Henry VIII: May 1516, 21-30

Pages 556-574

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 2, 1515-1518. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1864.

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May 1516

21 May.
Vit. XIX. 76.
B. M.
Wrote the ... of this month from Trent; "and with the same the dowble of [my letter] unto your highness the 17th day," and [a copy of the] schedule delivered by the Emperor to Leonard Friscobald, with the arrangement of the forces and route determined upon, all which were made up in a packet and directed to the King and delivered on the 20th of this month to Adrian ... weede servant to the said Leonard, whom he sent in post to the King. With regard to the assault upon Brescia by the Venetians, mentioned in the said letter, full particulars are now known by a [messenger] who was present. It appears that last Saturday morning the assault was made in two places, in one by Peter [de Navarre] and his Gascons, and in the other by other commanders [and] the Venetians. In the former place the fight lasted 4 hours, in the latter not so long, for they within being purveyed of fyre artyfficiale welle ... my masters the Gascons soo at theeyre fyrste comynge th[at ijxx] or iijxx of them were roostid." * * * After which the city bells were rung, and such triumph made that the enemy thought reinforcements had arrived, "wherfor with alle dylygence wheere theeyr dyvydid in twayne partis theey put theeyms[elves] ... howbeit it is also sayde that they intend [to ... and m]aake longer ladders and repare oothir instruments."
Six thousand Almayns and Spaniards "which ben pykyd kervers" are coming to the relief of the city. Hopes something will be done in a few days, for the Emperor intends to approach those parts in person, and keep in the mountains near the army. If, as is said, the Duke of Bourbon should come there in person with the French army, the Emperor has arranged that Mark Antony Colonna, with the army at Verona and the 4,000 Swiss that are coming, shall join the army aforesaid. The united forces will then amount to 15,000 men. Whether the enemy fight or retire, thinks the enterprise will now attain the desired end; "for though God hath seemed to sleep awhile, I am of opinion that he is neither sick nor dead." The Emperor has news that a large number of the men of the Earl of Frese, who is assisted by the Duke of Gheldrys, have been defeated by the Duke of Brunswick, and that the Earl of Gerelsek has 10,000 footmen ready, the money sent by the Emperor has reached him in safety, and his horsemen have arrived. Trusts that there will be good tidings shortly. Trent, 21 May 1516.
Hol., mutilated, pp. 3. Add. and endd.
21 May.
Vit. B. XIX. 78.
B. M.
[Not being able] to come Henry himself, sends his most confidential secretary Argillensis, than whom he holds no one dearer. Trent, 21 May 1516.
Hol., Lat., p. 1, mutilated.
21 May.
R. O.
1923. PACE to WOLSEY.
Has seen the letter sent by Sir Rob. Wingfield to the King touching the resignation of the imperial dignity to his highness, with the Emperor's proposal that the King should be accompanied with 4,000 archers and 2,000 horse, and go to be crowned at Rome. Wonders at such a proposal. There are thieves and villains enough in Almain to destroy such a company. The Emperor knows nothing of the mind of the electors, who will probably never allow that dignity to go out of their nation, or assent to anything proposed by him. The King will gain nothing by it, nor can he be absent so long, "for whilst we looked for the crown imperial we might lose the crown of England, which is this day more esteemed than the Emperor's crown and all his empire." It is a castle in the air, to get money out of the King. If the Emperor does not bring the Duke of Bari into the field, and name him Duke of Milan, that enterprise can never succeed. He will not do this because he is afraid the Duke should be more honored than himself, and he would like to pill and poll the said duchy and all Italy, under pretence of keeping them till the King came. The Emperor must be written to, and compelled to observe his determination to declare the rights of the Duke of Bari. The Duke is content that the King should accept the Duchy, but will not suffer himself or the King to be deceived. Trent, 21 May.
Hol., pp. 5. Add.: Tho. Card. Ebor. Endd.
21 May.
R. O.
1924. PACE to WOLSEY.
Cardinal Sancta Maria in Porticu has written to him and Galeas that the Pope would fain have the French out of Italy, and to know what kinswoman of the King might marry the Magnifico Lorenzo, the Pope's nephew. The Cardinal is constant against France. Trent, 21 May.
P.S.—The French and Venetians have suffered great loss in the siege of Brescia, but the city is still in danger, from the slowness of supplies. The French are very active in reconciling the Swiss.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Tho. Card. Ebor.
21 May.
P. S.
1925. For JOHN BOLT of Bromley, Kent.
Pardon. Eltham, 4 April 7 Hen. VIII. Del. Westm., 21 May 8 Hen. VIII.
Pat. 8 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 14.
21 May.
P. S.
1926. For ALEX. MANCENO, a foreigner.
Licence to retain the customs on his imports for two, and on his exports for five years, to the amount of 1,000l. Eltham, 29 April 8 Hen. VIII. Del. Westm., 21 May.
Pat. 8 Hen. VIII. p. 2, m. 6.
21 May.
P. S.
1927. For TH. WALLE, alias LANCASTER.
To be Norrey king at arms and principal herald of the North, with 20l. a year. Greenwich, 5 May 8 Hen. VIII.
Pat. 8 Hen. VIII. p. 2, m. 13. Westm., 21 May.
22 May.
Martene Amp.
Coll. III. 1270.
Has received from him two letters on the 29th and 21st of April, complaining that the Pope is vexed that he has news from the King so seldom, &c.
1. The Pope must remember how great is the distance between England and Italy; how many countries letters have to pass; the false tales which are spread; so that unless the King and Wolsey are informed of the real intentions of the Pope there is seldom anything worth writing about; and if he wishes the King's advice or aid in any matter he must signify what it is. However, Ammonius has received orders from Wolsey to write daily in his name to the Pope, and inform him of what passes.
2. Explains the King's intentions on certain points of the treaty. If the Pope wishes other conditions he may include them in a mandate to Wolsey. Will consider nothing more glorious than an opportunity of obliging the Pope. But his holiness must be candid. Sends a copy of the league between England and the King Catholic. The unity between the two powers is great, and would be greater if some of the ministers about the latter, who fear France, were banished from that court. The Emperor treats the King of England like a son. They have also word from Pace that the Swiss will remain faithful. The Scotch have sent ambassadors to demand a peace, and have promised the Queen her dowry, and a third part of the government[?]. England is very prosperous. His majesty regrets much the retreat of the Emperor, of which the Pope had written, owing to want of money, which the King had provided and sent through Friscobald, whose knavery in this matter the King will punish whenever he gets hold of him. The King had sent pay, not for one month, as the Pope supposes, but for four months. The King is quite prepared for the invasion of France; but his Council will not suffer him to cross the sea until all his allies are ready. The French are in great fear, and make great promises to the King Catholic.
Does not think it needful to say anything of Parma and Placentia. Regrets that others have more influence with the Pope than he has, and have received legateships and distinctions, which Wolsey has not. Hopes, however, if the Pope will not grant him for the present the same legation which the Bishop of Strigonium has in Hungary, and Gurck in Germany, he will at least grant him a faculty for visiting the exempt monasteries. The King is not pleased that he has heard nothing of the title Defensor Fidei, as if the Pope were afraid of the French. Ammonius will write. From my house in London, 22 May 1516.
22 May.
P. S.
1929. For WM. JENYNS, alias GUYSNES, pursuivant.
To be Lancaster herald, with 20 marks a year. Greenwich, 7 May 8 Hen. VIII. Del. Westm., 22 May.
Pat. 8 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 16.
23 May.
Galba, B. IV. 61.
B. M.
In behalf of Jacques Semel, physician of St. Omer, who has practised his profession for six years in England, and being engaged in a suit relative to the lease of a house which he had in London, was publicly denounced by the advocate of the adverse party as a traitor and spy of France. In consequence of this, he has been in prison for the last fourteen months. Myddelburgh, 23 May 1516. Signed.
Fr., pp. 2, mutilated.
23 May.
Vit. B. XIX. 79.
B. M.
1931. [PACE] to WOLSEY.
This day the Emperor left for his army, intending to rescue Brescia and provide necessaries. Brescia was besieged by the Venetians and the French, who refused to do battle with the Imperial troops. Since then it has been strengthened by the whole force of the French and Venetians. The Emperor is ashamed of his late deed, and is making all the preparations he can to drive the French from Italy. "The Lord Galias and I, since our arriving unto this city, have written unto your grace." Cardinal Gurk has assured the Duke of Bari that he opposed the rest of the Council (which decided that the Emperor should take the duchy of Milon for himself,) and showed the Emperor he could not keep the duchy nor put any man therein except Bari. Gurk insists upon the Duke writing himself Duke of Milan. The Cardinal must be desired to continue his favor to the Duke. He endeavors to confederate the Emperor, the King, the Duke and the Swiss, "wherein doth surely consist the wealth of all Christendom." Hears that persous in England accuse Wolsey of causing the King to spend money in this expedition for his own profit; "but your grace may boldly show unto the King's grace that such persons cannot tell what they say." If the Duke be restored to Milan, and have two years of peace, "as he may easily do under the King's grace's protection," he will be able to serve the King with 1,000 men, and help him in time of need; and the King's money shall be restored. If the French King be at this time expelled Italy, he will lose his reputation, "and remain exhausted and poor;" and the Pope and all other princes will join the King, to whom all Italy will be obedient. Trent, 23 May.
£95. [P.S.]—It will be time to treat of the Emperor's resignation when this expedition "shall have had some prosperous end." Then he may, with the consent of the electors, make the resignation and send it to the King, who can himself settle with the Pope as to his coronation, "and not put his realm and his person in jeopardy in coming to Rome in such manner as the Emperor desireth in Sir Robert Wingfield's letters." The Emperor "is evil contented with the young King Catholic, because that he doth not openly show himself enemy to the French King." The Emperor says he will die enemy to the French King; that he departed from Milan for fear of the lack of money; "and that for that cause he should have been betrayed and sold to the French King, which thing should have been more dishonor unto him than for to have been slain in battle, whereunto surely he was ever ready." Letters have come to this court from the court of Flanders, stating that the French King threatens the King of England for helping the Emperor. "If this be true the said French King doth it not for to the fear the King's grace, quem maxime ipse timet, but only for to prove if he can cause the King's grace to desist." He knows he is utterly destroyed if the Emperor continue this enterprise. The Emperor listens to no terms for peace from France.
Hol., part cipher, pp. 7, mutilated. Add.: Revmo, &c., Tho. [S]to Ceciliæ p~bro [Card.] Eboracen. Dño [meo] obsermo. Endd.: Letters of Mr. Pace's, the Cardinal Sedunen, the Count Galias and Leonard Friscobalde, mens. Maij et Junij.
R. O. 2. Decipher of the above.
Pp. 4.
* * * The blanks in the original are supplied from the decipher.
23 May.
R. O.
Refers him to Ric. Pace, his ambassador, whose letters he fully confirms. Trent, 23 May 1516. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add. and endd.
23 May.
Vit. B. XIX. 81.
B. M.
Has lately [desired] Pace to communicate something in his name to the Cardinal. Begs that he will give him credence. Trent, 23 May 15[16]. Signature burnt off.
P. 1, mutilated. Add.: Reverendiss, &c. Cardinali Eboracensi.
23 May.
1934. For JOHN CLAYTON, chaplain.
Perpetual chantry of St. Mary the Virgin, in the church of Colwiche, or the chapel of St. Trinity, Wolseley, Staff. dioc. Eltham, 30 April 8 Hen. VIII. Del. Westm., 23 May.
Pat. 8 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 2.
24 May.
Shrewsb. MSS.
P. f. 33.
Coll. of Arms.
Lodge, I. 18.
Has sent by John Bayle of Sheffield 3 yards of black satin, 13 yards russet satin, 2 yards yellow satin, the best in London. As the ships have not come from Flanders, there is little good silk. Has sent for the Earl 2 pair of shoes, 1 ream of paper, 40 lb. of currants, 1 lb. of red wax. For my Lord Francis 2 pair of shoes, also 2 black girdles and 2 black doghooks. Monday last the Master of the Rolls set off for Flanders. Sir Ric. Wingfield joins him at Calais. "It is thought the Emperor goeth but easily forward in his wars." Great jousting at Greenwich on Monday and Tuesday last. The King, the Lords of Suffolk and Essex, Sir Geo. Carewe, were challengers; Sir Will. Kingston, Sir Giles Capell, [John] Sedley and others, defenders. "The King hath promised never to joust again except it be with as good a man as himself." Tomorrow my Lord Marquis (Dorset) keeps St. George's Feast. Yesterday the King and Queen dined at Hampton Court. Speaks of some lead he sold for 4l. 4s. "This day I trust to send towards Wingfield two tuns of wine; whereof four hogsheads are claret, two red wine, one white wine, and the other puncheon fresh wine. If it be well carried, I trust your Lordship will like it well. It will cost 5l. 6s. 8d. the tun, whereof the wains must have for their labour twenty shillings." Mr. Ursewick spake with my Lord of Northumberland, who remains in the same mind, "and prays your Lordship to appoint what day this pilgrimage shall be kept. The question hath been asked of my said Lord for the marriage of his son, of Sir Wm. Compton and divers others: he hath made answer, 'I have concluded with my lord of Shrewsbury.' He hath been desired also to bring him to the court. He answered, 'When he is better learned, and well acquainted with his wife, shortly after he shall come to the court.' This communication piques him more heartily forwards than ever he was." Coldharbour, 24 May.
Hol. Add.: To my Lord.
26 May.
Calig. E. III. 105.
B. M.
1936. ANTH. INGE to the lord [SECRETARY OF CALAIS?]
"Monseigneur, il a long temps que [ ... 1]argent que le Roy mon maistre envoye au Roy ... pleu a Dieu de garder mes gens qui aloit amass ... et de fortune. Jusques a present javoye envoye au recou ... de quarante mil escuz dor sol' en pluseurs pais loing ... pleu au Roy mondit maistre me faire appointer." Has heard bad news, and fears he will not be able to keep his appointment at Calais. May have to send to Armagnac, Quercy, &c. Would not dare tell his master, for fear of losing his character. Hopes the King will not be annoyed if he overruns the term eighteen or twenty days, as he will certainly be in Calais within that time. Paris, 26 May.
Hol., Fr., p. 1, badly mutilated.
27 May.
Vit. B. XIX. 35.
B. M.
Wrote last on the ... inst. Received on the 25th the King's letters dated Greenwich the 13th. At the same time Pace received letters from Wolsey, with divers letters directed to the Cardinal [of Sion], which they sent next morning to Verona, where the Cardinal yet stays, "as a manner of [security]," until the arrival of the money for the S[wiss] there, "whiche nation is the mooste impatiente and trowbelous to medy[ll with] whanne they be nott payid att theyre daye that maye be fow[nde]." The King may not have an answer from the Cardinal. If all his letters have come to hand the King will see that he has never failed to write when they could be safely forwarded, though he forebore for a season when he was surrounded by enemies; and divers times when he and Pace were together the latter wrote to Wolsey, and "I did sett my hande to the [same]." Readily believes that the favor shown to himself by the Emperor above all other ambassadors arises out of the "faythefull and fraternall or rather paternall" love which the Emperor bears the King. He would deny Wingfield nothing that was for Henry's honor. In anything else Wingfield never interferes, and is glad that his conduct has met with Henry's approval.
Touching the matters ordered in a cipher attached to the King's letter, will not fail to execute them; but since the date of that communication he has himself written many letters, one of great importance, some worthy of careful consideration, and one expressly requiring an answer. Cannot, therefore, before hearing further, make any direct reply, but will rather accomplish the matter [mentioned] in his own letter to [the King]. Had informed the King of the state of Bresse, and of the number of men the Emperor had sent to its relief. News has arrived that before the Emperor's forces reached it the city and castle had capitulated, or, as the writer thinks, been sold. "The Frensche and Venetience hathe the perfect [art] to corupte and begyle alle the world." It seems also that all communication between Germany and Italy has been ent off by the French and Venetians. Thinks it probable the King will shortly hear that "the royalme of Napyls [is] soolde also, blyssid be thoose honorable counsellour[s of] the yonge Kynge which have brewyd the beverag[e to] the rewyne of themperor, of which rwyn the sayd [young] Kynge is lyke to be veery heevye, to the damage of all [Christen]dome." The only remedy is the assistance of England. Dated at ..., 27 May 1516.
P.S.—[The Emperor] departed "hence" 23 [May]. He is now 6 Dutch miles hence, where he is making preparations for the relief of Verona with all diligence. It will be saved, if at all, by the 60,000 florins furnished by Leonard Friscobald as mentioned in former letters.
Hol., pp. 4. Add.: To the Kynges highnesse. Endd.: Sir Robert Wyngfild, xxvij. May.
27 May.
B. M.
The Lord [Dissilstyne] has overthrown all the Gueldrois by sea, and taken their ships, among the rest a bark of David Falconner, a Scot. No one knows what has become of him. Galterotti has received letters from Edinburgh, dated the 6th, stating the young King in April was very sick, and not likely to live long. The Abp. of St. Andrew's has his old rule about the Duke of Albany, but by his means the Chamberlain has made his peace, and the secretary Panter is likely to be restored to favor" ... gone home, and that the said Duke offered to him ... ely pension for the dowry of the Queens of Scots. [He also said that] the Scots be very glad of her being in England," that the French ambassador has done all he can to reconcile the lords with the Duke; and that the Duke has gone to Scotland. Gualterotti is to receive 8,000 francs in the Duke of Albany's name, in part payment of the money owed him by the Bp. of St. Andrew's. By letters from Trent it appears that the Emperor's progress has been stopped for lack of victuals, and through the dissensions of the Cardinal of Sion and Galeaxxo Visconti. Bresse and Verona are in great danger. Thinks if [the governors] can find any way for a peace with France they will take it; "and the King arrived into Spain, by the common opinion he may not be friend to the French." Antwerp, 27 May.
Hol., pp. 3, mutilated. Add.
27 May.
Galba, B. IV. 66.
B. M.
Wrote last from Arraz "the xx. days." Found Mr. Fowler here. Hearing of the Emperor's driving back to ..., and the going home of the Swiss, advised him not to proceed with his charge till he had further instructions from Wolsey, but as he was so strictly charged to make the exchange of the money they have done as Wolsey will see. Does not see how the exchange can do any good, since it is necessary for the ambassadors in Almany, according to the covenant made with the Fokkers, to declare, at the presentation of the bills of exchange, whether they intend to take it or leave it. They and he must know immediately the King's pleasure, to advertise the Fokkers thereof. Thinks Alamire, who has "been not at home," is returned. Will pass by Mekly[n] this afternoon, on his way to the court, and cause him to go immediately to the King. Has sent to Bresse a trusty servant [of the master of] the posts, to obtain news of Richard de la Poola. Antwerp, 27 May 1516.
Hol., pp. 2.
27 May.
R. O.
Has given Geo. Lawson certain articles touching the King's works here. Begs he may be sent over again to further them, "for he is cold and wise, and hath good sight in such causes." Desires to know if William Pawne shall continue the pay of the workmen without mustering them once a month. Tournay, 27 May.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: My lord Cardinal. Endd.
28 May.
Shrewsb. MSS.
A. f. 37.
Coll. of Arms.
Master Urswick sends by the bearer, Th. Agard, ten pasties of baken conger. Yesterday, after 9 o'clock, received the Earl's letters by Bukley's servant, commanding him to send Rob. Ruyston with diligence to Tournay. If Alen can get as many crowns in London as he hopes, he shall go tonight or tomorrow morning early. Does not know whether to send this quittance to the secretary of Calais by the next that goeth hereafter, or wait till his coming over. When Copland comes home, will let his lordship know what his beds cost, and desire him to procure other nine good beds at this mart. Yesterday the Cardinal asked him how the Earl did. "He knoweth not the contrary but that your lordship as yet is very ill troubled, and full unmete to come up. I am and wolbe in his sight every other day: wherefore I trust his grace will nothing speak of your coming up this term." Urswick says the Prince of Castile comes not here this year. Desires to know what he shall give Sir And. Windsor's clerks and Sir Rice's servants. Fears his lordship's wine at Coldharbert suffers from being drunk and not filled again. Sir Wm. Mering tells him he is to be married on Sunday next. Though he never saw his wife till Corpus Christi day last, he was assured to her in twenty-four hours. "On Sunday last they were asked in the church, and upon Sunday next, by the grace of God, they shall be married. He likes her very well, for he saith she is the merest woman that ever he saw. He thinks himself somewhat too young for her, and yet she pass not forty years of age." Coldharbert, 28 May.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: To my lord.
28 May.
Vit. B. XIX. 82.
B. M.
1942. [WOLSEY] to PACE.
Has received Pace's letters of the 12th, informing him of the untowardness of the Emperor, which has in manner frustrated this expedition, and the valor of the Swiss in opposing the French in Italy. The latter was to the King and himself a great consolation for the former. Considering the good credit in which Pace stands, with the assistance of Count Galias, who, Wolsey perceives, has acquitted himself valiantly, hopes the Swiss will be kept alienate from the [French] and faithful to the King, so that this necessary [expedition] may be advanced for the surety of Christendom. The King highly commends the pains Pace has taken in the matter. He has sent credentials to the Swiss in reply to theirs lately sent by Pace, who is to thank them in the King's name for the good mind they bear him. The King will join stedfastly with them, and "provide in such wise for their yearly entertainment that they shall have ...," for which purpose he is in treaty with the Pope, the King of Castile and others, whereof he will advertise them more at length. Pace is to encourage them in their intention (of which Wolsey is informed by letters of Count Galias to Anchises resident here, and by Friscobald's servant, who brought Pace's letters,) to renew the enterprise for expelling the French from the Duchy of Milan. If they persevere in this Pace is to advance them, out of the money left by Friscobald, and the other money in his hands, such sums as by the advice of Galias he shall think good; but he must use great foresight, and make sure that the Swiss really intend to fight, not merely to make a show of battle and return. If the Emperor be determined, as is said, to go against the French with a new army, Pace and Sir Rob. Wingfield, with the assistance of Galias and the advice of Sion, are to do their best to encourage him. The King has despatched Anchises to Switzerland.
Draft, corrected by Ruthal, pp. 7, mutilated. Dated in front: xxviij. Maij ...
Vit. B. xix. 88.
B. M.
1943. [WOLSEY] to PACE.
Has received his letters with the account of his communications with the Emperor, the Cardinal of Sion and Swiss, which he has shown to the King and his secre[taries]. All were very well satisfied, commending Pace's wisdom in having induced the Swiss to proceed against the French. Advises him to urge on the Emperor without loss of time, considering the changeful and mercenary disposition of the Swiss, who may otherwise be corrupted by the French. They and the Cardinal of Sion ought, considering the loss they would incur by the usurpation of the French, to see to the conservation of their rights in the duchy. Pace is to [understand] that although the King desired to separate the Swiss from the French and to see the latter driven out of Italy, yet he did not intend himself to prepare an army for that purpose; for this could not be "substantially" done without himself going along with it. He wishes, when the French are expelled, that the Emperor, the Cardinal and Swiss should set themselves to establish their affairs in Italy, and proceed no further towards France; as nothing can be done without active support from Henry, who, owing to the poverty of the Emperor, would have to bear all the charges. He is therefore to endeavour to cause the Emperor and the Swiss to make instance to him to be mean unto the King that they proceed no further than Milan, seeing that no expedition fitted out by Henry can be in readiness before August next.
The King now sends [to Pace] a commission to treat with the Swiss on the following terms: 1. They are to be bound to serve him with as many men as he shall require from time to time; 2. To serve no prince against him. 3. Henry will be bound to assist them with money if the French King attempt to expel them from the duchy. Before treating with the Swiss, Pace is to use all policy he can with the Cardinal of Sion concerning the particulars. If they hold out for a definite sum to be paid he is to order himself according to Wolsey's other letters now addressed to him. When the league is made, the King will be able to choose his own time to invade France with their assistance. In reply to Pace's demands for money he is to receive, within a month of the date of this, the sum of 25,000l. at Isbroke, which will be sent in crowns to him or Sir Robt. Wingfield, as bills of exchange cannot be transmitted so quickly. The King hopes, however, "that within the two months [by the wages] before this to you sent the said enterprise shall be accom[plished], and that done it shall not need to advance unto them more money," as they may live upon such spoils as they get in the war. Pace is to use as much economy as possible. Sion writes to Wolsey, "Ye shall [not need] more money but for one month; whose [words be] these following: 'Quoniam pecuniæ regiæ ja[m missæ] vix sufficiunt pro stipendiis duorum mensium ... transmittatur pecunia pro stipendio tertiæ [mensis].'"
Draft, pp. 10, mutilated.
28 May.
R. O.
Has many things to say to him which he cannot commit to writing. Hopes soon to kiss his hands. Spinelly will inform him of the affairs of Italy, and the conspiracy against the life of the Pope. Ghent, 28 May 1516. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add.: Th. Cardinali Ebor.
28 May. 1945. For the CITY of CHICHESTER.
Assent to the election of John Cresweller as mayor, and of John Molens and John Beys as constables of the Staple. Westm., 28 May.
Pat. 8 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 22.
28 May.
S. B.
To be chancellor of the Exchequer in reversion, on vacation by Th. Lovell. Del. Westm., 28 May 8 Hen. VIII.
Pat. 8 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 5.
28 May.
1947. For JOHN DUDLEY, brother of Lord Dudley.
Annuity of 20l. out of the manors of Mountgomery, Keary and Kedewen, Marches of Wales. Greenwich, 6 May 8 Hen. VIII. Del. Westm.,28 May.
Pat. 8 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 24.
28 May.
1948. For CHAS. EARL OF WORCESTER, Chamberlain.
Licence to import 100 tuns of Gascon wine within two years. Greenwich, 22 May 8 Hen. VIII. Del. Westm., 28 May.
28 May.
1949. For PAUL VAN URELAND, the King's harness gilder.
Annuity of 100 marks, during pleasure. Greenwich, 12 May 8 Hen. VIII. Del. Westm., 28 May.
Pat. 8 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 11.
R. O. 1950. HENRY VIII. to [JOHN HERON, treasurer of the Chamber.]
Has bargained with Paul van Urelande, harness gilder, for the making, engraving, gilding and silvering of a barb, a saddle and a neck-piece for a horse, "like sample, according unto a complete harness which of late he made for our body." Urelande is to find the gold and silver, wages of workmen, coal, quicksilver, &c., but not "the barb, saddle, neckpiece and all of steel"; and for the engraving, gilding and silvering he is to have 200l., which Heron is to pay as follows, viz., 100 marks on the sight of these letters, 100 m. at Christmas next, and 100m. at the An[nunciation] then next ensuing. "... t year of our reign."
28 May.
P. S.
Congé d'élire to the convent on the death of Abbot Th. Bednell. Greenwich, 18 May 8 Hen. VIII. Del. Westm., 28 May.
Pat. 8 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 22.
28 May.
To have a corrody in the monastery of Selby, York, in survivorship, when vacant. Eltham, 12 April 7 Hen. VIII. Del. Westm., 28 May.
29 May.
1953. For MARY SALYNES, native of Spain.
Denization. Del. Westm., 29 May 8 Hen. VIII.
Pat. 8 Hen. VIII. p. 2, m. 14.
29 May.
R. O.
1954. RIC. GUMBY.
Will of Master Ric. Gumby, chaplain to the Duchess of Exeter.—To be buried at Windsor, near Master Th. Scaloner, late vicar of the College. Bequests to the altar, choir, vicars, &c. there—to the church of Cumton—to Sir John Webb my curate, Wm. Gibson and Ric. Chammes my servants; "a gowne furryed with fychos" to Dyxson's wife, Katharine Cymande; to Masters Ely and Stretford, chaplains to King Edward, Master Marvel and his fellow, chaplains to my Lady of Exeter, Master Newman and his fellow chaplains, to Master Pasch, Sir John Canne, chaplain to my Lord Hastings, Sir Wm. Berton, chaplain to Master Bray, to say dirges in the chapel of my Lady of Exeter "the day of my departing, that is, the 26th day of April, the date of our Lord 1516;" a special collect to be taken for him. Proved 29 May 1516, before John Veysy, Dean of the chapel. Administrator, John Chammios (?) nephew of testator.
Copy, p. 1.
29 May.
Annuity of 10 marks out of the lordship of Denbigh; and a donation in token of the King's regard. Eltham, 9 April 7 Hen. VIII. Del. Westm., 29 May.
Pat. 8 Hen. VIII. p. 2, m. 25.
29 May.
1956. For RIC. LONGE of London, mercer.
Protection; going in the retinue of Sir Ric. Wyngfeld, Deputy of Calais. Greenwich, 23 May 8 Hen. VIII. Del. Westm., 29 May.
30 May.
S. B.
Rym. XIII. 549.
Commission to Nich. Bp. of Ely, Th. Lord Dacre of Greystoke, Warden General of the Marches, and Th. Magnus, Archdeacon of the Estrithing, to arrange with the Scotch commissioners the treaty lately concluded at Coldyngham. Westm., 30 May 8 Hen. VIII.
Sc. 1–8 Hen. VIII. m. 18.
30 May.
S. B.
Livery of lands, as son and heir of Sir Walter Hungerford. Del. Westm., 30 May 8 Hen. VIII.
Pat. 8 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 22.
31 May.
Shrewsb. MSS.
A. f. 39.
Coll. of Arms.
Lodge, I. 21.
Was with Master Comptroller (Ponynges) and Master Ursewick yesternight. A bill has been made by the Council, waiting the King's signature, commanding the Earl to come up. Has heard nothing of it from the Cardinal, who is a great friend to the Earl. "Howbeit everything goeth not forwards as he would have it, as your lordship shall perceive by the copy of this letter which I have sent by this bearer. Here is a great snarling among divers of them, insomuch my Lord Cardinal said unto Sir Hen. Marney that the same Sir Henry had done more displeasure unto the King's grace, by the reason of his cruelty against the great estates of this realm, than any man living. My lord, the saying is, such as be head officers of the King's household shall give attendance, and be nigh the King daily, here be so many things out of order. I fear me some there be would take a thorn out of their own foot and put it in yours." The Cardinal and Sir Wm. Compton are marvellous great. Suffolk and the French Queen are out of the court and in Suffolk, as he wrote before. The Lord Marquis, the Earl of Surrey, the Lord of Abergavenny were put out of the Council chamber "within this few days, whatsoever that did mean." The Duke of Norfolk is very sick, and not likely to continue long. Buckingham went home yesterday; hath all his desires, with great thanks from the King. Advises he should write to the Cardinal and Sir Ric. Sacheverell to excuse his not coming up. Rob. Ruyston (fn. 1) left for Tournay on Thursday. Has delivered all things to him according to the Earl's commands. Forwards copy of a letter sent to the Cardinal out of Italy, "which Mr. Ursewick would, after the sight thereof, your lordship should break or burn it." Ursewick wonders the Earl does not appoint a day for the pilgrimage to Doncaster; "as knoweth our Lord, who ever hath your lordship in his blessed governance." Coldharbour, last day of May.
Hol. Add.: To my Lord.
31 May.
Giust. Desp. f. 224.
1960. SEB. GIUSTINIAN to the DOGE.
By his letter of the 21st they will have learnt that he has gone to Putney in consequence of the plague in his house, which excluded him from an audience with the Cardinal. Has heard from the French ambassador that the Scotch business is not settled. The Queen is at liberty to depart, and will return in a few days. The Scotch will not consent to leave the children under the care of their mother. The differences are postponed for six months, during which time the Kings of England, France and Denmark will negotiate for an arrangement with the Scotch. On visiting the Cardinal found he was closeted with the Emperor's ambassador, and had to wait more than two hours. Remonstrated upon his letters being taken away and opened at Canterbury. Afterwards communicated to Wolsey by word of mouth the contents of the said letters, but varying the passages in cipher that the key might not be discovered. Protested against the approach of bloodshed, hearing from Wolsey that immense forces were marshalled against the King of France, first the Emperor, then the Swiss, then the Viceroy. Dwelt on the arrogance of the Emperor, and that his army had been paid with the money of the King of England. Begged him to protect Italy. Will see the King on Monday the 2nd; perhaps a royal and youthful mind will be more easily moved to commiseration. Putney, 31 May 1516.
31 May.
Giust. Desp. I. 228.
Wolsey told him that, if they chose, the Venetians could put a stop to the devastation of Italy, and expatiated on this topic. Sebastian replied, that he was but their instrument, but individually he could not imagine how the Venetians could break faith with the French until they had first received cause,—that the Pope was allied with France as well as the Swiss. Did this to bring out Wolsey, who said he was sure of the cooperation of the Pope, and the Swiss had no contract with France. Sebastian said much might be done by his ceasing to furnish the Emperor with money until they had obtained Brescia and Verona. "Domine Orator," said Wolsey, "you are like the man who had a dispute about a mill; and when there was a question of compromising the matter, he said, I consent to the compromise, but choose, at any rate, to have the mill. This is precisely your case. You choose to have Brescia and Verona, and yet they alone are contested." Sebastian said, stolen goods ought to be restored. Wolsey replied, the object in this case was to prevent the King of France giving laws to the universe. Putney, 31 May 1516.
31 May.
R. O.
Fowler of the King's receipt tells him Wolsey has ordered him to deliver 5,000l. to the garrison here. Wolsey knows, both from himself and Jerningham, how they are provided. There is no better way of diminishing the King's charges than by setting more men to work. 5,000l. will last but little time. Wolsey knows the ill mind the French bear them, attributing the Emperor's hostility to England's instigation. Has written to the King of his late being, by my Lady of Savoy's request, at the court of Castile being at Lysle, and the offer he made to the King of Castile to pass through this town, when he was sure he would take another way. Hopes the King will thank my lady for her good advertisements sent to Mountjoy by Brysselles. Will inform the King right shortly of the letters he has received from Cleryns. Lancaster comes over next week. Tournay, 31 May.Signed.
Pp. 2. Add.: My lord Cardinal. Endd.
31 May.
Calig. E. II. 102.
B. M.
Will require 300 or 400 more workmen to expedite the works. Begs provision may be made for payment. The garrison was never better. Till he was treasurer he dared go among them; now he may not, for lack of money. 8,000 or 9,000 Swiss have invaded L[orraine] and done great damage. Rob. de la Marche and the Duke of Gilders have combined to make war upon Holland and Brabant. The Swart band are in the Duke's service, but have lately burned and taken [the towns] belonging to him. Fowler has no money. Tournay, 31 May.
Pp. 2, mutilated.
Vit. B. XIX. 104.
B. M.
1964. [PACE] to WOLSEY.
Has received ... dated 16th of this [month], "werby I perceve the recepte off ... frome the cities of Laude and Ver[ona, con]teynynge manifestam desperationem hujus [expeditio]nis." Wonders that the King and Wolsey allowed themselves to be put in false hopes by the persons named in Wolsey's letter, seeing they were 200 miles off, while Pace, who was present, had written so despairingly. The result has shown who was right. "It was but a dream to wr[ite] at that time that the Frenchmen [would] so fast run away, when the [mperor] were run away afore." [The] truth is that the [Vene]tians "at our beynge in the citie off ... would have forsaken the Frenchmen [and did]de begynne" to treat secretly with the Swiss, fearing the Emperor's return according to his promise, and the advance of the Swiss. As soon, however, as they found out that the Emperor was not coming back, and that the Swiss would consequently be forced to withdraw, they remained with the French, hoping to recover Brescia and Verona, which would certainly have been lost but for the money advanced by Leonard Friscobald. Pace sends his thanks to the King for "remem[bering] ... [his] promotion." Will use all efforts præteritos [corrigere] errores, though the misfortune is so great that he scarcely sees a remedy. Since the departure of the Swiss, has been one of the Emperor's chief advisers to keep 10,000 men in the field against the French and Ve[netians]; and has labored to thwart all intrigues between the French and Swiss, "and have o ... that hither to perseverant in propos[ito ad] hærendi majestati regiæ, and for to k[eepe him] in thys goode mynde, the Lord [Galeas] * * * idde unto the capitains, which ... shall do grete goode," for they only desire to know whether the King wishes to have their service or not in this enterprise. The French report of a league between them and the Swiss is an impudent French lie. If Henry please it will cost the French one hundred thousand pounds sterling to gain over the Swiss.
Has sent Wolsey's letters to Galeas, and declared the King's benevolent mind towards him, and [caused] all letters for the [Cardinal of] Sion to be hastily conveyed * * * "de remittendis omnibus privatis [injuriis] ... (sicuti spero) utetur hac in re [consilio Majestatis] Regiæ et D.V.R." Is not afraid of the Archdeacon of [Novara], nor of any living man, for what he has done since he left England. No man can blame him except for speaking the truth. What grieves him most is that where they might have won all with honor, they have lost all [by] the wilfulness and negligence of "th[ose] that were not compelled to lose ... bi running away withowt cau[se] ... would lose." Would rather have been slain in the field than incurred so great shame. Has been diligent in het matter of the Venetians, as well with the Emperor as otherwise, and expects hourly tidings from Venice by a secret messenger. The Emperor, by Pace's persuasion, has left all to the King and Wolsey, as they know by his letters. The Cardinal of Sion was right in saying that the King's money was sufficient to the middle of this month; it would have lasted the whole [month] and more, if the Emperor had not ... expend thereof an hundred ... wher he shulde have * * * "[D.] me in his rebus adver[sis] ... sed potius omnem (ut dicunt) ... ut præteriti errores corrigi [possint et] (si vos vultis) penitus destina ... gloria mtis regiæ et honore." It is true much money must be spent in affairs of this sort, but not without a view to honor and utility. The man who would rather keep his money in his coffers than honorably use it, is sordid, and the most appropriate fate for him would be to be thrust into his money chests, and "ut ibi vu ... contrahat." If the kingdom of France is to be regained, "illa via tendendum est quæ nos ad id ducet. Est autem hæc ut ... ter ab Italia; quæ res efficiet ut omnis ... reparario pereat et ab omnibus amicis de ... quod si eveniet, nihil restat ni[si ut majestas] regia sit toti orbi Christiano ..."
Hol., pp. 7, mutilated. Add.: Rmo, &c. D. Tho. Carli Eboracensi. Dated in margin in modern hand: Augusta, Mr. Pace.
31 May.
Vit. B. XIX. 213.
B. M.
1965. [WOLSEY] to PACE.
Understands from Pace's letters the "unfortunate and on ... su ... this intended enterprise against the Frenchmen." The King and Wolsey are displeased at the "disordre and faynt dealyng u ... therin, redounding moche to the Emperor's dishonour." Pace is not to be blamed, but rather thanked for his labors. He is, however, to apply himself to repair the past errors, and advance the new expedition, which, as Sion writes, is now fairly commenced. Understands that the money the King sent for the Swiss has arrived; that the Cardinal, as the Emperor's lieutenant, has departed towards the Swiss to set them forward; and that the Emperor was near Brescia following the Cardinal with "his puissance." The King has good hope that the Emperor will avail himself of this opportunity, and "like a valiant captain proceed against his enemies," who have defamed him, in all countries. Now is the time for Pace to do the greatest service, by encouraging the Emperor and the Swiss to join. As, according to the letters of the Cardinal of Sion to Wolsey, the money sent by the King is only sufficient to pay the Swiss till the middle of June, he has advanced by way of exchange 40,000 crowns, to be distributed among them after that time, if the enterprise be not by that time concluded and the case require it. This money will be paid to Pace and Wingfield by the Fokers at Augsburg. Pace must keep it entirely to himself, that it may not be touched except in case of necessity.
The letters of exchange will be (fn. 2) "made in Andwarp by the procuracion [and] advice of Sir Thomas Spinoll and a secret substantial servant of [the King's] grace, who shall deliver on the King's behalf the said sum in ready money to suche as shall make and send the letter of exchange to you, so that by vertue and auctorite of these letters of exchange ye may receive the said sum of the Fokers in the city of Augusta at any time when ye shall demand the same." The information which Pace gives, that there is no chance of the Emperor and the Swiss pursuing the French into France after they have driven them out of the duchy of Milan, (fn. 3) is satisfactory; for it will be better for the Swiss not to attempt the invasion this year, the time and their provisions not sufficing for its successful accomplishment. Pace is to encourage the Swiss in this resolution, in order that provision may be made against next [year] for their entertainment by leagues between the Pope, the King and other princes, that the "voyage of Fraunce" may better be carried out then than now. The King hopes to hear good news shortly, especially if Sion and Galeazzo unite; for as soon as the Emperor sees them, and the Swiss "valiauntly set forth in this voyage," he will speedily follow to retrieve his honor.
Draft, pp. 11. Originally intended for a letter from Hen. VIII., but corrected by Ruthal as a letter from Wolsey.
R. O. 1966. HENRY VIII. To _.
By the contents of their letters directed to the Cardinal, understands the success of this enterprise against the French, which they regret has been no better. Imputes no remissness to them, but rather the reverse, notwithstanding his displeasure at the faint and dishonorable dealing of the Emperor. They are to set their minds to the enterprise, which has been resuscitated, as the King is advertised, by the letters of the Cardinal of Sion.
Unfinished draft in Ruthal's hand, p. 1.
Galba, B. VI. 27.
B. M.
Instructions from Henry VIII. to [Rob. Fowler?] touching the monies to be brought to Antwerp, and thence transmitted through the Fuchars to Augsburg.
1. He is to convey the monies assigned to him here or at Calais, with all secrecy and despatch, to Antwerp; 2. and there lodge them safely with an English merchant, or with the factor of the Fuchars; 3. to whom he shall present the letters of the imperial ambassador in England, and require him to go with him to Brussels; 4. where, in conjunction with Spinelly, he shall visit the Lady Margaret, and treat with the said factor through the medium of the imperial ambassador André de Burgo. 5. Even if they cannot agree he is not to give up, seeing that the Fuchars have promised, through Gurk, in his letter dated Augsburg, 15 April, to the imperial ambassador in England, to acquiesce in the judgment of the Emperor and his treasurer and the English ambassadors at his court; 6. but shall promise in any case to deliver the money to the said factor in their presence; 7. who shall thereupon advise his masters to make payment whenever required, and deliver him a receipt stating the sums to be paid to the English ambassadors at the camp, or to the Emperor's treasurer at Augsburg, which, when obtained, he shall transmit to Spinelly.
Lat., pp. 3.
R. O. 1968. [WOLSEY] to ROB. FOWLER.
Order has been taken that the 8,000l. sent by him to the Fucars of Augsburg shall be delivered to the assigns of Leonard Friscobald, who will answer to the King for the said money in any place required without loss on the exchange.
Draft, in Tuke's hand, p. 1.
Shrewsb. MSS.
P. f. 27.
Coll. of Arms.
1969. [The EARL OF SHREWSBURY] to_.
Desires him to continue his good offices in the matter "between my Lord of Northumberland and me." Since he wrote, Buckingham has proposed cross marriages between his family and the Earl's. Has, however, made a clear answer in that behalf. Desires him, therefore, if Northumberland come not home soon, to get him to appoint the pilgrimage shortly: "for I trust within this fortnight the heyre (air) will be clear, for there were none of my servants sick these five or six days," nor any dead these three weeks. Hopes he will beseech Northumberland to remain in his good mind, for if Buckingham knew, he might try to change his purpose.
Draft, p. 1.
Shrewsb. MSS.
P. f. 11.
Coll. of Arnes.
Has received his letter of the 16th touching the cross marriages proposed by the Duke of Buckingham. Is much bound to the Duke for continuing in his good mind: for in the first year of the King's reign he offered the Earl his son, "promising that I should have him better cheap by 1,000 marks than any other man. Howbeit, when he came to the point that I desired to know what sum he would ask, it was so great that I never desired to speak of the matter since, for I trust with a little help to marry all my daughters with that sum that he asked with one of them." Is so much in debt to the King and others that he cannot command such a sum as Buckingham would require.
Calig. E. II. 156.
B. M.
Thanks him for friendly assistance in his various causes. Would have been glad if he could have given him licence to come into England before Whitsuntide. Thinks it will be perilous for him to leave till they see how the amity succeeds. If he will send some discreet person, he shall have as good expedition as if he came himself. Westm., the x ... May.
Hol., draft, p. 1.
Calig. E. II. 33.
B. M.
"Instructions delivered to Sir Ric. Jernyngham, knt, for to show to the King's grace and his Council."
1. The coiners object to the recoining of the dandepratts to the fineness of English groats, as much will be lost by the melting. If the dandepratts now remaining in Mr. Treasurer's hands were current, they would pay the garrison for the month of June and July. Begs that he will direct his letters to Rob. Fowler to recoin the same at the rate of 2d. a piece; and that allowance be made for the men put in by my Lord Lieutenant.
P. 1, mutilated.
Calig. D. VI. 344.
B. M.
1973. NEWS from FRANCE.
The French King intends to send men and money to the Duke of [Albany] that he may make war upon England. The French ambassadors have lately returned from Scotland, and immediately afterwards the herald named Albany was sent by the French King to the said Duke, whose return they daily expect; and according to his report aid will be sent. Had this information from sundry great men, "secret friends unto the King's grace." "Immediately after that the French King was returned from Italy unto Lyons, he sent for Ric. de la Pooll, then being in the city of Macia in Florene (Metz in Lorraine); and as they both were riding upon the said Richard's mule, the King behind the said Richard, the King said these words unto him: "I know that the King of England is my utter euemy, intending to destroy and deprive me from my state in Italy, sending his right great sums of money to the [Emperor], and retaining the Swisses in his aid for that intent; wh[erefore] glad I would be to serve him with like favors. And because [I] know your title to be good to the crown of England, I shall ... but shortly endeavor me to make some peace with the said Em[peror to] stablish my matters there; and, that done, I shall assist you both with men and money for obtain[ng of your] said right, and shall not forsake you in that behalf w[hile I] have one crown to expend. In the meantime ... and have patience. He saith also that Marq[uis] ... desired the French King with marvellous great inst[ance that he] would grant unto the said Richard his favors and ... promises, which Richard the said Marquis [reputeth for his] cousin. And the said King promised unto him [that he] would so do.
"He saith also that it is determined by the [French King that] four persons shall be sent secretly into Eng[land to set] fire by crafty and cautelous means within the [house wherein] his grace shall be abiding, to the intent (which God[forbid) to] destroy his most noble person and all other there being p[resent, and that] the said persons for this their execrable fact should h[ave] of the said Richard 4,000 francs. Interrogatus [de tempore] conatus faciendi et interponendi, he saith, when the day[s are] more shorter. And the premises he saith that he knoweth [from one] that is most secret about the said Richard and the King's most true and faithful lover, who hath promised from [time to time] to advertise his grace by some means, and specially this, show[ing him the] secret intentions of the said Richard against his grace."
He reports that Rob. Latamer is taken by the company of Mons. De ... and kept in the castle of Hayn. Sundry letters and ... Angle nobles were found upon him, and he has confessed "all his secretness" to Mons. de Vaundham and others sent by the French King to examine him. Is informed by one Wm. Poundre that ... is taken in Italy and put to death as the King's ass ... The French King is craftily attempting to recover Tournay; "and hath deputed for [to effect] and procure the same Mons. de Cleryns, Johan Frappy and ... Lumbarde, late citizens of Tournay, and now fled from t[he town bec]ause they would not obey the King's grace. One Mastyre Joh[an] ... s one other and the greatest enemy, and now ... [L]yons playing at the dice by the Dean of Wallesse in ... was spoken there, owdre by the King's commandment or ... sayth he is informed that jeopardy shall be at Tur[nay ... char]gid above with salt, wheat or other merchandise, an[d weapons of w]arr and artillery who shall trust in rebels ... that thing, good espial must be secretly ... premises, he knoweth by secret relation of [certain men that were late o]f Turney and now his neighbors in Pari[s] ... man."
Anth. Spynell is a marvellous great enemy [to the] King's grace "cantulusly inquiring of any Englishmen concerning the King's secrets," and notifying them to the French King, from whom he receives 400 francs a year. About Easter last at Lyons the French King gave him 500 crowns; yet he pretends "that his late being with the French King at Lyons was enempst his wrongful imprisonment in Noverny, when the King's grace expugnyd Tyrwan and Turney."
The French King "laboreth with all diligence" for a peace with the King of Castile, for which ambassadors on both sides will meet next August. Ambassadors did meet for the purpose at Noyon last Whitsuntide, for this reporter saw them there, and also had information from a footman of the French Queen, who was dispatched from Paris to the Great Master of France at Noyon.
Pp. 3, mutilated. Endorsement illegible from mutilation.
R. O. 1974. SUBSIDY.
Account of subsidies of the Lords and Commonalty, Easter to Whitsuntide, 7 & 8 Hen. VIII. Sums in the hands of Rob. Fowler. Receipts of John Jenyns, John Haselwode and Henry Everard.
Pp. 10; first leaf mutilated.
R. O. 2. Accounts of Hen. Everard, John Hasylwod and John Jenyns, of the tenths, fifteenths and subsidies collected by them for Easter term 7 & 8 Hen. VIII.
Pp. 6.


  • 1. Kyston, in Lodge.
  • 2. The passage quoted is interlined and written in the margin by Ruthal, in lies of these words: "We shall sende unto you by [the] nexte post with all possible diligence."
  • 3. Here a mark occurs in the text, referring evidently to a passage inserted in the margin in Ruthal's hand, which is quite unintelligible through mutilation.