Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 18 Part 2, August-December 1543. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1902.
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530. The Royal Household.
"Rotulus nominum officiariorum omnium officiorum hospitii Domini Regis Henrici VIIIvi."
[Giving in columns the wages attached to each office, the names of the holders, and the number of dishes to which they are entitled.]
Le Grande Maister. "Custus Magn. Gard. Hospitii" : Sir Thos. cheyney; "to sit in his own chamber and with him the master of the Hamper and other of the King's Council and to be served with his own servants and to have 2 dishes of meat." Comptroller of the Household : Sir John Gage; "to sit in his own chamber, and with him Mr. Hare, Mr. Deane, Mr. Almner and others of the King's Council and to be served with 2 dishes of meat." Cofferer of the Household : Sir Edm. Peckham; "to sit in his own chamber, and with him such gentlemen as repair to the Court, and to be served with one double dish of meat." Masters of the Household for the King : Thos. Weldon and Wm. Thynn; "to sit at one table, and with them the King's chaplains, daily waiters, with other gentlemen, and to be served with 2 dishes of meat." Masters of the Household for the Queen : Edw. Shelley and Jas. Gage; "to sit at one table, and with them the clerks of the Closet and other gentlemen waiters, and to have two dishes of meat." Clerks of the Accounts : Jas. Sutton and Robt. Pakenham; "to sit at one table, and with them the under-almoner and confessor and such other gentlemen as shall resort to the Court, and to be served with two dishes of meat." Clerks of the Comptroller : Ant. Berkes and Thos. Curson; "to sit at one table, and with them — (blank), and to be served with 2 dishes of meat." Yeoman usher : John Tyrrell; "the groom and the Cofferer's clerk, 1 dish" Groom usher : Hen. Temple, "utes" (misreading of "ut supra").
The Pastry : John Heth, sergeant, and 12 officers named (of whom the four conducts have "nothing but wages"), 2 dishes. (fn. 1) The Pantry : John Jasslyn and 24 others named. Buttery : Edw. Creswell and Thos. Wallcot, yeomen, and 6 others. Pitcher house : Edw. Bird and Wm. Ayre, yeomen, and 1 other. Wardrobe : Hen. Birkenhed, chief clerk, and two others. Wafery, Candellaria and Confectionary : three or four officers in each. Aquaria : Geoff. Villers, serjeant, and 7 others. Laundry : John Whitskale, yeoman, and 4 others. Kitchen : Edm. Stonehouse, chief clerk, Ant. Weldon, 2nd clerk, John Brickett, master cook, and 33 others. Larder : Jas. Mitchell, serjeant, and 8 others. Boiling house : a yeoman and two others. Emptoria : Roger Moore, serjeant, Thos. Horden, clerk, and 14 others. Pulleria : Edw. Brisley, serjeant, Wm. Hatton, clerk, and 7 others. Scalding house : Ric. Boughton, yeoman, and 5 others. Pastry : Ant. Weldon, clerk, and 10 others. Scullery : Geo. Stonehouse, clerk, and 12 others. Hall and Chamber : John Guylanyne (for Guylmyne?), serjeant, Thos. Ashby, clerk, and 7 others. Harbingers : Thos. Oldney, gentleman harbinger, and four yeomen harbingers. Almery : Dr. Heath, great almoner, John Butt, under almoner, and 5 others. "Janitor ad Portas" : Wm. Knevitt, sergeant, and 4 others. Provisor of Carts (bigarum) : a yeoman and groom.
In a modern hand, pp. 12, with reference at the beginning to an older MS., viz. "libro vet. pag. the 40." See Vol. XVI. No. 394 note.
Lansd. 97, f. 43. B.M.
531. Francis Goldsmith to Queen Katharine.
If the Queen of the South and Esther will be always remembered, much less will her name be lost by time or the ungrateful oblivion of men. God has so formed her mind for pious studies, that she considers everything of small value compared to christ. Her rare goodness has made every day like Sunday, a thing hitherto unheard of, especially in a royal palace. Her piety cherishes the religion long since introduced, not without great labor, to the palace. Cannot express his thanks to her for admitting him to her household, "ubi quotidie christus celebratur."
Prays God to feed her with heavenly food, that she may daily grow stronger in Him by whom are all things. Begs for the smallest coin out of her rich treasure of grace to enable him to serve her.
Hol., (fn. 2) pp. 2. Lat. Headed : "Katherinæ Angliæ vere Ser. Reginæ et dominæ suæ munificentissimæ."
532. Nicholas Withers.
"Money laid out for Nicholas Wyther[s] and Anne his wife in apparel and othe[r] things, anno Domini 1543 anno rr. H. viijvi xxxvo." Payments (some mutilated) for a trental of masses, "to poor people in the parish and abroad," "for making the answer against Sir Thomas Palmer," "at his burial and at month mind," "concerning Mr. Stamford's business in the King's Bench," "for a stone to lay upon his grave and the laying of it;" house rent, clerk's wages, Midsummer to Christmas 1543, tithes, Mr. Ergall's clerk, &c.
ii. An inventory of napery, dishes and kitchen furniture; and of jewellery and bed furniture delivered to the use of Mrs. Wethers.
iii. Further list of payments, mostly for Mrs. Wethers, including "Item, her beyng here and her folkes me at Hame were xxvij wyekes." Signed(?) . . . . . . . Barker(?).
Pp. 5. Mutilated.
533. Temple Hurst.
Allowances asked by John Kyng, bailey of Temple Hurst in anno 35 Hen. VIII., to which he is sworn, viz. :—expenses of the King's courts held there 18 Oct. and 29 March 34 Hen. VIII., 8s. and 6s. (altered to 2s. each); taking down tile and plaster of the great chamber by command of Mr. Surveyor and Mr. Auditor, 24s. 4d.; mending a "clowe" between the orchard and the cow pasture, 10s. (disallowed); making a "stay to the brick wall in the garden betwixt the tower and the great stable" and making up a piece of wall that was fallen, 2s. (disallowed).
P. 1, with figures altered in another hand.
534. Settrington, Yorkshire.
Bill of payments by John Thomlynson, ao r.r. H. VIII. 34to, for various repairs to "the milne of Sederyngton." Total 37s.; marked, in another hand, "inde allor xxs."
P. 1. Headed : "Settryngton. D. anno Regis nunc Henr'. viijvi xxxvto"
Harl. MS. 364, f. 22. B. M.
535. A House of Lazars.
Form of a licence to W. B., proctor of the house of "poor lazers and impotent people" of W., who have nothing but alms to live upon, to gather alms of the King's subjects within the counties of S. L., provided he set forth no pardons granted by the Bishop of Rome, and make but one deputy. Westm., — (blank) day of — (blank) 35 Hen. VIII.
Modern copy, p. 1.
Balcarres MS., Adv. Lib. Edin., II. 127.
536. The Cardinal Of Lorraine to the Queen Of Scotland.
You will see by what the King has written to you and by the charge of the bearer the love the King bears you, and his desire to promote your interests and those of your realm. If you were his own sister he could not love you better.
Hol., Fr., p. 1. Add. Endd.
Balcarres MS., Adv. Lib. Edin., II. 131.
537. The Cardinal Of Lorraine to the Queen Of Scotland.
Has received her letters by her gentleman domestic, intimating that she holds him one of her most obedient kinsmen, and that she trusts in him. She is quite right, for no one loves her better. Wrote just after receiving her letter with his own hand to the King to recommend her business, "et luy manday ce que je dois mander pour une telle personne que vous estes." Would be happy if he could only show her par bon effect what sort of a man he is.
Hol., Fr., p. 1. Add.
538. East and Middle Marches.
[A paper showing the distances between the places along the East and Middle March, etc., viz. :—]
Towns betwixt Harbottell and the water of Bremyche, viz. :—Harbottell to Clennell 2 miles, Byttilsden 1, Scrinwood ½, Ingram 1½, Roddom 1, Ilderton 2, Myddleton 1, Myddleton Hall 1.
Towns betwixt the waters of Canegate and College along the Cheviot hills :—Myddleton Hall to Yerdell ½ mile, Woller 1, Hommelton 1, Akeld 1, Yevering 1, Kyrk Newton 1.
"Townes and sheves rackes alongest the watter of College from Bowbent to the Hangingstone" :—West Newton to Hethpole 2 miles; thence to the way called Wackrige Waye, which enters Scotland at White Swyer, being the head of Elterburne; thence to the way called Dowson's Rodde, which comes over College water 1½ mile above Hethpole and enters Scotland at the White Swyer; thence to Cawdburne Rodde, which goes over College water at Sothoronlawe 3 miles above Hethpole and enters Scotlond at the Pete Swyer, two miles from the entry of the aforesaid roads; thence to Hunt Rode which goes over College water at Platengrene near Sothoronlawe, 3 miles from Hethpole, and goes up Fleup and enters Scotland at the Pete Swyer; thence to "the most occupied way of all," which comes down Preston Swyer and down Lamden water and over College water at the Hollinge Busshe, 5 miles above Hethpole and enters Scotland by three ways at the Cribhede, Smalden Rodde and Roughtside Rodde. From Hangingston to Hexpeth Gate is 2½ miles, thence to Harbottell 5 miles.
Towns on the south side of Bowbent water along the foot of the hills of the White Lande :—West Newton to Kyllom 2 miles, Pauston 2 miles.
Towns standing betwixt Bowbent water and Warke castle along the Dry March :—Myndram to Presfen 1½ mile, Carrham 2, Warke castle 1.
If it please the King to make any buildings along "the daye of merche" (qu. "the Dry March"?) there are certain red marks at Tevershowth, 2 miles from Warke, and at Heddon Walles and Butterden, 3 miles south of Tevershowth (supply of building stone at each place described).
The ingates and passages forth of Scotland upon the Middle Marches :— The Middle Marches begin at the Hanginge Stone; thence to the Hunte Rode head is 1 mile, Hexpeth Gate ¼ Mayden Crosse 1, the Blacke Bray 1, Hyndmers Well 1, Hewghen Gaite 1 (from Blacke Bray), Kemmylspeth ½, Almond Rode ½, Reediswyre 1½, the Bells (fn. 3), the Carter (fn. 3), the While or Wheele Caussye (fn. 3), Kirkshop Hed (fn. 3).
The chief fortress, which of old strengthened the whole country, is Harbottle castle, in Redisdale on the water of Cockett, now in decay. There is no fortress in Tyndale against the Scots till they come to chipchays, 16 miles from Rediswyre. If Harbottel castle is built and garrisoned it shall distress the thieves of Redisdale, and the garrison may cut off the Scots if they come through Cheviott to burn any place from Chillingham castle to Morpeth, which is 18 miles. Signed by Sir Cuthb. Radlyff, Jasper Owen and John Bednell.
Copy in the hand of Suffolk's clerk, pp. 4.
Royal MS. 18 A. 38. B. M. Bannatyne Miscellany, I. 1.
539. John Eldar to Henry VIII.
Would have refrained from writing for lack of learning and wit but for the miserable state the realm of Scotland is in for need of a wise governor since the death of James V., being ruled now, as it was in his time, by advice of the Cardinal and proud papistical bishops who, "with their false, flattering and juggling boxes," alienated him from Henry his uncle. Considering also what ease and quietness Scotland might have after Henry's decease if Prince Edward now married the young Queen, by which the foresaid bishops, and David Beton their cardinal, with Beelzebub's fleshmongers the abbots, being expelled, both realms might be joined in one, with Henry as superior; and further knowing what true hearts the commons of Scotland beyond the Forth, if they durst speak, bear to Henry if only the said pestiferous Cardinal, his blind bishops and other "false craftie bores" who have drunk the French king's wines, playing leger-de-main with both hands, were tied up in ropes and halters; and moreover hearing what love the Irish lords of Scotland, otherwise called the Reddshankes (except the Earl of Argyle, who is ravished from the opinion of the rest by the Cardinal and his bishops, because he is brought up in their bosoms and lies under their wings) bear to his Majesty, of whose princely magnaminity and wisdom they continually converse, knowing how he has pardoned the rebel lords of Ireland, creating them earls and lords, bestowing riches upon them and sending them home in gorgeous apparel; also, seeing what dissension we shall have in Scotland unless your Highness hunt this wretched Cardinal and his bishops out :— I can do no less than offer this plot of the realm of Scotland to your Majesty, wherein you will see a description of all the notable towns, castles and abbeys as they stand in each county, the Isles of Orkney and Shetland and the out-isles called the Sky and the Lewys, but also "the cost (coast?) of the same, the dangers lying thereby, with every port, river, loigh, creke and haven there, so truly drawn and set forth as my poor wit and learning can utter and discern. Which plot I have not made by relation of others, but in so much, and please your Highness, I was born in Caitnes, which is the North part of the said plot, marched with the East Isles of the same called Orknay, educatt and brought up, not only in the West Isles of the same plot, namely the Sky and the Lewis, where I have been oftentimes with my friends in their long galleys, arriving to divers and sundry places in Scotland where they had ado, but also, being a scholar and a student in the South parts of it called St. Andrews, Aberdeen and Glasgow for the space of 12 years, where I have travelled, as well by sea as by the land, divers times; by reason whereof, knowing all the notable places there everywhere, with their lords' and masters' names, and from thence unto the said country where I was born, I am the bolder (pardon craved) to offer the said plot unto your excellent Majesty." Has written in it the principal earls' and lords' names annexed to their common habitation; and as he has written those of "the Irish lords of Scotland commonly called Redshanks and by historiographers Picts," will here explain their names in Latin. Scotland, a part of your Highness's empire of England before the coming of Albanactus, Brutus's second son, was inhabited by giants and wild people who spoke Irish, and was then called Eyryn Veagg or Little Ireland. But Albanactus reduced it to order and the name was changed to Albon, the people being called (from him) Albonyghe, though the papists will not admit that there was ever such a king as Albanactus. Gives the names of Irish clans before Albanactus, the meanings of "Mak" and "O" (filius and nepos), and the reason "we" are called Redshanks in Scotland, and "roughfooted Scots" in England; as we go barelegged and barefooted, and so can best of all people bear cold; and our delight is hunting red deer, wolves, foxes and "graies," whereof we abound, and in running, leaping, swimming and throwing of darts. In winter when frost is most vehement, which we cannot suffer barefooted, though snow even to our girdles cannot hurt us, we hunt, and, having slain red deer, flay the skin and for "need" of cunning shoemakers, "play the swtters," measuring a quantity to reach to our ankles, pricking the upper part with holes to let out water when it enters, "and stretchide up with a stronge thwange of the same, meitand above our saide ancklers;" so we make our shoes, the rough hairy side outward, for which we are called roughfooted. Nevertheless when we come to the Court (as in the late King's days), waiting on our lords and masters arrayed in velvets and silks, we have as good garments as those who attend daily. And though the Babylonical bishops repute the Irish lords wild, rude and barbarous, brought up without learning and nurture, they pass them a great deal in faith and honesty, in policy, wit and civility; for where they promise faith they keep it truly, by holding up their foremost finger; "and so will not they with their seals and subscriptions, the Holy Evangel touched." So, as the bishops think us barbarous, we think them false, flattering, fraudulent, subtle and covetous. Your Grace has many good hearts among the Irish lords of Scotland who know how liberally you have ordered the lords of Ireland. Therefore I have written these Irish lords' names of Scotland in the "plotte" as you will see, and where I have failed in my cosmography I will gladly declare all things therein contained to any you appoint. If my late Sovereign, James V., were alive, or had left us a prince lawfully begotten of his body, I would not presume to declare the privities of Scotland "to no prynce Christen." But as he has left a Princess whom you wish to marry with Prince Edward, whereby hypocrisy and superstition may be abolished, the French king plucked out of our hearts, and England and Scotland may live henceforth in peace; which the papist priests oppose, as they seduced our late Prince and prevented his meeting with your Majesty whenever it was proposed, causing invasions and roads, and now intend "to drounde all Scotland in bloude," I cannot but study, in duty to your Majesty, whom all honest stomachs in Scotland ought to love for our noble Prince's sake; to bring them to utter ruin. For there is no people so perturbed with "bishops, monks, Rome-rykers and priests" as those who inhabit Scotland, "a cardinal, a carlis-birde, a common cluner, and a hen-kyller, sometymes in France, now being their captain." And so they will continue till your Highness, who has just cause to invade them, hunt, drive and smoke the said false, papistical foxes out of their caves. At which hunting "would God that I and every hair of my head— were a man with your noble Grace," with Hercules' strength, Hector's manhood and Achilles' subtlety and wit "to invent gynns and traps for the false bishops of Scotland and all their adherents."
Signed : Johne Eldar, clerk, a Reddshancke.
Hol., pp. 34.
2. "The Out Isles of Scotland lie much more near to the North parts of
Ireland than Scotland. The people be hardy, called Red Shankes, great
succourers to the Scots of the main land. They be naked folks, without
harness, ordnance or artillery, having only short bows and arrows and
bastard swords." The islands lie apart, so that (upon invasion) one cannot
rescue the other. Their "simple long boats named galleys wherewith they
go into Scotland and sometimes into Ireland," 500 men might burn or carry
off by night; or else hostages might be taken of the best of them to take
the King for their sovereign. That done, the same 500 men might burn
20 miles within the mainland and return safely to their ships, for the
"chevallry" of Scotland in time of war always draw to the Marches, because
enterprises upon parts adjoining the Out Isles "were never attempted."
P. 1. Endd. : The Oute Iles of Scotlande.
540. Against Scotland.
"Md. of order and articles for the defence and common wealth of England, and wasting and destroying of Scotland."
To expel all Scots beggars and vagabonds. Such as have Scottish servants to lay sureties for them according to the King's statute; and these servants to have none coming to them from Scotland. Garrisons to be laid "endlonge" all the Marches, and to ride once a month into Scotland. Four warden raids at least to be made yearly with aid of the Bishopric and Westmoreland. "No safe conducts to be given but to such as be espials and no Scots to come to their entries but by an order." To stop all entry into Scotland of corn, iron (thus depriving them of horse shoes and plough irons) and mill stones (thus wasting the mills of Teviotdale). The King's navy to lie in the Firthe, victualled from Holly Elande, and stop all passage of Scottish ships.
Thus in one year, for want of corn, and the garrisons keeping the Borders from sowing, and burning the hay and corn that is won, Scotland shall be glad to "give over and yield, and specially all them on this side the Firthe." This order continued for a year shall do double as much harm as 40,000 men in an army, "as I think."
Four warden courts to be kept on every March, for punishing traitors, executing maintainers of Scots and trying such as break orders made by the King, "my lord Lieutenantes and wardens."
The Scots live by their corn, fishing and merchandise. The English ships shall stop the merchandise and the fishing, and there are no granges of corn on this side the Firthe but "they may be brent by Scots for reasonable money." The chief tillage of corn is in the Marse, Lowdean and Fyef; whereof that in the Marse may be destroyed by garrisons, that in Lowdean burnt as aforesaid and that in Fyef destroyed by men from the English navy. Signed. Will'm Eure.
Copy in the hand of Suffolk's clerk, pp. 3.
541. L'artigue's Offer.
"To know the commodities of the West side of Scotland, you must pass by the foreland of Saynt George and the first town that you shall find is called Saynt Jhon Deer (fn. 4)." Four leagues thence is Mellache. (fn. 5) Describes Mellache (a port which can float 100 great ships and is only defended by two small towers, one beside the haven and the other on the isle that makes the port) and Guarlott (Gare loch), four leagues from Donbarrtrang, where the Wild Scots must arrive to join the other Scots. The earl of Arguill is lord of the country of the Wild Scots. "He that exhibiteth this memorye" has made seven voyages to the said west coast. The last was 18 years past, when he was captain of 60 ships for the passage of the duke of Albany now deceased, then regent of Scotland. That fleet carried 5,000 footmen, 100 men of arms, 600 horses, 8,000 mariners and much ordnance, powder and victuals to remain in Scotland, which was landed at Sant Jhean Deer and Dombertraym, which is the strongest part on that side and stands on a rock like St. Michael's Mount. The Duke then went to Glascou, "a big city standing without any fortress upon a river that falleth into the sea about Dombertrang," and there met the princes of Scotland. "I that write this memorye" led 2,000 footmen and accompanied the Duke to Edinburgh, and thence to where the whole army of Scotland was encamped at a village called Fans, halfway between England and Edinburgh. The ships tarried at Guarlott and the writer ultimately conveyed the army back to Brittany. When the Scottish army was assembled the Wild Scots kept no order, "but were in continual mutineries and did more hurt by their presence than in manner so many enemies. They are of extreme poverty, and for money I think a man should make them do what he would." The writer nourished for 8 or 10 years two brethren of Don John Cambell, whom the King delivered out of the Tower of London, and who are now with the Wild Scots in great credit, and of the lineage and surname of the earl of Argyle. A fleet sent by this coast would do more hurt than by Berwick. The only ships there are Bretons, of whom the King might have as many pilots as he desired. The writer knows well all that went with the Duke and have haunted thither since. The galley which the King has made would serve well, "and here should be a man found in this country that well could govern the same." The writer in his youth was always in the company of his uncle, Captain Prejant, (fn. 6) in the French king's galleys, as lieutenant. He has since made galleys for the French king and his said uncle; "and hath been always traded on the sea and hath been vice-admiral of Britaygne and all this while never committed anything worthy of reproach." Could furnish six galleys for four months.
Translation in Mason's hand, pp. 4. Endd. : "Lartiques memorie."
Proclamation enforcing within the Court the act of the Parliament of 16 Jan. 33 Hen. VIII. for the punishment of mighty beggars and other idle persons after the feast of St. John Baptist last. All such persons who haunt the Court are to depart in 24 hours; no person is to keep more servants within the Court than appertains, nor suffer vagabonds to resort to their chambers; no person of the Court is to keep any hound or greyhound without the King's licence or to hunt with them in any place without licence, "and furthermore the King commandeth that no person keep any firretts."
Modern copy, pp. 2.
2. Proclamation commanding "all vagabonds, masterless folks, rascals
and other idle persons" who follow the Court to depart thence within 24
hours; also that no person keep more servants within the Court than
appertains, nor keep any page or boy contrary to the King's ordinance; that
no officers or other persons lodged within the King's house suffer vagabonds,
&c., to resort to their chambers; that no officers but such as by the King's
ordinance are appointed to have servants keep any servants within the
King's house; that no persons suffer any of their servants to come within
the gates but such as "be like men, and to rest in good order, excluding from
them in any wise all boys and rascals"; that no person make any assault
or fray within the Court or verge of the same; that no officer support any
Court follower, whether craftsman, rascal or launder; that no officer or
chamber keeper lodge any person other than is appointed by the King's
ordinary and statutes of his household.
Modern copy, pp. 2.
442, f. 227. B. M.
3. Proclamation for the enforcement of the statutes against sturdy
beggars by the justices of the peace, constables and other officers.
Modern copy, p. 2. The order is addressed to the sheriff of Kent.
543. [Sea Captains.] (fn. 7)
Unpaid :—Sir Rix Manxell, 45l. Mr. Genyns, 13l. Mr. Lutterell, 20l. 8s. 4d. Mr. Cary, 10l. 10s. Mr. Flamocke, 3l. 10s. Total, 92l. 8s. 4d.
Paid :—Sir N. Poyntz, 77l. 10s. Lord Clynton, 7l. 6s. 8d. Lord Cobham, 66l. 5s. Mr. Willoughby, 8l. 10s. Mr. Bluntt, 18l. 6s. 8d. Conduct money for 220 men to be brought from Dudley and Warwick, 41l. 13s. 4d. To Sir Rix Manxell, 22l. 10s. [Remain (?) of my Lord's conduct money and for coats, 66l. 6s. 8d.] (fn. 8) Conduct of 30 men from Warwick to London, 4l. 10s. Conduct of 50 men to be brought 20 miles by the Lord William, 43s. 8d. For coats, 10l. To Nyc. Nevill, 40l. To Mr. Blunt's servant, 10s. To Harman, 15s. To Mr. Snowes clerk, 10s. To Matew Aygro, 5s. To Mr. Grevill, 10l. That my lord (fn. 9) took forth of a white paper 5s. Borrowed 10s. (?) Total, 311l. 10s.
ii. On the back are calculations of the cost of conduct from Dudley and Warwick, and the note, "taken forth by my lord" 12l. 8s. 8d.
Calig. E. II.
544. [Du Biez (fn. 10) to Vendome.]
Monseigneur, ung homme de Monstreul . . . double dunes lettres quil dit avoir veues . . . Et pource que je nay point veu loriginal je vo[us] envoye le double, affin que vostre plaisir soyt [me] mander si lentendez ainsi, car jauroys gros re[gret] destre en votre malle grace et que mes gens fussen[t] prins par ceulx de Monstroeul ou autres pour avoir s[i] expres commandement du Roy, et par lettres que jay, sig[nes] de sa main, depuys le derrenier jour de Juillet. navoir point contrevenu a la lettre que mavez escript. Car je nay jamais eu lettre de vous, Monseigneur, portant actente ne deffence de riens commencer, [ne] mavez escript feire equipper du navire pour alle[r a] la guerre et en autre lettre ne me fut jamais par[le] de vitaillement de Therouenne. Pourquoy en ce je [ne] pense en riens avoir offence.
Monseigneur, il vous plaist de mectre sembla[blement] que en avez adverty le Roy. De ma part jenvoye [aussi] devers luy, et luy supplye quant a quant, v [eus les] termes de rigueur que me portez par voz lettres s . . . mavoir oy quil luy plaise menbesoingner ailleurs [en] son service ou il y en a de plus dangereux que icy . . . dy demourer en vostre malle grace et estre ainsi trai[cte] jy pourroys recevoir une honte et le Roy ung tresgros do [mmage]. Car je voy bien que en tout je suys defavorise de vous et m . . . . quil avoyt pleu audit seigneur mescripre que je prenseisse les mu[nitions] d'Ardre, et au capitaine de les me bailler, toutesfoys Monsei[gneur] vous les faictes porter ailleurs. Et si vous promectz que s . . . desservy ne merite envers vous.
Monseigneur, quant a ce que dictes des parolles et menas[ses] que jay faictes a ceulx de Monstroeul je croy que vous trouve [rez] que je ne me suys adresse a nul qui soyt serviteur du Roy. Et affin que cognoissez que ne veulx es[crire] audit Seigneur que la verite il vous plaira veoir le doub[le de] l'original des lettres que je luy escriptz.
Monseigneur, je prie a Dieu quil vous doint bon [ne vie] et longue. A Boullongne ce — (blank) jour de . . . ."
Fr., pp. 2. Mutilated.
Titus B. VIII., 371. B. M. Ellis' Letters of Literary Men, 1.
545. Nicholas Udall to [Wriothesley].
Although his labor for the writer's restitution to the room of schoolmaster at Eton has not taken effect, is bound to thank him no less. Never desired that room but only to discharge his debts by little and little. Hopes Wriothesley will not think him past amendment. No man is always wise, but Udall owns he has deserved his displeasure. Trusts to avoid excesses and abuses in future. Begs him to consider his extreme distress. If Wriothesley cast him off, no man of honor will look at him. Has not offended since Wriothesley, at the intercession of friends, promised to be his good master. Wriothesley would not believe the sorrow in which he has lived since his coming from Tichfield. No sickness, loss, imprisonment, torments or death could have pierced his heart more. Believes Wriothesley's severity is only to cure his folly and that he will be better master to him when his vices are "extirped." Begs that he may have one more trial. Refers to the riotous youth of Scipio Africanus, C. Valerius Flaccus, &c. Begs him to accept his change from vice to virtue, prodigality to frugal living, &c. Hopes with his mastership's favour to shake off his debt within two or three years at the utmost.
Hol., English, interspersed with Latin and Greek quotations, pp. 5.
Corp. Ch. MS. 128, p. 5. Strype's Cranmer, 765.
546. Cranmer and the Heretics Of Kent.
[The papers of which a condensed abstract follows form the bulk of the MS. Volume No. 128 in the library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. As they are all connected. though not all capable of precise dates, it has been thought best to place the abstracts together nearly in the order in which the documents stand in the MS. For convenience, they have been divided into twenty-five parts.]
Part I.—Interrogatories for Dr. London :—Whether he commanded Part I.—Interrogatories for Dr. London :—Whether he commanded Serles, on Palm Sunday, to write "such articles erron[eous] as had been preached in Kent" and required him to go with him to the Council to present the articles or else sign them; and threatened Serles for refusing? How he found out Serles? Whether he penned the articles anew in Serles's presence, who said to Dr. Willoughby (who had agreed to go to the Council) that they could not be proved as Dr. London now penned them? Whether, "beside the book subscribed by divers prebendaries and others of Canterbury, Dr. London made another great book of many more articles, where it is and who instructed him? What he knew against the abp. of Canterbury and others before Palm Sunday last, when he had the articles of Serles, and of whom he had such knowledge before that day."
In Cranmer's hand, p. 1.
|Ib. p. 7.||
II. A paper headed : "Serles."
1. What number of evil preachers he knows within the diocese of Canterbury, and what they have preached amiss. 2. Whether the Commissary in his visitations commanded that the wax candles blessed upon Candlemas day shall not be delivered to the people, and whether he heard him so command; also that holy water should not be borne and cast in men's houses. 3. Whether in some churches, by the Commissary's command, all the images were pulled down and hewed with axes. 4. Whether the Commissary be most conversant with abjured persons and others suspect of heresy, aiding and supporting them. 5. Whether Johanna Bochier were delivered by favor of the Commissary or by the King's pardon. 6. Whether Giles were a layman or a priest, and what sedition or error he preached. 7. Whether, upon our Lady day the Assumption was 12 months, he came to Canterbury in a courtier's coat and a beard and there lodged 10 days, and Mr. Hardes, a justice of peace, complained of him to the Commissary but the Commissary did nothing. 8. Whether a tailor in Canterbury do read and expound the Bible in his own house, to which the Commissary knowingly permits open resort. 9. Whether the master of St. John's, Canterbury, refused to receive and despised the Sacrament, and yet, by the Commissary's sufferance, was buried like a true Christian man, "and also is of very many praised for a good and holy man." 10. Whether Mr. Blande, in communication with Mr. Sponer, vicar of Boughton, denied auricular confession to be necessary and delivered his opinion to Mr. Sponer in writing; which writing the Commissary desired Mr. Sponer to let him see, swearing he would not keep it, but when he had got it he put it in his purse. 11. Whether the Commissary resigned a benefice to Mr. Blande binding Blande and his successors, by writing under seal of the Abp. and Chapter of Canterbury, to pay to him and his assigns the greater part of the clear value for many years. 12. Where and when he took his oath to the supremacy, renouncing the Bp. of Rome. 13. In what places, when and how often he has preached against the Bp. of Rome's usurped supremacy. 14. Where and when he took his oath for the King's succession.
Pp. 2. In Cranmer's hand.
|Ib. p. 9.||
III. Depositions against different clergymen, amp;c. :—
The 26th of August last past in the Chapter house.
(fn. 11) There be some sins that cannot be forgiven but by fasting and prayer. (fn. 11) Good people, you have been deceived with preachers, but if you have received any poison and learned any false doctrine, and believed by ignorance, you be not to blame, neither God is discontent with you.
(fn. 11) "In hell is burning of brimstone, wildfire, gunpowder, sudden heat, sudden cold, and we may be sure thereof because that David, Moses, and the prophets which taught us those things, were in the pains of hell, or in a kind of hell, which is Limbo."—In margin : "At Ashforth, 12 Augusti, 1543."
In the house of Mary or Martha He found a certain man very sick, and sore diseased, whose name was Lazarus, brother to these 2 virgins. Magdalen was a fair fingered gentlewoman.
(fn. 11) "Christ said to Martha, Thy busyness shall have an end, but thy sister's busyness shall last and never have end."—In margin : "Religion."
ii. Sandwich alias Gardiner in sermon in Christ's Church the 3d Sunday after Twelfth day.
(fn. 11) "The people have not had hitherto the good wine of God's word, but a day would come that they should have good wine again. But, good people, be content; for nondum venit hora, the time is not yet come that you should have good wine."—In margin : "Seditious."
(fn. 11) "Of late days you have had here so many waterlaggers, which have turned your good wine into water that you could have no good doctrine taught ne preached unto you but the phantasies of their own brains." Margin : "Slanderous."
(fn. 11) "People may kneel before images with their books or beads, kiss their feet, sence them and offer to them, so that they direct all this honour to the Saints in heaven." Margin : "Images."
(fn. 11) "As Christ was accused by 2 or 3 false knaves, so a man may be accused by 2 or 3 false knaves, and the judge as false a knave as the best, and so be condemned." Margin : "Seditious."
The next Sunday after.
(fn. 11) "I did prove by Ezechiel, Hieremy, St. Paul and Origen that an image was none idol." Margin : Images.
(fn. 11) "You are grieved with me because I called them waterlaggers which have changed our good wine into water. Truly I could invent no fitter name for them; but even as I said then, so I say again. I beshrew their hearts for me. They are come hither and have corrupt our good wine. I would they would get them home again thither from whence they came. But they must be smoked and purged round about with fire, or else we shall never be rid of them." Margin : "Seditious."
(fn. 11) "Some of you thought that some should have been hanged, but if you had deserved no more to be burned than they have to be hanged you should both do well enough." Margin : "Seditious." "Prima quære fo. sequente."
iii. Shether, 23 Aprilis, in the Chapter house.
(fn. 11) "Nowadays, good Christians, they teach nothing but carnal liberty, no man doth teach you the Commandments of God; no man doth preach unto you God's laws; yea, no man dare do it, or rather will not." Margin : "Slanderous."
15 Maii, at St. Stevyns.
(fn. 11) "He made the people believe with a great multitude of words that they had preachers here which had preached against vocal prayer, and had called vocal prayer nothing but babbling and lip labor." Margin : "Slanderous."
(fn. 11) Upon this text, 'You must pray without intermission,' he said 'Some fellows say that this is impossible, but I shall tell you, good Christians, how to perform this. It is a common saying in the law, That a man doth by his proctor he doth it by himself. Wherefore, when thou art in the field at thy labour or otherwise occupied, hire the Church to pray for thee (the Church he called the priests) and so shalt thou continually pray.'
(fn. 11) He counselled laboring men to divide their labor into 3 parts; to give one penny to the poor, another to the priests to pray for them, and the third to keep for themselves and their households.
(fn. 11) He did discourage men from praying in the mother tongue, saying 'Some of you say that men cannot pray in an unknown tongue because they understand not what they say. But I say that no man understandeth what he prayeth, as St. Paul saith, Nescit homo quomodo orandum sit, sed spiritus hominis docet quomodo orandum sit. And therefore, though you do not understand what you pray, yet pray so still.'
16 Septembris in the Chapter house.
(fn. 11) "All the constitutions decrees and ordinances of our Holy Mother the Church are most godly, most holy, and therefore are to be observed of all her children, Christian people, without disputing or reasoning of any of them." Margin : "Decrees."
(fn. 11) God did ingrave the whole power and wisdom of the Trinity in Lucifer.
iv. Sandwich alias Gardiner at Wye in Lent was 12 months in the fair.
(fn. 11) He plainly affirmed the state and condition of the souls departed.
(fn. 11) "Upon Palm Sunday last past he did execute in the Cathedral Church of Canterbury and hallowed the Palm and sung high mass without declaring the ceremony." Margin : "Ceremonies."
In festo Pascha.
(fn. 11) He said, 'There be some that be no priests that do take upon them to minister the Sacraments.'
Only love grafted Paul and Magdalene in Christ.
(fn. 11) "He moved the people to take again matins, evensong, their beads and 7 psalms, which of late they had cast away by them that preached against all vocal prayer."
v. The Vicar of Feversam.
(fn. 11) "He did not declare to his parishioners upon Candlemas day the true use of bearing candles as that day, neither of Palm Sunday or Good Friday the true use of those days' ceremonies, in bearing of palms and creeping of (sic) the cross, neither at any time he hath declared the true use of holy bread or holy water, as he is bound to do by the King's Majesty's proclamations." Margin : "Ceremonies."
"2. He commanded the wife of one Newman, a tanner in his parish, that she should not lie with her husband during the time of Lent." Margin : "Lent."
"3. He commanded the crysom cloth with a bell to be hanged out upon the Dedication day, which heretofore was hanged out to put the people in remembrance of pardon that they should have that time." Margin : "Crysom cloth."
"4. He moved in confession John Tacknal to use his paternoster in English no more, for he knew not how soon the world would change." Margin : "Paternoster in English."
5. To like effect he moved Deacon's wife and Lambe's wife, when they were confessed.
"6. He was taken suspiciously with a woman by 4 men, so that he promised to 3 of them 20 shillings to hold their peace." Margin : "Incontinency."
"7. He said that if the King were examined, he would confess that he gave no leave to eat white meat in Lent but unto sick persons." Margin : "Lent."
vi. The Parson of Westbere.
"He hath not declared the use of holy bread, holy water, hallowed candles, ashes, palms, and creeping the cross." Margin : "Ceremonies."
He said that there were 3 heavens, one for very poor men, the second for men of a mean state and condition, the 3rd for great men.
He is a common diceplayer, and a common haunter and resorter to taverns and alehouses.
vii. [Sir Humphrey Cotton, chantry priest at Tenterden.
[He said that there be heresies in the Bible.
[He said that every Christian man being baptised and holpen by the grace of God, is in as full state of free will as Adam was before his fall.
[He hath a book of prophecies.
["Memorandum, to examine the doctor of Chilham, Dundy that was an Observant friar, Mr. Sentliger, Mr. Parkehurst and other, Gardiner, a bricklayer called Burgrave, Browne of Chartam, of articles contained in a sheet of paper written with mine own hand, beginning 'The Doctor of Chilham'."] (fn. 12)
viii. Sandwich before Candlemas was 12 month.
(fn. 11) "He made 2 very seditious sermons in the Chapter house, calling the preachers that were lately come hither waterlaggers, and that they had taken away God's word from them, and that they should never be rid of them till they purged them with smoke and fire." Margin : "Slanderous."
(fn. 11) "Upon Easter last past he did again inveigh against preachers, beating into the people's heads that some had called Our Lady a saffron bag, and that they would Our Lady to have no honor, and that some did take upon them to minister which were no priests, and that some did utterly deny absolution; and then he made such exclamations, crying out 'Heretics ! Faggots ! Fire !' as though these things had been committed here indeed.— D. Thornden." (fn. 13) Margin : "Slanderous."
"The second day of September last past he did again inveigh against preachers that had, as he said, preached against vocal prayer, by whose means the people had laid away their beads and Latin primers, but he counselled them to take them again." Margin : "Slanderous."
"In a sermon made in the Chapter house before Easter last past, did inveigh against the preachers that they did preach against vocal prayer and fasting." Margin : "Slanderous."
x. The Commissary.
"Complaint was made to him that the Holy Sacrament of the Altar was not renewed in the church of Buckland near Feversham by the space of 2 years, but he passed over the cause without reformation." Margin : "Ceremonies."
xi. Sandwich, Milles, Shether and Serles.
(fn. 11) "None of them have preached against the usurped power of the Bishop of Rome and set out the King's Majesty's supremacy according to the King's Majesty's letters, injunctions and proclamations." Margin : "The Bishop of Rome."
xii. Mr. Parkehurst, Prebendary.
He hath not made yearly the ten sermons in the country, which he is bound to do by that he is prebendary.
"He hath not in his own person preached in his church at Ashford against the usurpation of the Bishop of Rome, and set out the King's Majesty's supremacy according to his Majesty's letters, injunctions and proclamations; neither hath he declared to his parish the difference between ceremonies and works commanded by God; neither hath he showed the right use of the said ceremonies and the superstitions used heretofore by them, according to the said letters, injunctions and proclamations." Margin : "The Bishop of Rome."
"He hath not declared in his parish that the Evens of such Saints as be abrogated to be no fasting days." Margin : "Proclamations."
xiii. Henry Laurence of Rayname.
"He commanded the clerk to bring no holy water to his house, and said it was good to fray the spretes of the buttry." Margin : "Ceremonies."
xiv. Bartilmewe the surgeon.
"He said to William Burges, general apparitor, 'Thou art he that would have pulled down our St. George, but your master lyeth by the heel, and we have showed the taking down thereof to the King's Council and were bid set it up again.'" Margin : "Images."
xv. Blande, the 4 of February last at Boughton.
Fasting profiteth nothing one time more than another.
"He railed of the light before the Sacrament and the cloth that lay before the Altar, of the ornaments of the Church. He defaced a chapel at Ospringe, pulled down the images and sold all the stuff." In margin are the following names (of course witnesses) : "Tho. Hawkins, Tho. Porrich, Raynolde Smith, Sir John Legate, and the vicar of Boughton."
xvi. Thomas Gymlot alias Barbour.
The parish of Buckland complaineth that he, being a layman, hath the vicarage there given unto him under the King's broad seal, and he causeth not the cure to be served as of right appertaineth, but they be fain of their own charges to find a curate.
xvii. The Vicar of Chillam.
"The fame is that he keepeth another man's wife :" Margin : "Incontinency."
He hath not declared to his parish that the Evens of abrogate holydays be no fasting days, as the King's commandment is, neither he hath declared the good use of the ceremonies, bearing of candles and palms, creeping of the cross on Good Friday, giving of ashes on Ash Wednesday; neither he hath declared the ceremony of holy bread and holy water, according to the King's Grace's proclamation.
xviii. Mr. Parkehurst, Predendary.
"Upon Palm Sunday was 12 months he did execute in the Cathedral Church and hallowed the palms and sung high mass, and did not declare the use of that ceremony according to the King's Grace's proclamation."— Margin : "Ceremonies."
(fn. 11) He hath 2 benefices with cure, Ashforth and Limmynge, and hath no dispensation. The institutions will declare this matter. He may dispend in benefices and other small promotion 100l. by year and above, and yet he doth find no scholar at the universities according to the King's Majesty's injunctions.
xix. Sir Laurence, Curate of Chalcocke.
"He will not christen childer until he have taken the midwife aside, and there doth make her to swear upon a book to answer to certain questions; neither he nor the midwife will show the questions but to the ordinary." In margin : "Md., to examine him upon a bill presented by Andrew Rayne, and to examine these witnesses :—Henry Hawker, William Gibbes, Tho. Worciter, William Horden, Roger Hal, Henry Reg and the mydwife."
xx. The Vicar of Tenterden.
"He hath not put out of the manual which he daily useth the Bishop of Rome's name, his usurped autoritie and pardon expressed in the rubric and last absolution of extreme unction." Margin : "The Bishop of Rome."
xxi. The Parson of Riple.
(fn. 11) "He said openly in his parish 'I am commanded to show you the paternoster in English; you may do as you will in learning of it, but it is against mine opinion. For I liken the paternoster in English to the hard shell of a nut and the paternoster in Latin to the sweet kernel." Margin : "Paternoster in English."
"He did not declare the use of hallowed palms, ashes, candles, holy bread and holy water." Margin : "Ceremonies."
xxii. The Vicar of Betrisden.
"He did send a letter to a woman of his parish that sent to him for counsel for a disease, that she should take holy water and say certain words, with other sorcery." Margin : "Holy water."
xxiii. [John Thatcher the younger.
["He said that the Bible was made by the Devil."] (fn. 14)
xxiv. The Vicar of St. Paul's in Canterbury.
"He did dissuade one Cruse, of his parish, from eating of white meat in Lent last past, and rebuked him therefor." Margin : "Lent."
"He hath not declared the use of good ceremonies used of Ash Wednesday, Palm Sunday, Good Friday, Cand[le]mas day, &c." Margin : "Ceremonies."
(fn. 11) "He said 'This is now the 3d time that England hath been out of the faith.'" (fn. 15)
"There is in an image of Our Lady at Estwell yet standing, whereunto was continual oblation in times past of money; which image had also a coat fixed with pence." Margin : "Images."
xxvi. William Quilter of Staple, gentleman.
(fn. 11) Whatsoever was done in the name of God was well done.
"The same William, being churchwarden and head of the parish, hath neglected the King's Majesty's injunctions given the 28th (fn. 16) year of his reign and is not yet fulfilled, whereas every parish is commanded to prepare a chest with two locks and two keys, of the common goods of the church, for the same (qu. safe?) keeping of a book or register of the names of all them that be married, christened and buried." Margin : "Injunctions."
xxvii. The Parson of Milton besides Canterbury.
(fn. 11) "He had in his church of Milton an image of St. Margaret, to which was a common pilgrimage, and caused it to be taken down. And upon St. Margaret's day last past Mr. John Cros, sometime cellarer of Christchurch, came to the same church and did set the same image again with a garland of flowers on the head of it, and did strowe the church and said mass there." Margin : "Images." In another hand : "His chaplain was a Observand and he a mungke."
Pp. 8. Mostly in Cranmer's hand.
|Ib. p. 17.||
IV. Deposition of John Parkehurst, of Leneham in Kent, that, at London,
about Whitsuntide last, he showed a roll of articles to Sir Thomas Moile and
Mr. Henley against the parson of Witcheling and others; "which afterward
being declared unto Sir John Bacar and by him advised to be
delivered unto the commissioners when they should come into Kent, was
nevertheless delivered unto my lord of Norfolk out of hand. The articles,
for the most part were matter commenced before the last general pardon.
Item, he saith that, about the Assumption (fn. 17) of Our Lady last past, there
met at his house to make merry Mr. Richard Parkehurste his uncle,
Dr. Leffe, master of Maidstone College, Dr. Mugg, parson of Harisam,
Mr. Serls, the vicar of Charing, Mr. George Loys of Winchilsea, and his
brother, the parson of Boughton Malarde, John Pers of Charing, and divers
mo whose names he cannot remember, in which assembly was nothing
entreated then concerning these matters in Kent, but of mirth and good
cheer as he saith."
P. 1. The following is in Archbishop Parker's hand on the back of the sheet : "Memorandum that King Henry, being divers times by Bishop Gardiner informed against Bishop Cranmer, and the said Gardiner having his instructions of one Dr. London, a stout and filthy prebendary of Windsor, who, there convicted, did wear a paper openly and rode through the town with his face towards the horse's tail, and also had information of Mr. Moyle, Mr. Baker and of some others promoted by the said Cranmer, whose tales he uttered to the King, who, perceiving the malice, trusted the said Cranmer with th'examination of these matters; which he did of divers persons, as by this doth appear."
Underneath this is written in another hand : Vide pag. 418; referring to a passage in the brief memoir of Cranmer at the end of the Volume. (fn. 18)
|Ib. p. 21.||
"First, what communication by word or writing you had with Mr. Roper, Balthasar the Surgeon, Heywode, Mr. Moore, Jermen Gardiner, Mr. Bekensale, or with either of them, and to what effect such communication hath been." (fn. 19)
1. Whether you came to Serls, and said to him "Take heed to thyself or else those art like to be undone." 2. Whether you procured of Anthony Hussey the copies of Sandwich's and Serls' articles and caused them to be delivered to the said Sandwich and Serls before they were called to examination, or sent either of them word that they ought to have them. (fn. 20) 3. Whether you said that the articles of Serls and Shether are not sufficiently proved, for which they were committed and continue in prison. 4. What communication you have had with Dr. London touching me or the new opinions and enormities in Kent. 5. Whether you said that Dr. London was at the Court for promotion at the King's hand, and what knowledge you had thereof and by whom (fn. 21) 6. Whether you said that if every man were so handled as Dr. London was, there would be many papers worn,* and to what intent you said so. 7. Whether you know or heard that Dr. London, [or] that Dr. Barbour and Mr. Talbote, which w[ere] of my lord's counsel and chamber, can tell a shre[wd] tale if they were examined, for it was not for n[ought] that they were put out of service; and of whom [you heard] the same. 8. Whether you have told anyone "My lord's Grace said in his privy chamber that he could defend Ridley's and Scorie's articles if they had an indifferent judge; but he would have his judge out of Germany." 9. Whether in talking of my lord's Grace you said "An solus ipse potest cœlum ruens sustinere" and what you meant by it. 10. What communication you have had, at Paul's in London or elsewhere, with the Chancellor of London, Dr. Cole or Dr. Clement, and my lord of Winchester's chaplain, Mr. Medowes, touching my Lord's Grace, Dr. London, these new opinions or enormities in Kent. 11. What communication you have had with Mr. Forde, clerk of the Privy Seal, and to what effect. 12. What communication you have had touching these matters in Kent, since the beginning of this examination, with Mr. Smyth of Canterbury, Mr. Talbote vicar of Westwell, Mr. Collens, sometime commissary here, or with Anthony Hussey touching Dr. London or the matters in Kent. 13. What communication you have had with any persons touching new opinions, these enormities in Kent, my lord's Grace, his household or any of his servants or any of the preachers, or what letters you have written or received about them. 14. Whether you were ever moved to be a doer or a witness in the premises, and by whom and when. 15. Whether you have heard say that you have been suspect, both in the Court and in the country, to be one of the conspiracy against my lord, and by whom. 16. What communication you have had openly of the princes of Germany, "and whether amongst other things you had this, 'That they were robbers and thieves,' saying 'You may see now whereunto the Gospel is come,' and what moved you so to say." 17. Whether you said "The congregation of Hadley is a worshipful congregation. If one of them were hanged against another it were not a halfpenny matter," and what moved you so to say. 18. What communication you have had at London or elsewhere of Dr. Legh's being with me, and with whom you have so communed. 19. Whether you know who wrote the bill of the clergy put up against the Commissary in executing ecclesiastical jurisdiction," and who was of counsel and making thereof."
Pp. 4. Some articles marked in the margin.
|Ib. p. 25.||
ii. A second set of Interrogatories.
First what communication you have had by word or writing with Mr. Roper, Balthasar the surgeon, Heywood, Mr. Moore, Jermeyn Gardyner or Mr. Bekensall, and to what effect. 2. What, at your last being here, with Milles the prebendary. 3. Whether you said to Milles "Here are many matters complained on, and they are greatly delayed and goeth not forward, that I am weary of altogether." 4. Who should be the cause of such delay that no more good was done, as you thought. 5. What communication you had with Killygrewe at Bekisborne; 6. What with the Chancellor of Rochester. 7. Whether you said to him "I would all ambitious knaves were hanged. I would all maintainers of new opinions were hanged. I would all knaves that breaketh orders were hanged. I would all knaves that be against the Commonwealth were hanged." Whom you meant by each of these kinds of knaves. 8. Whether you said "What should we do with my lord's Grace, seeing that Serls and Shether be in ward; for we have nothing to do there." And what moved you so to say. 9. Whether you said "Thinks my lord's Grace that is a way to a quietness in Kent to have Dr. Legh there?" and what you meant thereby. 10. Whether you have said to divers persons that you were suspect in these matters, and wherein and by whom you thought yourself suspect. 11. "Whether you said that Dr. Tailor was a man of evil judgment and noselid and brought up in the same;" what moved you so to say, wherein his judgment is evil, and by whom he was so "noseled and brought up." 12. Whether you wrote a letter to Hungarforde of Sandwich, and to what effect. 13. What communication you had with Thomas Moile about the last sessions, and whether you gave or sent him any writing, and to what effect. 14. Whether you would have had Serls and Shether to come to you secretly with their articles, and helped them to the best of your power; and to whom you said these words. 15. What writing you have received of any man, and whom, &c., touching these matters in Kent. 16. What communication you had at London, and with whom, touching Legh's being with me. 16. Who made the bill put up in the clergy's name against the Commissary for exercising jurisdiction ecclesiastic. What communication you have had touching these matters in Kent with the Chancellor of London, Dr. Cole, or Dr. Clement the physician.
Pp. 2. In the same hand as the preceding. Some articles marked in the margin.
|Ib. p. 29.||
VI. Depositions against the following persons :—
i. The Parson of Pluckley :—Steph. Giles said that he blessed himself daily and nightly saying In nomine Patris, &c.; "and then he said, in the honor of God and Our Lady and all the Company of Heaven and for all Christian souls that God would have prayed for, a Paternoster, an Ave and a Creed. To whom the parson of Pluckley said that if he knew it of truth that the said Stevyn used the same form of prayer, he would not accompany him, nor once drink with him."
ii. (fn. 11) "Sir Humfray Chirden parson of St. Elphins ye first Sunday in Lent last past :"—"If Judas had gone to God and confessed his fault, saying Peccavi as he went in to the priests, he had not been damned."
iii. (fn. 11) Vincent Ingeam :—(1) He commanded, on Easter Monday 33 Hen. VIII., that no man should read or hear the Bible read on pain of imprisonment, and cast two in prison, the one for speaking against him therein, the other for showing him the King's injunctions concerning the same. Witness, the whole parish of St. Peter's.—In margin : "Injunctions." (2) He repugned against the doing of the Commissary in taking down the image of St. John by the King's commandment. Witnesses, Mr. John Master, Thomas Pynnocke, Peter Holam, Daniel Cranmer, "and al Christmas men" (sic). Margin : "Images."
iv. (fn. 11) "Sir Thomas Curat of Sholden [and] Thomas Sawier" have set up again 4 images taken down by the King's commandment for abuses by pilgrimages and offerings, viz., the images of St. Nicholas, St. Stephen, St. Laurence, and Our Lady. Witnesses, Thos. Southowsand, Wm. Kenerdale, and Wm. Norres. Margin : "Images."
v. (fn. 11) Thomas Bleane of North Mongeam, when the images should have been defaced, commanded the priest and churchwardens to let them alone, "saying that such ways should continue but a while, and that they should see shortly. And an image with three crowns standeth near unto his own seat till this day. [Witnesses,] Wm. Norres and Wm. Kenerdale. Margin : "Images."
vi. (fn. 11) Edw. Dyngleden of Rolwynden (1) has forsaken his own parish church at Easter for two years together and gone to Walsingham, refusing always to show the vicar a certificate that he had received the Sacrament at the accustomed times. Margin : "Pilgrimages." (2.) He obstinately refuses to learn his Paternoster, Ave, Creed and Ten Commandments in English.— Witness, the curate of Rolvenden, and he can declare others.
vii. (fn. 11) Sir Edw. Sponer, vicar of Boughton, (1) has not declared to his parishioners the right use of ceremonies, nor shown the difference between them and works commanded by God, as required by the King's proclamations. Margin : "Ceremonies." (2.) Has not preached against the Bp. of Rome and set forth the Supremacy. (3.) Has not preached his quarter sermons, either at Boughton or at his benefice in the Marsh; and never declared the Evens of Saints whose days be abrogated to be no fasting days. Witness, Mr. Hawkyns, with other of both his parishes.
viii. "Archidiaconus Cantuariensis, (fn. 22) " the morrow of Ascension was three years, took out of thech. of St. Andrew's in Canterbury, 3 lamp tapers burning before the Sacrament, and a coat from a rood, "and did violently break the arms and legs of the rood."
ix. Sir William Kempe, vicar of Northgate, (1) has not read the Bible since Pentecost as commanded by the Ordinary; (2) does not declare to his parishioners the right use of holy water, holy bread, bearing of candles upon Candlemas day, giving of ashes, bearing of palms, "creeping of the Cross," "for lack whereof the most part of the parish be as ignorant in such things as ever they were, and many of them do abuse holy water; insomuch that against tempests of thunder and lightning many run to the church for holy water to cast about their houses to drive away ill spirits and devils, notwithstanding the King's Majesty's proclamations in the same." 3. He has not read to them the King's injunctions "by reason whereof the parish be blind and ignorant in them. Witness, the parish."
x. Bartilmew Joye confessed to his curate in general "I am a sinner"; and, when the vicar asked him wherein, said he had confessed himself to the Lord already and would make no other confession. Wm. Kempe, vicar.
xi. John Toftes, Chr. Levenysh and Bartylmewe Joye, 17 Nov., ao 30. They pulled down all the pictures in the ch. of Northgate in Canterbury except the rood, Mary and John, the 12 Apostles, the pictures of Our Lady and St. John Baptist. (2.) On 2 Dec. 34 H. VIII., John Toftes pulled down the picture of Our Lady "and had her and the tabernacle home to his house, and there did hew her all in pieces." (3.) On 15 July ult. preterito, "John Toftes openly and with loud voice read the Bible in English in the church to his wife, Sterkey's wife, George Toftes' wife, to the midwife of the same parish, and to as many other as then were present."
xii. Johanna Meryweder of St. Mildred's parish, "for displeasure that she bare to a young maid named Elizabeth Celsay and her mother, made a fire upon the dung of the said Elizabeth and took a holy candle, and dropped upon the said dung 7 times; and she told her neighbours that the said enchantment would make the cule of the said maid to divide into two parts. Presented by the old schoolmaster." In margin : "Superstition"; and in another hand "She did it not, but said she would do it."
xiii. "Rauffe, the bellringer of Christchurch, at the burial of Dr. Champion, after the priest had censed [the] grave, and a boy was bearing away the censers and the coals, called again the boy and took the censers and poured the hot coals upon him in the grave, to the great slander of the said Dr. Champion, as though he had been an heretic worthy burning. Witness, all the quere that were present." (2.) "He said the King was content that all images should be honored as they were wont to be. Filpot."
xiv. Mr. Shether, when he made his recantation or declaration added, "Good Christians, I take God to record that I never preached anything to you in my life but the truth.—Mr. Nevil, Mr. Scory, Mr. Toftes, Peter Kelsame, George Toftes." (2.) He preached that, by the law of God, no man ought to excommunicate, but only a priest.
xv. Coxsom, petty canon of Christchurch, made his testament by advice of Mr. Parkhurst, Mr. Sandwich and Mr. Milles, and bequeathed "to every vicar of Christchurch 20d. that had a pair of beads and would say Our Lady's psalter for his soul; which is thought to be against the King's book last set forth in the article of prayer for the souls departed. And this was executed according to the will."
xvi. The parson of Alyngton (fn. 23) "never preached in his church of Alyngton* nor Smeth against the usurped power of the Bishop of Rome, nor set forth the King's supremacy." (2.) He has been a great setter forth in his parish of the Maid of Kent, pilgrimages, feigned relics and other superstitions, and yet never recanted or reproved the same. (3.) He has not declared to his parishioners "that the Eves of such holy days as be abrogate be no fasting days." (4.) On the Sundays, Candlemas day, Ash Wednesday, Palm Sunday, and Good Friday he has not declared the true use of the ceremonies used those days according to the King's proclamations.—Jas. Blechynden and Wm. Benefelde, gentlemen, Mr. Everynge, John Knyght, Jas. Toft with other.
xvii. Orphewe, curate of Lyd, has preached many times, but never against the Bp. of Rome and set forth the King's supremacy, "or at the least every quarter of a year, according to the King's proclamations and letters." (2.) He has been a great setter forth of pilgrimages, feigned relics and other superstitions, and never recanted. (3.) He has not declared in going of procession that better it were to omit the litany than the other suffrages following, according to the King's injunctions. (4.) On the Sundays, Candlemas day, Ash Wednesday, Palm Sunday and Good Friday, he has not declared the true use of holy bread, holy water and other ceremonies for those days, according to the proclamations.—Thos. Strogle, Eve Bat, Thos. Atye, Mr. Barowe town clerk, Mr. Moore and others of Lyd.
xviii. The curate of Strodmersh dissuaded men from eating white meat last Lent and rebuked them for doing so. Witness, Godfray, with others of the parish. (2.) Upon Candlemas day, Ash Wednesday, Palm Sunday and Good Friday he did not declare the true use of the ceremonies for those days. (3.) About All Hallowtide was twelve month he preached in St. Dunstan's beside Canterbury that men should love and fear God, but not trust Him too much. Wm. Laslynge, Mich. Wryght, Wm. Reve, John Bodwarde, Chr. Henry and others of the parish.
xix. Turnour. When at Chartam "he did cast no holy water, neither before the Sacrament nor upon any altar in the church, nor also before the crucifix in the rood loft, according to the laudable ceremonies, &c." (2.) "He christened 3 children upon one day and did not anoint them with holy oil, neither upon the back nor belly." (3.) "He neither incensed the crucifix in the rood loft nor any altar in the church, except the high altar, nor distributed any holy candle among his parochianes as hath been accustomed. Will'm Saunder, John Browne, Edmunde Purdue, Will'm Sacre, John Browne."
xx. Sir James Newname and one Laurence, brother to Mr. Mores, "took down an image of Our Lady, to the which there was no offering (except candles at the purification of women) nor noted to be done there any miracles by the said image. Will'm Saunder cum aliis qui supra."
xxi. The curate of Chartam that now is "casteth no holy water upon the crucifix in the rood loft, nor upon any altar in the church except the high altar. Saunder cum aliis qui supra."
xxii. Scory. "He said that such superstitions were used in the church as making of crosses upon Palm Sunday, setting up of them and blessing them with the holy candle, ringing of bells in the thunder. For, think you, said he, that the Devil will be afraid or flee away cross making, hurling of holy water, ringing of bells and such other ceremonies when he was not afraid to take Christ himself and cast him on his back and set him on a pinacle?—These things that be good of themselves may not utterly be put away, although they be abused; for then the holy Sacrament of the altar should be set aside, which is daily bought and sold." Rich. Parkhurst present; Bradkirke, priest, Mr. Shether, John Marden and Robert Colman, witnesses.
xxiii. "Serles, Dominica 8 post Trinit.—If the preacher preach error and erroneous doctrine, the simple man, though he receive it and believe it, it doth not infect or corrupt him. And this he repeated twice." (fn. 24) (2.) "He said also that Moises sent letters from Hell to teach the state thereof, and how men should live, and another likewise out of heaven." (3.) "Item, they say, said he, that only faith justifieth and that it maketh no matter how we do live. Christ died for us and by his blood hath washed all our sins away. Therefore what needeth us to fast or pray?"
xxiv. Sandwiche. "Do. in 70 (Septuagesima Sunday) Anno Domini 1542." "Whereas I, good Christians, have ever preached unto you truly the word of God, as I report me to the conscience of you all, yet some that have evil ears did evil report of me. But if their ears were cut off as Malchus' was and set up where every man might wonder at them, I think therein a man should not wish much against charity."
"Do. 4a post pascha Ao. D'ni. 1543.—Some, if they see other given to goodness to follow the decrees of the Holy Church, to kneel before the Blessed Sacrament, they will counsel them from the same and say Deus in manufactis templis non habitat. They will have none of the holy doctors. They will not have St. Augustine, St. Ambrose, St. Hierome, St. Gregory, Basyll, Gregory Nazianzene, &c." "Since the time that we have been given to newfangells the spirit of newfangells hath brought in the spirit of error. But what remedy then, said he, to obtain the spirit of truth again? Of that, said he, I spake last time that I preached, and showed you that we must return where we went out. We must return to our dog, to our conscience again, and that will certify us where is the truth.
"Do. 3a, Ao Do. 1533 (sic).—Populus Judaicus pronus erat ad idolatriam, unde a Domino, inquit, prohibiti sunt facere ymagines; at nunc, cessante causa, viz. studio idolatriæ, cessat effectus."
xxv. Shether. That there was one straight way to the truth, which all men have gone a long time, saving a few now of late, who have wandered in divers pathways to seek a nearer way. These were like one who being clean lost continually asked his way and was told "You be clean out of the way and must turn back again to where you left." Nothing at all admonishing the people of the way which men had lost by defending and retaining the usurpation of Rome; nor of no mention that the King's majesty hath reformed the abuses of superstitious religion"; but bidding them revert to their superstition and blindness.—D. Nico. Rydley, D. Lancelot Ridley, Mr. Drumme, Mr. Scory, Mr. Broke, Mr. Nevil, Toftes, Kesham.
xxvi. Browne of Charteham promised a lease to Jas. Terry and after the indenture was drawn discharged him because the King's title of Supremacy was left out.—Sir Ric. Tur[ner], Jas. Terry and Badcocke. (2.) At Candlemas was 12 month he, for him and his wife alone, offered candles to the rood against the King's injunctions. Witness, the whole parish. (3.) He will not pay his tithes as in times past (Turner). He repines at the collection for the aid against the Turks. Witnesses, Mr. Evias and Mr. Hedde.
xxvii. The Vicar of Chilham named Dr. Willoughby. Why he, having special commandment by the King's letters from Hull, (fn. 25) "doth yet keep in his church a certain shrine gilted named St. Austin's shrine; which shrine was conveyed from St. Austin's in Canterbury unto the parish church of Chilham at the suppression of the monastery of St. Austin's." (2.) "A rood there, which had shoes of silver, being a monument of pilgrimage or offering, standeth yet still, being only spoiled of the monument. Mr. Commissary can tell of it." (3.) "Item, he said that images had power of God to help sick people vowing unto them, the communication then being of Our Lady of Cutupstrete between the said vicar and one Dawson of Chartham, miller, being present Mr. Petite, the chantry priest of Chiham (sic) and the parish priest of Chilham." (4.) "Md. of his incontinency, to examine Stryngar and his wife and the curate of Molishe." (5.) "Md. that Potter's wife was banished out of Feversham for her suspect living with Dr. Willoughby, and also was compelled to forsake Chilham for the same about 2 or 3 years past, and yet she remaineth in the company of the said Doctor." (6.) "Wherefore he reported in Canterbury and Chilham, about Whitsuntide last past, that 2 or 3 of my lord of Canterbury's servants would have bett him and how they knew that they were my lord of Canterbury's servants."—Friderick's widow of St. Elphies, Leonard Stryngar. (7.) "Whether he did not imagine that they were his servants, to bring him and his servants into slander."
xxviii. Burgrave, a bricklayer. To examine him of these words :— "That my lord of Canterbury preached like a worshipful prelate that prayed 7 years before the Bishop of Rome fell that the said Bishop might be expelled this realm."—Margin : "Mr. Evias of Charteham, Maistres Dartenall." (2.) Whether he said that 20 in Canterbury would say as much as he had said, adding that it became my lord of Canterbury to preach as Mr. Hadley did, and other mo of the old fashion." (3 (fn. 26).) "To examine Sir Anthony Browne's chaplain what words he spake of me at Wickam in the presence of one Gybbes of Westbere. Examine first the said Gibbes, young Toftes and Anthony May of Fordich." (4 (fn. 26).) "To examine Kempe what treason he knoweth by Toftes. Starkey." (5 (fn. 26).) "Item, Mr. Crosse for keeping of Advent fast." (6 (fn. 26).) "Item, to examine Sir Thomas Bynge, parson of Milton, by whose means the image of St. Margaret, taken down by the virtue of the King's letters sent from Hull, was set up again, and how many of Chartam were of counsel thereof." (7 (fn. 26).) "Md., to examine the complaint of Bridge and Barton."
|Ib. p. 39.||
VII. Further depositions.
Against Serles for a sermon made in the chapterhouse of Christch in Aug. 1543 on the text Ex fructibus &c. and other sermons elsewhere. He warned his hearers against preachers who said no matins, mass nor evensong once in a quarter and never confessed nor "occupied" porteous or mass-book, or used vocal prayer.—(Witness D. Thornden.) At Leneham on the feast of Assumption of Our Lady last he said, as the moon was full at 14 days, even so Mary was conceived fully with Christ when she was 14 years old; also, that if one had looked in Mary when she was full conceived with Christ he should have perceived him in his mother's womb with a bush of thorns on his back; that Mary bore Christ poorly for she had no fire, but begged a coal of one and a stick of another to warm her child; that she nourished her son with milk, not material milk but milk that came from heaven; for no woman can nourish her child with material milk but she that is conceived by knowledge of man; that all the faith of the world remained in Mary only for 3 days and 3 nights from the death of Christ till his Resurrection, and her sorrows were more painful than Christ's but for death only; that when Christ ascended into Heaven many ascended with him, to bear witness of it. (Witnesses, Sir Rauff Post, clk., Robert Burges, John Colier, John Furner, Jas. Perry.) On 12 Aug. he preached in the parish ch. of Ashford that prayer was not acceptable to God but in the church only, alleging the text Domus mea domus orationis rocabitur; he also discouraged men from reading the Bible, saying "You fellows of the new trickery that go up and down with your Testaments in your hands, I pray you what profit take you by them?" (fn. 27) He also said, as Adam was expelled from Paradise for meddling with a tree of knowledge. "even so we for meddling with the Scripture of Christ." He also preached that there were some who said "that part of the Ave Maria was made by a strumpet." In one sermon he preached "that Christ in the gospel confounded Mary Magdalen with 2 parables, likening her to an alestake and to a poor woman whom an Emperor had married and in his presence did lie with a leporous lazar man." He preached in Kennington ch. on Good Friday 1542 "that as a man was creeping the cross upon Good Friday the image loosed itself off the cross and met the man before he came at the cross and kissed him." "He preached at the burial of Mr. Boys that by the receiving of the Sacraments and penance all a man's deadly sins were forgiven clearly, but the venial sins remained; and for them they that died should be punished except they were relieved by masses and diriges after their death." "He preacheth no sermon but one part of it is an invective against the other preachers of Christ's Church." (fn. 28)
20 Sept. 1543.—Scorye.
He preached at St. Elphie's on Ascension Day 1541 that there is none in Heaven but Christ only. (Note by Cranmer : "Bradkirke priest, Mr. Shether, John Marden, Rob. Colman; these four be witness against all the articles of Ridley and Scory in the first detection made to me 2 years past.") "He preached in August last in the Chapter house of Christ church that no man may pray in anywise in Latin or other tongue, except he understand what he prayeth; adding that priests and clerks do offend, taking any money or reward for saying Dirige and mass." (Note by Cranmer : Dr. Thornden.) He says that some preachers brought in their sermons Gesta Romanorum, persuading the people that it was the Gospel or the Bible. (Note by Cranmer. Dr. Thornden.) He preached the 4th Sunday in Lent 1541 in Christchurch, Canterbury, that only faith justifieth, and he that doth deny that only faith doth justify would deny, if he durst be so bold, that Christ doth justify. (Note by Cranmer : Gardiner, Hunt, Cockes of Christchurch.) He preached at Christchurch "that the supper of the Lord which is Sacrificium et hostia is not hostia pro peccatis but hostia laudis." "He preached at Faversham in festo Dedicationis ecclesie Anno 1542 that the dedications of material churches was instituted for the Bishops' profits, and that he could not see by Scripture that they might use any such fashions for that purpose; for they use conjurations and then they must conjure the Devil out of the ground, or out of the lime and stone; and if so, then it were as well necessary for every man's house to be consecrate or dedicate. Item, admit, quod he, that the dedication of the same were lawful, yet the Bishops should always preach, for that is their office, and other men might and may consecrate them as well as they. Item, he said This sumptuous adorning of churches is against the old fashion of the primitive Church. They had no such copes or chalices nor other jewels, nor gildings, nor paintings of images as we now have, and therefore if I were curate I would sell all such things, or lay them to pledge to help the poor." (Note by Cranmer : John Seth, Rich. Dryland, Lawrence Manby, John Hampton, Nich. Burdwast, Joseph Beverslay, T. Transham, John Pellayne, Clement Norton, Tho. Dove, Tho. Okinfelde, Raynold Becke, Will'm a Moore, Ro. Fynes, Rich. Sticknay.)
["Item, at Christmas last there was a general procession by the King's Majesty. Mr. Scory preached these words : Every country hath a custom to choose a patron, as England hath chosen St. George, Scotland St. Andrew, thinking rather by intercession of Saints to obtain the victory of their enemies. But, good people, quod he, for as much as Saints be circumscript, it is not possible for that Saint that is in the North to hear the prayer that is made in the South, nor that Saint that is in the South to hear the prayer that is made in the North."] (fn. 29)
Most of the above sayings of Scory are noted by Cranmer in the margin as "Error," "slanderous" or "seditious."
20 Sept. 1543.—Shether.
He preached at Sandwich, 23 June 1542 that Baptism takes away only original sin (Cr. "Heresy"); and on the 29 July 34 Hen. VIII. that every man since the Passion of Christ has as much free will as Adam had in Paradise (Cr. "Error"); also that the new preachers with the liberty of the Gospel have caused our living to be worse than the Turks; that Zachary and Elizabeth his wife kept all the commandments, and that it was a light thing for every man to keep them if he would; that if a man sinned after baptism he must purchase remission by penance like Mary Magdalen; also of a king that had a leprosy and had a vision to go to Jordan to wash and be made whole; but in going he thought the well waters of his own country would be as good and turned back and washed in them, but, not being cured, went to Jordan and so was made whole. He compared a man's conscience to a dog, and said "Beware of these false preachers, which preach to you new fangells. Will you know how to discern a true preacher from a false? You have a dog, which is your conscience. Whensoever you shall come to any sermon ask your dog what he saith unto it. If he say it be good, then follow it; but if your dog bark against it and say that it is naught, then beware and follow it not; adding these words : If you will ask your conscience what she thinketh of such new fangles as is brought into the Church of God, she will say that they be naught."—"He also preached that no men nowadays sayeth that holy water signifieth of Christ's blood. O, these are very glorious words; but it is not fit, good Christians, that such new fangles and phantasies of men should be brought into the Church of God.
"Item, in all his sermons he commonly useth to make invections against the other preachers of this Cathedral Church, making the people believe that the preachers of the Church preach nothing but a carnal liberty, newfangle errors and heresies against the blessed Sacrament of the Altar, against free will, auricular confession, prayer, fasting and all good works.— D. Thornden." (This article and three of the preceding are inserted in Cranmer's hand.)
22 Sept. 1543.
Broke preached on Palm Sunday was 12 month that masters and mistresses were bound to eat eggs, butter and cheese in Lent to give example to their households and he depreciated the ceremonies of the Church. (Ws., Gardner, Milles, Bul, Thos. Wod.)
24 Sept. 1543.—Thomas Carden vicar of Lynne said in Selling church two or three years ago that he supposed St. Katharine was rather a devil in Hell than a saint in Heaven; that it was wrong for people to say they should receive their Maker at Easter, but they should say We shall receive our housel. In his own church he preached that the water of the font is no better than other water. (Ws., Sir Rob. Browne, vicar of Selling, Ric. Poole and Th. Dilnot—Cr. in a separate note makes the first "dom. Rich'us Browne.")
22 Sept. 1543.—Mr. Ridley, prebendary, preached at St. Stephen's in Rogation week 32 H. VIII. that "auricular confession was but a mere positive law, and ordained as a godly mean for the sinner to come to the priest for counsel; but he could not find it in Scripture." (Ws., Parkehurst, Hunt, the vicar of St. Paul's); "that there was no meeter term to be given to the ceremonies of the Church than to call them beggarly ceremonies." (Ws., Parkehurst, Hunt, Gardiner.) The Te Deum has been commonly sung in English at Herne where he is vicar. (Ws., Mr. Seth, Wm. Lee, Steph. Sayer and others of the parish.)
24 Sept. 1543.—Joan Frenche denied the Sacrament of the Altar, saying it was but a figure or memory of Christ's Passion and has spoken against the ceremonies of the Church.
Henry Tillet is suspected to be of evil opinions, has spoken against the ceremonies of the Church and has read the Bible contrary to the King's injunctions.
Nich. Huget, Ric. Pemyll, Geoff. Bayle and Rob. Tofte are vehemently suspected of evil opinions.
26 Sept. 1543.—Drumme preached in Christchurch against praying in an unknown tongue, and said the psalmody in the Church, if not understood, was taking God's name in vain; so those who do not know Latin should pray in the mother tongue; that "the material Church" was a thing to satisfy the affection of man, not that God required it, like a toy which a father gives to his child, not to please himself. [He preached in Christchurch on Whitsunday last that images were very dangerously permitted in the Church, and that they who went about to take away the reading of the Bible went about to pluck Christ's words and the Holy Ghost's from the people; that the Holy Ghost was neither in this place nor in that, as Christ was never in Italy nor spoke of Italy; "but if thou wilt have the Holy Ghost, said he, seek him in His word and in thy heart."] (fn. 30)
26 Sept.—Lancaster, parson of Pluckley, uses no holy water in the church porch and great part of his parish do not receive holy bread. In going on procession he does not rehearse Sancta Maria or any other Saints' names. When told that Stephen Giles in his presence and that of Henry Giles and others said that he blessed himself daily and nightly In nomine Patris, &c. and that he said a Paternoster, an Ave and a Creed in honor of God and Our Lady, &c., the parson said that if he knew that Giles had used that form of prayer he would never accompany him or drink with him. This Giles has acknowledged to be true before Sir Thomas Moyle.
The curate of Much Mongeam, 24 Sept., 1543.—In going on procession he will sing no litany.
Rob. Newington, 24 Sept. 1543.—Refuses to come to the Sepulchre at Easter "unless there were bread and drink there," and has rebuked others for doing it. "He hath refused and resisted against making of lights about the rood loft;" says "it is idolatry to the Sepulture," and refuses to go in procession.
Thos. Makeblyth of Canterbury, barber, 26 Sept. 1543.—Did not bear palm last Palm Sunday, but read the Bible in procession time. On Easter day he went into a corner at the Resurrection time and went not a procession as others did.
Mr. Isaac took a priest named Sir Thomas, put him in secular apparel and made him a horsekeeper.
21 Sept. 1543.—Margaret Toftes the younger said, 25 July last in Northegate parish, that images in the church were devils and idols, and wished the church and they were set on fire. She also said "that her daughter could piss as good holy water as the priest could make any." She warned the parish clerk's servant not to bring any holy water to her house and said the water in her well was as good. "She said that it cannot be read in Scripture that Our Lady should be in Heaven." She has not crept to the Cross on Good Friday or Easter day for three years past, nor any of her house. She said openly in the Church on Good Friday that it was abominable idolatry to see it.
Marg. Toftes senior has not crept to the Cross for three years, nor any of her household; said it was abominable idolatry and she would creep to the Lord in her heart, which was the right creeping.
Mrs. Starkey said it was idolatry to creep to the Cross.—On examination she denied this. (Cr.'s hand.)
Marg. Toftes the elder, among other words, said "When my lord of Canterbury's Grace comethe down to Canterbury we trust to have a day against you," and divers other "threpenyng" words. She said she would speak to Mr. Commissary to command all the curates in Canterbury to read the Bible as they have of late done. "Bradford saying, he shall then do contrary to the King's ordinances, Act and injunctions, she said again, It is the more pity that God's Word shall so little be set by that it may not be read openly."
Tho. Hasylden of Elmestede spoke contemptuously of the King's injunctions, saying "A fart for them;" asked why he should do more reverence to the Crucifix than to the gallows; said he knew his words would be disclosed and he would come to his answer; also, "that and he could live without sin he were as good as God." Added by Cr. "He was commanded by Sir Thos. Moyle to set up images which he had taken down and to garnish them. He hath set them up but not garnished them."
Hamond Bett said that when he died he would neither have ringing nor singing nor any manner of alms deed to be done for his soul, and cared not whether he were buried in a ditch. He repented that ever he did so much good deeds for his father's soul.
22 Sept. 1543.—Humfray Cotton, priest, "said there be heresies in the Bible" and "that every Christian man being regenerate by the Sacrament of baptism and holpen by the Grace of God is in as full state of free will as Adam was before his fall. (Cr. interlines : "Upon Good Friday last the collect for the Bishop of Rome was remaining in his Mass book, with this word Papa.") He has a book of prophecies.
26 Sept. 1543.—"Thomas Cawby, parson of Wicheling, said openly in a general (sic) kept at Tonge for the deanery of Sittingbourne at dinner that he said no matins these four or five years; which words are offensive to many persons, both spiritual and temporal."
23 Sept. 1543.—John Riche denies that God ever made fasting days. "Item, that the Imberyng days were made by the intercession of one Emme, the Bishop of Rome's concubine, and therefore he will not fast them, nor none other."
"John Castelen for sale of images not abused, as Our Lady, St. Anne."
"George Wyborne did head and quarter St. Stephen, and also burned him."
"John Chapman of Appuldore said that Henry Geldyng and other honest men there caused him to commit idolatry, because he did creep to the Cross more for company than for devotion."—"He repugneth against the lights of the Crossbeam."
22 Sept. 1543.—Swan, vicar of Sheldewyche, preached to his parishioners about twelve months past "Christ did not die, neither for you nor for me, nor your fathers nor my fathers, but for the fathers of the old law, and left us to be saved by our works."
John Thatcher, younger, "on Candlemas Even was Twelve-month told unto one Starkey, a barber of Canterbury, that the Bible was made by the Devil."—Added by Cr. : "He said that my lord of Canterbury was a maintainer of heretics.—[Witness] Fysh of Canterbury."
22 Sept. 1543.—Norton, vicar of Feversham, in Lent last dissuaded his parishioners from eating white meat, and rebuked them that did eat, contrary to the King's licence. He has taken away the Bible out of the church, contrary to the King's injunctions. He bade one Young wife take holy water and other sorcery for the piles.
22 Sept.—Mr. Drumme, preacher of Canterbury, preached on Whitsunday last that images were dangerously permitted in the church, alleging Deut. iv "Ne errore decepti adoremus et colamus ea; also "that they which went about to take away the reading of the Bible did even go about to pluck Christ's words and the Holy Ghost's from the people, as the Bishop of Rome hath done in time past; which, by restraining the people from reading the Bible, took first an occasion by that mean of his usurped power," Also that the Holy Ghost was neither in this or that, &c. (see above).
Mr. Scorye. "About Christmas last when there was a general procession commanded by the King, Mr. Scorye, preacher of Christ's [church] in Canterbury, said these words : Every country hath a custom to choose a private patron, as England hath chosen St. George," &c. (see p. 305).
21 Sept. 1543.—Ro. Strawghwyn said on Wednesday of the Rogation week last at Davyngton, "You be not bound to believe anything which is not written or contained in the Holy Scripture, nor ought to believe any other thing than God's word found in Holy Scripture;" and in the same sermon, as touching praying to Saints, "I deny it quite, quod he, knacking thereat his fingers," adding that Saints could neither help us nor hear us; also that holy water was no better than other water. (A number of witnesses' names here inserted by Cr.)
7 Nov. 1541.—"I, John Tofer, parson of St. George's in Canterbury, did write unto my curate John Paris and the churchwardens, Mr. Rand and Mr. Bartilmewe, to take down the image of St. George, at the commandment of Mr. Commissary, being then in London. If it be not done before my coming home I will see it done myself according to my master's letter. I and the churchwardens did take down the image. The Friday after, Mr. Commissary sent for the foresaid John Paris, curate, and the churchwardens aforesaid, and asked whether you have pulled down the image of St. George or no. They made answer and said Yea. Have ye cut it in pieces? They said No. Then said the Commissary It is not only the King's Majesty's pleasure to have such images abused to be pulled down, but also to be disfigured, and nothing of such images to remain, with the tabernacle. Mr. Rande made this answer and said he thought it not the King's gracious pleasure, where no common offering was, to pull down such pictures, being patron of England and the church dedicate in the name of the holy Saint. Why not, said the Commissary, as well as the Crucifix? We have no patron but Christ. Then answered Mr. Rand If you pull down the Crucifix, then pull down all. For the more surety he commanded this to be done, and his sumner, John Brigges, to see it done. Other cause had they none but because he was borne in procession on St. George's day in the honor of God and the King, with Mr. Mayor, the aldermen, their wives, with all the commons of the same going in procession. Witness of this John Toffer, parson, John Paris, curate, Christopher Ovyngton, Gregory Rond, Bartilmew Peters, Robert Lawrence, Edward Cotles, with moo."
26 Sept.—"John Starkey said that the rood light should not be lighted but when it pleased him, and although the King had suffered light before the rood yet he gave no commandment to light them."
"Starkey spake other words specified in the detection of North gate."
Thos. Dalle came to St. Andrew's ch. in Canterbury Ao 32 H. VIII. on Easter day and, when he had received the sacrament, Thos. Wayneflette, churchwarden, came with the chalice to give him wine. "The chalice was not covered with a cloth but bare. Take the chalice with the towel in your hand, as other folks do, quod Wayneflet. Dale said that Almighty God did make he (qu. his?) hand as well as He did the priest's; and so willingly and presumptuously did take the chalice in his bare hand, comparing that the priest's hand is no better than his."
Walmair. "The parish is destitute of a perpetual vicar; the endowment of the vicarage is not sufficient for a priest's living." "The priest and clerk have taken down images, not abused, and brent them."
26 Sept. 1543.—Wm. Kempe, vicar of Northgate, Canterbury, is denounced for not declaring the ceremonies and their significance, and that he hath not read the Bible, nor the King's injunctions.
The vicar of Stallefeld said at Lenneham on Tuesday before Lammas day that it was no error to preach the Bp. of Rome Supreme head of the Church until the King had enacted the contrary.
23 Sept.—John Parkehurst of Lenneham said on Tuesday before Lammas that the doctrine that was taught 20 or 30 years ago was as good as the doctrine which was set forth nowadays.
Mr. Batterste of Canterbury and Mr. Salter, one of the King's beadmen, procured men to subscribe to a bill devised by them "for the declaration of Sir Humfray Cherdian, parson of St. Alphege's, while he was in examination before my Lord's Grace of Canterbury at Lambeth, as Jo. Uggden, Rauf. Albright, Robert Abselon and Jo. Barton, can witness. And the said Mr. Batterste said unto Jo. Uggden that Mr. Gardener and Mr. Shether should quail for troubling of the said Sir Humfray; whereas indeed the named Mr. Gardener and Shether disclosed nothing but as they were required by my Lord's Grace's letters to signify unto his Grace what they thought worthy of reformation, other in him or in any other; by reason of which fact and words of the said Mr. Batterste it is thought that other do fear the rather to show their minds to speak in like causes, and specially now at this time."
"As one Father Hardes, the King's beadman, ending his prayer, said, Jesus Christ very God and man, one told him that Christ was not man, and in further reasoning said that Christ appearing after his resurrection was but a spirit. This tale the said Father Herdes hath showed secretly to Mr. Shether, and it is to be feared (if it be true) that the parson, which rehearsed it once hath rehearsed it oftener."
"Mr. Commissary, Dr. Nevenson, rebuked, on Lent was 12 month, Sir John Write, priest, dwelling in St. Alphege's because he would not absolve Barthelmew Joy without any confession made of any crime or fault as the said Sir Write can testify."
Jas. Hardes examined says "that George Hardes about 7 months past in the choir of Christchurch at the elevation of the Chalice said to this inquisite praying thus : Almighty God, my blessed Saviour, both God and man, preserve me this day and ever from my mortal enemy the Devil. At which prayer George Herdes, standing by, said to this deponent, What, cousin? Why pray you so far? He is God and no man. Why, quod he, what make you of Christ? Did he not rise, both God and man? No, quod George. He rose God, but not man, for he rose but in Spirit, Whereunto I answered, I believe that he rose both God and man; nullo alio presente."
Raymond Buckemer said "that the Sacrament of the Altar was bread as other bread was, and that the knave priests did receive him before noon and did piss and shit him at hooreys arses at afternoon."
21 Sept.—John Benson of Alhalond parish in Canterbury "spake in contempt of the Sacrament of extreme unction thus : If I should chance to be sick and die I had as leve to smethe my cote, quod he, therewith as his body; for I can sweat fast enough."
"John Benson and Joyse his wife talking of Our Lady said that she, viz. Mary, should have borne Christ asking her no leave."
21 Sept. 1543.—Ric. Turner said on Passion Sunday that Almighty God was the soul priest and sung the last mass of requiem, and other masses profiteth not them that be departed.
21 Sept.—Hugh Cooper of Tenterden said, 18 Feb. last, that God was neither pleased with fasting nor discontent with eating. On the 4 March last he preached that neither alms deeds, fasting, nor prayer did help the soul, but faith only; also that whoever trusted to have help by the prayers of any person that ever God made committed idolatry. He inverted the order of the Confiteor, omitting the name of Mary and All Saints. He preached 28 April that God did not regard the prayers but the persons. Added by Cr. :—On the 6 May he said "On Saturday you shall have Whitsun Even. You need not to fast except you will."
21 Sept. 1543.—Archebolde of Faversham. "I will, quod he, come to my ghostly father and show to him I have sinned in the 7 deadly sins and have broken the 10 commandments, and misspent my 5 wits and will desire him of his ghostly counsel." Sir Simon Oxley, priest, said to him "If I were your ghostly father, I would neither absolve you nor give you penance." He answered "Hast thou authority to absolve me or give me penance? Nay, thou mayest keep sheep." "Christ said mass upon the Mount of Calvary and that is sufficient for my soul."
23 Sept., Hedcrone.—Thos. Baker, John Tonge and Nic. Terry refuse laudable ceremonies and commonly sit in the church or are in the alehouse at the time of procession. John Fishecock the younger will not receive the pax but is ready to strike the children that bring it. He was not confessed this year after the common sort, but thus :—first, without Benedicite, he said "I knowledge to God that I am a grievous sinner, and none so grievous as I, for I am not able to keep the commandments; for whoso offendeth in one offendeth in all. And therefore I cry God mercy."
24 Sept.—Anthony Ager, shoemaker, and Simon Castelyn of Canterbury said "that God is in no place made by man's hands." Castelyn also said "that a book named the King's book was made at a Spital house in London."
26 Sept. 1543.—Robert Howe, vicar of Newington juxta Sittingbourne, has pulled down many images in his ch., e.g. of Our Lady of Pity, patroness of the church, the Trinity, St. Stephen, of Our Lady, of Christ, of St. Thomas the Apostle, "the which two he sent to London and were set up there." He scraped off the gilding of divers other images.
26 Sept. 1543.—The vicar of St. Mary, Sandwich. Sundry images taken down by him, to the value of £30; the parish ch. of St. James Sandwich prostrated by Ric. Butler with his assistance.
Against the Commissary by Wm. Orphen, curate of Lydd :—"Articuli in quibus sentio M'rum Christoferum Nevenson merito reformandum." 1. He usurps the office of absolving, not having the power of the keys (potestatis clavem qu. for potestatem clavium?). 2. He tries to abrogate a devout Christian rite, warning people not to take holy water to sprinkle their houses. 3. "Precepit quoque ne quis morientem cereo benedicto (ut appellitant) consignet." 4. "Ignoranti sententiam intulit, nulla suspensione previa." 5. "Complures in visitatione libellos perspexi illi pro reformatione traditos : pecunia vero pro dimissione curiæ exacta, nullam prorsus reformationem adhibuit; quo nihil zeli ad ecclesiam se habere comprobat." 6. He forbade absolution to be given to persons unable to repeat the Lord's Prayer and creed in English. "Si vero propter senium aut discendi in ydoneitatem merito excusentur, absolvantur in Latinis, ita ut se absolutos esse non agnoscant." Underneath is written : The Vicar of Boughton subtus Blean. The Curat of New and Old Romney. The Curat of Hernehill.
24 Sept.—Thos. Holly of St. Clement's of Sandwich has for four years refused to follow the Cross in procession. He has also refused to bear his candle and palm at the times approved by the King; which has occasioned much murmuring. He and Wm. Morris pulled down sundry images in St. Clement's church.
21 Sept. 1543.—Bland, in a sermon at Faversham the 23d Sunday after Trin., said the mass was no satisfaction for sin but only a remembrance of Christ's passion. He said that the sight of the image of St. Michael with the balance was enough to bring a man to the Devil; that no man may pray to saints for anything; that particular confession was not necessary; that to kneel or bow to a cross, yea, though it were the very cross that Christ died on, was idolatry; that bps. did make priests for money, yea though they could scantly read, and he knew it to be so; that setting up candles before the Sacrament was superstitious. He preached in Lynsted ch. on St. Matthues day, 1542, that auricular confession was not scriptural, nor in the law of God. "I marvel, quod he, why it is used in the Church; also, quod he, it hath been often put down." He said in a sermon at Staple on Mary Magdalen's day : "John Baptist had his head smitten off for speaking of the truth; and so, nowadays, for speaking of the truth, many have their heads broken." He said he was no changeling but would abide by what he said. He said in his ch. of Addisham (Cr. has written "Staple" over) 18 March, 1542, that if the people knew what abominable words are said in the hallowing of palms, they would not bear them; also, that he had commandment of certain of the Council to set forth such things; that he could not find in his conscience to say or sing Ave Rex before the rood, for it was plain idolatry; that the image of the Trinity is not to be suffered and he cannot find Trinitas throughout Scripture, but that Athanasius put it in his Symbolum; that it is not consonant to the law of God that we should cry or call to Saints, or sing or say the litany before the hallowing of the font, "nor other times, ne no procession commanded." In the mass book is plain detestable heresies, and in the mass also. God is not pleased with lights before the Sacraments. In a sermon made at Boughton under the Bleane, 18 April 1541, he said the mass did not profit for sins, else Christ had died in vain. On 4 Feb. last he preached "that auricular confession was the most abomination that could be." On St. Stephen's day, 34 H. VIII. he said in the parish of Northgate, Canterbury, "that if women did understand what was read and sung in the matins, mass and evensong, they would be ashamed one of another; for there was in it both heresy and treason." He said on Candlemas day last at St. John's a' Cant' "that if the people knew what the words were that the priest sayeth when he layeth his hand upon your heads after your confession, you would be ashamed to hear them, for it is an abomination to speak them. And I would think myself the worse, quod he, a month after, to speak such words." In Northgate parish he said "If you knew what abominations are in the words of absolution which the priest sayeth over you when you be shriven, you would abhor them;" also "that in the christening of children priests be murderers."
26 Sept. 1543.—John Boucher of Fretynden said "that matins and evensong was no better than rumbling of tubs"; also that mass and dirige were not laudable. Cr. : "Offensive."
Clerk of Hedcorn has books of Tyndall and Frith.
21 Sept. 1543.—Jo. Toftes is noted as a common maintainer and harbourer of persons accused of heresies, and of persons who have made themselves priests and were none, as Giles Barham, a monk of Dover that celebrated in Northgate ch. and heard confessions in Lent. He kept Joan Boucher in his house after she was accused. He "was surety for one John Clercke that brake their fast on Easter anno d. R. xxxijdo in the morning with a calf's head, and Joan Boucher with him; which would the same day have received their Maker." He was surety for Joan Clerk's forthcoming; "which Clerk fled." His house has been the resort of Bland, Tournour, the parson of Hothefild, "Jonas the priest, that was married to a man's daughter of Barham at St. John's Hospital, and after commonly resorted to Toftes' house." He said in Easter week last that it was abominable idolatry to kneel before the Sepulture; and, since, that it was no honor to God to have lights set up, for Christ is Lux mundi. He assisted and defended Joan Boucher in the consistory of Canterbury when she was detected as a sacramentary. When asked by Andrew Kempe why he had spoiled the images, he said he had done nothing but his Prince's commandment.
24 Sept. 1543.—Chr. Levennyshe pulled down certain images in Canterbury bury and in the par. ch. of Our Lady of Northgate and in St. Peter's violently. He burned the bones of St. Blase in St. Peter's parish in his own house, as appears by record in the Court hall with his own hand.
26 Sept. 1543.—Nic. Fitzwilliams on the 5 Aug. 35 H. VIII. maintained that prayers did not help souls departed and explained the De profundis in English.
Turnour christened 3 children in one day without anointing them either on the back or breast, and taught some children in Northgate parish to say the Ave Maria in English.
21 Sept. 1543.—It is complained that Mr. Nevinson in a visitation at Sevington commanded the clergy to give no absolution to those who could not say the Paternoster and Credo in English, "or at the least, their age and simplicity considered, to absolve them in Latin, so that they knew not that they were or be absolved." He commanded the curates to warn their parishioners to carry no holy water home to their houses; and that they should bless no person departing this life with the holy candle. Presentations have been made in sundry visitations of things worthy of reformation, but nothing has been done but only dimission money received. He wished absolution deferred till Easter to persons who could not say the Paternoster and Creed in English, and then given with their communion. He asked, where will you find auricular confession in Scripture? And being reminded of those who came to John the Baptist confessing their sins, pointed out that that was public. He commanded that the curates and people should go on procession in harvest time only on holy days. Sir Jas. Newnam, a priest of Chartham, in his Confiteor refused to rehearse the name of Our Lady, and he said it was against his conscience to cense the crucifix; "which things presented by the churchwardens to Mr. Commissary was never punished." When told that Jo. Clerke and Joan Bowcher had eaten a calf's head on Easter day in the morning, Mr. Commissary answered "If they have broken their fast to-day let them have their rights to-morrow." He pulled down the images in Northgate ch., and had home to his house the pictures of Our Lady with the tabernacle, and hewed her all in pieces, with other pictures of the Apostles. He commanded Anth. Persons to read and expound the Bible on Palm Sunday in All Hallows' ch. Canterbury; which when the parson refused, he brought a token from Mr. Commissary so to do; "whereby he did read, and it is said that by sufferance of him and such other evil persons, hath caused such mischief in this diocese." He caused images to be hewn in pieces at Ashford and compelled the curate to say he did it. He cast the parson of Pevyngton's beads into the fire in derision and gave him a penny for them.
"Dr. Nevinson in Lent was 12 month rebuked one Sir John Write, priest dwelling in St. Alpheis, because he would not absolve Bartylmew Joye without any confession made of any crime or fault."
Raynold Buckemer of Boxley taken before Sir Chr. Halles, knt., at Maidstone 32 H. VIII. for a sacramentary "was delivered in writing to Mr. Nevinson, Commissary, by Harry Cleke, servant to the said Sir Christopher, with his detection by Raf Joneson; which Rauf delivered the said Buckemer to the Commissary and the witness also; which Commissary trepened one John Todd. Which Buckemer was for a while in ward in my Lord's Grace's palace; but he went at large and did pluck hemp; and after the death of Sir Christopher Hallis, or a little before, the same Buckemer was sent home again unpunished, contrary to the King's laws. And this bearing and favor and such like hath been great courage to other evil doers concerning evil opinions."
[Here follows a letter from John Milles to Cranmer.]
"Pleaseth your Grace, most of the vulgar people think the foundation of these errors in these parts cometh by the fault of heresies not punished set forth by Joan Baron, sometime called Joan Bucher of Westgate, she being a prisoner detect of heresies, being in prison, set at liberty, free for any man to common with her, which is against the law of God and of our Sovereign King."
1. She being a prisoner for 2 years, more or less, no evidence was brought against her, though she manifestly denied the Sacrament of the Altar with many slanderous words, her own confession remaining with the spiritual officers. 2. When delivered by the temporal judge into the hands of your officers, your Commissary would have delivered her by proclamation as a "gynteles" person; "whereupon I came in and said Mr. Commissary ye do not well to deliver her by proclamation, for her own confession hath condemned her. Then said Mr. Comissary, Be you all able to prove that you have spoken? And so caused me with many other worshipful folk to justify. Then said I, Sir, [her] own confession is in your registry. Then Mr. Commissary made answer and said, I have inquired for them, but I cannot find them. But I will look them out, for shorting of the matter." On Palm week next after, Mr. Commissary calling forth many of his witnesses sent for me to examine me. "I said, Sir, I marvel why ye do thus trouble yourself and other. If ye had sent to your officer for her confession ye should need no other business. Then said he, I have done so, but I cannot find them. Then I made him answer, Sir, it is not so; for within these 2 days they were forthcoming. Then said Mr. Commissary, Can you fetch them? And I made answer, No, I think Mr. Draper will not deliver them unto me. But if it please you to send your servant with me I am sure he will deliver them." And so he sent his servant with me and I brought them. And, as soon as he had read them, he discharged 5 or mo of their examination; and, as all we took it, which were or should have been examined, if our tales had not been according, it had been for her discharge and to our high rebuke.
Then next court day appointed for that matter, he declared her to be an heretic, both by her confession and also by witness; which thing she utterly denied. But then, said he, you cannot deny it, but said to her without any confession on her part of her fault or offences, or without any requiring of her part of any pardon, You have a thing to stick to which may do you good. I advise you to stick to it. Then did she bring forth the King's pardon which was given to the Anabaptists for their deliverance (fn. 31), repenting themselves. Which pardon, what else it contained, be it in your judgment.
Also, at that time Toftes the elder stood in the Consistory there pleading her cause for her defence, where before he never was proctor in that court, nother sythe.
Also, at that time came forth to the Court the parson of Westbere with 2 honest men of the parish, that said that they heard her husband say that she was abjured at Colchester. Then said Mr. Commissary Do you know it for truth that she was abjured? No, said they, but thus said her husband. Then said Mr. Commissary, I take you for no witness in this point, and so delivered her, she requiring no pardon, nor confessing her offence why the pardon should be ministered to her.
Witness to this John Milles, priest.
Also, there was one Jonas was married at St. John's house without Northgate to the daughter of one Marsh of Barham, he being a priest, as the voice went, but the truth is, she is married unto another, and Jonas stale away.
Also, one Mr. Store ("Scory" by Cr. in margin) preached in St. Elphis church upon Ascension day was 12 month saying, Ye have a saying, the child which is born between man and wife, it is born in original sin, and so it is : And ye say that the sin is taken away by the water of baptism, but it is not so. But look how that the wife that occupieth the fire all the day and at night covereth it with ashes to preserve the fire; so doth the sin remain under the Sacrament.
Also, Anthony Parson read a lecture upon Palm Sunday last past saying it was the office of the Father of Heaven to make Heaven and Earth and all that is in them.
Also, he said that it was the office of the Second Person to die by his Passion to redeem man.
"Also, it was the office of the Holy Ghost to give wit and knowledge to the Apostles."
["The same Sunday Thos. Makebley, barber, sat in the church all the procession time and bore no palm nor would follow the procession.] (fn. 30) Also, upon Easter day following, at the Resurrection, followed not the procession as all other people did."
Thos. Dawby, now parson of Wycheling, sometime curate of Leneham, many times procured persons of Leneham and other parishes "to read the Bible, even at the choir door where divine service was sung or said, from the beginning of the service to the ending, with as low a voice as they could." He went into the pulpit incontinent with the King's injunctions, and expounded them that it was lawful for all manner of men to read the Bible at all times and that no one ought to discourage them. "And said if singing and playing were to God's honor as men would have it seem to be, think you that our Prince would have pulled down these abbeys as he hath done?" Also that all men from the highest to the lowest, were not only free to marry, but were bound to marry rather than to burn. Also (1542 about Christmas) that Christ's Passion is alone sufficient for all our sins, partly despising good works and penance, when he had occasion to speak of them; and that good works were no part of our salvation. Also (1539) that Our Lady was no better than another woman, and that "she was but a sack to put Christ in." He took down eight or more images in the said church "that never were abused by any pilgrimage," contrary to the King's injunction. He induced Sir John Abbey, now curate of Leneham, "to take the key of the church door secretly from the sexton's house and to go privily into the church, and take down one image more of Our Lady Pity, and brake her in pieces; which is the fairest image in the church and never abused." He did his best when curate of Leneham to persuade the parish to have taken down all the images in the church, and said they were directly against God's commandment. He caused divers to break their fast that were disposed to keep it, saying all days were alike (1539). He said "Such a day, you shall have Our Lady, as for the Even you may fast that listeth." He would never say De profundis (1542), declaring that the service in the church is but baggage, "and always he rebelled against them that used to say their service and such as bere any portis about them." He called the chrismatory a juggling box and a priest's crown Balaam's mark (1540). He asked an honest man why he made reverence when he came before the Sacrament. In the Rogation days he would neither sing nor say any Gospel in Latin, nor have any holy water carried with him, nor would sing nor say any part of the litany or call on any Saint while he was curate, which was for one year and more. He said at Sittingborne, 4 August 34 Hen. VIII., to one Alex. Plott who had observed to him "Images stand in our church," "Your curate is more knave." "Why do they stand in Cranebroke, then? said Alexander Plotte, seeing that there dwelleth worshipful men, the King's justices, and, as I think, some of them be of the King's Council? And by that they are now building of a goodly roodloft." "They are," said the parson, "pope-holy knaves and I would that the roodloft were money in my purse." The said Alexander also asked him whether we should pay tithes for "podeware," i.e. pease and tares, saying "Our horses eateth all in winter." He replied "Ye should pay none. The King hath made a law that ye shall pay, but it is contrary to God's law that ye should pay any tithe for them." One said "The King's Grace hath done a godly deed in making this worshipful college at Canterbury; for there is many well learned men now and many good clerks shall be brought up there." "He hath made," said the parson of Wytchelyng, "a very den of thieves." He also hoped to see the time when there should be set no taper before the Sepulture. Jas. Wourley's wife said (29 May) that good prayers and deeds should save her from the Devil. "Not so," said the parson of Wytchelyng; "thou shalt not be saved by thy deeds but only by faith;" and further to Sir Thomas Huxley "That knave thy master, the parson of Bocton, is a false heretic and a popish knave and thou also. And I shall make forty in the parish of Dodington to bark at thee, and I shall make 10,000 of my set against thee in Kent, and those shalt not tarry here this month." Also "he said the Ave Maria was never made by God, for part of it was made by a priest's harlot." Added by Cr. : "Item, he called the book lately set forth by the King and his clergy a crafty book."
Sir Rauf — said in the pulpit (1539) in the ch. of Leneham aforesaid "There be some priests do use to give penance in confession for sin; but I tell you, said he, whosoever giveth penance for sin robbeth God of his honor. I myself have done so, but I cry God mercy. I did it in ignorance."
Sir Robert à Stotte, curate of Davyngton, on Alhalonday 1541 in the pulpit of Leneham said "there was heresy sung in the church that present day"; also "that our Prince suffered dirges and masses to be said and sung in the church for priests to get money by. And Mr. Serles, vicar of Leneham, came to Leneham and preached, and to our judgment made a good sermon there. And the said Sir Robert, hearing thereof, came from Davington to Leneham the Sunday following; and after evensong the same day there was an anthem sung of Our Lady, and he said openly in the church that it was heresy. And incontinent he went unto the Bible and turned to the same gospel that Mr. Serls had preached the Sunday next before and expounded the contrary to Mr. Serls in every word with threatening words towards him, saying, All pickpurses' ears are not set on the pillory as yet. Whereupon divers were offended with him and many words were multiplied and great variance amongst the people; insomuch that divers persons thought there should have been a fray. And thus he came 6 or 7 times within half a year and preached half an hour at the least, always moving the people to give no credence to Mr. Serles or Mr. Shether."
Pp. 47. Names of witnesses have been omitted for brevity in the latter part of these depositions.
|Ib. p. 87.||
VIII. "The saying and opinion of Raynold Bucker of Boxley, spoken
and obstinately declared by him in the feast of the Assumption of Our Lady
or the Sunday after in the 31 years (sic) of the King's Majesty's most noble
reign, in the house of John Man of Boxley, in the presence and hearing of
the same John Man, John Todde and John Stockwell; which Raynold
Buckley was abjured by the lord Warham, late Archbishop of Cant'; which
abjuration Mr. Dr. Leef, Master of Maidstone College, can declare more at
1. He said that the Sacrament of the Altar was bread like other bread; "and that the knave priests did receive him before noon and did piss and shit him out at whores' arses at afternoon; which accusation was taken before Sir Christopher Hales, knight, deceased, at Maidstone the xxij (sic) year of the King's most noble reign, and in writing delivered to Mr. Nevinson, now Commissary. And afterward by Henry Cloake, then servant to the same Sir Christopher; and also the same Henry Cloke did hear the same words of Buckmer rehearsed by the witness aforesaid, and also declared it to the said Commissary. And afterwards the same Sir Christopher sent for the said Buckmer and the witness to Maidstone by Rauf Johnson his servant; which Rauf delivered the said Buckmer to the Commissary and also the witness; where the Commissary threatened the said John Todd, as he sayeth and will say. And for a while the said Buckmer was in my lord Archbishop's palace, as they said, under ward. But he went at large and did pull hemp. And after the death of the said Sir Christopher, or a little before, the same Buckmer was sent home again unpunished, contrary to the King's laws. And thus bearing and favor with such like hath been courage to other ill doers concerning ill opinions.
"In the visitation of Mr. Commissary kept at Sevington, Anno 1542, about Michaelmas, said to the said parsons and vicars standing before him at the high altar that they should give no absolution to such as were confessed except they could say their Paternoster, Ave and Creed in the English tongue, but would it be deferred until Easter and then to be given absolution to them with their Communion. Then one Mr. Parson of Allington (fn. 32) said that they would say that they uttered their confession. Then said Mr. Commissary Ubi invenies auricularem confessionem esse de jure divino? Respondit persona Venicbant ad Johannem Baptistam et confitentur peccata sua. Et addidit, Qomodo confitebantur, aut publice aut accurate? Dixit ille Publice."
Petition to Cranmer from the parishioners of Elmestede, representing that malicious and untrue information had been given to his Commissary that lights were kept and oblations done before the image of St. James, the patron saint of their church, against the King's injunctions; for since the injunctions, no such lights have been maintained. Beseech his Grace therefore to command the vicar and churchwardens to set the same image up again "in his tabernacle at the high altar's end," where he has ever stood time out of mind.
ii. A list of heresies detected and the detectors.
25 Sept. 1543.—Serles. "Christ was nourished with celestial milk and not material." Nine witnesses named who heard the sermon at Leneham, the day of the Assumption of Our Lady.
"Die Ascensionis Domini, 1541."—Scory. "He said there was none in heaven but Christ only." Four witnesses—one of them is Shether. (2.) In Lent 1541. "Only faith justifieth" : Ws., Gardiner, Wm. Cockes. (3.) "The Supper of the Lord, quod he, is not hostia pro peccatis but hostia laudis. Ws., Parkhurst, Gardiner, Hunt, Milles.
In Die Pentecostes ultimo.—Drumme. "The Holy Ghost is neither in this place nor that, &c." Ws., Cyriack Petit, W. Hunt, Shether.
29 July.—Shether. "That Christ and baptism did nothing [else] (fn. 32) but wash away our original sin, and if th[at] (fn. 33) any man after baptism did fall, he must purchase remission of his sins by penance as Mary Magdalene did." 12 witnesses. Hugh Cooper. That neither alms deeds, fasting nor prayer helped the soul of man, but faith only; that he that trusts to be helped by the prayer of any creature or person that ever God made doth commit idolatry. Eight witnesses. George Hardes "is of the Sadducee opinion, denying the resurrection of Christ in his manhood, saying, that He rose only in the Spirit." Jas. Hardes, only witness. Strawyn "affirmed that we be not bounden to believe anything which is not written or contained in the Holy Scripture; nor ought to believe any other thing than God's word found in Holy Scripture." Six witnesses named "and other of Faversham." Swan, vicar of Sheldewiche. "Christ did not die, neither for you nor me, nor your father, nor my father, but for the fathers of the Old Law, and left us to be saved by our works." Ws. : "Sir Geo. Woddall his curate and other can testify." John Benson, "in contempt of the Sacrament of extreme unction, said If I should chance to be sick and die I had as leve to smethe my coat therewith as my body, for I can sweat fast enough." Joyce Benson, "talking of Our Lady, said that she, viz. Mary, should have borne Christ, asking her no leave." Three witnesses of the parish of All Saints, Canterbury, including Milles, servant to Mr. J. Culpeper. Turnour said "that Almighty God was the soul pr[iest], (fn. 34) and sang the last mass of requiem, and o[ther] (fn. 34) masses profiteth not them that be dead." 2 Ws. "and other." Humfrey Cotton, priest, "said that there be heresies in the Bible." 3 Ws. of Tenterden. Nicholas Fitzwilliam "said that prayers did not help the souls that were departed this present life, for in the dirige and de profundis the priests pray for none but for themselves, &c." 3 Ws. (Under Fitzwilliam's name is written in the same hand "Videat Reverendissimus"). Thomas Hasilden "sayeth that if he could live without sin he were as good as God." Six Ws. John Thatcher junior "said that the Bible was made by the Devil." Ws. Starkey the barber of Canterbury.
IX. [Calcot to Cranmer.] (fn. 35)
"Be yt knowen un to your gracyus lordshep that thes is the very bell that I deed wryt as consarnyng the ansour whan I deed ryde to the Corte, and that was thus. My lord (fn. 36) saye Have me recommend to your master (fn. 37) and tell hym that yf his matters be true and ryghtius he shal have frynddes enow; for yfe my lord of Cantorbory shold poneche them wrongfully yt wyll be gretly to his rebock and henderanc. Then at Oxford I met wyht Mr. Ford and he xed me wher I had ben. And I sayd At the Corte. And he exed me what my lord sayd, and I tolde hym. And he sayd the ansur was good enoufe. And he sayd he had hard of my masters trobell be fore. And I exed of home; and he sayd Of Mr. Docter Barbar. And then he sayd Have me recommend to your master, and then tel hym that I hard say that my lord Chancelar wold change his offes, and Mr. Bakkar shold have yt. But he sayd, Speke yt not abrod on my word tel ye here yt mor playne lyar spoken. And thes was the ansu that I had and that I deed wryte to showe my master. Ther for, my lord, I beseck your Grac to be good to me, for here is everry word as ny as I can call to my rememberanc possybell. Thus God save your graccyus Lordshep."
P. 1. The handwriting is a little peculiar.
X. Interrogatories "for Shether and other."
1. Who were the beginners of these matters at London; 2, and by whose advice "it was set forward." 3. With whom they had conference and who encouraged them and how. 4. What foundation they had at the beginning; 5, and whether of their own knowledge or by hearsay. 6. In what they know my lord's Grace culpable; and how they know it. 7. "The like to be ministered for the proceeding of the same matter at Canterbury." 8. How many justices of the peace, gentlemen and others they have had conference with, and what each has done or said about it. 9. "To what things they have conduced thereunto." 10. "What Petite, the clerk of the peace, or any other towards the law, hath said or done as touching indictments, panelling of inquests, and by what accusation and by whose motion or commandment. 11. "To what end or effect they intended to bring these matters." 12. By what authority they began and proceeded.
"Item, whether you told and declared to the Vicar of Charing, being in his house at Charing, how that four of you did intend to preach two sermons apiece in the Isle of Thanet in one day, and to how many mo you did declare the same, and to what intent."
XI. A paper headed by Cranmer : "Dr. Willoughby."
"My Lord, as concerning the schryne, I had never commandment to pull hit down, and also hit his bot anente thenke (an empty thing); bot Master Thwattes had hit at Sente Astens and gave hit to the cherche." Was commanded to pull down the rood, but could not do it alone; so he went the next morning with the parish priest to some parishioners and showed them the order; and they said the King's book was to the contrary, except where oblations were made to it, "and by and by cassyd (caused) that same artekell to be redde, and then all sayde ther scholde none be pollyd downe ther; and by and by cassyd a loke to be sett of the dore. Part of ther names be thes : Master Pettet, Wylzam Amys, goodman Macstede, holde fader Baker, and alle the holle paryche. And this was of a Sonday in the morning; and the nexte Sonday after, and I ham avyssed, Master Twhattes was mared; and ther Master Pettyt broke the mater to Master Moylle, and he dyd asche wherever ther wor one oblacion ther to or no; and he sayd Nay; and then sayde Master Moylle Then I warrant yow let him stonde."
"Also as conserning that ever I preched of ony sante, or thowght one seche thenges I wolde I scholde never come in heven, nor never so ment; hyffe I had I wolde not aplenyd (have complained) to Master Comyssare of that thyng wyche I wolde have mantynde; and as for Colver strette I never saw hit. I have bene here bot iiij yere. How scholde I have Lade Colver (fn. 38) in honde and never harde of hyr of my consyence to this day."
In Willoughby's hand, p. 1.
ii. Dr. Willoughby's [first] confession, (fn. 39) containing replies to each of the
interrogatories (X.) as numbered, viz. 1, That the first he ever heard of the
putting forth of the matter was on Palm Sunday in Dr. London's house, of
Serles and him; 2, and it was set forth by Serles only, without any man's
knowledge "that I know of, for my coming to London was to speak with
the chamberlain of London and his errand to Oxford. 3. Cannot tell by
whose counsel or encouragement it was. 4. Cannot tell "what matter they
had at the beginning more than he provided for of himself," for I can say
nothing against any one but by hearsay. 5. "And whether they were of
his own knowledge or by hearsay I cannot tell; but he and Gardener had
been gathering of matters a quarter of a year before. I perceived that by the
mossyons thay mayde to me for pottyng of them upp." 6. Of things against
my lord he knew nothing they minded till he saw it in writing. 7. Nor of their
preferment of their articles at the sessions; for he was not in Kent at the
time, nor spoke with any justices of peace in this matter, or, 8, with any of
them that was privy. At the beginning he told Mr. Moyle and Mr.
Thwaytes that Dr. London said the justices would be "shent" for suffering
such preaching. 9. Knows not "to what things they have conduced unto";
only consented "to bear the name of putting up of these matters which Serlys
did, and that I said it was I, here in the country in many places, lying upon
myself like a fool, and yet never came before the Council, nor never minded
but to avoid the suspicion; I made much babbling and much noise, bringing
myself in great slander, and nothing so. And for this doing I submit
myself to God and my lord's grace. 10. Never reasoned with Pettyd or any
other lawyer touching indictments or any such matter "be my fathe." (fn. 40)
11. Knows not what effect they intended to bring this matter to. Most
likely, to subdue his Grace's (the Abp's.) power. They hoped to have had
other commissioners than his Lordship, for so Dr. London promised them.
12. As concerning their authority, suspects they took it of Dr. London's
presumption, seeing him go forward against such men of worship. (fn. 41)
"Thenkyng oder scholde acome to the same, I ferde Master Torner and the Vecar of Hosprenge my selffe, ther was so many schamfull maters lade against them."
As to the Vicar of Charing, never drank in his house nor came there since your Grace's household did lie there; nor ever heard of this matter before. Was too foolish and too full of words to be of their counsel, and so they said.
In Willoughby's hand, pp. 2.
XII. Interrogatories for Mr. Baroo, clerk of the peace in Kent.
1. Whether he drew the indictments against John Blande, Ric. Turnour and others indicted at Canterbury castle on Thursday before Michaelmas last. 2. Whether those persons who informed him that the said John Blande in his sermon said "The mass doth not profit for sins, for then Christ suffered his Passion in vain" gave also information that he wished to teach his audience that private masses were not laudable, &c., or whether deponent put words to that effect into the indictment, of his own mind or at the suggestion of others. 3. Whether those who accused Blande of saying in his sermon that the mass is no satisfaction for sin and only a remembrance of the Passion of Christ informed him also that he said it in contempt of the King's laws, or deponent put this into the indictment of his own mind, &c. 4. Whether those who accused him of saying that there were plain and detestable heresies in the mass book, yea, and in the mass also, added that he said so to deprave the mass, or deponent put this into the indictment of his own mind, &c. 5. Whether those who accused him of saying that confession of particular sins was not necessary, but it was sufficient to say "I am a sinner and have offended in thought, deed and word," informed deponent also that he said so erroneously and feloniously, or taught thereby that auricular confession was not expedient or necessary to be retained, or whether deponent put this into the indictment of his own mind, &c. 6. Whether those who accused him of saying he could never find auricular confession in Scripture or in the law of God, and he marvelled why it was used, seeing it had been so often put down and so many inconveniences ensued thereof, added that he said so erroneously and feloniously, to teach the audience that it was not expedient, or whether deponent put this into the indictment of his own mind, &c. 7. Whether he drew the indictments of Sir Richard Turner, or whether those who accused Sir Richard of saying in his sermon that Christ was the soul priest and sung the last mass of requiem, and no other mass availed souls departed, added that he said so erroneously in contempt of the King's laws, or whether deponent added this of his own mind, &c. 8. Whether those who informed against Turnour for saying that if there were as many priests as stars in the sky and grasses growing on the ground, and if they said as many masses as there were drops of water in the sea, "the same prevailed nothing the soul departed," added that he meant to teach the people that private masses ought not to be celebrated, or this was put into the indictment by him. 9. Whether there was not a maid of Benenden indicted at a sessions at Canterbury castle about three years past for words against the Sacrament of the Altar. 10. Who gave evidence upon her arraignment whereon she was found guilty? 11. Whether any other besides you gave evidence upon it, and whether the evidence you gave were upon your own knowledge or report of others. 12. Whether when the jury of the hundred of Fylborowe were sworn at the said sessions you sware them that appeared orderly as they stood in the panel, or you overleapt any of them, and why. 13. What communication you had beforehand, and where, and with whom, concerning such persons as should be sworn at the said sessions. 14. What communication you had beforehand with any person concerning the indictments at that sessions, or whether you had any form of indictments given you, and by whom, &c. 15. What communication you had with Mr. Thwaites at home at his house or elsewhere a little before the Sessions of the Six Articles, and who was present? 16. What communication you had, with whom and where, of the naming or impanelling of persons to appear in the inquests at the last Sessions for the Six Articles in Kent and the diocese of Canterbury, and whom they so named or agreed to leave out. 17. What communication he has had of the changing of the world past, now or to come, or of matter of faith, and when and with whom. 18. What communication he had with Robert Neylour, alderman of Canterbury, about the Sessions of Six Articles for Kent and Canterbury dioc., concerning the matter for which Nailor was called before my lord of Canterbury—words spoken by him of the inquest sworn in the city of Canterbury. 19. Finally, you shall declare if you know any "fawters" or bearers of preachers who have taught erroneous opinions; and whether you know them of yourself or by report, and what report and of whom. 20. Whether you know of any that have preached seditiously, and what they were and what words, &c.
Pp. 5. Endd. in the same hand : Concerning the clerk of the Peace.
XIII. [Edmund Shether to Cranmer.]
Only Mr. Parkurst and Mr. Sentleger have subscribed to the article stating that the articles of Ridley and Scory were presented to your Grace. What the words were your Grace first spoke to Serles for preaching of images I remember not, but he answered that he had preached only that images were not idols; to which your Grace objected, saying that imago and idolum were the same, one Latin and the other Greek. "Upon the which words Gardener reasoned that they were not one, as I have before written to your Grace." (fn. 42) Also I declared next day to your Grace that you commanded us to make no "envection" that Sir Bland was noted to preach new opinions as I heard it reported. "And I remember not now them that told it me, but only the vicar of Feversham. Also I heard Gardener say that he showed your Grace by mouth the articles of Ridley and Scory. And Mr. Parkhurst and Sentleger said that they presented them in writing. But other knowledge I have not whether they showed it to your Grace or no."
Copy, p. 1. No address or signature.
XIV. Interrogatory ministered by my lord's Grace of Canterbury, my
lord Cobbam and Mr. Doctor Lye, whether Edmund Shether heard my lord
say at Croyden that he would be even with Gardener, or that Gardener should
repent the reasoning he made on Trinity Sunday was twelve month.
"I do not perfectly remember the very words, for the thing was utterly out of my mind but that Serles since upon a time repeated it. Howbeit I remember nothing that my lord's Grace said that he would be even with Gardener or that he should repent his words; but only, as I remember, my lord's Grace said that the communication that Gardener had that day should be repeated again at his Grace's coming to Canterbury."
What communication he had with Parkhouse or Mr. Millis since he was put at liberty, or with any other, concerning them that came to offer themselves to testify for Serls and Shether.
What communication he had or heard concerning his communication with the Archbishop at London in Passion week was 12 month.
What communication he had of any that had displeasure of the Ordinary for complaining of evil preachers or favor of him towards evil preachers.
What communication he had or heard of Dr. Willougbie.
What communication he had with my lord Warden's chaplain.
What communication he had or heard of Milles, Scorye, Serls, Shether, or of any other.
What he said of the book that he delivered to my lord since his coming to Canterbury.
What moved him to have conference with other in these matters, contrary to his oath and allegiance.
What he knoweth to be true of the articles presented against the Archbishop of Canterbury, of his own knowledge.
Whether Mr. Smith, parson of St. Mary Mawdelen in Canterbury, had communication with Dr Barbour in the North Court of Christ's church in Canterbury the same day that Serls and Shether were called before my lord, and what the communication was.
Item, why the same Smyth made as though he would have gone home, and then returned again and went to Master Parkehurste's chamber, and there being Mr. Parkhurste, Mr. Gardener, Mr. Milles, Mr. Serls and Mr. Shether.
"Item, at that time when my lord sent for Mr. Serles and Mr. Shether, why they denied them to be there, and what communication they heard at that time."
XVI. Statement of William Gardiner.
On Monday last past.
"I William Gardner, having communication with Mr. Parkhurst, hytt chanced us to comyn of our interrogatories last ministered. He said that he made his imperfect" and remembered more than he did when he made his answer and sent them to your Grace at Bekesborne; and said "I do not well know how they that complain unto their Ordinary get nothing but displeasure." I said that I once complained to your Grace and you said to me "You and your company do hold me short. I will hold you as short." Item, Mr. Shether told me at his return from Croydon, when he had received his injunction that Gardner took Serles' part, in my chamber "I will be even with him." "Item, that your Grace said unto Mr. Sentleger that you are a bond. I will break the bond and make you leave your mumpsimus. And this communication I and Mr. Parkhurst likewise had with Mr. Mylles." Mr. Mylles also told me when he came last from your Grace that he saw the book of the articles lying before you; "and there he saw mendacium. At this word, I, remembering mine answer before made without deliberation, and better remembering myself, purposed, as I have done, to make a more deliberate answer; so to avoid danger and inconvenience that might happen unadvisedly unto me by mine answer before made; for before in mine answer I gave way rather unto your Grace's words, and wrote as you said unto me, and not so as afterward upon my conscience I judged true."
With Mr. Parkhurst I commoned of the book subscribed. He said he remembered not whereunto he had subscribed and desired me to instruct him. I said "In good faith I know not." He said "I am sure you can." "I said Nay; and no more I cannot, as God shall save me." This day he asked me if his name was to the article of Serles' prisonment. "I said Yea; he said Nay. I did still affirm it to be true."
"I told him that I would cast [interlined 'gather'] all doubts upon the book so nigh as I could; and I for my part would make mine answer as well as I might. And so I did, to be the better avised in mine answer making. I made mine answer and he saw them and said You have gone thoroughly, methinketh. I like them well. Will you send them unto my lord? Yea, that I will. And so I did, by Mr. Parkehurst's servant. I sent them unto Mr. Doctor Ley, and he asked how I did and bade me be merry. I thank his mastership, said I."
As to the communication of the coming of my lord Warden and my lord Cobbam I remember none. But I asked "Shall we not appear in the great hall before the lords?" "I think not," said Mr. Parkhurst. "I pray God we may not," said I.
Yesterday I remembered that I commoned with Mr. Mylles of Mr. Rydley's article, saying "In good faith, I will not say what it be, good or bad, well or evil." I said "I am but a witness. Let my lord judge."
This day Mr. Mylles after dinner came to us and said to Mr. Schether "God give you joy." "Whereof?" said Mr. Schether. "Then said Mr. Mylles, Mr. Doctor Thorndon said that I would lay 20s. that Mr. Schether should be my lord's chaplain."
Item, we commoned of the vicar of St. Paul's imprisonment, and mused at it, saying We wonder what it doth mean, except it be for the article that we were examined of. In good faith I know not, said I. God help him. I will look unto myself.
"Thes all trew off my conscyence, as I doo remember. Per me, Willam Gardiner."
Hol., pp. 3.
XVII. "William Cockes petty canon of Christchurch in Canterbury, being
examined of such words as my lord Archbishop of Canterbury did speak in
the Consistory in Christchurch in Canterbury aforesaid about the Assumption
of Our Lady two years past, saith that upon declaration there had by the
said lord Archbishop, the said lord Archbishop said that there were six
preachers appointed, three of Oxford and three of Cambridge, to the intent
that they might between them try out the truth of doctrine. But whether
that the said lord Archbishop named that the King had appointed three of
Oxford and three of Cambridge, or the said lord Archbishop himself had
appointed three of Oxford and three of Cambridge, this Deponent much
Signed : "Be me Sir William Cockes prest."
XVIII. Deposition of [Mr. Baroo] in reply to interrogatories in § XII.
1. Never drew the said indictments against John Bland and others, but followed "the form of the precedent made by Mr. Moyle." To 2, 5, 7, 8 replies that he was bidden by Mr. Moyle to put in the English words and follow the precedent. To 3, 4 and 6 he says that he never knew of the making of the indictment. 9. There was a maid of Benynden indicted for words against the Sacrament of the Altar. 10. Remembers not who gave evidence. 11. Knows not whether any gave evidence or no, and for the evidence given by deponent, it was delivered him in writing by some of the justices of the peace, he remembers not whom. 12. He did not swear the jury of Fylborowe orderly as they appeared in the panel, but left out one Bull because Mr. Moyle thought him not to be indifferent. 13. As to the persons impanelled at that sessions, "he saw a paper of names of certain juries of the seven hundreth (sic), and about Assheforth, to the number of 48 persons, delivered him by one William, Master Moyle's clerk on a Saturday at Assheford, and his master asked me whether they were honest men to pass for the King, and I said Yea." 14. Was at Master Thwayttes the Wednesday next before St. Michael last, and was shown in writing by Mr. Moyle of certain words spoken by Bland, Turnour and others, "and [Mr. Moyle] said there must be indictments made of them. And there he delivered me a form of indictments and the examinations." 15. "Master Twayttes was present with Master Moyle and me when the said Mr. Moyle delivered me the said form of the indictments; and what communication we had the said Deponent remembereth not, other than concerning the making of the said indictments." 16. Never had other communication than the said Saturday with Mr. Moyle or any other for the impanelling of any quest, that he remembereth. 17. Remembers no communication with any man of the changing of the world now past or to come, or of matters of our faith. 18. The said Nayler showed him that my lord of Canterbury was much displeased with him for words that he spoke against the jury impanelled in the city of Canterbury, "and asked me whether I never knew any matter in the shire against one French, which was one of the jury, as he said. And I said that as I remembered he was in the gaol for words spoken against our Sovereign lord the King, but what they were he knoweth not." 19. Knows not any "fawters" or bearers of any that have taught erroneous opinions in Kent. 20. Knows not any that have preached seditiously except such as be before indicted.
Strype's Cranmer, 767.
XIX. A budget of papers headed "A" containing :—
i. Dr. Willoughby's [second] confession :—
Mr. Serles many times urged him, because he was the King's chaplain, to put up articles; which he agreed to do, provided they were proveable. And so, on Friday in Passion week, he and Serles rode to London. On the Saturday, Serles, without his knowledge, presented articles to Dr. London. (fn. 43) On Palm Sunday Serles took him to Dr. London, saying he would present the articles. Asked to hear them first, as he had never seen them, and demurred to present them as they were but hearsay. Dr. London chid with Serles, saying he had shown them to part of the Council already and would declare who brought them; and then warned Willoughby of his duty to reveal such shameful articles now that he had seen them, adding "Fear not, for I have set such a spectacle before you at Winsor in bringing to light abominable heresies, at the which the King's Majesty was astonied and wonder angry, both with the doers and bearers." Thus threatened, he agreed, and Dr. London wrote the articles anew, with additions of his own, designed "to bring the matter into the justices' hand and certain of the spiritualty;" whereat both Serles and Willoughby were vexed. Willoughby took the old copy into Kent to get it recorded, while Dr. London sent his to the bp. of Winchester. Went to the prebendaries of Christchurch to get them to sign the articles (with other writings in Serles's chamber, who bade him ask one Salisbery for the key thereof), and Mr. Gardiner to sign both for himself and Serles; but could get neither "writing nor sign;" and so returned and told Dr. London, who bade him tell Mr. Moyle that the Council said "that the justices of every shire would be shent that such things should be 'odermodert' and not brought to knowledge," for such enormities had not been if the justices had done their duty according to the King's injunctions. Told this to Mr. Moyle and Mr. Thwaites. Dr. London also came to Mr. Moyle's lodging and told him his mind, in Willoughby's presence, and how he "took up my lord of Canterbury before the Council." Details how Moyle then (through Mr. Thwaites, Mr. Walter Moyle, Mr. Green and Mr. Norton) obtained articles from priests of Kent and prebendaries of Canterbury, and brought them to my lord of Canterbury; whereat Dr. London was angry. Willoughby then went again into Kent and obtained the articles from Mr. Gardiner on Good Friday or Easter Even, and Mr. Shether copied them. Describes further how the prebendaries presented the articles to the Council, how they were encouraged by the bp. of Winchester and Mr. Baker, and how Dr. London took him to the Council and to the lord Privy Seal, but they were too busy to hear him. Would never have gone about it but for the bp. of Winchester's comforting and Dr. London's threatening.
Mr. Shether sent, on Sunday before All Solne day, bidding me confess nothing and that I should go to his brother parson, to whom he had written all his mind, for he was sworn not to write to me, and warning me that Dr. Cockes and Mr. Hossy were sent to "tatch me," and I should tell them I had received no letters but of Cockson, who is dead. I will abide by all this before the Council, but it is impossible to remember all that has been "done or said in a year." I asked Mr. Shether's man if he had been with my lord of Winchester "since the coming down of my lord's Grace." He said he had, and told how all was handled here; and my lord of Winchester answered "My lord of Canterbury could not kill them. Therefore suffer. For all was against himself that he did. And he should see what would come of it."
At the coming up of the prebendaries to London, Mr. Ford, Shether's brother-in-law, wrote all the articles in a great book. Desired Dr. Thornton to tell my lord of Canterbury that I never put up articles against any man. He bade me stick to it, for he had told the Council his mind as he was bound, "and so be ye being the King's chaplain." Signed : per me, John Willughby.
Hol., pp. 4.
Strype's Cranmer, 772.
ii. [A further confession of Dr. Willoughby.]
About Advent Mr. Serles preached with me at Chillam and showed me how he put up articles to the King, but they were so cloaked that the King never saw them, and on his return he was laid in prison. He therefore urged me to put up such articles as he and his company should devise; which I agreed to do if they were proveable. He preached with me again on Passion Sunday and I rode with him to London, meaning to speak with the chamberlain of London. Describes (as in § i., but more fully), how Serles took him to Dr. London (whom he never saw before) on Palm Sunday, and the interview there. He that copied the articles before them was a gentleman of my lord of Winchester's called German. (fn. 44)
"So Mr. London chid with Serles that he had promised him overnight and did shrink from his promise, and sware a great oath that he would cause him to be sent for. Then he made much lamentation and wept." Whereupon Mr. London said to me "Pray, put them up, and say you brought them hither. This man has been in trouble, and if he should put them up, my lord of Canterbury will think it to be done of ill will. And also because ye see what shameful articles they be presented here before your own face, it would be very hard for you to bide the danger hereof without your diligence in preferring of them, knowing that the King's pleasure is that no heresies should be cloaked nor hid within his realm. And therefore, if ye shrink herein, ye shall show yourself not to be the King's true subject and also his Grace's chaplain. I daresay ye did him never such service as ye may do herein; and also for your discharge, for now ye cannot be rid of them and ye would. And so, for very fear, I was content to say they were of my bringing in, and yet nothing guilty therin. And also he said that I needed not to fear, for I have (fn. 45) set such a spectacle before you at Windsor, bringing to light such abominable heresies that the King's Majesty was even astownyd when he heard of them first, and very angry, both with the doers and with the bearers. But Mr. London added more matter unto them in the copying of them, which Serlys was angry withal, meaning, as he said, to bring the matter into the justice' hands, and certain of the spiritualty, by commission, whose names Serlys recited unto him at his request, saying to us that it should never 'a been known to be our deed but done by the contre by reason of the commission. So he delivered me Serlys copies to have them signed, and a letter I had also sent from Serlys to fett the same copies at home in his chamber in Canterbury, recorded already except of the prebenders; which copies I should have delivered of one Salsbere, and so to carry them to the prebenders to sign, and Mr. Gardner to sign for Serlys and himself. So Mr. London sent the copy that the gentleman (fn. 46) wrote to my lord of Winchester by one of his servants and kept his own, and I had Serlys' copy to carry home. All this was done of Sunday at afternoon.
Also of Monday in the morning betime Mr. London commanded me to be with him, and so I was that, wo worth him and Serlys both, which I think was born to do much trouble, hath brought me in all this business. And so Dr. London and I went to my lord of Winchester at St. Mary Overy's and all the articles with him and was in with my lord an hour or two; and at that time I saw not my lord. So at afternoon he would have had me to 'a met him at the Council door, but I could not. I went about mine own business, and so made him promise to be with him on Tuesday in the morning. And so I was, and that morning went with him to my lord of Winchester also, and was with him a good hour or more, and that time I see not my lord noder; and that same Tuesday he brought me to the Council door, in pain of my allegiance, giving me this lesson to say before the Council :—My lords all, it is so that the King's Majesty and all his honorable Council hath been at great charges and taken great pains to set a good and a godly way among us, and for all that in Kent with us we have the most enorme heresies that may be. And because I heard of this good man here, Mr. London, I came to him to have his counsel herein, whether he thought it should be heard or no before the Council, and remedy to be had; whereupon he hath brought me hither before you all, my lords, to help me forth if I should be anything abashed with telling of my tale. And also he telleth me that the King's Majesty's pleasure is that every man, whatsoever he be, knowing any such heresies and would not present them, hereafter it would be to their pain; and because of this I come for my discharge to show this unto you, my lords all. And this was that same day that my lord mayor of London, the sheriffs and all the aldermen was before the Council; and certain men of Windsor had matter there that day, so I come not in. If I had I would 'a told the truth, that Serlys brought such writings to Mr. London, and how I was commanded to bring them in in pain of my allegiance, and knoweth none of them to be true but by hearsay; and so I told Mr. London before. I think that was the cause he would not bring me in. There I stood till 6 o'clock at night. Then he come forth, and I went with him to Paul's Wharf, where, on the next morrow, which was Wednesday, he commanded me to be with him in the morning; and so I was. For he said he had promised to bring me to my lord of the Privy Seal, and so he did, to the Court next chamber to the Council door above the stairs. And within awhile my lord come abroad, and he delivered then the articles to him. And my lord looked a little of them and called me to him. How say ye, said my lord, are these articles true? And I said, In good faith, my lord, I cannot tell, for I know never an article of them, nor there is never a witness to none of them. Then my lord delivered me the writings to be signed; and then Mr. London said that they were signed already in his chamber that brought them up. Then my lord bade me fet the oder and come again, for then he had no leisure to look more of them.
And the residue of that day I went about mine own business and told London I would go home that afternoon. But on Thursday in the morning I got up betime and come to my lord of Winchester's to have spoken with his Lordship. And there I met London walking in the parlour, and he was angry that I was not gone. And I told him that I come but to speak with my lord and I would be gone. What would ye do with him? Ye would tell him a wise tale, I daresay. Go ye home in all speed ye may, and tell the prebenders that they shall have a commission within a se'nnight. And then he bade me tell the justices of peace that the King's Council was not content, and thought much negligence because they had looked no better to serve the King but to suffer such heresies to be preached in the country and say nothing unto it. And so I come home with a heavy heart, remembring these articles to be put up in my name; and come home of Good Friday, and of Easter Eve I come to Christchurch, and brought with me the articles that Serlys had put up to Mr. London and a letter withal, as is aforesaid; but Salsbere that kept his key would not be found. And that day I dined there Mr. Parchus was at Ashford, I trow. And so after dinner Mr. Gardner called me into the garden, and showed me these writings which was against my lord's Grace ready provided in his hand. Here is a token plain that they gathered these matters without any comfort they had by me, and not to say that I was the occasion of their false inventions. And when he had read them over he took them from me, and held them in his hand and looked upon me, saying May a man trust you with this same to let Mr. London see them privily and then to deliver them to my lord of Winchester? And I said Yea. Well, said he, Schether shall copy them out and set them in order; and so he did. And then he delivered them me, praying me in anywise to labor to my lord of Winchester for the commission, or else men would not say half that they knew; or else that they might have commandment to come before the Council and to say of their allegiances what they knew. And so I departed without any writing or record for my discharge. And so in Easter week I rode up even the next day after that Mr. Turner did preach before Mr. Moyle. And when I came to Mr. London I showed him the articles that was against my lord's Grace; whereat he made much joy and bade me send them to be signed. And within 5 days after Schether's man brought them up signed to present them to my lord of Winchester; and I went with him myself. But my lord had no leisure that time to look of them. But London took not the copy of them then, for I told him that I must deliver them to my lord of Winchester. And that same day Mr. London told me that one of the Council said, when he showed them the articles afore presented, that one of them should say that such a schism was in this realm in King Henry the Fifth's days that, the King's grace going into France, one Sir John Holl Castyll (Oldcastle) had a thousand heretics or ten thousand for to invade the ream in the King's absence. So I kept there the writings myself that was against my lord till they fett them of me themselves, which was the same time that the men of Canterbury was come up against their curet or parson. (fn. 47) And so they went to the Council; for the next day they were merry and said they had much comfort, both of Mr. Baker and of my lord of Winchester. And as far as I think they told me that Mr. Petty put up his articles that day, which was abominable. What they were I wot not; nor of their coming up. I know nothing till I see them. Then 2 days together I went to my lord of Winchester and labored unto him, praying him to be good lord unto me that these articles should not be put up in my name, and he said they should not, saying unto me that if they were true it should be pleasure unto me because I did my duty therein, and if they be false the promoters thereof should be blamed and not I; of the which words I was well comforde, and then he bade that what persons or articles so ever come up that they should resort to Mr. Baker, for the King's Grace had put all this matter in his hands. Also another time I was with my lord going to his barge ward, and had him recommended from Mr. Gardener and that he would be good lord unto him for the benefice of Hadham, and showed him what pains he had taken in this matter as he bade me; but he made me no answer, and I never went nor laboured further in this matter; save only the day after the prebenders went home I went to Mr. London, and he prayed me to bring him to Mr. Moyll. Yet first I went and knew Mr. Moyll's pleasure, and he was content; and thither he come and I went with him, for he was angry that all those which was sent up by the justices, that he brought them not to the Council but alway to your Grace; and so I think he told him; for I heard him say to Mr. Moylle how he had taken up your Grace before the Council, for Dr. Taller (fn. 48) and for your preachers in your churches in London. And also I told Mr. Thwates and Mr. Moylle what Mr. London said as concerning their duties; but nothing I know of myself against no creature that ever I heard oder preached or reasoned. Yet I thought much of this to be truer than they be like to prove, so that I come in among them "at a nonappy time, I may say that. Wo worth all falssyd, for hit hathe never good hend. So that now I submit myself to God and to my lord's Grace with as much sorrow in my heart for mine offence as ever took man, and take God to my judge I know no more of this matter than I have recited.
Also Mr. Schether sent his man to me of Sunday before Alsolne day, bidding me in anywise not to be known of nothing, for they had nor would confess nothing, and that I should go to his brother parson, with his man, and there I should know more of his mind, for he was sworn not to write to me, but he had written to his brother and of him I should know all. And thither I went with his man; and he said unto me, as his man had done before, that I should utter nothing to Dr. Cockes and Mr. Husse, for he thought that they were come to tatch me; and then, if I did speak with them, that then I should say that I received no articles but only of Cokeson, which is dead; and this was but to bring me in danger and to skewsse themselves.
Also at that time I hast (asked) Schether's man whether he had been with my lord of Winchester since the coming down of my lord's Grace or no. And he said Yea, and that he had told my lord of Winchester how men were handled for setting forth of the truth; and my lord of Winchester answered and said My Lord of Canterbury cannot kill them; let them suffer, for all this makes against himself. Ye shall see what will come of it. Bid them be merry. This same tale the parson, Mr. Schether's brother, told me too.
Also Mr. Schether, at the coming up of the prebenderes to London, he put all the whole matter to Mr. Forde that married his sister to copy, which was a book of two days labor. What was the contents thereof I know not—I think, all the whole matter compiled together.
"Also Mr. Thornton, I spake with him before my door in London, and prayed him to instruct your Grace or some of your officers of the truth as concerning my part how this matter stood, and who was the doers, and that I never accused man nor article against none in my life, nor cannot, and say true wening to me that he would have told your Grace, and he bade me stick to it, for he had told the Council his mind herein himself as he was bound to do, and so do you for your own discharge.
By me, John Wyllughby."
Hol., pp. 6. The signature as given above appears at the bottom of pp. 1, 4 and 6. Strype has printed the first page only, with the signature at the bottom, as if it were the whole letter.
iii. A deposition headed by Cranmer : Dr. Willoughby.
Master Gardner wrote up to my lord of Winchester that your Lordship sent and received letters monthly at least into Germany, and if he would send to one Fuller at the Flowredelice in Canterbury and command him of his allegiance ye shall know, for they pass through his hands. I copied the letter myself, but I cannot tell wher it be at home or nay; and also that there was a credible person that should reason with one of your officers, what he was I wot not, saying 'I marvel much my lord keepeth no better a house'; and the other should answer again and say it was no wonder, for my lord hath so many in exhibition in Germany that all was too little to skrappe and get to send thither, and that my lord gave ne'er a benefice bot on pollyng parte whent owte in fee to his offessars, so that of the prestes ther fees kyssys so God knoweth what sorrow I have suffered at my heart, since I think a wiser man than I (fn. 49) would have been in as much doubt as I, for I durst not once loke of on (?upon one) that belonged [to] you for fear of suspicion.
"Mr. Gardner also told me at the taking of Twyire senet (since!) Easter, being at Canterbury at Master Skore's sermon then he told me that he would fain that my lord of Winchester should have knowledge of a certain man, and named him, that should be come from the Court and longs to the Court, and used much to towns, and also was with him a se'nnight before he was taken and oft used to come together and remain a se'nnight and sometimes more; which gave him warning that he should be take; whereupon he conveyed many letters and writings that come from Germany, for none was found in his house, and yet he see him many times openly in the church with letters, saying 'Here is news from Germany,' and at (i.e. that) that man by all likelihood was a spy; and what was said in the Court and he to bring it hither, but he would not trust me here with none of them all, but at the beginning I mellyd with none of their matters many a day, never but at the first, nor knew none of their matters."
P. 1. In Willoughby's hand.
iv. A further deposition headed by Cranmer : "x vjo die mensis
Novembris Anno D'ni mcccccxliijo."
"Master Garner and they emonges them pot up also how that your Grace syster was a mylneres wyffe, and hyr husbonde alywe, or was with in a yere before that tyme, which was in Lent last; and how that he and sche dwelte in a paryche in Canterbere ix or x yere togeder, and, hyr husband beyng alyve, marede to Master Bynggam, and Master Commissare maryd to hyr dawter, and yet his chossyn to be junyd with Master Dene (fn. 50) to be on of the procters for the cherche in the Convocacion Howse, and not of ther eleccion bot be a dossyn of ther awne affenite. — By me, John Wyllughby."
In Willoughby's hand, p. 1.
v. "Interrogatories for Doctor Willoughby."
1. What time he first knew of these matters, and by whom. 2. What communication he had with Serles upon Palm Sunday. 3. Whether Serles said to him "Beware what you do, for you shall never be able to prove them after this sort that Dr. London doth now pen them"? 4. What time it was that he said to Gardiner that he would take upon him to be the only doer in this matter? 5. What he did with the copy of the articles that were delivered to him. 6. Whether he showed the last book that Shether sent to him by his servant to the Bishop of Winchester or not. 7. Which of the Council did allow him for putting up of the book, saying that he was a good Catholic man, and did animate him to be bold to present mo such accusements. 8. What comfortable words the Council gave him to go about these matters? 9. Who informed him that a Commission should come down into Kent, and that Parkehurst, Milles and Gardiner should be commissioners? 10. "What communication he had with Mr. Fogge of a lecture which the Archbishop should read of the Sacrament of the Altar, and who were present and what was said of every man." 11. How many were named to be commissioners?
In Cranmer's hand, corrected, p. 1. Four articles have been struck out and the numbers altered.
vi. Replies to the above by Dr. Willoughby.
"1. First time that I was moved to put up any articles was about Avent (sic) by Serlys at home with me. 2. What communication that I had with Serlys of Palm Sunday it doth appear in my book of my first answer to my lord's Grace. 3. Also what Serlys said to London I have also noted in my former bill. He chid for altering of them, and that was the cause he sent for the same articles, being at home in his purse. 4. Even in Palm Sun week, of Shire Thursday or Good Friday, as I think. I come home and told Garner, and asked for the writing that Serlys sent for, and Salsbere could not be found; and after dinner Gardner called me into the garden and delivered me the other writing, and bade me show them to Master London and to my lord of Winchester; but Schether copied them out first in order, and I took them and said my lord should have them, and I let London see them, and so forth, as I have said before in my other writing. 5. What I did with the copy, I did keep it still myself. 6. Where (whether) I showed the book to my lord of Winchester or no. Schether's man carried it to my lord himself in all your (q. our?) names. I went with him myself. My lord had no leisure to look on it; and so I kept it to their coming to London, and they received it of me again. 7. There was never none gave me such comfort, other than I had of Master London and of my lord of Winchester, as I have showed before also. 8. I never said that the Council gave me any comfort, but that London told me that I should have much thank, but all this is to excuse themselves; but and if they had had comfort, as I know none they had, should they thereupon invent false matters upon any man, how should it stand together, or with reason, that they did this by comfort of any body, when they had already (sic) drawn or ever I spake with them or come down, bot falsode woll ever have a foolle hende. 9. Who in fyrmyd that a commission scholde come downe; that was fyrst moysyon that Serlys made to Master London at his first coming, and London made it sure and that made them bold, and then he demanded the names of the onest (?) of the temporalty and also of the spiritualty. Of the temporalty was Master Moylle, Master Baker, Master Thwatcs, Master Boyes, and divers other, I cannot tell their names; and of the Church, Master of Maidstone, Master of Wye, Master Parcus, Master Garner and Master Sellynger. 10. Indeed I told Master Fogg of all that I knew, and that I heard that same tale, and so I did hear it indeed, in Christchurch, but to tell it as it was told I cannot, nor who told it; but it was spoken at a table that my lord's Grace should, booted and spurred, read a lecture on the Sacrament of the Altar, saying it was but a similitude, and so lefte hit of reavly (left it off rawly ?), which troubled the hearers' hearts much."
In Willoughby's hand, pp. 3. Transcribed in full, but only in parts literatim.
XX. A bundle of papers headed "B" containing :—
i. Statement of Robert Serles, prebendary.
Upon Palm Sunday Even, at the court kept at Whitehall, I met with Dr. London of chance, having the dean of Lichfield (fn. 51) by the arm; which said that he must needs speak with me before my departing, and I tarried him at the Council door until he came out from the Council, to know his mind; and then he was taken from me by a gentleman that I could not then speak with him. The next day on Palm Sunday morning Mr. Dr. Tresham met me and said that Dr. London's servant was at Westminster to seek me; and continently I went to his house in Silver Street, where he said that I never could come in better season, for the King's Council are now busy occupied for to extirp all heresies. Wherefore go ye to your inn and write such articles erroneous as hath been preached in your parts. And I departed and wrote these articles following :—that one Joan Bocher, as it is said, abjured of heresy at Colchester for opinions sustained against the Sacrament of the Altar; which hath since spoken and defended openly her erroneous opinions in Canterbury before many, and yet she is quit by a pardon. Item, that one Sir Giles, curate of Baram, by the space of two or three years ministered all manner of Sacraments and was married, and as it was said was no priest. Item, that Mr. Scory and Master Rydley were complained on for their preaching and were not punished as their fellows were. Item, that some preached openly that there is heresy in the words of blessing of holy bread and holy water. Item, that private masses are not available for souls departed. Item, others preached against confession auricular and some against the plucking up of the rood cloth on Palm Sunday and against other ceremonies in the Church used and admitted.
"Then, after dinner on Palm Sunday I brought to him the articles above written, and by the way I met with Mr. Dr. Willoughby and told him the news that Dr. London showed unto me, that for the extirpation of heresies, commissions, as he thought, should be directed to every shire in England. And then Dr. Willoughby and I went together to Dr. London's house; where, when Dr. London had read mine articles above written, he instantly desired me to present them to the Council with him; which I refused to do because I was of late in trouble. Then Mr. London required me to set to my hand to the said articles; and I said I would not, because they were not proved by witness but only upon hearsay. Then Mr. London was in a great fury and rage with me, and began to threaten me before the dean of Lichfield and Dr. Willoughby, and said I should not choose, for he would cause me to be sent for and compel me by the King's Council to set to my hand to witness them, or else it should be to his great dishonesty, for he had showed them, as he said, to divers worshipful men; wherefore I should not go back to pluck my head out of the collar. Also he said, 'Now it appeareth that ye are very mutable and inconstant for fear of my lord the Archbishop of Canterbury's punishment.' Then he desired Dr. Willoughby to go with him before the Council to present the articles, and, after long request and intreatance made, Dr. Willoughby was content and consented to go with him. Then Dr. London began to pen them very sore to make the matter the more pithy than they were written in mine exemplar; and I said, 'Mr. Willoughby, beware what ye do, for ye shall never be able to prove them after this sort that Dr. London doth now pen them.' Then Dr. London was in a great fury and angry for my dissuading of Dr. Willoughby, and said to me 'Ye may depart when ye will, for ye will not testify yourself in this matter, ne yet suffer other that would testify in this behalf.' Then he took Dr. Willoughby fro me by the sleeve and would not suffer him no more to speak with me. And on the next day, Palm Sunday, I departed from the city towards Oxford. The same day at night, when I came to mine inn, remembering myself of our angry departing, and how that I had much displeased Dr. London in dissuading Dr. Willoughby not to present the said articles then, to obtain Dr. London's benevolence again, I wrote a gentle and a comfortable letter to Dr. Willoughby, and sent back Robert, my man, with the letter, to persuade Dr. Willoughby earnestly and boldly to proceed with Dr. London as he had begun. And at my returning to London on Ascension Eve I came to Mr. Baker to know his pleasure with me, saying that Mr. Shedar and Sandwych hath sent a letter to Oxford to me in your name that I should with all speed come to London to you; and he said that I came too late, for your fellows were here on Saturday last, and be gone, and now ye may be at choice, whether ye will go to Canterbury or return to Oxford. And so then I departed from him. And the morrow after Ascension day I came to Mr. Baker to know whether he would anything to Canterbury; and he willed me to be gone in haste, and to cause Mr. Shedar to be with him on Sunday next with the book, (fn. 52) saying 'I marvel that he is so slack; and commend me to Mr. Parkehurst and other of your company, and bid them fear no man underneath the King to witness the truth when they shall be required.' Then I came to Mr. Doctor London and showed him that Mr. Baker hath commanded me to depart home in haste : and he said it was good tidings, and within short space he looked for a commission for every shire of England to be granted to extirpe all heresies. Ye see we have a commission granted for Windsor, and now we be unanimous in domo, whereas before we were of two sects and two sorts. I have taken much pain, as you see, to gather together all the articles plaintiff in one book for Kent. The copy of all such articles as was delivered to Sir Thomas Moyle, (fn. 53) Dr. London received of my hands, and he said that Dr. Qwent labored to him that he would take the pains to be a commissioner with my lord's Grace in Kent for a direction of all their heresies there now reigning, and that within few days the King and his most honorable Council would see a reformation thorough his realm in this behalf. And then I departed to Canterbury. And at my next returning to London, was at Windsor; so I spake no more with him.
By me, Robert Serlys."
Hol., pp. 2. Docketed by Cranmer : Serles; and endd. by another hand : Robert Serles, prebendare.
ii. Explanation [by Serles].
"This is to certify your Mastership that I was deceived and forgetful of the time and place, for I have taken one time for another in my book; for these words, viz. 'Ye could never 'a com yn better season,' &c., were spoken on Palm Sunday Even at Court when Mr. London came out from the Council, and not in his own house on Palm Sunday in the morning; and upon Palm Sunday morning in his own house in Silver Street I delivered the Article to him and not at afternoon. If a dirig or a mark be made with a pen, then it will be plain to read in my book."
In Serles' hand on a separate slip.
iii. "Interrogatories to Serles and other." (fn. 54)
1. Whether Mr. Sentleger and Mr. Parkehurst presented to the Abp. of Canterbury the self same articles contained in the book of complaint, or whether there be more or fewer, or some altered with words added. 2. Whether the witness (fn. 55) brought in did prove all the said articles. 3. Wherefore they left out 3 of the articles that before were presented. 4. Whether the Abp. rebuked Serls for preaching that images might be permitted in the church "as representers of saints and not idols." 5. Whether the Abp. declared openly before the prebendaries and preachers there, and also openly in his consistory, that the King's pleasure was to have three preachers of the new learning and three of the old. 6. Whether Serls and Shether were accused by men noted by common fame as of evil opinion for preaching, and who they were that accused them. 7. Whether the honesty of their audience offered themselves to testify that they were falsely accused, and that which was laid against them was not true, and although they were a great number, yet they could not be admitted; and who they were that so offered themselves, and whether they offered themselves or Serls required them to be examined. 8. Whether false persons, men of evil fame for suspect opinions, though they were but two or three, were admitted. 9. Whether Serls and Shether were innocent preachers when condemned, the one to prison and the other to read a declaration of false surmised Articles, and by whom the one was committed to prison. 10. Whether they that could speak against evil opinions dare not, for if they do they be complained on and called seditious persons stirring the people to commotion, and by whom they be so called. 11. Whether, complaining to their Ordinary, at his hands they get nothing but displeasure, and the party evil preaching much more favor and boldness; and who hath had displeasure of the Ordinary for complaining against evil preachers, and what preachers have had favor and boldness therein at the Ordinary's hands. 12. Whether two images of Christ and two of Our Lady, whereunto was neither oblation done, nor any light standing, were taken down by the Archbishop's commandment, both by mouth and by letters, and what the effect of the letters was. [13.] (fn. 56) What word Mr. Bacar sent them from London by Serls. [14.] What book it was that was last sent to Dr. Willoughby by Shether's servant, what the matter thereof was, and when it was made and sent. [15.] Wherefore they advised Shether to write to Dr. Willoughby to get him out of the way and to repair to the Court, or to some other of his friends. [16.] What indictment that was which Mr. Parkehurst read one night at supper when they talked of the Sessions of the Six Articles, whose indictment it was and where he had it. [17.] Whether Mr. Baker said to Parkehurste, Gardener and Shether, when they were at London, that there should be a commission in Kent shortly. [18.] What names he wrote at the same time to be in the Commission. [19.] Whether Mr. Thwaittes said at divers times that (fn. 57) they should still from time to time mark what was preached and say nothing, but note it and send it to him. [20.] At what times the same was spoken and whether he said it was Master Baker's counsel. [21.] How many books were delivered to Petite. [22.] Whether one book was made, wherein was this article : "That the Archbishop did say that he would defend Scorye and Ridley's opinions." [23.] Where that book is become and what time it was made. [24.] Whether Parkehurst and Gardener have commoned with Petite, that the Commissary and other of evil opinions and despisers of the laudable ceremonies would not have been so bold if they had not been comforted by my lord. [25.] Whether they with Serls or Shether have commoned, Petite being present, that Markeham, steward to the Archbishop, was abjured, and what knowledge they have thereof. [26.] To whom they sent to procure that the Abp. of Canterbury should be no Commissioner nor know the witness, (fn. 58) and wherefore they so wrote or sent. [27.] What book it was that he received of Sir Thomas Moile and delivered to Dr. London. [28.] What words the Chancellor of Rochester said to him when he said that Hussay would help him forward with his Articles. [29.] How many times before Passion week he resorted home to Dr. Willoughby, moving him to put up such articles as he should devise, and what answer Dr. Willoughby made.
Pp. 3. Headed by Cranmer and with corrections in his hand.
iv. Answers by Serles.
1. Can say nothing to arts. 1, 2, 3, as he was absent at Oxford. 4. My Lord's grace did not rebuke him for preaching that images might be permitted in church as representers of saints, but because he affirmed that an image was not an idol. 5. The Abp. said openly in the Consistory that he had chosen 6 preachers, 3 of the old sort and 3 of the new, "to the entent that they, conferring their learning together, should bult and try out the truth; and further I cannot say." 6. Serlys and Shether were accused on the testimony of men of evil fame noted in the city, viz., Sterky, Toftes, Mey, Daniel and Thwyire. 8. Their witness was objected against by me in the Consistory before the judges by reason of an open fame and because they were indicted of heresy. 7. There came from Hotfeld, where Serlys preached and was accused, 3 honest men of that same parish, who offered to be examined and depose that he was falsely accused. The one was called Bulle, the other John Grey and the third is named Rycard; "and they tarried at Canterbury and could not be admitted, for it was answered that a negative in the law could never be proved." To the 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th, can say nothing. [13, &c.] (fn. 59) "What word Mr. Baker sent them from London by Serlys I have expressed and confessed in my book afore delivered. Item, to the same article, what indictment was read at Mr. Parkhurst's table, &c., as I remember me, there was one William Payne, late undersheriff, at supper or dinner in Mr. Parkhurst's house, which read there openly afore the sessions a copy and a form of indictment for plucking down of images in the parish of Elmestede, and this form and copy he then delivered to Mr. Parkehurst and he read it there, as I remember. Item, it was commoned, as I remember, in Mr. Parkehurst's house, Petite being present, that in the Cardinal's time at Oxford about a xxxth in number abjured and troubled for sustaining and keeping of Leutar's books, and at that time they said Mr. Markame was student in the Cardinal College, and whether he was one of the number or no they could not surely tell. Item, to the rest of all that volume I can say nothing. Item, the book that Sir Thomas Moyle sent to Dr. London was a book of articles concerning Turnare, the vicar of Osprynges, and the Commissary. Item,y came to Mr. Chaunsler of Rogester at morrow mass in the morning and said 'Sir, we can get no counsel of the law in the city to make up our books after the form of the law. I pray you inform my lord's Grace of the same.' And he said that it 'is my lord's pleasure that ye should have learned counsel. He will deny you none that ye can name in the city.' And I said 'Some of them lack learning and some lack practice.' And Mr. Chaunsler said 'Take Mr. Smyzth, for he is well learned, and whereas he doubts in his learning he may boldly resort to Mr. Hussey for acquaintance sake, which may instruct and help him whereas he doubts.' Item, Dr. Willoughby and I have commenyd before Passion Sunday twice or thrice of Turnare's preaching and the vicar of Osprynge, which by their preaching seyd (sic) troubles and unquiet the whole country, and said, if no man would inform the Council thereof he would, and durst be so bold because he is a chaplain to the King and had good acquaintance in the Court.
By me Robart Serlys."
Hol., pp. 2.
v. "For Serls and other."
1. Who were the beginners of these matters at London ? 2. By whose advise it was set forward. 3. With whom they had conference and who did bolden and animate them in the same, and in what form, by words or writing or otherwise. 4. What matter they had at the beginning for foundation. 5. Whether they had them of their own knowledge or by hearsay. 6. What thing or things they know my lord's Grace culpable in of their own knowledge, and how they know it.
1. (fn. 60) "The like to be ministered for the proceeding of the same matter at Canterbury." 2. How many justices of peace, gentlemen and other persons they have had conference with in these matters, and what they and every of them have done or spoken in the same matters. 3. To what things they have condescended. 4. What Petite, the clerk of the peace, or any other lawyer has said or done about indictments, panelling of inquests, and by what occasion and by whose motion. 5. To what end they intended to bring these matters. 6. By what authority they began and proceeded in these matters.
"Item, whether you told and declared to the vicar of Charing, being in his house at Charing, how that 4 of you did intend to preach 2 sermons apiece in the Isle of Thanet in one day, and to how many moo you declared the same and to what intent."
vi. Reply of [Serles].
To 1 and 2, can say no further than I have expressed in my book delivered to your Grace. What was done while I was at Oxford from Palm Sunday to Whitsunday I know not, and the book of articles was put up to the Council in my absence when I was at Oxford. To the 3 and 4, knows not what they purposed for their foundation, or with whom they conferred, except with Sir John Baker, who, they say, wrote a letter to them and sent for them to come to London. Can say nothing to 5 or 6, for he never saw the articles purposed against my lord's Grace.
(ii.) For the proceedings of the matters of Canterbury.
1. They have had communication with Sir Thos. Moyle, Mr. Thwayttes and with Mr. Petyte; "and they have inquired, as I remember, whether it was thought that a commission should be directed from the Council to Canterbury for reformation of the country, and also who should be Commissioners for the same." 2. Knows nothing. 3. Knows nothing of what Mr. Petite or other has done about panelling of inquests; "but afore the sessions was holden, Mr. Petite said he would ride to his master, Sir John Baker, to know his pleasure whether he would be at the sessions of Six Articles or no." 4 and 5. Knows nothing. [6.] "As to the last article. There came a certain priest out of Tenet to labor to have preachers to come to preach with them, for they said that they lacked their quarter sermons and could get no preachers. And then Mr. Gardiner, Mr. Mylles, Mr. Shethar and I asked how many churches there were within the Isle of Tenat, and they said, eight; whereupon we four aforesaid agreed to go thither all upon one, they and every one of us to preach at two parish churches, and so to do all their sermons in one day. This same was concluded openly at dinner in Mr. Parkhurst's house; and upon this occasion I told the vicar of Charyng in his house thys . . le by cause ye . . . . (fn. 34)
In Serles' hand, p. 1. Frayed at the bottom.
vii. [Serles to .]
This is to certify your mastership that the same anger and malice expressed by words of Dr. London to me was not counterfeit ne feigned anger, which Master Williams the dean of Lichfield, if he be required, can testify. Item, Dr. Kechyn, late abbot of Heynsam can testify the same; which on Palm Monday lodged at the same inn at Maidenhead where I was lodged; to whom I opened at supper there the whole matter of our variance and falling out, and he advertised me to write some gentle letter to pacify Mr. London's ire, and to send my man with my letter back to London, or else to ride back myself; by whose counsel I wrote the letter to Dr. Wylloby and sent back my servant withal.
Item, about this time two years, as I was entering in communication with the Bishop of Winchester that it might please him to be so good lord unto me to help me forth in my suit that the sonder (qu. sooner ?) thorough him I might attain of the King's Grace a licence to preach out of the diocese of Canterbury, with a non-residence; and suddenly came in the Bishop of Rochester and said 'My lord, the hour is past.' And then they both went to London; and I never spake with him sith ne before, as I take God to record. I most humbly beseech your mastership to speak for me to my lord's Grace that I may be restored to liberty."
In Serles's hand, p. 1.
XXI. A bundle of papers marked on a fly leaf "C," with the name
"Gardiner" as a title.
i. Examination of Gardiner.
"On Easter Even last past when I, William Gardiner, being in the qwyre of Christ's church in Canterbury, Dr. Willyby came into our church and desired to speak with me; unto whom, when I did come, he prayed me to speak with me in my chamber. Thither when we did come, he drew out of his purse two bills containing certain matters here amongst us, worthy (as he thought) of reformation. And he said that he had spoken with Serles, one of the King's Highness's preachers in Canterbury, and learned them of him. I heard little of them read, for I had no mind to hear them, and refused to receive them. He was so importune upon me and said that he had been with divers of the Council (what they were I know not) and they gave unto him such words (as he said) that he was much comfortt to go about his matter. Yet at the last, by importune labor unto me, he left them with me for three or four days. I did wrap up the bills, not looking on them nor meddling with any matter in them, for I never thought on such matters until Dr. Wyllyby did minister occasion. But then, afterward, considering the abuses in preaching, partly in Christchurch (as I with other sorrowing did note), abroad likewise (as the people did report), lamenting that the people should be so seduced and provoked from the quiet trade of God's word and the King's Majesty's ordinances, whom to keep every true subject oweth, and casting that the denial in preaching did arise by lack of due reformation of such as were before, for evil preaching, unto my lord's Grace presented and unto our knowledge not reformed but thereupon bolded to do like as they did before (as by their preaching we might perceive) had communication amongst us at sundry times, desirous of having a thorough quietness. And so at the last Sir Coxson, one of the petty canons in Christchurch (then living) did comyn with me what was best to be done (for he had heard of Dr. Wyllyby's being there) to the intent to have an uniform, a quiet and godly preaching, without all jar, in time coming. He determined to draw this book of my lord's communication on Trinity Sunday had amongst us prebendaries (wher off sarll (?) was that we schuld nott make invectives in the pulpett) (fn. 61) and also he drew the residue, as there appeareth; but not all, for the article of images and the six preachers I drew. Of this draught done by Sir Coxson no man did know but I; for he would not have it known; and unto this time no man did otherwise know but that it was my draught. This draught made and with my hand written, I showed it unto Mr. Thwayttes; but he sagely (as he is a wise man) would that Wyllyby should be ware and ask counsel of such as knew best (fn. 62) what to be done in such matter, for it was a weighty matter. Unto this book Coxson did adjoin the book in foretime unto my lord of Canterbury presented concerning the preachings of Mr. Rydley and Mr. Scory; he wrote divers copies, and then it was not known that ony had hytt butt he. This book drawn was delivered unto Dr. Wyllyby; his bills also were delivered unto him, not looked on nor meddled with. And so, he having the book, whither he went with it, unto whom he resorted and showed the book, in good faith I know not. But unto London he went; and, there being, he sent down a copy of that book, by whose motion I nor none of my company do know, as I can hear of. He wrote that he must needs have it subscribed. We went together and subscribed the book thoroughly, that was then newly made. These set thereunto their hands :—Mr. Sentleger, Mr. Parkhurst, Mr. Huntt, I William Gardner, Mr. Mylles, Mr. Schether, Syr Coxson, Syr Coxx (sic). All these not subscribing unto every article, but some unto one, some unto another, as we knew them true, so that they all were subscribed unto amongst us. Mr. Serles subscribed not, for he was then, other in London, other in Oxford, whether of both I am not sure; but he was not amongst us and knew not then of the book made. That done, Dr. Wyllyby had the book again. Unto whom he presented it or did show it, and with whom he had communication of it I, nor none of my company (so far as I do know) is able to say. But soon after Easter Mr. Parkhurst, Mr. Schether and I, William Gardner, were sent for unto London by letters sent unto us from our dean, Mr. Doctor Wotton, willing us with all speed to repair unto London, and there to appear before one of the Privy Council, naming no man's name determinate. His letters declared that he was commanded to write unto us. In his letters he also declared that he would show unto us his name that willed us to appear when we came unto London. Unto London when we were comen we were commanded by Mr. Dane (fn. 63) to go unto Sir John Baker, knight, unto whom we came. He showed unto us a copy of the book with names not subscribed, and said 'Here is a book delivered unto me, and it is thought that you have knowledge of it. I require you in the King's Majesty's name that you go together, and that that you know to be true and to be abyddyn by, thereof make a fair book. And the King's pleasure is that you fare (qu. fear ?) none, and spare not to tell the truth, for fear of any man. He willeth you in this matter to fear none but God and him, and do it truly and faithfully without all dread of ony under his Majesty.' We, so commanded, perused the book thoroughly, and so much as we knew to be true and to be abyddyn (fn. 64) by, we did put into a book new written (fn. 65), and did go unto my lord of Winchester; but he would not keep the book, but looked on it and quickly dymyssyd us, and bid us go unto Sir John Baker knight, of whom we had the book. And so unto Sir John Baker we returning, by the hands of Mr. Schether (Mr. Parkhurst and I stondyng by) it was delivered unto the forenamed Sir John Baker, knight. That done we were dymyssyd and sent home again. And so we have continued (I trust) true unto God and unto the King's Highness; unto whom God grant long life and prosperous.
"Per me Will'm Gardner clericum."
Hol., pp. 3.
ii. On the back of the last leaf is written in a very cramped hand :—
Now they beyng in indurance, and I feryng, by cause I was partly accused, I wrott unto my lord off Wynchester my lettres for ther ayde yff he myght do unto them ony good, and sent the testymonyall copy of Canterbury unto hym, schoyng hou thatt men here dyd and in other places wold lykwyse testyffye of ther charyte (?) for theis and ours (?) honest prechynges. Item, how thatt I was examynyed for thys boke and what answer I made, never otherwyse myndyd butt when I schold lawfully be reynyd (fn. 66) as now and I wold gladly dysclose the matter.
"Item, Mr. Thwaytes schewyd unto Mr. Parkhurst and me thatt he had byn writen unto, from whom I know nott, to gather such matters as he could here off abrode worthy to be refformed, matters thatt were swarvyng from the laudable usys of Christes Churche, saying unto us Bycause I cannot be allways here, I pray you, as ye can know and treuly lerne, send me word, and so in good fayth, I not sechyng for them, as I dyd here and as men wold trewly testyffy uppon ther consyence, I sent unto hym : other matters wold nott send but suche, for whan I herd the partys speke and uppon ther consyence to testyffy thatt they were trew."
Endd. : Mr. Gardiner.
Strype's Cranmer. 773.
iii. William Gardiner to Cranmer.
"Gentle father, whereas I have not borne so good, so tender, a heart towards you as a true child ought to bear," &c. Professes great penitence for what he has done, which was at the suggestion of Willoughby; but who instigated Willoughby to bring his bills to Canterbury he knows not. Begs forgiveness and will in future be as obedient as ever child was to his natural father. Undated.
Hol., pp. 2.
iv. Statement by William Gardiner.
When my lord of Winchester returned from the Council (fn. 67) beyond the seas he heard mass in Christchurch in Canterbury; after which he took me by the hand and asked how I did, and how they did in Canterbury, meaning, as to the quietness of Christ's religion. Replied that sometimes they did not agree in preaching. "So do I hear, said he; what is that that you do not agree in?" Rehearsed Mr. Rydley's preaching and Mr. Scory's partly. He listened till I came to the point that prayer ought not to be made in an unknown tongue, or it was but babbling; on which he said "There he missed, for the Germans themselves are now against that saying;" adding, "This is not well. My lord of Canterbury will look upon this, I doubt not, or else such preaching will grow into an evil inconvenience. I know well he will see remedy for it. Well, how do you with them?" Replied "My lord, hardly. I am much marked in my sermons, and I cannot tell whether I be taken or no. I pray your good lordship of your counsel what were best for me to do. I had rather leave preaching by times than to be taken in my sermons." The Bp. told him to write his sermon in a book every word as he would preach it. "And when you go into the pulpit deliver your book unto the chiefest man there that can read, and let him take heed of your book while you do preach; and say no more but that you have written and studied for, and I warrant you shall do well enough. And when you do hear any man preach otherwise than well, hold you contented and meddle not; so shall you do best." A poor man then came to him, brother to Mr. Hunt, then in the Fleet, to petition for his brother. My lord said he had been out of England and knew not the matter, but promised to help him as far as he could. Then he conversed about our ordinances in the quire, our statutes, our masses and hours of them. At last he sent for Mr. Rydley, prebendary, but what he said to him I know not.
When Mr. Serles, Mr. Schether and Mr. Scory were in indurance I wrote unto my lord of Winchester in this wise, as nigh as I can remember :— My lord's Grace hath prisoned Mr. Serles, Mr. Schether and Mr. Scory. As for Mr. Serles and Mr. Schether, the honesty of their audience will and do testify for them. And, so far as I can hear, in the country also where they have preached, their audience will testify that they are in most part wrongfully accused. And the honest men of the town have already sent in their testimonial, for to declare them and us prebendaries, so far as ever they heard, to preach godly and quietly. They were assigned to make their answer before my lord's Grace at a day appointed. When their day came to make answer, they, fearing my lord's justice, refused to make answer, but did appeal. And so, not answering, nother their appellation admitted, they were committed unto ward again. Honest substantial men offered to bail them; as then they could not be bailed. I wrote also that I was likewise accused for my preaching, but, I thanked God, for no point of heresy, but as I did perceive, it was only for brablyng matters. Howbeit I feared much that, if my lord's Grace did stop our appellations, that then I with other should abide the uttermost. This fearing, I desired his lordship, if remedy might be, that we might, if need were, have liberty to appeal. I wrote also that I was examined before Dr. Cokkes for the book delivered unto the Council; and my answer was this, that I was with the Council at London; but what I saw there, what I said there and what was said to me I durst not disclose unless the Council would have me to disclose. I desired him also that if I had need that he would so labor and do for us that for our truth we might not be undone.
My lord's answer, not by letters but by mouth, sent by Mr. Schether's servant, not unto me, as by the words it doth appear, but rather made unto Master Schether.
When my lord had read my letters (as the servant said) he asked 'Who brought these letters ?' The servant said 'I.' My lord then went away, and, as the servant supposed, into Council Chamber. When [he] came forth the servant required his pleasure. He said 'Have me commended unto your master.' The servant desired his lordship to have some comfortable answer of him. My lord said 'I can make you no answer as yet.' The next day, or two days after, when the servant came again for his answer, my lord said unto him 'Your master seemeth to be a child. He wept before my lords when he should have answered. Bid him not weep for shame, but answer like a man. Will he be a child now ? Let him take a good heart unto him. If he have need, he shall find friends.' (fn. 68) Then said the servant 'I pray your lordship be good unto him.' My lord said 'Have me commended unto him. I will not forget him, and do as much for him as I can. I must know of the Council what I shall do. I warrant you I will not forget him. Have me commended also unto the prebendaries.' (fn. 68) He named none, and so dymyssyd the servant.
There stood one by, brother-in-law unto Mr. Schether, whose name is Forde. And, my lord departed, he had communication with Mr. Schether's servant, of what matters, in good faith I know not. In communication, as Mr. Schether's servant did tell me, this Forde said that my lord Chancellor shortly would or should (whether of both he said, in good faith I do not remember) out of his office shortly, and that Mr. Baker should have it. In departing, this Forde willed Mr Schether's servant to will his brother that he never recant, for if he did he would never be his friend whiles he lived, nor none should that he could let. He said that he would cause that my lord of Winchester should not be his friend. (fn. 68)
"Within these 3 weeks, besides Bishop Warham's tomb in Christchurch, I showed Cyryacc Petytt this matter, because I knew well it would rejoice him to hear good towards his master Baker, but he would not believe it. All other things in the answer he believed and thought to be true, or might be true. At that time the servant of Mr. Schether's wrote a letter of 5 or 6 lines. Cyriacc Petytt did see the letter and heard it read. It briefly contained the answer that he brought from my lord and from the forenamed Ford. The servant had the letter again. He said that he would deliver it unto Mr. Schether his master. Whether he did so or no I am not able to say."
Master Copyn, alderman, within these four weeks, meeting me in the church, said "I have been with my lord's Grace, and I would not but that I had been there. For now, I do know that I knew not before, and I dare well say that my lord is as sorry for this hoorle as ony man is in England." My lord welcomed him and wished to speak with him desiring to know (as he believed) the cause of this "hoorle," and what remedy to apply. But what he told my lord he would not report, saying simply "I told my lord my mind and he thanked me greatly for it; and I told him nothing but truth." Asked why his Grace had been so hard to him in times past, "He said You were complained on unto me by a certain person, and that a tale was brought unto him against me. Then said I 'My lord, I will declare the tale and the person unto your Grace that made the tale.' And so I did. And now all is well, I thank God; and so well that my lord's Grace willed me to resort unto him boldly. And so shall I do, by my faith. Furthermore Mr. Copyn said 'By my trowzthe I daresay my lord is no bearer in these matters.' They be other ewysse, said Mr. Copyn, and named none, but kept all secret from me, glad that he was in such favour with my lord. And so departed from me.
My lord, if that Sir John Baker, knight, had not sent for us unto London and encouraged us by these words 'Fear no man but God and the King' and 'the King's Highness willeth you to fear none but him,' we would never [have] attempted so far in the matter as we have done; and besides that he willed us to resort unto my lord of Winchester, whereas also we perceived no reproach unto us given for our deed. For if by any of these, or any other of the Council, we had been rebuked for our doings (as I would we had) and the danger showed unto us, whereof we had no knowledge, for my part, I say, of my conscience, I would have gone home again not meddling. Wherefore, my good father, although I drew two of the articles presented (and no mo, as God shall save me) I can do no less than to blame them or him that sent for us, that with words before rehearsed did encourage us, which were ignorant of the danger of the fact, and did not rather reprove us, seeing that they or he had knowledge of the danger and not we. Gentle father, ponder mine ignorance, and, as you have promised, forgive unto me my trespass.
I remember that at certain times I wrote certain articles, such as men said they found themselves grieved with, and took their hands or signs unto the articles. I beseech your Grace, blame not me for it, but Mr. Thwaytes, which so to do moved Mr. Parkhurst and me. Mr. Thwaytes set me a work; otherwise I would never have done it. He is a justice; he should know the danger of it; before he did move us so to do I went not about such matters.
I remember that one day, sitting at our meat in Master Parkhurst's chamber, Mr. Mylles, Mr. Serles, Mr. Schether and I, with the rest of our company, merrily disposed and no hurt thinking, we four forenamed made half a pointment to ride one holiday into Thanett, and there to preach thorough the Isle, all in one day, every one of us taking two churches, one sermon before noon and another at after noon; and at night, for our labors, to take our supper and lodging, other with Mr. Cayppes, other with Mr. Jonson, our friends; and so, making merry a day or two for our recreation, then to return home again unto our study.
The first article, in whom it is expressed that you would sustain articles of baptism and original sin preached by Mr. Scory, I did utterly refuse and would never stond unto it, although my name were unto it, and it was not presented. I have heard that Mr. Schether has set as witnesse unto that article Mr. Smythe and Dr. Barbar. Indeed, my Lord, I heard Mr. Cokkes, vicar of Story, say oftentimes that Mr. Smythe told him that you said in your chamber unto Dr. Barbar, Smythe with other of your servants standing by, that if you had an indifferent judge you would sustain the article presented and preached by Mr. Scory, of baptism and original sin. But you would have your judge out of Germany.
"By your assured, whiles I live,
William Gardner, prebendary." The tenor of the last letter sent (fn. 69) by Mr. Schether unto my lord of Winchester.
Reverend father, &c. All draweth now towards a quietness and I trust that shortly my lord's Grace will set all well. By the bearer hereof, Mr. Schether, he (ye ?) shall learn the truth as it is here. Of my conscience, my lord, I remember not the contents of that letter, but of this I do ensure your Grace, there was no word offensive in it; if I did remember the letter thoroughly, by God, I would write it unto your Grace. But of this be your Grace assured, there was not one word amiss in it that I do know. And if I had remembered yesterday, when I was with your Grace, I would have disclosed that letter unto you, as I did the other which I wrote in the favor of Serles and Schether; the contents whereof I will after declare, and that as truly as God shall put it into my remembrance.
Mr. Schether required me to make certain notes for him; I so did, and that unkindly; if I had yesterday remembered myself I would have disclosed them unto your Grace.
Errors as yet be not tried and corrected, but diligent inquiry is made of the book presented.
Answer is made, partly affirmatively and partly negative, partly dubitative.
We be accused indifferently, one with another, so that one, as we do suppose, may bear out the other; but if inquiry be made amongst the gentlemen, yeomen and the honesty of the curates, and not all called, accuse who will, I think the fault would soon appear where it is. I named Mr. Yngham, Mr. Hardes, Mr. Thawyttes, gentlemen, able to say somewhat as they have had grief; but I beseech you, my lord, call them not for it. I named them none otherwise unto Mr. Schether, but that there were that heard some horle and diversity among the people. I beseech your Grace to keep these notes secret unto your own conscience; they were never seynd.
Item, your lectures, what they were, with whom divers men were offended, as the vicar of St. Paul's, the vicar of Story—my lord, of this matter I will show you more so soon as I am at liberty and may speak with your Grace. Yesterday I remembered it not. I would I had.
"Other notes in faith I do not remember."
Pp. 7. In Gardner's hand. With marginal annotations by Cranmer.
v. William Gardner, priest, to Mr. Baker, Chancellor of the Tenth.
"Right worshipful master," some honest men of the parish of St. Alphege's in Canterbury, viz., John Hugden, Raffe Albrythe, Robert Absolon, John Barton, witness that Thomas Batters, the King's servant, and Will. Salter, the King's "bedd man," dwelling in Canterbury in that parish, on St. George's day last procured certain neighbours to set their hands or agree to have their names set to a letter "whom they had devised," testifying to the honesty of the parson there, so as to defeat such honest "witnesse" as appeared then before my lord of Canterbury at Lambeth, witnessing words they had heard their parson speak against auricular confession. Batters and Salter procured not only men of their own parish but also of other parishes such as they knew would bend to them. It is also reported that Batters said that same day to John Hugden "with his crakes" that the parson of St. Alphege's was troubled only by means of Gardner and Schether, but he doubted not Gardner and Schether should quail. Such words will encourage men in evil doing, unless your mastership make them temper their tongues. Canterbury.
Hol., p. 1. Add. (p. 207b). Endd.
vi. Headed "Gardiner."
Remembers now that when walking in Mr. Parkhurst's garden and talking with Dr. Willoughby the latter said a commission would be shortly sent into Kent for a reformation. "But of whom he had learned that, in good faith I know not." Amongst the Commissioners he named Mr. Parkhurst, Mr. Mylles and me. Remembers now also that when Mr. Schether and he (Will. Gardiner) were at London with Mr. Baker, "this Mr. Baker said unto us (who moved him to have such communication I remember not) that there should be a commission into Kent shortly. And, we standing before him in his study, he took paper, pen and ink, and noted the names of those whom he thought most meetest to be in commission. He wrote (as I do remember) unto the number of 13 persons, 12 of them gentlemen and one priest, master of Maidstone."
Remembers well that Mr. Parkhurst, Mr. Schether and himself were charged by Mr. Baker at his house in London, on their return home, continually to "gather and collect together abuses, so many as we could get from time to time and let him have them." Thinks Parkhurst and Schether remember this.
I do remember that at sundry times Mr. Thwayttes said unto me and Mr. Parkhurst, and I think likewise unto Mr. Schether, that we should still from time to time mark what was preached and say nothing but note it, and not doubt but there would be remedy for it. And he said that this was Mr. Baker's counsel we should so do. And now I do perceive that I, and I think other likewise, which marked and were thus animate and set awork were but instrumenta malorum. Of this examine you Mr. Parkhurst and Mr. Schether.
In Gardner's hand, pp. 2.
Strype's Cranmer, 775.
vii. William Gardiner to the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Thanks his Grace for using him so favourably yesterday, sending for him to his presence when he thought, pensiveness lay so sore at his heart, that he should never have seen him again. Was specially comforted that his Grace did note that he called him father in his writings, saying "In good faith, I will be a father unto you indeed." The Abp. also promised that he should have a book of all the articles laid against him, to make answer to. Begs that he may so have, for there is nothing he has done or knows of but he will reveal it if he can remember.
Hol., p. 1. Add.
viii. Mem., to inquire of Mr. Schether's servant why my lord of Winchester
did say 'Your master did weep before my lord, when he should
answer.' Of whom learned my lord that?
"Item, to inquire what letter Dr. Barbar sent unto Mr. Ford, of the Privy Seal, clerk, and what the contents were."
P. 1. A small slip of paper.
ix. Replies of Gardner to interrogatories (see Part XX. § v.) quoting
each interrogatory in full before the reply.
1. Knows not the beginners in London, for he knew of nothing done there till Wyllyby spoke to him at Canterbury on Easter Eve last and said that then was a time to labor for a reformation if anything were amiss. "With whom he labored in London, with whom he conferred and who sent him unto Canterbury, in good faith I know not. But after that he was comen, one Sir Thomas Cokson, upon his own mind, began the book afterwards sent up."
2. Only by the advice of Sir Thomas Cokson, petty canon of Christchurch, Canterbury, who would never cease from importune labor till the book was delivered. Did not come to London himself till he was sent for by letters from our dean, Dr. Wotton, commanding him, Parkhurst and Schether to appear before one of the Privy Council (unnamed). On coming we were commanded by our Dean to go to Sir John Baker. Did so and from his hands the book against my lord was delivered to us, when we were commanded to say what we could, without fear of any man under the King. How the book came to his hands and by whose counsel it was set forth Dr. Wyllyby can say, not I.
3. Knows not with whom Dr. Wyllyby conferred at London and by whom he was there "bolded" to come to Canterbury to move the matter. But, when Mr. Parker, Mr. Schether and he, W. Gardner, had said their minds about the book and it was delivered again to Mr. Baker, they were commanded by him still to gather from time to time all abuses worthy to be reformed.
4. Cannot surely say what matter they had for foundation, but it should appear that there was matter above; for Dr. Wyllyby brought down letters of abuses, as he said, worthy of reformation, which letters were the occasion that the book against my lord was presented.
5. Thinks Dr. Wyllyby, who did bear up the book, knew nothing of the matters in it but by hearsay; but he whose bills he brought down to Canterbury, viz., Mr. Serles, knew the matters in the book well enough. But whether he saw the book, I know not; or if he did, whether he gave instructions to such as Dr. Wyllyby delivered the book to. Further, "Mr. Serles was not a knowlegde of the book making."
6. Thinks "they above" knew nothing culpable in my lord except by the book, unless Dr. Wyllyby gave them any instructions by mouth; for he said he was conversant with great men at London. He that drew the greatest part of the book had most of his knowledge by hearsay, but part by his own knowledge. "He was so conversant and so familiar with most men in our house that almost he knew ony thing that was there done."
The like for Canterbury.
1. When one Sir Thomas Cokson heard that Dr. Wyllyby had been with me with such bills as he brought (how he learned Dr. W's object I am not sure, though his coming was no secret), "he went, unknowing unto me (as God shall save me), and drew the book, all saving 2 articles, one concerning images, the other concerning 6 preachers." Knows not who was the beginner here about gathering errors and abuses in preaching and otherwise; but is sure Mr. Thwayttes willed Mr. Parkhurst and himself (W. Gardner) to note errors and abuses and send them to him in writing; otherwise he had never noted them. Thinks that he spake likewise to Mr. Schether. For his own part, gathered but few and sent them to Mr. Thwayttes.
2. Does not remember that any justice or gentleman ever saw that book, but only (except those who subscribed) Mr. Thwaytes and Cyriac Petytt, "they both willing that Dr. Wyllyby should beware how he used himself in that matter and take wise counsel before that he did set it forth. I never heard them say otherwise by that book presented.
3. "I never heard justice, gentleman nor other, condescend unto ony other thing than in heart desirous to have a godly quietness."
4. Knows nothing of indictments and impanelling of quests, but heard Petytt say that one Bugmer of Maidstone should be indicted for speaking against the Sacrament of the Altar, but by whose motion he should be indicted I know not. Heard nothing about the indictment of any other.
5. Knows of no other end they had but without any man's hurt or hindrance to have a godly quietness.
6. In good faith I know not. But, as I have said, Mr. Thwayttes said that he was written unto, and likewise Mr. Herdes saith for his part also, that they should gather such matters as were here abused and worthy to be performed. But who wrote unto them and willed them so to do, of my faith I know not. As concerning the writing of the book only zeal unto quietness moved; which should never have gone forth so far if that Mr. Baker had rebuked us when we were with him, showing unto us the danger thereof.
"By me, William Gardner."
Hol., pp. 5.
x. Headed by Cranmer : Gardiner.
"Articles to be ministered to Mr. Selengar, Parkhurste, Sandewiche and other."
1. Whether they presented to the Abp. of Canterbury the self-same articles contained in the book of complaint, or whether there be more or fewer, or some altered by addition of any words. 2. Whether the witness brought in did prove all the said articles. 3. Why they left out three of the articles before presented. 4. Whether the Abp. rebuked Serls for having preached that images might be permitted in the church as representers of Saints and not idols. 5. Whether the Abp. spoke openly before all the prebendaries and preachers and also openly in his consistory that the King's pleasure was to have three preachers of the new learning and three of the old. 6. Whether Serles and Shether were accused by men noted by common fame to be of evil opinion for preaching, and who they were that accused them ? 7. "Whether the honesty of their audience offered themselves to testify that they were falsely accused and that which was laid against them was not true, and although they were a great number, yet could not be admitted; and who they were that so offered themselves." 8. "Whether false persons, men of ill fame for suspect opinions, though they were but two or three, were admitted." 9. "Whether the said Serls and Shether were innocent preachers, and so, being innocent, were condemned, the one to prison and the other to read a declaration of false surmised articles; and by whom the one was committed to prison." 10. "Whether they that would speak against evil opinions dare not, for if they do they be complained upon and called seditious persons stirring the people to commotion; and by whom they be so called and complained upon." 11. "Whether complaining to their ordinary, at his hands they get nothing but displeasure, and the party evil preaching much favor and boldness; and who hath had displeasure of the ordinary for complaining against evil preachers." 12. "Whether two images of Christ and two of Our Lady, whereunto was neither oblation done nor any light standing, were taken down by the Archbishop's commandment, both by mouth and by letters; and what the effect that the letters were; and for what images and how many images the letters were sent. And where the letters be."
xi. Answers of [W. Gardiner].
1. They presented not this article in writing at that time, sc., "There is none in Heaven but Christ," but by mouth. "There is added to this article 'In the primitive time,' &c., when as the preacher said Of three things he would speak; of the fourth, which was community, he would not speak. He said not 'community of all things,' but 'community,' nothing adding. Wherefore these words 'of all things' are added." "Ad 2m. respondeo. As far as I heard Mr. Schether say, there was nothing proved against him, but all onely by one May of St. John's house and Sir Cherndon parson of St. Alphege's. But now I perceive the contrary, many and divers articles were proved against them, and likewise against Mr. Serles, of the which, before this time I had no knowledge. Now knowing it I confess that article to be false." "Ad 2m. respondeo. Divers articles were proved, but, as I do now know, all were not, although men which were then called to be wytnesse said then as they thought all were proved." 3. Why three of the articles presented were left out, in good faith I know not, and whether any were left out I know not, for I know now (qu. not ?) how many were presented unto my lord's Grace." 4. "He rebuked Mr. Serles for preaching that no idolatry might be done unto an image which represented a Saint." 5. "He had showed unto the King's Highness what he had done in ordaining the 6 preachers, 3 of the new and 3 of the old, and the King was well pleased therewith." 6. "I know no other accusers of them but their witnesse which came against them, and as Mr. Schether said for his and Mr. Serles, for his they were by common fame noted of evil opinions." 7. "There were there which offered themselves, as Mr. Serles did say, to testify for Mr. Serles for his sermon preached at Hotfeld, for the which he was accused; but whether they were with my lord and his officers then examining I know not. They were then ready to testify if they had been called. This I heard Mr. Serles with other say. As for Mr. Schether's sermon which he preached at Norgatt, and for the which he was accused by Sir Cherndon and George May, Mr. Sentleger, Mr. Mylles and I, Wylliam Gardner, testified in his purgation." 8. "We take them to be false persons which do accuse men wrongfully. And as concerning Mr. Schether's sermon made at Norgatt was good, so far as I perceived, and that point that he was accused in by May and Sir Cherndon, wytnesse[s], they did untruly witness against him. And whereas they two, which were judged to be of opinion not best, for the one proved by the effect which followed, in that he refused to be anhelyd at his death, the other stonding yet now in trial for absolution. One in the sacrament of penance whan hyt (?) is ministered by the priest or no, show themselves by the effects of opinion not best; and as the voice then went they were not of best opinion. Yet were they ayenst Mr. Schether admitted, as Mr. Schether said. And likewise Mr. Serles said that 4 honest substantial men of Hotfeld came in to testify ayenst his wytnesse for his sermon made there was good and Christian. They were not admitted. Whether they were with my lord or not I cannot say. I can say no more herein than I heard them say." 9. "They were innocent preachers, so far as ever we could judge and gather of their preaching, and, as far as we can learn abroad, the most of their audience well contented with them. Therefore we call them innocent preachers, not worthy to be accused; of whom both, Mr. Serles was prisoned, and he said that he was so for his preaching; for my lord, before the Council, objected unto him his preaching, after he was returned from the North, (fn. 70) and thereupon, he said, he was committed unto prison." 10. "Some of their audience, not contented with their sermon, do name the preacher seditious and are ready to complain, and that maketh men afraid to preach." 11. "Of none other occasion we take this article to be true but all onely by cause certain have been presented unto his Grace, as Mr. Rydley and Scory, and not caused to recant; whereas these forenamed Serles and Schether, have been corrected; by reason whereof, seeing that certain matters have been sith preached, by the said Scory chiefly, and somewhat by Mr. Rydley, we judge that they ar in that that were hytherto sufferyd withowt correctyon to be the bolder." 12. "The tenor of my lord's Grace's letter : 'As I [am] credibly informed, there be certain images within my church abused and made the images of our Our Lady. Wherefore I will you to take them down.' As nigh as I can remember, this was the tenor of the letter. The letter Doctor Champyon had."
In Gardiner's hand, pp. 2.
xii. "Interrogatories for Gardiner."
1. "How many bokes he knoweth have made (sic) of complaynts in this diocese and delivered to any of the Council." 2. What time the book was first delivered to Dr. Willoughby, and what time it was after subscribed, and what time he, with Mr. Parkhurst and Mr. Shether, were sent for to come up to London. 3. What time he commanded young Thacker to ride straightways to the Bp. of Winchester if the Archbishop of Canterbury did send for this deponent, and for what purpose he so commanded him, and what he willed him to say to the Bp. of Winchester, and what comfort he looked for at his hands. 4. What time the book called "the unperfite boke" was delivered to Petitt. 5. What was the tenor of the last letter of Mr. Shether to the Bp. of Winchester. 6. What notes he wrote for Mr. Shether. 7. What he can say further of the Archbp's lecture ad Hæbraos. 8. What communication he had with Petitt of the article of the Sacrament of the Altar presented against Scory.
Replies to the preceding.
1. Knows but of one book delivered to Dr. Wyllyby, but knows not whether he delivered it to the Council or not. Knew of another book that he delivered, but not until he had done so, and of its contents he knows but little. 2. In the Easter week the book was delivered to Dr. Wyllyby and with[in ?] four weeks after subscribed; "and upon St. George's day, Mr. Parkhurst, Mr. Schether and I were in London with Mr. Baker." 3. Willed young Thaccher to ride, if need had been, to my lord of Winchester when Mr. Serles and Mr. Scory were last in indurance," supposing that I was like to be troubled for my preaching, desiring my lord to write unto my lord's Grace in my favor. 4 . "Unto the lecture ad Hæbraos I can say no more. I heard no man speak of it." 5 . "I said unto Mr. Petitt, concerning Scory's words for the Sacrament of the Altar, 'I would to Jesu he had never spake these words that he did speak. I had rather than much money it had not been my chance to have heard him. For by God I am as loth to hurt him by my word as to hurt any man. He can do well if he will, and so well as none better, if he list.'"
Pp. 2. The interrogatories (which are not numbered) are in Cranmer's hand, the replies in Gardiner's.
xiii. William Gardiner to Dr. Ley.
"Right worshipful Master Doctor, at my last being with my lord I received certain interrogatories at his hand, and his Grace willed me, immediately upon the receipt of them, to make answer to them. And so did I." But since then I have remembered "that certain of them concerned the book presented, unto whom (sic) my hand is set." Must stand in conscience as he may to those articles to which his hand is set, but cannot remember how many he set his hand to. Thinks, not to so many as the book shows which my lord's Grace laid before him. Begs him, as the time was very short when he made his answer to the last interrogatories and he was slack of memory, but now remembers better, that he will cancel that answer and accept this in its place for his full reply.
Hol., p. 1. Add. at p. 236 :—To the right worshipful Mr. Dr. Ley.
[W. Gardiner to Cranmer.]
xiv. When I was with your Grace last at Bekesborne, 17 Nov., your Grace ministered to me certain interrogatories, "unto whom, because I then lacked time and leisure, also I had not mine answer so wholly in memory as I now have." Begs him therefore to accept this fuller answer :—
1. As far as he knows, all or most part of the articles against Rydley and Scory were proved; if not, is assured "that enow will say that they were by them preached." 2. As to the words "Community of all things" does not remember whether the words of all things were presented. 3. As to articles added or diminished, knows of none in the book against Rydley and Scory, save one added, viz., "There is none in Heaven but Christ." In the book against my lord's Grace "the article of manne place, also of an indifferent judge, are out of the book presented unto Mr. Baker, as I do now remember." 4. Whether all these articles were presented in writing or no :—Mr. Sentleger and Mr. Parkhurst, presenters against Mr. Rydley and Mr. Scory, can make clearer answer than I, but I answer as I have heard and know. Mr. Sentleger and Mr. Parkhurst did not present them in writing, all at one time, for one lacked, viz., "There is none in heaven but Christ." That article was left out at first for lack of witnesses. But afterwards when your Grace, being at London, sent to us to inquire whether it was preached or no, where and by whom and what witnesses could be found to it, "we, accompanied together, Mr. Sentleger with the rest, in our chapter house, did examine Mardon and Colman, two of our vicars. They heard it preached by Mr. Scory at St. Alphege's in Canterbury; and upon their testifying we sent up letters unto your Grace thereof, and the witnesses' names thereafter."
5. Whereas Mr. Serles had preached (as presented) "that no idolatry might be to an image of Our Lady," etc., for all images were representers of Saints and no idols, your Grace said all images were idols, and when Serles said Nay, asked "What is ydolum ?" Serles said Ydolum nihil est. Your Grace replied that "ydolum and imago in Greek was one." Then said Gardner "Pleaseth your Grace I think nay; for an idol is that thing which hath given unto him such honor as is due unto God or unto some Saint." Then said my lord "You know not the Greek; ydolum and imago are all one." "My lord," said Gardner, although I know not the Greek, yet I trust I know the truth, and that by St. Paul, rehearsing Rom. i."
6. "Item, 6 preachers, 3 of the old, 3 of the new, &c. Then said Gardner 'My lord, that is a mean to set us at variance!' My lord said, 'The King's pleasure is to have it so.' We therewith were contented. My lord, when I was last with your Grace and made answer unto this article, your Grace said unto me that you said thus : 'I have showed the King's Grace what I had done, and he was well pleased.' These words now last rehearsed I wrote in mine answer at that time, but yet not denying the other, which I have now rehearsed before; for of my conscience you did speak them. And therefore, although I did not put them into mine answer then, yet I trust you will not so take me, nor cannot so take me that I deny that. I did put the words which your Grace said that you said, not denying the other, to content your Grace's mind; for almost they be one in effect."
7. "I call them innocent preachers against whom no fault justly can be found for preaching. But as for these two, Serles and Schether's sermons with us in our church preached, the most of our church will testify to be good, godly and quiet. In the country also, where they have been, their audience have likewise reported of them both by word, also by writing. Wherefore, seeing they have preached so that their audience is godly edified by them, and the King's ordinance quietly set forth, we do name them innocent preachers without fault for their preaching."
8. "Item, the one was prisoned. Reverend father, although unto this article I made answer that he was prisoned (as by your relation I then had knowledge, and not of mine own knowledge, for who did put him to prison I know not, but all onely by your Grace's saying), My lord, this is true; he was prisoned, and, as he said divers times, his imprisonment was at your Grace's complaint made for his preachings. And, my lord, so far as we have heard and known by credible persons, his preachings were godly. Therefore we judged that those which accused him unto your Grace in their accusations did injustly."
9. Item, such as would speak against evil opinions dare not, &c. Who name them sedytyusse? I answer, Part of their audience. When I was last with your Grace at Lambeth on Passion Week was 12 months, your Grace did speak unto me for my preaching in Canterbury a little before, and said that you were informed that I had made a seditious sermon in Canterbury. I said unto your Grace, My lord, I know that there be in Canterbury which would be glad to vex me. I trust you will believe the truth; for every one that hath accused me I shall bring 6 to witness for my quiet preaching. And truly my sermon then was ayenst such as seemed not to favor the erection of images.
10. Item, when we preach we be called knaves, Mr. Mylles, Mr. Serlles, Mr. Schether and I, and it is said that one of us doth confirm another in the pulpit and that that good preachers have done before we pull back. Verba Jherom Oxynbrigge. Teste Boydon.
11. Item, whereas we take wytnesse for accusers, and am in the terme dys ceyvyd (as your Grace doth say), I shall desire your Grace to show the accusers of them and of us. And of this we be well assured that there be enow that will declare unto your Grace what and of what qualities they be, which do accuse. For this we require the report of the town and the country.
[Here a blank leaf intervenes.]
12. "Item, evil preachers be more bolder, &c. Who doth bold them? I answer, Slack correction; for if these and such as have been accused for evil preaching had been corrected, other reformed, they would have been more wary than they have been in setting forth their evil sayings. What they have preached, by bills now unto your Grace presented, it doth now appear. And such as have no bills, as Mr. Launcelot Rydly, agenst him presented yet, Mr. Mylles and I heard certain wytnesse say that he did preach in Asche parish church on Passion Monday last was 12 months that prayer for souls departed availed nothing; wherewith were divers offended, as the witness said."
13. "Item, what favor have they at their ordinary's hand? We name them to have favor, which, being as, or more faulty than other, were not punished, and other punished, as Mr. Schether, which was punished, and Mr. Serles, as he saith, for preaching, and not Mr. Rydley and Mr. Scory. And whether thorough the none punishment of these Rydley and Scory, other, other by favor or otherwise showed by my lord's Commissary, favor hath been showed unto some which have not preached all the best, I put it unto the report of the country."
14. "Item, what displeasure, if we do complain, we have at our ordinary's hand. My lord, we take heavy and displeasant words for the very act of displeasure. For if a great man speak a word of his displeasure unto a mean man, it pricketh the mean man, and troubleth him greatly. Why? He is not able to bear it. But your Grace (as Mr. Schether told unto me) when he received his injunction at your Grace's hand at Croydon that your Grace did say That you would be even with me and that shortly, because I reasoned for Serle's part in your Grace's Chamber. You said likewise unto Mr. Sentleger, which was a presenter ayenst Rydley and Scory 'You make a bend, do you? I will break your bend, ewysse, and I will make you leave your mumpsimus.'"
15. "Item, images four were taken down, partly by your Grace's letters, partly by your Commissioners' commandment, in Christchurch. The tenor of your letters by whom three of them were taken down was this :—' I am credibly informed that these images be abused.' After these words thus it followed, as I do remember :—' Wherefore I will that you take them down.' And so they were, Dr. Champyon there being and having the letter. Dr. Thornden can declare how the image of Christ over the first mass altar was taken down, and he with other prebendaries and petty canons can declare that they were not abused. And Dr. Thornden, as he often times did say, would speak unto your Grace for the image of Christ over the first mass altar. Well, he that informed your Grace these images to be abused, which were not so, is worthy fault (?)."
Reverend father, if that I have insufficiently answered unto any of these interrogatories then when I was last with your Grace at Bekesborne, the 17th of November, whom I cannot now call into my remembrance, I shall desire your Grace to be always assured that I will at all times stand unto every article in the book whereunto my hand is set, and whom I know to be presented unto the hands of Mr. Baker; and unto such articles I shall be ready to answer at your Grace's commandment, forasmuch as I have done nothing of malice and displeasure, but only upon my conscience and upon a godly zeal towards a Christian quietness, nothing desirous of hurt or hindrance unto ony man.
Per me, Will'm Gardner, clericum.
As God doth know.
"Father, although upon my conscience and upon a good zeal I have done this, yet I am sorry, as I have oftentimes said and written, that I have so displeased your Grace, desiring you, as always I have, to remit of your charity my unkindness."
Hol., pp. 6. With two marginal annotations in Cranmer's hand.
XXII. Packet, marked "D.— Shether," containing the following :—
i. About Rogation week was twelve month Mr. Serles, coming to Oxford, said to me that when I came to Canterbury I should hear of many sermons that had been made there at Canterbury at the which I would much wonder of, and namely he spoke of a sermon Mr. Brook made, as I think, in the which he named the ceremonies of the Church beggarly.
I wrote to Dr. Willybye by the advice of Mr. Parkhurst and Gardener that I thought that at Dr. Cockes coming to London he should be sought for; wherefore I willed him to repair to some other his friends, or to the Court that he might make answer there, also advertising him that if he were examined he should require to see authority from the Council, before whom the matter is known, before that he answered in it. And in case he answered, I said that he might say he had the book of Mr. Coxston, whereas he had it of Master Gardener. And at my last being in London I heard that Mr. Gardener was in ward, whereupon I would have had his servant to carry a letter of it to my lord of Winchester, but he said it could not be; whereupon I ceased.
"By me, Edmond Shether."
ii. "At my coming to Canterbury after that I was come from Oxford,
Coxston, petty canon of Christchurch, showed me Mr. Scory's and Ridle's
articles, asking me whether they were not the articles that were objected to
them; and I said that, as far as I remembered, they were the same. And
then he asked me whether I did see any witness that came in to depose for
Mr. Searles. And I said that I did see three, the which, Mr. Serles said,
came to depose for him, but where they dwelt I said I could not tell; and
finally he desired me to keep it in remembrance that I did see them. And
so we departed."
Shortly afterwards Mr. Gardiner showed me the same articles of Mr. Scory and Ridley, and others joined to them touching my lord's Grace, of which many referred to a communication between my lord and Gardiner. He asked me how I liked them. I said they were well penned, but I could say nothing to them because I had not heard of many of the matters; but if he would let me copy them out I would note more in them. And in copying them I noted that my lord had caused me to recant, which I said was not true. So the article was amended in that point and we talked no more of that matter.
After this Mr. Williby, about the Parliament time, came to Mr. Gardener, and after communication they had together (by chance, I cannot tell how) we met together talking of the Parliament, and I heard Mr. Williby say that he would take upon him to be the only doer in the matter. And he said that he doubted not but that he and such as disclosed erroneous doctrine and the authors of the same should have great thanks. The same time Mr. Gardiner sent to me for the copy of the articles that I had, and so I sent it by Mr. Coxston to him; and so Mr. Williby had them, but for what purpose I did not know, as I did not know scant the said Williby, nor never spake many words with him. Shortly after Mr. Williby wrote a letter to Mr. Gardener, the contents whereof I cannot tell, but upon the receipt thereof Mr. Gardener said that Mr. Williby desired to have the articles subscribed, to the intent it might be known what witness would depose in every article; and so, to as many as I could testify I subscribed withou ony further meddling in the matter.
After this Mr. Dean of Christchurch wrote to me that he was commanded by one of the King's Privy Council to require Mr. Serles (if he were at Canterbury) and me to come as secretly as we might to London. And when I came to him to the King's Court I asked him whether my lord's Grace of Canterbury did send for me or no, and he said nay, he knew not of it. And bidding me tarry unto that he had spoken with one, when he returned again to me he willed Mr. Parkhurst, Mr. Gardener and me to repair to Mr. Baker; and so we did. When we came to Mr. Baker he said to us thus :—'The King's grace hath delivered me a book which he hath perused himself, and because he perceiveth that you three (and wished also for Mr. Serles) can say somewhat in it, he willeth you to say what you know, fearing no person, but to dread only one God and one King.' Whereupon we took the book and drew out such articles as we could witness of, and, delivering him the book, said that although we three present could not witness in the articles he had delivered us, yet there was in Canterbury that could witness of them. Upon which word he willed us to go to Canterbury, and me (because I was youngest) to return again, after that I had made the book perfect in the day and year and caused it to be subscribed, and to bring him the book again perfectly made. And so we, departing from Mr. Baker, went to the Bishop of Winchester and showed him what Mr. Baker had said to us. And he, perusing the book we had made, leaving out the articles that were touching the communication that was betwixt my lord's Grace and Mr. Gardener only, he said it was well enough, and so bade us go again to Mr. Baker and tell him that he said so. Upon which words we returned to Mr. Baker, and after we had declared to him my lord of Winchester's mind he received the book, and so we took our leave of him.
At this time my lord of Winchester asked me what the articles were that my lord's Grace of Canterbury objected to me and I showed him the articles and the declaration my lord's Grace enjoined me; at the which he only mused a season and said nothing; and, as he went to talk with other, we took our leave of him.
At this our being in London Mr. Serles also sent me a letter, showing that he could not conveniently come to London; in the which letter he willed us that were there to cause Dr. Thornden to be called before the Council, saying that Mr. Napper of Oxon had told him that if the said Dr. Thornden were called, he would tell a knavish tale of my lord's Grace (as I think those were his terms), and in the same letter he willed us to repair to Dr. London at Silver Street; but we did not so, but departed out of London.
And within little more than a week after, Mr. Serles, coming from Oxon to Canterbury, said to me that he spake at London with Mr. Baker, who willed me to come to him and to bring the book formably drawn according as he willed me. At the which message I marvelled greatly and rode up to London to him, carrying with me the names of the witnes to every article, showing him that he willed me not at our departing to draw the book in ony other manner of form; with the which answer he was contented. And there declaring to him that Mr. Batterst of Canterbury said, in the time that we were at London, that both Mr. Gardener and I should quail (quail) for their persons (parson's) trouble, in entreating of certain articles of Sir Bland and other, he said that it were well done that one book were made of all such articles as were detected, and told me that Dr. London had made a perfect book, and said that I should do well to declare to my lord of Winchester Mr. Batterst's words and Sir Bland's article of Missa non est sacrificium pro peccatis; adding, moreover, that I should note as diligently as I could the chiefest fautours and bearers of erroneous doctrine and mark their names; and so I departed from him.
After this I went to my lord of Winchester and showed him the witnesses' names of every article, and also of Mr. Batterst's words; unto the which he said only he mused that Mr. Batterst would so use himself. And I delivered him Sir Blande's bill subscribed with his hand concerning the article Missa non est sacrificium, &c., and he reserved the bill; and so I left him. And going to Dr. London I showed him the copy of the book that we had delivered to Mr. Baker; the which he said he was glad to see because of the witnes whose names he caused to be copied out. And after he showed me the manner of making of his book, which was a great thing, and had articles I had not before heard of. But I departed from him and went home.
After that I had returned to Canterbury, Coxson, petty canon, drew another book of certain fawtors and bearers, containing many articles uncertainly conceived and not perfectly proved; the which Mr. Parkhurst, Mr. Gardener, I and other (but I remember not well who) sent up by my servant to Mr. Williby that he should show them to my lord at Winchester; who sent it down again because it was unperfect. The which book Mr. Petit heard of, and as he went to London he said he would needs have it with him to show to Mr. Baker. And whereas I declared to him that it was unperfect and uncertain, he said that he would declare that to Mr. Baker by mouth and do no more but show him the book and send it again. But afterward he wrote a letter to Mr. Gardener from London that he had delivered the book to Mr. Baker; but what is done with it I cannot tell. And this is all that I can call to remembrance in this matter since the time that I was sworn and commanded upon my allegiance to declare the circumstans of this matter.
"By me Edmond Shether."
Hol., pp. 4. With marginal annotations by Cranmer.
iii. Edmund Shether to —
Declareth unto your Mastership your orator, Edmond Shether, that I was present when Dr. Ridley preached that auricular confession was but an human institution and ordained as a godly mean only for the penitent to receive good counsel of the priest. Also I heard Mr. Scory preach that such as prayed in an unknown tongue not perceiving what they said prayed to their damnation. Also he preached the same time that in the primitive Church were used prayer, breaking of bread and community of all things; of the which he said the first two were yet continued in the Church of Christ, but the last he said he would not speak of. Also I heard him preach in St. Alphege's in Canterbury that there is none in Heaven but Christ only. Which other of the articles I heard I do not remember.
Also on Trinity Sunday was twelve months, when many the prebendaries and preachers were present I heard my lord's Grace say (fn. 68) to Master Serles in reasoning of the images in the Church that imago and idolum is one thing, for the one is the Latin and the other is the Greek. (fn. 68) Unto the which words Mr. Gardener said that he did not think that an image and an idol is one, but that an image abused with honor not due to it is an idol and an image that is not abused with honor is an image and not an idol.
Also the same day my lord's Grace said that he had set in Christchurch six preachers, three of the Old learning and three of the New; (fn. 68) and whereas Master Gardener said that he thought not that to be for the most quietness in preaching my lord said that he had showed the King's Grace what he had done in that matter, and that the King's pleasure was that it should be so.
Also my lord's Grace commanded the same day that none should envey against others in their sermons. And this is all I remember of those articles. And for me to say wherein I think my lord's Grace culpable in this or any other thing, I can affirm nothing, for I never purposed ony manner of persons reproof; but for as much as errors and evil opinions were so much commyned of, and I perceived that many articles were disclosed out of this diocese touching Joanne Barnes, Sir Giles of Barram, Sir Turner, Sir Bland, Bukmer, Anthony Parson and other, after that Mr. Baker had required me to say my mind in the articles he purposed, and willed me to mark the chiefest fawtours of new opinions as nigh as I could, I did write such things as I did hear, to know what proof could be of the same, to the intent that so all contention of opinions might the rather cease always so far as I might help and unity and quietness continue here as in other parts of this realm. "By me Edmond Schether."
Hol., p. 1. Headed by Cranmer : Shether, and marked by him in one place in the margin.
Strype's Cranmer, 775.
iv. Edmond Schether to [Cranmer].
By the articles which Mr. Joseph mentioned, I think your Grace has both the articles signed by the witnesses and the other articles I noted since, "as I heard by Mr. Gardiner, Coxton, Morice and others." Many of these last articles were of the book presented to my lord of Winchester as unperfect, as indeed many could never be justified (fn. 71) and therefore my lord of Winchester sent it back as appears in my first declaration, "and it was never willed to be showed as true." (fn. 72) If I offended in noting these articles after being desired by Mr. Baker "to mark the chiefest fautors of new opinions," I beg for mercy and that after my long and solitary durance I may have meals in company and, "being so nigh my chamber," may remain in it and pass the time with my own books. My whole trust is in your Grace : and gentle Mr. Doctor's (fn. 73). I meekly beseech you both to declare your pity in releasing my sorrows shortly. I beg to know your Grace's pleasure and whether you have the book subscribed by the witnesses; "for although that, in the copy of my brother's hand were the articles that touched your Lordship, yet in the other book it appeareth who hath subscribed to other articles of Mr. Drome and Mr. Scory (fn. 72) and other which I do not remember." Undated.
Hol., p. 1. Passages underlined by Cranmer and annotated in the margin.
v. Protest by N., (fn. 74) preacher of Christchurch, Canterbury, called to answer
before Thomas Abp. of Canterbury by untrue articles, for his preaching at
Sandwich, where he did preach the day and year specified, but what he said
"the said 24th day" was "that not only such as were baptised, having the
use of reason, were purged both from original and actual sin, but also
infants were purged from original sin by virtue of the same sacrament."
vi. "Edmond Schether's answer to the 13 articles." See Part X.
1. I know not the beginners of these matters at London, but think Mr. Serles talked of them with Dr. London as he came from Canterbury to Oxford, and also that Mr. Williby moved such matters much there "by reason he said that he had spoken with many of the King's Council in it (fn. 71) and that he would take upon him to be the whole setter forth of the matter. After the which words Mr. Baker did send for Mr. Parkurst, Mr. Gardener and me." 2. "I know none that gave counsel there, but I think that Mr. Williby did much of his own head." 3. "I know not who conferred there in the matter otherwise than I have said that Mr. Baker showed us the book, the which my lord of Winchester read and Dr. London took the names of the witness[es] of the same." 4. "I know no ground they had, but I think that the coming of Sir Turner and Sir Anthony Person and other out of other dioceses into this, and the resort that was so far off to Sir Turner's sermons, and the subscribing of Sir Bland to his articles, as it is said, and the reading of Sir Anthony Person of the Bible and other, with adding their expositions to the same, was a great occasion of it." 5. "I know not who declared any ground there, but I think Mr. Williby showed the book and moved the matter much there." 6. "I know no matters ony in London knoweth my lord's Grace culpable in; but in such articles as Master Baker willed us to say what we heard we did."
[7.] (fn. 75) 1. I know not the beginner of it in Canterbury, but I suspect Mr. Coxston and Mr. Gardener, by reason that Coxston did use to write all such matters, and many articles of the book were known only to Mr. Gardener. As for other matter the fame was great. 2. I know none that was promoter but Mr. Gardener and Williby as touching the book before such time that it was subscribed; then the witness[es] were all of counsel that Mr. Williby had the book. 3. Mr. Gardener and Williby conferred together before Mr. Williby received the book, and after such as subscribed talked of the articles sometime and of other articles as we heard them spoken. 4. I know no ground but I think, as I have said in the 4th article above and also because the prorses (sic) against Mr. Rydley and Scory went not forth as against Mr. Serles and me; also because Joan Barnes, Gilles Barram, Bukmer, and other, of whom much talking was of (sic), were not punished; and other matters which I remember not, that men said were much borne. 5. I do not know what knowledge other men had. 6. I have heard men say many things, as that my lord did know of Bukmer's opinion, of Joan Barnes' opinion, that Gilles of Barram used the office of a priest being no priest, and other things which were not reformed, but these things many were done before I came into these parts, and wherein my lord's Grace is culpable it is not in me to say, nor I know not what other do know my lord to be culpable in. 8. The last time I was at London with Mr. Baker I went to Mr. Moyle (fn. 76) to show him also, as to Dr. London, the article of Sir Bland quod missa non est sacrificium pro peccatis. And when I showed Mr. Moile the said article he said Alas, is then more articles yet against him? He hath too many already. And by reason it was then night I d[id] only drink with him, and he said he would help to a quietness as much as in him lay in these matters; and so I departed from him. Also Mr. Gardener showed me that he had delivered certain articles to Mr. Thwattes, to whom I sent at Dr. Cokes coming by the advice of Mr. Gardener to have a bill which they of St. George's had put up to him, to the intent it might be presented to Dr. Cokes. And he sent it me with mo bills which were presented before to the said Dr. Cokes. As for ony communication, I never heard them say but that they trusted we should have a quietness of opinions and that all things should be well; I know not with whom other have spoken in these matters. 9. I know not to what things they have conduced unto. 10. I know nothing that Petit hath done but that he delivered the book Coxston wrote last and gave it to Master Baker contrary to his promise made to Mr. Gardener and me, which told him that it was unperfect and not proved in many points. (fn. 77) Also one night at Mr. Parkurste's at supper, talking of the sessions of the Six Articles he read a form or copy of an indictment having no man's name, nor I know not why he read it but only to show, as I think, a form of such indictments as were used at the Six Articles. 11. I know no man that ever intended onything than to have a unity and quietness in opinions and all contention to cease. 12. I cannot say of other men, but after that Mr. Baker willed me to note the chiefest bearers and authors of new opinions, methought I could do no less but write such things as I heard. And therefore I can say little in this matter but as I see my writing to put me in remembrance.
"Whether I spake of ony such thing at Charing I cannot tell; but I remember that at Mr. Parkhurst's table in Canterbury, as one spake of preaching in Thanet, I said (as it is true indeed) that I was never there since I came into Kent, but because I heard the country so greatly commended I said I longed to go thither. Upon which words Mr. Milles, I think, said : Why, let us four, Mr. Gardener, I, Mr. Serles and you go thither one day; and because there be eight churches, let us preach two sermons apiece, and so in all the churches in one day. And after we will make merry thereabout a day or two and come home again. Here is all the intents and prorses I know was had in the same, nor I never heard more of it; or if I spake of it at Charing it was by reason that the vicar of Charing desired me to preach at his benefice there, that I told him what we talked of Thanet one day, but I do not well remember it."
Pp. 2. With marginal notes in Cranmer's hand.
vii. "Interrogatories to Shether and other."
1. Whether they presented to the Abp. of Canterbury the selfsame articles contained in the book of complaint, or whether there be more or fewer, or some altered by addition of words. 2. Whether the witnesses brought in did prove all the said articles. 3. Wherefore they left out three articles that before were presented. 4. Whether the Abp. of Canterbury did rebuke Serlis for preaching that images might be permitted in the Church as representers of Saints and not idols. 5. Whether the Abp. spoke openly before all the prebendaries and preachers there and also openly in his consistory that the King's pleasure was to have three preachers of the new learning and three of the old. 6. Whether Serlis and Shether were accused by men who were noted by common fame as of evil opinion for preaching, and who they were that accused them. 7. Whether the honest of their audience offered to testify that they were falsely accused; "and although they were a great number, yet could they not be admitted; and who they were that so offered themselves. And whether they offered themselves, or Serlis required them to be examined and could not have them admitted." 8. "Whether false persons, men of evil fame for suspect opinions, though they were but two or three, were admitted, and by whom they were suspected; and whether any objection was made against those suspect persons before the judges." 9. "Whether Serles and Schether were innocent preachers, and so being innocent were condemned, the one to prison and the other to read a declaration of false surmised articles, and by whom the one was committed to prison." 10. "Whether they that would speak against evil opinions dare not, for if they do they be complained on and called seditious persons stirring the people to commotion, and by whom they be so called." 11. "Whether complaining to their ordinary, at his hands they get nothing but displeasure and the party evil preaching much favor and boldness; and who hath had displeasure of the ordinary for complaining against evil preachers; and what ill preachers have had favor and boldness therein at the ordinary's hands." 12. "Whether two images of Christ and two of Our Lady, whereunto was neither oblation done nor any light standing, were taken down by the Archbishop's commandment, both by mouth and by letters, and what the effect of the King's letters was." 13. What word Mr. Bacar sent from London by Serlis. 14. What book it was that was last sent to Dr. Willoughby by Shether's servant; what the matter thereof was and when it was made and sent. 15. Wherefore they advised Shether to write to Dr. Willoughby to get him out of the way and to repair to the Court or to some other of his friends. 16. What indictment that was which Parkehurst read one night at supper when they talked of the Sessions of the Six Articles; whose indictment it was and where he had it. 17. Whether Mr. Bacar said to Parkehurst, Gardiner and Shether, when they were at London, that there should be a commission in Kent shortly. 18. What names he wrote the same time to be in the commission. 19. Whether Mr. Thwaites said at divers times that they should still from time to time mark what was preached and say nothing, but note it and send it to him. 20. What times the same was spoken, and whether he said it was Master Bacar's counsel. 21. How many books were delivered to Petit. 22. "Whether one book was made wherein was this article That the Archbishop did say that he would defend Scory and Ridle's opinions." 23. "Where that book is become and what time it was made." 24. "Whether Parkehurst and Gardiner have commoned with Petit that the Commissary and other of evil opinions and despisers of the laudable ceremonies would not have been so bold if they had not been comforted by my lord." 25. "Whether they with Serlis and Shether have communed, Petit being present, that Markham, steward to the Archbishop, was abjured, and what knowledge they have thereof." 26. "To whom they sent to procure that the Archbishop of Canterbury should be no Commissioner nor know the witness[es], and wherefore they so wrote or sent." 27. "What day and year Gardener first showed Shether the book made against the Archbishop of Canterbury." 28. "Whether the book delivered by Mr. Bacar from the King was the selfsame book that was after subscribed and delivered to Master Bakar again." 29. "Why they left not out of the book the communication between Gardener and the Archbishop of Canterbury, as the bishop of Winchester required them." 30. "Where is that perfaite book which Mr. Baker told you that Dr. London had made, and what articles were therein." 31. "Item, the book last made and sent to him by his servant, where it is or the copy thereof, and what was contained therein; and when it was sent up to Dr. Willoughby and when it was delivered to Petitt." 32. "Who gave him this counsel that if he were examined he should require to see authority from the Council before whom the matter is known, before that he answered in it." 33. What letters he sent to the Bp. of Winchester by young Thatcher. 34. What notes did Gardiner write for him.
Pp. 3. With heading and interlineations in Cranmer's hand.
viii. "Edmond Schether's Answer unto 34 Articles."
Cannot depose to 1, 2 and 3, but by relation of Mr. Parkhurst, Master Sentleger and other." 4. "I heard my lord's Grace rebuke Mr. Serles for that he preached so much of images, and my lord said that imago and idolum was one, but I remember not that my lord's Grace rebuked him for these words rehearsed in the article." 5. "I heard my lord's Grace say in his chamber before many his prebendaries and preachers that the King's pleasure was to have three preachers of the new learning and three of the old, but I heard not these words spoken in the Consistory." 6. "I know not who accused them, nor whether they were suspect for evil opinions." 7. "I did see three which came voluntarily to testify for Mr. Serles, which could not be admitted, as Master Serles said. Also I required that the vicar of Northgat, Master Sellenger, Mr. Gardener [and] Coxston might be examined, in my first article namely; but by reason of delay the said vicar was wearied and not examined, and whether the other were examined or no I cannot tell." 8. "In the deposition of my first article then objected was admitted George May and Sir Humfrey Cherdeyn, persons suspect for evil opinions by common fame, and certain which deposed against Mr. Serles were likewise suspect, and before sentens I desired my lord's Grace to have respect to the persons that did depose." 9. "I think them innocent preachers, and I did read a declaration of articles surmised against me; but by whom Serles was committed to prison I cannot tell." 10. "By reason that I and Serles were willed to read declarations in the which it was mentioned that those words which we said were seditiousl[y] spoken, I think the occasion of my accusation did rise because that I did sometimes speak against evil opinions; and therefore I have spoken the less against the same, because I would avoid like occasion; and further I cannot say in the article. 11. Sir Bland, Sir Turner, Mr. Scory, have be noted much bolder since the time of the said accusation, upon what occasion else I know not, and who hath had displeasure for complaining I cannot tell." 12. "I know nother of the images nor of the letters." 13. "Mr. Baker sent me word (as I remember) that he marvelled I tarried so long and did not bring the book perfectly made, and he sent no other word that I know." 14. "The same book which was delivered after to Petyt containing many articles unproved; and this book was sent Mr. Williby to show to my lord of Winchester about Corpus Christi day." 15. "By the advice of Mr. Parkurst and Gardener I wrote that day that Dr. Cockes last departed from Canterbury to Mr. Willibye, that he should absent himself, so that he should not be spoken with all for to know by him the author of the book, that he should say that it was of Coxston's doing. And because many articles of the book concerned my lord's Grace himself they willed him to absent himself." 16. "There was a copy of an indictment read one night at Mr. Parkurst's at supper by Petite without ony name; but wherefore I know not." 17, 18. "I heard him affirm no commission to be sent, but he noted many gentlemen's names whom I know not, saving Mr. Moyle, Mr. Grene, Mr. Twattes (as I remember)." 19, 20. "I heard him not say so." 21. "I delivered one book to Petite by the advice of Mr. Gardener; which book (as I have said) was of Coxston's hand and draught, and contained many articles unproved." 22. "I think the same article was in it in such form as in the book of the articles written with my brother's hand." 23. "It was made after that I was with Mr. Baker the second time; but where the book is I know not, but Petit said he would not deliver it, but only show it and send it again." 24. "I have not heard them comyn of it." 25. "I heard not of it, nor know whether it be so or no." 26. "They desired the same of Mr. Baker by me because many articles touched my lord." 27. "I know not the day, but it was about Rogation week, as I think." 28, 29. "It was not one book, for there was certain articles touching the communciation between my lord's Grace and Mr. Gardener left out because it was only one man's saying." 30. "It is in Dr. London's hand (as I think) for I did but see it." 31. "I know not where Petit hath done it, nor what is contained therein, for Coxston noted many articles which I know not; but I think it was delivered Petit about Trinity Sunday last." 32. "Master Gardener willed that counsel to be given him." 33, 34. "He sent letters declaring who fare (how far) Serles and I were in our prorses (sic) now last made before my lord's Grace, and the nottes were that diligent inquiry was made of the book. Also that some were examined of the articles of the said book. Also that some had answered affirmatively in many points, and in many points negatively. Also that Coortope was in ward, and I remember no mo of the nottes; but as for other letter I sent none." "By me, Edmond Shether."
Hol., pp. 3.
ix. Draft of the preceding in Shether's hand, with corrections. Article 4
originally stood as follows :—
"I heard my lord's Grace rebuke Mr. Serles for that he had preached so much of images, and my lord's Grace said that idolum and imago was one, for the one was the Greek word and the other the Latin. Otherwise I know not that I did rebuke him, and I heard not my lord's Grace rebuke him for those words."
x. Interrogatories. Headed : Mr. Shether.
1. Whether your servant rode in post to my lord of Winchester by your commandment, or by whose commandment else, and for what purpose he was sent; and what letters and answer you received from him and by whom. 2. What letters or answer you received from Forde, your brother-in-law, one of the Privy Seal, and what his letters or answer did purport and by whom you received them. 3. "What the effect of the letter was, that Dr. Barbour sent unto your brother Forde, and what answer your said brother Forde sent you after the receipt of the same, and by whom you were answered." 4. "What Mr. Moris, the chauntry priest of the hospital of St. Thomas, did move you unto, and what writings you received of his hand since Easter, or at any time before or since, and from whom those writings came." 5. "Of whom he heard say that my lord Chancellor should leave his room and that Mr. Baker should be my lord Chancellor."
Replies :—1. I commanded him not, nor know who commanded him, but after I came out of ward he told me that he had been with my lord of Winchester, "who said that I was a child in that I wept before my lord's Grace; but he bade me be of good comfort, for I should find him good lord unto me at my need. And as for the letters I received none from him." 2. Received no letters from him but my servant told me that he (Mr. Forde) said "that if my lord's Grace willed me to recant I should not do it but be content to die rather, and that he trusted to make some friends to the King's Grace for my life." 3. "I know of none that Dr. Barbour sent nor received answer of ony by ony man of ony his writing." 4. "I remember nothing that Mr. Morish moved me unto, but he brought me twice articles, &c., that Mr. Topstes was a common lodger of suspected persons for evil opinions, as of Sir Turner, Sir Bland, Gilles of Barram. Item, that Sir Bing was a reader of the Bible in corners. Item, that one Mr. Oxenden should report that when Mr. Commissary cometh home he would be even with these knave priests. Item, of Benson, that he would take no holy bread or holy water and that he lodged persons suspect for evil opinions. Item, that he noted the names of certain that were thought the fautors of evil opinions and common readers of the Bible in service time with other articles that I do not remember, but Mr. Coxston noted them in the book which Mr. Petit delivered last to Mr. Baker; the which seen, or if I hear the articles rehersed I can remember them."
5. "I heard my servant say my lord Chancellor should leave his office; but where he heard it I cannot tell, nor I heard him not say that Mr. Baker should have it." "Signed : By me, Edmond Shether."
Pp. 2. The replies are in Shether's own hand.
xi. Attached to the preceding is a copy of a letter in Shether's hand
endorsed "To my lord of N.," as follows :—
Reminds his lordship that Thos. Batters of Canterbury and Will. Salter, one of the King's beadmen of Christchurch in the said city, have procured a testimonial for the honesty of Sir Humfrey Cherdayn "to the intent, as it is thought, to improve such wittenes as Mr. Gardener and Mr. Shether have brought in to depose in their articles objected against the said Humfrey; in the which testimonial many men's names be rehearsed (as it is thought) which were not consenting to it : by reason of the which fact many persons be discouraged from the disclosing of such enormities as they know. And for as much as the said Gardener and Shether be commonly noted to be accusers of men, which indeed did nothing but upon my lord of Canterbury's commandment, many fear greatly to speak, although they have like commandment given from like authority.
Also, if that Shingulton may be examined what he made three days and three nights at Mr. Twyire's house since Easter, he will give light to many matters.
Also, if all the articles which is offered to your Lordship, Mr. Baker, Mr. Moyle, were in one book together contained, they would be in more readiness and much more evidence should appear.
Also, if the Commissary and Sir Humfrey were separate, and so examined, the one would declare much the other's qualities.
Also, Sir Bland hath not feared to subscribe his own errors, as appeareth in his bill now presented of his own hand, and also a bill against confession which the Commissary tore.
Also, a boy turned the broche all Lent was twelvemonth in my lord of Canterbury's palace in Canterbury, where was (as it is thought) the Commissary, &c.
Also, if my lord of Canterbury may know the wittnes names of the articles he will find some evasion by Dr. Gwent's counsel, his Commissary, and other, to prevent their deposition and make them insufficient.
Also the wittnes of Joh'n Boocher's words against the Sacrament of the Altar be alive and shall shortly be put in remembrance of the same.
Also my lord of Canterbury hath a sister alive which hath two husbands living, as it is of many thought.
Also, if my lord of Canterbury be one of the Commissioners it will stay many depositions.
Also, one Bugmer was partially dismissed of the Commissary which had spoken against the Sacrament of the Altar as the wittnes living which then were examined in his cause can testify.
XXIII. Bundle of Papers marked "E," containing :—
i. Deposition of Richard Parkhurst.
On the 2 Oct. 35 Hen. VIII, I, Richard Parkehurst clk., was commanded on my allegiance by my lord of Canterbury and Dr. Lee to write such things as I knew concerning a book sent up to the Council. A book was delivered to Dr. Wyllowby, either by Mr. Gardener or Mr. Schether, to be presented to the Council, and, as I heard Dr. Wyllowby say, was delivered to my lord of Winchester. Moreover Mr. Gardener, Mr. Schether and I were sent for by letters of Mr. Dean of Canterbury to come to London, where we all three appeared before Sir John Baker in his house there, when he examined us of the preachings and the controversy of the same at Canterbury. "And, as I remember, the said Sir John Baker had a book of the same or we came there. Then willing us to make a book of such things as we did know : whereupon at such times as I was in business with Sir John Gagg, knight, for such matters as was between him and me, there was a book made by the said Mr. Gardener and Mr. Schether. Then we met, all three, again at the said Sir John Baker's house; where Mr. Gardener and Mr. Schether would have had me to present the said book; which I did deny, saying to them these words : 'You have made this book. What you have put in it I am not sure. Look what I know to be true I will surely testify to the same.' Then did Mr. Schether present the said book to Sir John Baker, Mr. Gardener and I being present. Then the said Sir John Baker said unto us that he did know the King's pleasure, willing us to say the truth, fearing no man. After that the said Sir John Baker willed us to go to my lord of Winchester to take his counsel upon the book, and to see whether the book was well set out or no; and so we did. After that my lord of Winchester had perused the said book he said that the book was 'welynowe' and willed us to deliver the said book to Sir John Baker again. Then we desired my lord of Winchester to sue that Commissioners might be sent down into Kent; that done, we said that many things might be the better known, and so we should trust to have a good quietness, that done. After this, Dr. Wylloby at Canterbury said unto us these words : that he had spoke with the Council, naming Sir Anthony Browne. 'Put you no doubt,' said Dr. Wyllowby, 'but you shall have good speed in this; you may be glad that ever you did move in it.' After this came Mr. Thwayttes to Canterbury, which was made privy of the book, and the book was delivered to him, I think, by Mr. Gardener; and when he had perused the book he said that 'This thing is weighty : it must be wisely looked upon. Yet, to surcease these controversies, debates and strifes, I will deliver up the book to the Council, keeping a subscribed book in my own hands for my discharge.' This book was subscribed with one hand under the names of diverse men. And afore the making of the book there was a book drawn, I think, only by Mr. Gardener, of divers sayings of preachings. And this book was read to divers of us; and as every of us had knowledge of them we did put particularly our hands to the same; which book, as far as I know, doth remain in Mr. Schether or Mr. Gardener's hands. There it shall appear when the book shall be seen particularly what they be and how many as hath subscribed to the said sayings. At the time when Mr. Gardener, Mr. Schether and I were at London, we were also with Sir Thomas Moyle at Gray's Inn, showing him of the matter. And he, as I remember, did nothing, but did remit us to Sir John Baker again. The cause was, as I suppose that he was Speaker of the Parliament and had much business in that matter. Mr. Petyt divers times hath been with me at dinner, and sometime after dinner, sometime afore dinner, hath walked looking upon the said book. What act he hath done in it I have no special knowledge. This is truth, that he hath favored the making of the book. Divers times the said Mr. Thwaytes and Mr. Petyte hath been with me, Mr. Gardener and Mr. Schether in commoning of the said matters concerning the said book."
Per me Ricardum Parkehurst.
Hol., pp. 3. Endd. : Mr. Parkehurst.
ii. "The answers by me, Rychard Parkehurst, clerk, to my lord of Canterbury
upon these interrogatories here following" (the interrogatories, 12
in number, which are those in Part X., are transcribed seriatim, with
answers appended) :—
1. Supposes the beginning was by reason of the books delivered to Mr. Thwayttes and Dr. Wylloughby by Mr. Gardener. 2. After the book was made without my advice or counsel, "Mr. Thwayttes, Mr. Gardener, Mr. Schether, Mr. Petyte, and I did not know of the setting forth of the same." 3. Does not remember "that any had conference to any man that should bolden or animate any man in the same, other by words or writings, afore the coming up of Mr. Gardener, Mr. Schether, and of me to London, to Sir John Baker, which did anymet us to say the truth, saying Fear no man; saying also, I know the King's pleasure." 4. Supposes it was because there was no punishment had or done concerning Dr. Lawncelett Rydley and Mr. Scory's preaching, but only Mr. Serlys and Mr. Schether were punished, "the one to declare his sermon, standing upon a stool, the other a great season in prison. This I think surely was the occasion, foundation and ground of making of the book." 5. Was not privy to the book making and does not know what the foundation may have been, except as he has said in the 4th article. 6. Thinks if my lord's Grace had in the first beginning punished those culpable for their preaching, as Mr. Sayntleger and deponent advised him when they put up their books, this business had not been set forth. 7. Replies as to the 6th article. 8. Does not remember any conference they held with any justice of the peace or gentleman except with Sir John Baker, Sir Thomas Moyle and Mr. Thwayttes; "and what and every of them hath done as concerning Sir John Baker and Mr. Thwayttes their doing, as much as I do remember is specified afore at Bekes Borne. As concerning Sir Thomas Moyle I sewed (?) your Grace that at Gray's Inn, when the matter was showed unto him by Mr. Gardener, Mr. Schether, and me, by and by he did remit us to Sir John Baker again." 9. Cannot show to what they have conduced unless it be to pain and punishment and unquietness. 10. Mr. Petyt made a bill concerning Mr. Scory's matter, viz., that sacramentum altaris is hostia landis et non sacrificium pro peccatis, which he delivered to Mr. Gardener in the castle, and Mr. Gardener delivered it to me. I delivered it to the clerk of the peace's office. Cannot remember having heard what the clerk of the peace or any other "toward the law" has said or done touching indictments, panelling of quests, or by whose motion or commandment. 11. Supposes to the intent we should be at unity and peace by concord in preaching, every man to draw by one line. 12. Does not see by what authority these proceedings began.
Pp. 4. In Parkhurst's hand.
iii. "Articles sent to me Richard Parkehurst, to make answer unto, by my
lord of Canterbury." These articles to which the answers are here subjoined,
are 25 in number and are verbally the same as the first 26 of the 34
articles administered "to Shether and other" (Part XXII., § vii.). Article
5 however (which is answered with article 4) is not numbered but is
transcribed in the margin, and all the later numbers are one less, so that
the last article, 26, is here 25.
1. Never had the book of complaint in his hands and has heard only a few read thoroughly, "save such as Mr. Sayntleger and I did put up to my lord's Grace. There is in the book of complaint some addition of words mo than Mr. Sayntleger and I did put up to my lord." 2. Has no knowledge whether the witnesses proved the said Articles or no, having never seen the book of examination. 3. Has no knowledge what articles were left out or why. 4. My lord's Grace did challenge Mr. Serelys for preaching, but deponent does not remember that he rebuked him for preaching that images might be permitted in the Church as representers of Saints. Remembers well that my lord's Grace asked Mr. Serelys Quid est idolum.' Mr. S. replied Idolum est nihil. "Then said my lord After the Greek ydolum and ymago are all one. Then said Mr. Gardener I know not the Greek; but that is idolum to whom honor (?) is given which should be given to Christ. After that, my lord said that he had put in three preachers of the old learning and three of the new. Then said Mr. Gardener That is a mean to set a division. Then my lord's Grace said, as I remember now, that it was the King's pleasure, or the King would have it so. For the second part, that my lord should so say in the consistory, truly I was not there, wherefore I can say nothing to that.
5 (6). (fn. 78) Did not know their accusers. 6 (7). Remembers that divers came, brought, he thinks, by Mr. Serlys, and were not examined. Whether they offered themselves to swear, "or any requiring for them to be sworn," is uncertain. 7 (8). Answers as before, that he did not know their accusers. 8 (9). Has heard them divers times preach, and never could perceive but that they preached well. Mr. Schether was commanded to declare his articles upon a stool, "I think, by my lord of Canterbury; Mr. Serlys [was] commanded to prison, at whose commandment I cannot tell, but by my lord's Grace's saying, it should be by the Council." 9 (10). Remembers not any such persons. 10 (11). Remembers no complaints made to the ordinary except when Mr. Sayntleger and Deponent put up a book at my lord's Grace's commandment concerning preaching. "As concerning displeasure that we had or shall have for that I do not know of any." 11 (12). Did not know any oblation or lights set before any of the said images. "As I remember, Mr. Commissary did commanded (sic) them to be pulled down in my lord Archbishop's name. This was my lord's letter, as I can call to remembrance concerning the said images :—As I am credibly informed that there be in your church images abused, all such I would you should pull them down." 12 (13). Does not remember that Mr. Baker sent any word by Mr. Serlys. 13 (14). Does not remember any book sent to Dr. Willoughby by Mr. Schether's servant, nor what the matter was if there were any sent, nor when it was made or sent. 14 (15). This communication I heard; who said it I do not remember. "I think this was the cause that he (Willoughby) should not come into my lord of Canterbury's hands for a time." 15 (16). "I read the said indictment at my board concerning Mr. Scory; which indictment I did receive of the clerk of the peace after that it was written, but it was not sent up to the jury." 16 (17). "As I remember, the said Mr. Baker said these words, as he did think or hyt be long there shoulde a commission come down into Kent." 17 (18). These names,—Sir Thos. Moyle, Sir Raynold Scott, Mr. Wylsford, Mr. Walter Moyle, Mr. Thwayttes, Mr. Grene, Mr. Henry Cryppys, Mr. Herdys, and, as I suppose, Dr. Leff (?). 18 (19). Remembers Mr. Thwayttes did bid men mark the sermons. Further, does not remember. 19 (20). "I know no determinate time nor times that this should be spoken, neither yet that he should say that it should be Mr. Baker's counsel." 20 (21). Mr. Petyt sent to me for a book, and I sent him the copy of the book that Mr. Seyntleger and I put up to my lord of Canterbury. Other books had I none, and by and by Petit returned this, saying it was not the book that he would have. "Ony other book I do not know that was delivered unto him." 21 (22). Does not remember any such book. 22 (23). Refers to last answer. 23 (24). Does not remember any such communication. 24 (25). Can remember no such communication. 25 (26). Does not remember any such things being cared (procured!) or sent for.
Pp. 6. In Parkhurst's hand.
iv. Supplementary statement by Richard Parkhurst.
My lord's Grace sent me a book of 26 articles to make answer to with speed, and sent to me two times in a day for my answer. Being thus pressed for time and somewhat diseased, could not in that space call everything to his remembrance; but has since remembered as follows :—
As to Article 6 (7). "After that I was examined in the Chapterhouse afore Master Commissary, ordinary under my lord, Dr.Barbor, Dr. Taylyour and Master Smyth, being deputed by my lord's Grace to examine not only those that were of our house, but also both of the city of Canterbury and of the country. My examination done, Mr. Commissary, Dr. Taylyer and I were together almost at the chapter house door, they desiring me at that time to pacify Maystre Sayntleger, beyng before me examined and out of pacyens, as they said to me. Then I said again, 'Masters, I would there were an indifferency used amongst you. You have examined certain of Othefylde which cam a geynst Maystre Serlys, as I understond, of the which one was Rychard Godffrey, by fame a suspect person. Here at the dore in sight are brought in three or four, I think by Mr. Serlys. This notwithstanding all they were in sight, they were not called in to examination.'"
As to [Art. 10], has since remembered "the saying of Mr. Gardener, being at London in the Passion week was 12 months. My lord saying unto the said Mr. Gardener 'You preached of late in Christchurch at Canterbury; as I am credibly informed, you did make a seditious sermon, whereby some of your audience were much offended.' To this Mr. Gardener answered 'My lord, I beseech your Grace believe the truth, I know that mony and divers in Canterbury doth favor me but little. They would fain put me to displeasure. This do I ensure your Grace that for every one that hath complained unto you on me I will bring six that shall testify that I preached Christianly and quietly, and that time I preached against such as would that all prayer in an unknown tongue should be but babbling, and against such as seemeth not to favor the erectyen (?) of images.'"
As to  remembers now the saying of Mr. Gardener that he complained and presented to my lord's Grace the articles of Mr. Scory and Mr. Rydley by mouth, reasoning with my lord's Grace upon the same. Then said Master Gardener, I had these words of my lord "Mr. Gardener, you and your company do hold me short. I will hold you as short."
As to the point [in 11] what evil preachers have had favor at the Ordinary's hands, it would seem that both Mr. Scory and Mr. Lawncet Rydley had such favor; for they were accused for evil preaching in Rogation week was two years, and are not yet punished, so far as deponent knows, Mr. Scory "beside preaching at St. Paul's in the Rogation week, divers times, as it doth appear by a book, at my lord's commandment, put up to his Grace by Mr. Sayntleger and me; whereupon, yn that he had no punishment therefor, I do take it that the said Mr. Scory had favor at the Ordinary's hand, and since that time I do take it that he hath been the more bolder in his preaching;" for he has since preached at Christchurch that Sola fides justificat and that the Sacrament of the Altar was hostia laudis et non sacrificium pro peccatis.
Hol., pp. 3.
XXIV. Bundle of papers marked "F," containing :—
i. Answers of Arthur Sentleger [to the first 12 Articles in XXII., § vii.] 1. "In the book of complaint is one article added, which nevertheless was spoken of to my lord, but because there was but one witness it was not presented in writing, and three articles be left out; and in one article which maketh mention of community be added these words, 'of all things.'" 2. "Witnes was brought in, but what was proved I know not." 3. "I know not the cause why three articles were left out, nor I never heard the book thoroughly read." 4. "I do not remember that my lord rebuked Serlis for these words, but my lord said that all images were idols, for the Greek word idolum and ymago were all one." 5. "My lord said that he had put in three of the new learning and three of the old, and declared the same to the King's Grace, who was pleased therewithal." 6. Knows nothing. 7. "I can say nothing, saving that I heard say, I cannot tell of whom, that certain of Hothefild and some of Canterbury offered themselves to testify for Mr. Serlis. But how many they were that offered themselves, or of whom I heard that any offered themselves, I know not." 8. I know nothing. 9. "I heard no preaching of them but well, to my judgment. But Shether made a declaration to certain articles, whether they were falsely surmised or no I know not, and by whom Serlis was committed to prison I know not but that it was by the Council." 10 and 11. Knows of no such things. 12. "The rood of the North door was taken down by my lord's commandment, as Mr. Commissary reported. And further I cannot say in this Article."
Signed : "By me, Arthur Sentleger."
P. 1. Headed by Cranmer : Sentleger.
ii. John Myllys to Cranmer.
As your Grace required me of mine allegiance to declare to you my mind on a complaint made of you to the King; I certify your Grace, in the first place, "that I was nother of knowledge agreeable or consenting to any such bill." But, as your Grace named to me one Coxsun whom Dr. Lee noted to be a busy fellow, I certify you that he once asked me whether I heard your Grace say in the consistory that the King had appointed six preachers, three of the old and three of the new, that matters then in controversy might be reasoned among themselves and not preached among the people to engender strife. "I said Yea. And after communication of other trifling matters, nothing appertaining to this purpose, he said that he was sorry for Mr. Serlys and Shether that your Grace should be so sore against them and punished the one by declaring to the people that that he never said upon a stool to his rebuke, and the other to be cast into prison. Then said I in Latin Que supra nos nihil ad nos. Then said he, In case you be called to testify the truth, will you not say as you know in these matters? Then said I, My lord spake the one thing openly, and that must I witness if I be required by higher power. And to the other I said, For such sermons as I heard them make, I cannot say but that they preached Catholicly, and so will I testify when I shall be called. But, quod I, if they have preached otherwise in any other place (which my lord knoweth if it be so) I can say nothing more. I have not heard of matters that should be against your Grace to my remembrance, but that a rumor was among the people in that that Mr. Launcelot and Mr. Scory was not likewise punished for such matters as were presented to your Grace of them. But to farder declare unto you that other matters hath been comynyd to me, as of any book agayn your Grace written or presented by any person or persons I know not. And to this declaration of my mind, for a verity, I have subscribed my name as I have written it with my hand. By me, John Myllys."
"Also, at a certain time sith the coming of your Grace's Chancellor's coming (sic) for the reformation of erroneous opinions with your Grace's assistance, I heard either Mr. Gardener or else Mr. Shether say that at what time Mr. H. . . . (fn. 79) register inquired of one of them whether that he did know of any book presented to the King, the answer was (as one of them said) that he had been with the King's Council; but what was asked him or whereunto he answered there, or what he said, he might not nor would not declare, except your officers or commissioners there sitting would or could show a commission for the same purpose."
Hol., pp. 2. Headed by Cranmer : Mylles.
iii. Reply of John Myllys to interrogatories. (See Part X.)
1. Does not know of any matters begun at London or the beginners of them there. 2. "I do not know by whose advice matters hath been set forth, except (which I cannot certainly say) by the justices of this shire, as by Mr. Moyle, Mr. Twaytes, and such other; which, as I heard say, did greatly fear that seditious preaching and occupying of corrupt books, by the which two things schism did engender among the people, open disputation was in ale houses, and in households reasoning among servants, of the which did also arise much debate and strife, a commotion would or might be among the people in this shire by such evils not then thoroughly looked on. They therefore, as I heard say, would put to their industry and diligence to extyrppe such evils, that quietness might take place among the people and be in due obedience to God's laws and to the King; but what they have done I know not."
3. "I do not know who hath been bolded of any man to farder any matter, nother with whom any man hath had conference by words, writing or otherwise, saving that once I did see a collection of certain supposed abuses in Mr. Sentleger his chamber, brought in, as 1 remember, by Mr. Gardener, or Mr. Shether, and in that were also the articles that were presented unto your Grace that Mr. Lawncelet Rydley and Mr. Scory preached two years past. (fn. 68) But what that book is done with I know not. Your Grace knoweth that I was a witness in those articles."
4. "I do not know what ground any man had to set forth matters of complaint, or might have, except that the sowing of seditious doctrine preached or taught, which (as common voice goeth) hath been the occasion of many evils, should have moved any man, for quietness sake among the people, to offer up any matters of complaint; which seditious doctrine, whether any promoter of matters had it of his or their own knowledge or otherwise I know not, as the 5th article asketh."
6. "I do not know wherein any man should note your Grace to be culpable in any matter, except that your Grace should have been (as the rumor goeth) remiss in punishment of those that the more part of the people were offended with their preaching, as Mr. Lawncelot Rydly and Mr. Scory, and punished Mr. Shether and did put Mr. Serlys to trouble; which two hath the more part of the people, as well of the city as of the country, to testify of their Catholic preaching. And, to declare farder unto your Grace (trusting that your Grace will pardon me and be not discontyd (sic) with my saying, being required to say the truth), whereas certain articles were presented unto your Grace by Mr. Sentleger and Mr. Parkhurst concerning the preaching of Mr. Scory and Mr. Lawncelot, your Grace doth know that Mr. Gardener and I were called to witness in those articles, with the which the people then were offended, yet they nothing were punished. And whereas also Mr. Gardener and I did witness with Mr. Shether in his sermon made at Norgate, where (as near as I did hear or bear away) he preached all catholic and godly, and yet was punished by declaring on a stool that that he never spake, as I bare it away, and that on the only testimony of [the] parson of St. Elphege and George May, as Mr. Shether said, and our testimony taken as nothing. And Mr. Serlys also, for whose preaching Catholic most men that hath heard him will witness with him; but at that time certain that came to testify with him could not be heard, but they rather that made against him; of the which ensued much trouble and vexation to that man. By the reason of which two parties thus handled and intreated, if they (which I know not), or any other of their friends, have complained or can note your Grace culpable, I suppose they will declare the verity unto your Grace."
7, 8, 9. "I do not know with what justices or gentlemen any person hath had conference, nother what men hath done or spoken in any matter, nor to what things men have conduced unto concerning matters that should proceed at Canterbury, except as is before rehearsed, which I know not certainly, or else that I have had much communication of gentlemen and other of the deliverance of Jone Baron (at the table) by your commissary, whereas she nother would confess that she had denied the Sacrament of the Altar, whereby she should have asked the King's Majesty his pardon, nother yet asked pardon; but she, having a pardon in her bosom, was bid deliver it (as she did) and thereby was delivered, at the which hath been much and many times communication among the gentles and other."
10. "What Petyte hath said or done in any matters concerning indictments or the clerk of the peace (with whom I was never in company but as at your Grace's last sitting on the Six Articles) or any other towards the law hath done, or in any other matters, or by whose counsel I know not, except that Petyte did show a bill openly that he said he would put up to your Chancellor agayn one Bukmer, that, as he said, had denied the Sacrament of the Altar and escaped punishment (as he said) at Dr. Nevynson's hands. And at your sitting on the Six Articles the clerk of the peace did write one article that should have made against Mr. Scory, which was this :—The Supper of the Lord is not sacrificium pro peccatis but hostia landis. But it was not presented to the quest but withdrawn."
11. "To the 11th I say, because that I do not know certainly who be the presenters of matters, I do not know to what end or effect they intended to bring matters. But this I am assured that I never heard man wish but for unity, peace, concord and charity among the King's liege people, and that such a way might be taken and mean found that all heresies, errors, erroneous opinions and schism might be expelled, and charity wax plentiful in the hearts."
12. "By what authority or commandment any man hath proceeded in matters I have not been of knowledge. And this is as much as I can now certify your Grace of. By me, John Myllys."
Hol., pp. 5. Headed by Cranmer : Mylles. At the beginning are two lines addressed to the Archbishop : "Your Grace willing me to answer," &c.
iv. Copy of the twenty-six Interrogatories at the head of Part XXIII
§ iii., the same as the first twenty-six in Part XX. § iii., corrected by
v. Replies to the preceding interrogatories by John Myllys.
1. I am ignorant as to this and also to 2 and 3. 4. "Your Grace in communication said that idolum and imago in Greek were all one. More I remember not." 5. "I answer affirmatively." 6. "Shether was witnessed against by George Maye of St. John's, which was by common fame noted suspected. Who accused Serlys I know not." 7. "Serlys said that certain of Hotfyld could not be taken to his behalf in testimony. To the residue of the article I cannot answer." 8. "I cannot otherwise than to the 6th article." 9. "Forasmuch as I could take of the sermons they were innocent; and the one declared on a stool that that he never preached at Norgate, as I did bear away, and who pit the other to prison I know not." 10. "To the 10th I say that [I] have heard Shether, as I remember, say that it is a wonderful world that men dare not preach freely, but shall be accused. But to the residue I cannot answer; nother to 11th." 12. "Two images of Christ and two pictures of Our Lady were pulled down, but whether any oblation hath been unto them I know not, Dr. Nevynson, with a commandment from your Grace, willed Mr. Sentleger and other of the prebendaries to pull down one and the other, or some of them were pulled down by your Grace's letter, as they say that were at home. I was not; therefore I know not the tenore of the letter." 13, 14 and 15. I am ignorant; and so in the 17th. 16. The indictment concerned Mr. Scory's preaching that the Supper of the Lord was not sacrificium pro peccatis but hostia landis, and he had it of the clerk of the peace.
"To the residue of the articles I say that I am ignorant in."
Hol., p. 1.
vi. John Myllys to Cranmer.
"At my last being with your Grace you required me to say whether that I did subscribe to certain articles which Mr. Shether did affirm my hand to be unto, which, as then I did not remember to be true, so I do not yet remember that to be true that I have subscribed to any other article than one. But if hereafter Mr. Shether or any other can put me in remembrance thereof and that I have subscribed, which, if it be, was done of my part unadvisedly, this shall be to desire your Grace to take this my deliberate answer to one of the interrogatories taken out of the one article concerning your Grace's communication with Mr. Serlys, to the which so suddenly, for lack of full remembrance, I could not then fully answer. And my answer is this : that Serlys said that images putting us in remembrance by the way of representation of the acts and facts of faith were images and no idols. And then your Grace said that an image and an idol were one. Then said Serlys Idolum nihil est. Then said your Grace I tell you they be all one. Then said Mr. Gardener An image is no idol except that a man do put quid numinis in it. Then said your Grace You know not the Greek; for the Greek Idolum and Imago be one. Then said he Though I know not the Greek, yet I trust that I do know the truth. And this is as much as I can say to that article, whether my hand be to it or not.
"And to the other I do desire your Grace to accept this answer—that at one time, I entreating of the mean places as it was set forth by the King's book that was subscribed by your Grace and divers of the clergy, and did nothing but confirm the same, I afterwards was complained on to your Grace, and your Grace gave me then a commandment to set that matter no otherwise forth than the latter part of the usage of praying did lead, nother adding thereunto nor diminishing. And in other matters your Grace commanded that no ynveccyon should be of any part in the pulpit. Wherefore I, as other, durst not inveigh against some (as we thought) suspect preaching, lesse we should be noted authors of sedition, as Mr. Gardener was accused to your Grace, as he said, to have made two seditious sermons; and Mr. Gardener, I, Mr. Serlys, and Shether have been called knaves by one Hierom Oxenbryge, brewer, in St. George's in Canterbury, for our preachings, as Boyton, servant to Mr. Cryppys, and dwelling in Norgate, can testify. And that some should have displeasure of your Grace amongst us. Mr. Gardener's hand appeareth in Mr. Sentleger's keeping, which expresseth that in communication betwixt your Grace and him your Grace should say that there was a sort set against you but you would be even with them. But for complaints made to the ordinary and no just remedy found, I know not except it be said for the non-punishment of Rydly and Scory, or for the undecent behaviour in his apparel of Giles of Baram, of whom Mr. Hardes certified your Grace, as I heard him say. And this is as much as I can now remember to certify your Grace to the other article that Mr. Shether should say my hand to be unto, which I remember not. By me, John Myllys." Hol., p. 1.
vii. William Hunt to [Cranmer].
Will write the truth according to my promise to your Grace.
1. "Mr. Gardenar, Mr. Shether and Mr. Sarles called upon me to record in certain words spoken of you, my lord, upon Trinite Sunday was 2 eere, what time you called all the prebendars and preachers afore your Grace into the palace. The words were these that, if I remembered, your Grace said that the Bishop's Book was sent forth without your consent and assent, (fn. 80) as you said the King's Majesty did know. And these words or like I affirmed to be true; and at their request I did put my hand thereto. Second, they required whether I remembered that your Grace said that in the Greek tongue there was no diversity betwixt imago and idolum; and I affirmed that your Grace said so, and likewise, as they required me, I did subscribe my name. As concerning the communication of Mr. Gardiner with my lord of Winchester at his return, I remember not that he showed me any of that secrets, except only that my lord of Winchester checked Mr. Dr. Rydle for his sermon preached afore him; and of a truth I durst not be so bold as make request of such secret communication as was betwixt my lord of Winchester and Mr. Gardinar at that time. Thirdly, concerning the meeting together of Mr. Dr. London and Mr. Sarles, truly Mr. Sarles recorded among us that at a time this summer last past when he was in London, minding to go to Oxford, by chance (fn. 81) he met Mr. Dr. London (fn. 80) which asked, him whither he was travelling; and he said, To Oxford. And the Doctor said to him, I charge you pass not London till I have communed with you; and upon that he tarried, and afterward came to him, I cannot show where. And at their meeting the Doctor said to him, I hear say that Kent is full of schisms and heresies, as I am informed; and as it is showed to me you can inform best of it. And therefore, or you pass, make writing and accusation thereof, for now is even convenient (fn. 80) time to do it. And upon that he made a book of accusements of errors and evil opinions of evil preachers in Kent, of the which, as I remember, one Turner, a priest, was one, but the specialty of his accusements hitherto I know not. After that Serlys had made and delivered his book to Dr. London, he did form and set the accusements in a fashion after the form of the law, and then Dr. London required him to present that book to the Council; (fn. 80) which he refused to do, as I remember, for because he was under bayle and in suit to the King's gracious honorable Council. And upon this answer Dr. London required him to present the accusements, by some other friend which knew that matters to be true. And so Serlys went to Mr. Dr. Wyllyby, curate of Chyllam in Kent, then being at London; and so, as they both have testified, the self Dr. Wyllyby presented that accusements, which, at the request of the Council, (fn. 80) affirmed all that accusements to be true, and so to be avowed by many wytness in Kent. And Dr. Wyllyby affirmed that the Council well allowed him of that presentation, and did say that he was a good Catholic man; and the Council did animate him to be bold to present moo such accusements if he knew any, and he should be heard. Also I conject that other accusements hath be sent up sith that time from Mr. Gardner, Serlys and Shether, of such like accusements and disturbance sent up by Dr. Wyllyby; and now it came to remembrance that what time Mr. Gardener went to London, then at that time Master Parcruss did appear to London; but of my conscience I could not learn of them the cause, and of my simplicity I did not require of such their business. Whether there be any accusements presented by Gardner against your Grace, my lord, I am not sure, neither know not; but as I remember, I heard him say that he had matters of accusement against your Grace. And finally, to conclude, of my conscience afore God I have written the truth in all this that I have written. And truly, my good gracious Lord, I am very sorry of this great trouble and unquietness of your Grace, and also of all our trouble and disturbance; and I beseech God to help your Grace to address all in to a godly quietness. And truly this unquietness hath not only sprung of undiscreet preachers but also by undiscreet officers under your Grace, as it is commonly spoken."
"By me, Willam Hunt, preste and prebendar of the Kynges Collegge yn Cristes Church yn Canterbury."
Hol., pp. 2.
viii. Depositions taken 2 Nov. 35 Hen. VIII.
William Cockes, being examined of such words and communication as hath been had at any time before this present day in the chamber of Mr. Parckehurste, prebendary of Christes Church in Canterbury, by Mr. Willoughby, vicar of Chilham, Mr. Sandewiche, Mr. Mylles, Mr. Hadeley, Mr. Parckehurst or any other person concerning doctrine, preaching, the King's Highness' proceedings or any other thing touching the King's Majesty, or any alteration done of late years by the King's Grace or his Council in this realm against the Bishop of Rome or otherwise, Saith that, about Lent last past, by reason of communication had among the company there before dinner, he heard Mr. Willoughby, vicar of Chilham, say That whatsoever they were that would take pain in the business wherein Dr. London was set awork by the King (fn. 82) in boulting out of this new fashion of doctrine should not only receive reward at hand of God and thanks of the King's Majesty but also afterward temporal profit.
Item, the said Vicar reported at that time that Dr. London (fn. 82) was very busily occupied in the examination of the business and matters of Windsor.
"Item, this said Deponent sayeth that, after Christmas was twelve month, being in Mr. Parkehurste's chamber, there were delivered letters from Dr. Champion unto Mr. Parkehurst, which letters were reported to come from my lord's Grace and Mr. Dean, concerning the taking down of an image of Our Lady. At which time one said unto this Deponent, whose name he cannot remember, 'Sir, now are you discharged for taking down of the image. Wherefore, will you testify now that my lord hath commanded that this image should be taken down?' Whereupon this Deponent, seeing and beholding my lord's hand there represented in a letter, said 'I will testify the same,' and did put his hand unto a paper."
"Be me, Sir Will'm Cockes, prest."
"As concerning any resort of strangers unto the said chamber, this Deponent sayeth that divers times the Doctor of Chilham, the vicar of Sturrey, the parson of Harbaldown, the vicar of Feversham, the vicar of Blene, Sir William Fynche, knight, Mr. Thwaytes, Mr. Petite of Chilham, Mr. Siracke Petite, have consulted or communed after meals, this Deponent knoweth not, by reason that always he is wont to depart into his chamber, and unto his work, immediately after his said meals."
"Be me, Sir Will'm Cockes, prest."
Pp. 2. Headed by Cranmer : Cockes, and noted by him in the margin.
ix. Another deposition.
"John Thatcher, thewger (qu. the younger?'), the vjth day of November, examined u[pon] what business he rode to London the first day [of] the said month in so great haste, saith that his uncle Mr. Gardiner (fn. 83) did command him within this two months past, in case my lord of Canterbury did send for him, that then this Deponent should ride to show my lord of Winchester of the same; (fn. 83) and for this cause the said Deponent rode the day above said to the Court ward, and in London the same day met with Shether, and showed unto Mr. Shether that my said lord of Canterbury had sent for his said uncle; and said further that he was riding to my lord of Winchester to inform him of the same. And the said Mr. Shether delivered this Deponent two letters to be delivered to my lord of Winchester. What the contents of the letters were, or who were the actors or makers of them, this Deponent cannot tell. And the same night he came back again from London for fear of sickness, but how far and whither this Deponent cannot tell. And the next morning, being the 2d of November, this Deponent rode through London towards the Court; and, beyond Islington about a mile, this deponent met with a fishmonger of Colchester, in whose company he rode within 6 miles of the Court, and there lodged at a joiner's house, in what town he cannot tell; and the next day in the morning he rode to the Court. And there this Deponent delivered to my lord of Winchester Mr. Shether's letters and declared also that my lord of Canterbury had sent for his said uncle. And then my lord of Winchester made answer to this Deponent : 'Get you home again. What need you come so far for such a matter?' This Deponent had thought to have had more comfort at his hands; wherefore he came away heavily and tarried not, and came the same night to bed to the Lion at Barnet. And the next morning this Deponent came through London, and upon London bridge met with one Brymston of Canterbury, and Mr. Syracke Petite's servant, riding into London; and the said Mr. Petite's servant did show unto this Deponent that Mr. Shether was gone down to Canterbury again. This Deponent did beite (bait) his horse in Southwark; and the aforesaid Brimston afterward, and this Deponent, came riding the same night to Gravesend to bed. And the next day this Deponent came alone to Canterbury, about one of the clock at afternoon, to Henry Gear's house, draper, and there tarried about one hour; in the which time no man came to the said house to inquire or speak with this Deponent. This done, he went to his father Thatcher's, and there tarried half one hour, and after that returned to Gear's house again, and there tarried, partly in the house and partly at the door, unto 9 of the clock at night; and in all the time none came to speak with him, nor he kept company with none saving them of the said Gear's household; and after in the same house lay all night; and in the morning about 8 of the clock went to All Hallows church to hear mass, and spoke with no man, nor no man with him, otherwise than is above written, unto the time my lord of Canterbury's servant met with him, which brought him presently to my said lord of Canterbury." Signed : John Thaccher.
Pp. 2. Headed by Cranmer : Thatcher; and noted by him in the margin in one place.
x. Another deposition.
Item that that letter th[at] . . . . . . I had yt of Mr. Gard[iner] . . . . . . . can I not tell but th . . . . . . . of my lordes chaplen and that . . . . . . . my lord (fn. 84) sayd that you shall byd you [r master be of] good cher, for yfe ther matters beryghte th [at they shall] have fryndes in nov, and yf my lord of Canterbery do pones [them wrong] fully, yt well be to his gret rebouke and hende[rance]. Then I com to Mr. Fort to Oxfort and toldlyd hym [that] my lord deed saye, and ther to sayd he That ansur is good I nofe.
But then he sayd that he had har[d that] before, and I aske of whom, and he sayd [of] Doctor Barker, and ther on I deed com hom . . . but master Ford sayd thus : I herd say that my lord Chancelar shold change hys offes and that Mr. Bacar sholde haue yt.
Than sayd he I pray you rportyt (sic) no suche thyng on my word tel you shall here yt furder notyfyed. "Be me Thomas Callkot."
Hol., p. 1. Mutilated. (fn. 85) Headed by Cranmer : Ca[lcot].
XXV. A bundle of depositions by John Myllys, docketed by Cranmer
(at p. 323) "Mr. Milles."
i. A letter to the Abp. in obedience to a command to declare what communication he had with Mr. Parkehurst on Monday concerning the Articles.
On Monday morning about 9 in Mr. Parkehurst's chamber, Mr. Gardener had a book of the articles in his hand, which when Milles saw and read part, he said "I would this book had been on fire when you brought it to Mr. Sentleger and to me into his chamber to subscribe to any articles in it." Then quod he (Gardener) "Thank Dr. Wyllyby, for he did set me a work. But now, quod he, it is done, God send us a quiet end of this and I will take heed for such another. And so will I, quod I, for I had rather beg my bread than thus continue unquietly. Then said he, I cannot sleep, nor I know not how the world fareth with me. Then, quod I, take no thought to hurt yourself but me mery (sic) with sorrow as I am. Well, quod he, I have drawn an answer to all my articles that I must abide by. Then said I, I have also sent my servant to Bekysborne with my delyberatyd answer; and I trust that my lord will favorably accept it. Then said he, I would this matter were at an end. And so would I, quod I. Then said he, This book agreeth not in all points with the book at London. Then said I, I am no witness to your book presented; for I knew not of it. Then said he, It is but in one article where I am a witness alone; which article is not presented, or in some one word; and so departed with the book. And afterward Mr. Parkurst rebuked him for his hasty wilfulness that he would so suddenly bring a book to his company, and cause them to subscribe without deliberation taken on the articles, and rebuked himself and other that they were so foolish to subscribe to such articles that now he seeth standing for the trial of the truth or falsity in them. Then said he, There is no article there but will be proved. Then said Mr. Parkhurst, I pray God it prove so, and then I care not. Then said I, I would the book were on a fire so it came not by me; and so said we all. And in this convocation, as we heartily wished for a quiet end, so we mused what the end should be. And thus we ceased, as I remember.
"And the next day at dinner we all desired my lord Warden's chaplain, or some other for him, that his master might speak to my lord's Grace for the deliverance of Serlys, as he said he would. At what tyme the [words crossed out] Syr Ycham said to me How chawnsyd, brother, that you were not in the compe (?) ynclosyd with your felows? Then quod I, I was not at London with them, meaning that if I had been a setter forth of these matters there, I had been likewise imprisoned. And the Wednesday I asked and marvelled why we were sworn; and no man knew the cause. The Thursday Mr. Gardener showed me that he feared Shether much to despair with himself, for there was no mirth with him, nother in comynicatyon abrode (as he talked with him over even in the garden), nother yet at the table. And for the comynicatyon that I heard yesterday spoken of Mr. Shether to be your Grace's chaplain, I heard it spoken openly at the table, of Dr. Thornden hys mouth, who said that he knew it not (and so I rehearsed it) but yet he would lay 20s. on it and that that should be so; and so I told Mr. Shether. Then said Mr. Shether, I know it not; but if it were offered to me of my lord, it were not my honesty to refuse his Grace's offer. And this is as much as I can call to memory."
In Milles's hand, p. 1.
ii. Answers to interrogatories (see iv., following).
1. Has had no communication with any that have come to offer themselves to give testimony for Shether nor for Serlys, "except that one day at the first cumyng of your Chawncelars comynicatyon was off a certayn off Lenam off Mr. Serlys sermon there last made, which concerned the milk of Our Lady, that she had it not as other have because she conceived not by the company of man. These words were spoken in Mr. Parkhurst's chamber by one Wyllyams of Lanam, John Parkhurst, Fryer, and other that did come at that time from the parish."
2. I know no man to have had communication with your Grace in the Passion week. But once I heard Mr. Gardener say that, he being with your Grace at Lambeth, you said he was accused to you to have preached seditiously.
3. Mr. Sentleger, Mr. Parkhurst and others have said that they feared that they had your Grace's displeasure, "and as he reported, your words proferryd unto hym at Feversham expressed the same," viz., "that there was a band amongst us which your Grace would break." These words grieved him and made him think you intended displeasure to him and perhaps others; and they know no cause why, except it were for offering complaints of certain things preached; which they did, compelled by your Grace, as I was to be a witness. "And men hath musyd that thys eascapyd so long non ponyshment."
4. "I am ignorant of the 4th, for I have had no comynicatyon with Dr. Wyllyby yn matters."
5. My lord Warden's chaplain "was noyshyd (?) to have byn prebendary here, and he said that he was well rid of it; for if he had been one of us, he said, that peradventure he had been then as fast as some other hath been, and whereas he was spoken unto for to speak to his master for Serlys, that your Grace should be good to him, he said he would."
6. Remembers no communication of any book presented to the Abp. since his coming to Canterbury; but heard Mr. Parkehurst say that he delivered his Grace a book in the Cloister, and Mr. Gardener said that he had sent another, declaring the truth of matters, as he said. "But what it was I know not; and as they said they had sent and delivered them, so they trusted that your Grace would favourably accept them."
7. "What commynicatyon any man have had or heard of Scory, Serlys, or Shether concerning these matters I know not; but I have heard them divers times comyn of their articles put up by their accusers and of their accusers and wytnesse."
8. I know no man to have had conference with others "upon [these] matters, except the comynicaton that Mr. Gardener, Mr. Parkehurst and I had on Monday (as I declared by a bill sent to your Grace), which comynicatyon I trust was not contrary to our allegiance to the King's Majesty."
9. "What I have known of my own knowledge presented agayn your Grace to be true of the Articles I cannot answer, because I was never of knowledge or counsel of any such book put up, or agreeable thereunto, although, at the suggestion of Mr. Gardyner, Mr. Sentleger and I did rashly subscribe to certain articles, which, whether they be presented or not I know not but by hearsay. And at such time as we did subscribe we knew not of any of their such goings about. But what in the book of the Articles that Shether delivered to your Grace I thought to be true I expressed in my answer to your interrogatories first sent to me."
10. "Of the 10th I am ignorant, sc. of comynicatyon betwixt Dr. Barbar and Smyth in the Northcourt;"
11. "And so of the 11th, and to my remembrance Smyth was never in Mr. Parkehurst's chamber, I being present."
12. "And to the 12th I say that I do not know that your Grace sent for Serlys or Shether at any time that they did not come to your Grace; nother do I know no man at any time to have denied them to be there or elsewhere when your Grace hath sent for them; nother, if any comynicatyon was then amongst them (Smyth being present) I am not of knowledge, for I was never in company with him within the house, as I remember."
In John Myllys' hand, pp. 2.
iii. John Myllys to [Abp. Cranmer].
Forasmych as that, most gracyouse lord, I am sumwhat dysseasyd yn my body, part by cold takyn off late, wych yn creasyth on me more and more, that I have little rest, other day or nyght, and besyde that have byn so constypate syth Thursday last that I have had no socesse, by what occasyon I know not, so that I am mych vexyd and troblyd thereby yn body bysyde pensyvenesse off hart for my unkynd fact towardes your Grace, wych, as I have declaryd, was folyshe rashenesse, for the wych I do suffer condyngne ponyshment and shall be erudytyon to me duryng my lyff; Thys shall be to desyre your Grace (forasmych as that I trust your Grace ys not desyrous to have my body to peryshe yn your ward) to be gracyous lord unto me and that I may have sum lyberte to recreate and ease my body off such dolor as now yt ys yn. Thys I desyre off your Grace for the love of God, and that your charyte wyll extend to thys my petycyon and desyre; otherwyse I do account my body to be thorowly undon. Wherfor I desire your Grace to send unto me sum comfort by thys bearer, and to receyve me to your Grace hys favour (thoze (fn. 86) as a prodygall son I have strayyd from my father for now I cry unto you).
Wrytyn yn Hell, as the house hath ben called yn tyme past; from whense most hartyly I do desyre redemptyon by your Grace.
"By your dayly Orator, John Myllys."
Hol., p. 1.
iv. Interrogatories, headed in Cranmer's hand "Mylles." (fn. 87)
1. What communication he had with Parkehurst or Mr. Milles since he was put at liberty, or with any other, concerning them that came to offer themselves to testify for Serls and Shether?
2. What communication he had or heard concerning his communication with the Archbishop at London in Passion week was twelvemonth?
3. What communication he had of any that had displeasure of the ordinary for complaining of ill preachers or favor of him towards ill preachers?
4. What communication he had or heard of Dr. Willoughbie?
5. What communication was had with my lord Warden's chaplain?
6. What he said of the book that he delivered to my lord since his coming to Canterbury?
7. What communication he had or heard of Milles, Scorie, Serls, Shether, or of any other?
8. What moved him to have conference with other in these matters, contrary to his oath and allegiance?
9. What he knoweth to be true of the articles presented against the Archbishop of Canterbury, of his own knowledge?
10. Whether Mr. Smyth, parson of St. Mary Mawdelens in Canterbury, had communication with Dr. Barbour in the North Court of Christchurch in Canterbury, the same day that Serls and Shether were called before my lord, and what the communication was?
11. Item, why the same Smyth made as though he would have gone home and then returned, and went to Master Parkehurst's chamber, there being Mr. Parkehurst, Mr. Gardiner, Mr. Milles, Mr. Serls and Mr. Shether?
"12. Item, at that time when my lord sent for Mr. Serls and Mr. Shether, why they denied them to be there, and what communication they heard at that time?"
v. Interrogatories for Gardiner.
1. What communication he had with Parkehurst or Mr. Milles since he was put at liberty, or with any other, concerning them that came to offer themselves to testify for Serlis and Shether.
2. What communication he had or heard concerning his communication with the Archbishop at London in Passion week was 12 months.
3. What communication of any that had displeasure of the Ordinary for complaining of ill preachers, or favor of him towards preachers.
4. What communication he had or heard of Dr. Willoughby.
5. What communication was had with my lord Warden's chaplain.
6. What communication he had upon Wednesday at night with Shether in the garden.
7. What he said of the book that he delivered to my lord since his coming to Canterbury.
8. What communication he had or heard of Milles, Scorye, Serles, Shether, or of any others.
9. What moved him to have conference with other in these matters, contrary to his oath and allegiance.
10. What he knoweth to be true of the Articles presented against the Archbishop of Canterbury of his own knowledge.
11. Whether Mr. Smyth, parson of St. Mary Mawdelens in Canterbury, had communication with Dr. Barbour in the North court of Christchurch in Canterbury the same day that Serls and Shether were called before my lord, and what the communication was.
12. Item, why the same Smyth made as though he would have gone home, and then returned again and went to Mr. Parkhurst's chamber, there being Mr. Parkehurst, Mr. Gardener, Mr. Milles, Mr. Serles, Mr. Shether.
13. Item, at that time when my lord sent for Mr. Serls and Mr. Shether, why they denied them to be there, and what communication they heard at that time.
"14. Wherefore he in his answer at the Archbishop's last coming to Canterbury said that he wrote rather as the Archbishop said than as his conscience judged to be true, and what things they were that he so wrote against his conscience."
P. 1. The last article, 14, is entirely in Cranmer's handwriting.
vi. Reply of Gardiner to the above interrogatories.
I have had no communication with any man that could testify for Serles or Schether, since I have been at liberty; but amongst ourselves we have often wished that they might be at liberty, so it were with your gracious pleasure. With Mr. Parkhurst I have had no communication since I was set at liberty, saving once at his request, when he asked what displeasure men had at the Ordinary's hand that complained. I said every man knoweth his own grief. My lord said unto me once when he was not contented : Gardiner, you and your company do hold me short. I will hold you as short. Mr. Parkhurst said that he would bynd upon these words. I said he should not, for if he did he was not my friend, nor I would not take him for my friend. And I said, if he did, he did unto me high displeasure and would cause me to have great hindrance. With Mr. Mylles I remember no communication that I had, saving once upon the article of auricular confession, manyng no hurt, no business, against no person, but indifferently did commyn of that matter in the way of learning. At another time, indeed, he said unto me, that, being at Bekesborne with my lord, he saw in hys off artyclys (sic) notyd mendacium, no man's name named, and wherefore it was written he could not tell; of truth he did not show.
Ad 2m. At Lambeth 12 months past and more, when I was with your Grace, your Grace said unto me that I was complained on for preaching, and, as you were informed, a seditious sermon. I said unto your Grace, My lord, there be in Canterbury which would put me unto hindrance with a good will. But I trust your Grace will believe the truth. For everyone that hath complained on me I trust to bring six to testify that my preachings have been according unto God's laws and the King's. If it please your Grace to hear them I doubt not but to bring them. Then said your Grace, I warrant you I will not be too hasty.
Ad 3m. I have had no communycatyon with none that hath had displeasure at the Ordinary's hand at ony time, saving once Mr. Schether and I did commyn, long time past, that he said unto your Grace that he and Serles were blamed for preaching, and it was other that offended, and such as had authority for to preach. Your Grace did ask how (i.e. who) they were. He named the vicar of Osprynge. Your Grace said he had authority to preach. Then said Schether, And the country about where he hath preached can testify that he hath not preached well. Your Grace was greatly dysconted (sic) with him for his so saying, as he showed unto me. Also he said unto me, at his return from Croydon from your Grace, that your Grace would be even with me shortly because I did reason with your Grace in Serles cause.
Ad. 4m. Of Dr. Wyllyby I heard no man speak but alonely Mr. Schether. He said unto me that Wyllyby was a busy tongued man and came unto Canterbury with tales untrue; and oftentimes he made moo words upon great men's mouths than were true. Then said I, Is this his confession? I heard say so, said Schether. I said, Unto his own peril be it. I pray God send him as he hath deserved. I thank God I never had communycation with him secretly. But yet I would that I had never seen him.
Ad 5m. Unto my lord Warden's chaplain I spake but little. His communication was most with other men. But this I said unto him :—I pray you speak for me unto my lord your master; for truly, if I were once clear and upon even ground at liberty, I would beware how I came into such a danger again. And this grieveth me much, in that that I did not first complain unto my lord mine ordinary before that we did attempt the matter ony higher. Well, this done I trow I will beware.
Ad 6m. With Mr. Schether I had communication in Mr. Parkhurst's garden, lamenting this chance of God, desiring to have an end, for we were weary of this trouble, in mind never to be troubled for like matter again. I asked of him, Think you that the end will be shortly? He said, Yea, I think before Christmas. I pray God it may, said I, and so that my lord may take honor by it, and we no dishonesty. I said, Think you that ony great trouble will come unto us? Schether said, I cannot tell. I said, As pleaseth God, so be it. I trust my lord will drive all unto a good end. I said, I thank God I find my lord good. So do I, said Schether. I am glad thereof, said I. Then said Schether, I would the matter might be taken up above and there an end made quickly. Well, said I, as it pleaseth them to order it, I will be contented. I distrust not my lord. (fn. 88) Of the book delivered unto my lord's Grace I did wonder that it was not delivered all this time. I told him that I did see it in his chamber about the Assumption time, and then it was blotted. He said it was there, but where it was now he could not tell. And still we desired that in the end of this matter your Grace might have honor and we no dishonesty. This was oftentimes rehearsed.
Ad 7m. (fn. 89) I do not remember that I have heard ony other communicatyon of Mr. Mylles, Scory, Serles or Schether than I have before rehearsed, saving I commynyd with Mr. Scory of late and agreed with him, and he with me, that within ourself whatsoever should hereafter chance in our preachings we shall commyn each with other and never to use moo complaints.
Ad 9. I trust in God that your Grace taketh not the matter as your interrogatory soundeth, sc. that I have done ony thing against mine oath. In good faith, Reverend Father, I meant nothing less. For of this I am assured, I am and have been as loath to break an oath willingly and avisedly as ony man living. What moved me to have communication with Mr. Parkehurst, this was the chief cause. In two sundry sermons made in Christchurch in Canterbury of late, in whom (sic) the preachers intreated much of Amon and Mardocheus, it was said that as Amon made a scourge for Mardocheus and yet suffered himself, so nowadays men went about to displease other, and now the matter lieth in their own necks. This was the first motive, casting fear into my heart, musing much what it should mean.
Ad 10. The Article of 6 preachers, and the communication betwixt Serles and your Grace of images in the book presented I know to be true of mine own knowledge thoroughly. As for the other articles presented into the hands of Mr. Baker, I know not all of mine own knowledge, but partly by mine own knowledge and partly by hearing say.
Ad 11m, 12m, 13m. I answer that I have no knowledge of them, nor never had.
"Ad 14m. My Lord, I never was able, nor never durst say of mine own knowledge that the Council imprisoned Serles, but your Grace told me that the Council did so. Likewise for the six preachers, whereas I should have wrote that your Grace said that the King's pleasure was to have three of the old and three of the new, thorough haste and unadvisedly I wrote that the King's Majesty was therewith pleased when your Grace had showed unto him what you had done in the matter, not otherwise thinking but that these sayings both were equivalent. But after with myself remembering the danger that might thereon ensue, leaving out the very words of the Article in deed, I put them in writing as my conscience then moved me to do, even as they were in the article indeed, and sent them unto your Grace."
Pp. 5. In Gardiner's hand.
vii. [— (fn. 90) to Cranmer.]
All these thynges or elles the very same effecte I showyd to Mr. Doctor Wylowbe and to Mayster Serlles, and they desyryd to have ytt in wryttyng; and soo I did give to them all the wryttynges that I had wryttyn stryght after the vicar of Osspryng had prechyd, except only the spekyng of the mase, whych I am nott perfytt whether they had the copye therofe or no, for that was in his last sermon. Also, I thynke I dyd showe partt of thes saynghes to Mayster Shether butt nott all.
Also, I comunytt with the vycar of Feversam of most partt of thes sam thyng befoore wryttyn, butt he regardytt them nott gretly, for he sayd that he had maters to many whych the vicar of Ospryng had spoken in his chyrch, and showyd me a byll of lyke maters.
Also, I told of the makyng of Owr Lady Sawther to Mayster Percas and other that wer with hym, but off nothyng elles that I remembre, as God me help.
Also, I putt thes thynges in wryttyng to Mr. Doctor Cokkes and his company, or elles the very effect of the same.
These be all the maters that ever I spayk off to my remembrance that belong to owr relegion, of any effect or substans, as God be my helpe. Wherfore I humbly desyr yore lordshype to take no desplesur with me, for I ame and wylbe glad, duryng my lyff to doo [your] Graces commandementt att all tymys with the grace off God, to whom be glorye and laud for ever.
Plesyth yore Grace, Doctor Wyllowbe sayd nothyng butt that he wold and was commandytt to inqwer of all sych maters belonghyng to owre relegion, and he sayd he must putt yt to the Cownsell.
Mayster Serlys desyryd me to showe them all sych thynges as I knew any man speke agayns the sacramentes or sacramentalles, and no more concernyng owre relegyon.
Mr. Vicar of Feversam sayd he wold mel with nothyng butt that was prechyd and spokyn in his parysh, as I have writtyn be fore.
Mayster Shether sayd he trustytt to se alle sych maters to be reformytt that whych we cold nott agre owre selves shuld be sett at on, and he sayd no more to me.
"Mayster Percase sayd nothyng of owre relegion but dyd lawghe whan I told hym off the makyng of Owre Lady Sawter. Thes wer awswars (sic) as farforth as I remembre."
viii. Further answer by Gardiner.
Unto this Interrogatory, What communication you have heard by Wyllyby.—Now remembering that in that matter concerning Wyllyby, Mr. Schether and I had communication in this wise :—I have heard say, and in good faith I know not now of whom, that Wyllyby hath busied himself (I think over much) naming great men, as he said, to be a-knowledge in this matter, and with whom he hath had communication. Well, chose him. I trust although he hath named any above, we shall speed never the worse by that. For in good faith when I was above I spake with none saving with those whom I have already named unto my lord's Grace, and of them I never heard one mysse word spoken by my lord. And I think you heard no evil there spoken or intended. Schether said No, in good faith. Then said I, Let Wyllyby have as he hath deserved. If he have otherwise spoken than he oweth to do and knoweth true, and in anywise conspired, other with Dr. London or elsewhere, chose him. I never desired other than quietness. I said unto Schether, I thank God that I was not with Dr. London; you were. Then said Schether, I was with him but a while. I had not much communication with him. I said, I thank God I spake not with him these seven years, and now I am thereof glad. Unto this Interrogatory, Whether I have had or heard communication of Mylles, Scory, Serles and Schether :—Now I remember I did commyn with Mr. Parkhurst of Scory, saying I will be no witness against Scory; for if I may I will be excepted, and so I think I may, for as much as I am yet now in trouble and not clear myself; and henceforth I will make an oath that whiles I live, again I will never be witness against ony man, nor accuse ony man; and I trust that I will so use myself that I will never deserve to be accused. Then said Mr. Parkhurst, I pray you speak unto him that he do except me also.
"At another time I, perceiving Mr. Parkhurst very sad, said unto him, Be you merry, Mr. Parkhurst, I trust you shall have no cause unto the contrary. My lord is good, I promise you. I had wonders good words of him and of Mr. Dr. Ley likewise. In good faith, as I perceive they intend charitably. I am so comforted by them both that I am merry, I thank God. Let us care for our own. As for Mr. Serles, I think he hath been a doer above with Dr. London, but I am not sure of it. And Mr. Schether hath been overmuch occupied with his pen. I will say nothing furthermore. Be you merry, I pray you. I trust all shall be well. These my words comforted him so that oftentimes he would say unto me after, I am glad that you had good comfort, both of my lord [and] also of Mr. Dr. Ley. It comforteth my heart much. I said, Be you contented. And I would that we had never seen Wyllyby and some other."
In Gardiner's hand, pp. 2.
Strype's Cranmer, 777.
ix. John Myllys to [Cranmer].
Acknowledges his unkindness in subscribing to certain articles though unadvisedly. Has deserved little kindness at his Grace's hands, and now suffers cold imprisonment at his pleasure, which is painful and dangerous to him by augmenting the cough he has taken, besides inward pensiveness for his rash fact "at one other man's light motion," as others of his company did, who now feel it so deeply that he has heard them say they could not sleep, or eat or drink that thing that did them much good. Begs for mercy, and he will take this punishment for his learning not to be so lightly allured again.
Hol., p. 1.
x. The words your Grace had to me, Arthur Sentleger at Feversam.
Your Grace demanded of me if I was at home on Palm Sunday. I showed your Grace I was at my benefice. Then your Grace declared thereof the precession done the same Sunday at Crystyschyrche. After the declaration of that your Grace saying these words : Ye be ther knyte in a bounde amongst you wych I wyll breke. And then your Grace said to me, Ah, Mr. Senteleger, I had in you and in Mr. Parhust a good judgment, and specially in you, but ye wyll not leve your olde mumsemundes; but I will make you to leave them, or else I will make ye to repent it. Then I saying to your Grace, I trust we use no mumsemundes but these that be consonant to the laws of God and owr Prynce. And I than desyryng your Grace to be good unto us. "By me, Arthur Sentleger."
Hol., p. 1.
xi. These towns following are specially to be remembered that in
them be placed learned men, with sufficient stipends :—
"Sandwich, Dovor, Folkeston, Ashforde, Tenterden, Crambroke, Faversham, Hearne, Whitstable, Marden, Maidstone, Wye, Wingham."