, with the end of the first and beginning of the third articles.
Pp. 4.
4 April.
Wilkins iii. 868.
365. Convocation of Canterbury.
Convocation having met on the 4th April [1543] was prorogued to the 20th, when English translations of the Lord's Prayer and the Angelic Salutation were examined by the Abp., Winchester, Rochester and Westminster, and delivered to the Prolocutor; as also were, next day, the first five precepts of the Decalogue; and, on 24 April, the remaining five precepts with the sacraments of baptism and the Eucharist as examined by the Abp., Westminster, Rochester, Salisbury and Hereford, and, next day, the sacraments of the Eucharist, matrimony, penance, order, confirmation and extreme unction. The judgment of the lower house upon them was to be given on Friday following, 27 April; on which day the Abp., Winchester, Rochester and Westminster examined the exposition of the word "Faith" in English and the twelve articles of Faith; all which the bishops approved. Tracts upon justification, works, and prayer for the dead were read and delivered to the Prolocutor until Monday following, 30 April, when the articles of free will were read and delivered to the Prolocutor to be read to the Lower House, who returned them with their approval and thanked the fathers "quod tantos labores, sudores et vigilias religionis et reipublicæ causa et unitatis gratia subierunt."
Convocation was then continued on 4, 11 and 12 May when, by the King's writ, it was prorogued to 5 Nov., and then to 15 and 18 Jan. [1544].
(1544.) On 18 Jan. the Abp. warned the clergy to elect a prolocutor in place of Ric. Gwent, dec., and on the 21st John Oliver, LL.D., dean of the King's College, Oxford, was elected prolocutor. On 1 Feb. the Abp. and fathers secretly showed the Prolocutor that he and certain others should prepare a bill for the payment of personal tithes. Soon after was a secret discussion about asking the King to establish Ecclesiastical laws; and sessions, occupied with subsidies towards this war now imminent, until 28 March 1544.
4 April.
Add. MS. 32,650, f. 119. B.M. Sadler State Papers, I. 117. Hamilton Papers, No. 347 (Abstract).
366. Sadler to the Council.
Yesterday morning, came to his lodging lord Maxwell, whom he had not seen since his coming hither. Gives conversation, mostly verbatim. Maxwell said frankly that he saw not but that the King might have his will by force if gentle means (which was "the best and most godly way") failed; for himself, he was suspected here and yet had done the King no service, but if the King did prosecute his purpose he would do service. Sadler said he could not perceive that either Maxwell or any of them who were with the King had kept their promises; for they had neither advertised the King of any of their proceedings nor gone about to accomplish their promise, but, on the contrary, had established a governor by Parliament, and now had sent ambassadors instructed to conclude a bare contract of marriage between the Prince and the young Queen, with a general peace; which ambassadors, unless amply instructed to satisfy the King, might as well have tarried at home. Maxwell answered that the King should have the marriage and the realms knit in friendship and (when the marriage was consummate) under one dominion; would not that satisfy him? Sadler said he could not tell what would satisfy the King, but was sure he would stand upon the delivery of the child. "By God's body," said Maxwell, "if his Majesty will prosecute it, there is no doubt but he shall obtain it," for the realm could not withstand him, and all the prisoners would assist him; Angus and his brother were true gentlemen, and Angus should have his (Maxwell's) daughter in marriage although the Governor opposed it. Asked if he thought that the Governor and the rest would not condescend to deliver the child, as they should do if they minded to perform the contract. Maxwell said they were of opinion that, once in the King's hands, she would never die and, whatever became of her, the King would dispose of the crown; so that, unless for fear of war, they would never consent : and they would agree that the King should take pledges for her delivery when of lawful age or appoint English men and women to be here about her; for himself, if the King used force, he would keep his promise, and he thought all the prisoners firmly determined upon that. Asked why, if they minded to keep their promise, they established a governor by Parliament. Maxwell answered that they thought the King was content to have him Governor, "for his Majesty wrote many kind letters to him and accepted him well," and, whereas the King promised to send no safe conduct unless some of the prisoners were named in it, when he sent safe conduct for such as the Governor named he (Maxwell) thought that the King reputed him for Governor. Sadler pointed out that it was evident that the King did not so repute him, for the letters were addressed only to "the earl of Arran occupying the place of governor;" and blamed them for not advertising the King of their proceedings. Maxwell replied that he had written divers times, "and never heard word again," and had made great suit to have his son home to take charge of his offices; for, being a prisoner, he was not trusted with the strongholds, and without them could not keep his promise if the King used force; which thing he durst not write, but desired Sadler to solicit, so that Sir Thos. Wharton might be commanded to take his other son in pledge, and he himself would now go to Carlile for that purpose. In this discourse Maxwell said that there would be no sticking about abandoning France, if the rest succeeded : and, when Sadler had promised to write for him to have his son home, and to have answer therein, shortly, at Carlisle, he took leave and returned home, having come (as he said) only to speak with Sadler.
P.S.—Has received the King's letters of 30 March, charging him to declare certain things to Angus, Glencairn, Maxwell and Sir George Douglas. Thinks Angus and Douglas will be here to-night, but knows not when he will see Glencairn and Maxwell, the former being 60 miles off in the Highland, as they call it here, towards the Isles, and the latter gone to Carlile. Conjectures from his communications here that the King shall, without force, obtain pledges for the performance of the marriage (not for delivery of the child at a time appointed, but when of lawful age, for they will stick to have her here till then) and for renunciation of France. Before these letters arrive, or soon after, the truth will be known from the ambassadors. Edinburgh, 4th April.
Pp. 7. Add. Endd. : ao xxxiiijo.
4 April.
367. Wallop to the Council.
This morning, I received a letter from the Great Master of Flanders in answer to my "formall" letter advertising him of revictualments made into Arde these seven or eight days, and how upon an alarm of Burgundians the Frenchmen discharged 50 or 60 carts with wine and victuals into an old broken castle adjoining Mergeison, and if he would come, or send 400 or 500 horsemen it could easily be taken; and that daily more victuals come conducted by De Beez himself with 300 or 400 horsemen and as many foot men or by De Foxall or De Verven with fewer men. Yesterday 50 carts conducted by De Verven were received by the garrison of Arde at Bucholl. Sends the Great Master's letter, chiefly for what he writes of the Scots. The bruit runs that the duke of Askott is overthrown by the duke of Cleves, but if it were so the Great Master would mention it. Guisnes, 4 April. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd. : ao xxxiiijo.
5 April.
Dasent's A. P. C., 105.
368. The Privy Council.
Meeting at St. James's, 5 April. Present : Chancellor, Privy Seal, Hertford, Winchester, Westminster, St. John, Gage, Browne, Wingfield, Wriothesley. Business :—Sir John Clere, — Stafford, Thos. Clere and — Husey committed to the Fleet for eating flesh on Good Friday. — Arondell, who was in the Fleet for keeping a board of flesh throughout Lent, released on his recognisance (cited) to ask forgiveness of the mayor and recorder of London for certain lewd words spoken of them, at his being in the Counter, and to give daily attendance.
5 April.
369. Temple Newsom.
Receipt given, 5 April 34 Hen. VIII., by Jas. Thompson, keeper of the King's manor and park of Temple Newsom, Yorks, for 30s., his half year's fee due at Lady Day, received from Wm. Watson, bailiff there. Signed : T.
P. 1. Endd. : Thomson.
5 April.
Add. MS. 32,650, f. 136. B.M. Hamilton Papers, No. 349.
370. Sadler to the Privy Council.
Writes at the instance of the earl of Anguyshe that "this gentleman, bearer hereof," may have a passport into France, who repairs thither for cure of a disease whereof he can get no remedy here or in England. Edenbrough, 5 April. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd. : ao xxxiiijo.
5 April.
Ib. f. 138.
371. The Same to Suffolk.
For licence to the same bearer to go quietly to the Court. Edenbrough, 5 April. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.


  • 1. Might perhaps be 1541. See Vol. XVI., No. 1239.
  • 2. See Journals of the House of Lords, I. 207 (date 17 Feb., 1543).
  • 3. Query "18th"? See No. 296.
  • 4. Robert Richardson.
  • 5. This P.S. is not in Sadler State Papers.
  • 6. The Admiral of Flanders.
  • 7. Maréchal Du Bies.
  • 8. Richardson.
  • 9. Words omitted.
  • 10. Corrected by the King from "thereby to be instructed and learned of the will and pleasure of God according whereunto."
  • 11. Corrected by the King from "without any."
  • 12. This portion on a detached leaf (f. 131).