Henry VIII: March 1545, 6-10

Pages 144-153

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 20 Part 1, January-July 1545. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1905.

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March 1545, 6-10

6 March. 317. Victualling of the Navy.
R. O. Privy Council warrant to the Treasurer and Chamberlains of the Exchequer to deliver in prest to Lord St. John, "for provision of victuals for the seas," 1,000l. st. Westm., 6 March 1544. Signed by Wriothesley, Russell, Hertford, Winchester, Browne and Wyngfeld.
P.1. Add
6 March. 318. Queen Katharine to the Bishop, Dean, and Chapter of Exeter.
Hist. MSS.
Report, v. 296.
Desiring to prefer John Throgmorton to some honest promotion, asks them to give him the next advowson of any one prebend that shall chance to be void in their church of Exeter. Greenwich, 6 Mar. 36 Hen. VIII.
MS. belonging to Lord Hatherton.
6 March. 319. Parson Saxby to John Johnson.
R. O. Refutes at great length a charge in Johnson's letter, from Glabthorne, of 25 Feb., that he has not kept promise about his resignation of Polbroke to Sir Thomas Barbar, and other matters. Mentions, among other things, that he bruised his leg by a fall from his horse on Shrove Tuesday and has since been unable to pull on his boots; and that he intends not to resign unless he is sure of his pension and has "landed men bound for it and to have my lord Cheve Justys counsel in it." Pysford, 6 March 1544.
Sends a letter to be forwarded to his brother William Saxby. at Calais.Hol., pp.2. Add.: in Lyme Strette, at London.
6 March. 320. Shrewsbury, Tunstall and Sadler to Henry VIII.
Add. MS.
32,656, f. 187
B. M.
II., No. 421.
On Wednesday (fn. n1) night last, Cassells arrived at Darneton and despatched to Shrewsbury, at Alnewycke, the letters he brought from the Privy Council touching his despatch into Scotland. By his letters to Sadler, herewith, it seems that he intends to send, and not repair into Scotland himself as yet; and, "considering the late chance that hath happened," the writers would have made means to stay him. Now Shrewsbury has sent a servant to guide him to Carlisle, and has written to lord Wharton to permit his servant's repair into Scotland, but gently detain Cassells himself. Ask whether to suffer him to depart into Scotland if he so desire. Alnewycke, 6 March 1544. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.
6 March. 321. Robert Lewen, Mayor of Newcastle, to Shrewsbury.
Shrewsb. MS.,
A., p. 309.
Lodge, i. 113
We received your letters dated at Darnetone, 26 Feb., for setting forth ships, and answered by letters dated at Newcastill, 27 Feb., that the only ships meet for war within the haven were four laden toward Brabant, the rest were in the King's service at Calais, Bulloyne and Dover, with most of our mariners; and that we had 100 men in the works at Tynemothe and 111 on the Borders, so that here remained about 50, whom Sir Oswald Wistrope, by the King's commission, "had preste with two of the saide foure laden shippes"; and that we had scarce malt or ordnance for one ship but would do our best. Now, at your Lordship's last being at Newcastell you declared that we should take such ships and men as we thought meet, notwithstanding any commission to the contrary, and we find the shipmasters and mariners willing to serve if they may have the Myghell, of Henry Andersones, and the George, of Andrew Bewikes, victualled and furnished, and discharged from other commissions. As more mariners and 80 qr. of malt have come in since our last letters, we have determined to furnish the said two ships, and beg you to write to Mr. Bovill to let us have such ordnance as was in the ships last year; and to let us know your pleasure in the premises. Newcastell, 6 March. Signed (as "with the assent of his brethren and other the inhabitants").
Pp.2. Add.
6 March. 322. Paget to Petre.
R. O. For proceedings, refers him to their common letter to the King, and begs him to obtain an expedite answer; especially touching Paget's return (which is referred to his own arbitrament but in which he would lean wholly on the King's determination), for he is not furnished to tarry long here. Encloses a letter from Mr. Mownt of an old date and another written yesterday from Dr. Marten, my lord of Suffolk's physician, now at Andwerpe, to be shown to the King. Brussels, at night, 6 March, 1544.
Desires commendations to Lady Petre, and the return of the bearer hither where he has "no store of men."
P.S.—Because Mr. Kerne is ambassador with the Regent, and all conferences are with her, Paget cannot but use him as well as Wotton and trusts that the King will approve this.
Hol, p. 1. Add. Endd.
6 March. 323. Georgius Baron ab Haydeck to Henry VIII.
R. O. Nothing worth writing has occurred all winter. Congratulates him upon his conquest of Boulogne and victorious return home. To the Diet lately indicted none of the German princes has come except the bp. of Augsburg; but, since the King of Romans is expected there shortly, he hopes that other princes will also come, for the Emperor, who is ill at Brussels, and using the cure of guaiacum, has deputed Granvela and Naves to Worms, jointly with the bp. of Augsburg, to open the Diet. Doubtless Henry will have servants there to report the proceedings, and, if not, the writer will certify what is concluded. Prays God to send a better agreement among the German princes, or else, not only Germany but all Christendum will suffer. Some say that the bp. of Trent will act as Papal legate at the Diet, but the writer scarcely believes it, because, as a prince of Germany, he comes thither in his own right. It is said to be determined that the Emperor sends 3,000 Spaniards and the Roman pontiff 4,000 Italians to defend the remainder of Hungary and Austria from the Turk. Even so (proinde) Henry duke of Brunswick having gathered 7,000 or 8,000 soldiers in Lower Germany (who pretended that they were assembled by the Emperor) attempted to seize the Landgrave of Hesse's county of Katzenelenbogen, but failed because passage by the Rhine was refused them. A great number of German soldiers are going into France, whom the Emperor might easily stop. What the French king will attempt will be seen next summer. "Ex Nova Civitate, (fn. n2) oppido meo, Martii 6to, anno etc. 'xlv."
Lat. Hol., but not in his own hand, p. 1. Add. Endd.: 1545.
6 March. 324. Granvelle to Secretary Bave.
Papiers d'
Etat, iii. 91.
Answers Bave's letters of the 26th ult. and 1st inst. the more briefly because on his journey and occupied with his letter, or rather volume, to the Emperor. Hopes to reach Wormes today. Fears a return to war with France sooner than some think. Some points in the Emperor's letters to Mons. de Saint Mauris he does not understand. As to England, especially touching Paiget's charge, will not venture to write anything; but fears lest the French and English being kept at variance may make peace (se ralient) to our detriment. * * * Openau, 6 March 1545.
7 March. 325. The Privy Council to Lord Poynings.
R. O. Upon consideration of his letter of the 4th inst., the King commands them to signify that, since the fortress devised to be made upon the hill beside the Owlde Man would, in the opinion of his ministers, require too long time to perfect, it shall not be followed further; and prays him to forward the strengthening of "the bray of the castle and the fortification between the castle and Monstrel gate."
And, albeit the fortification beside the Old Man cannot be made soon enough, the King thinks that a deep ditch cast from that hill down the valley towards the castle and a bulwark of earth made to flank up towards the castle would both empeach the enemies and let his subjects pass safely between the Old Man and Base Bulleyn, and desires Poynings' opinion therein. As to the ships which, he writes, remain there for lack of money, doubtless money is arrived by this time. For so small a matter they need not have tarried, but might, with money arising from sale of victuals or otherwise, have been discharged. The King is advertised that many women, children and impotent persons still remain; and, considering how great a matter it is to furnish victuals for the ordinary garrison, he prays you avoid all such persons and not suffer the like to be received hereafter.
Draft in Mason's and Petre's hands, pp. 3. Endd.: M. to the lord Poyning, vijo Marcii 1544.
8 March. 326. The Privy Council to Paget and Wotton.
R. O.
St. P., x. 330.
By their several letters of the 3rd inst. it appears that, in later conferences, Scorye and others of the Emperor's Council make much of a new arrest of nine ships going from Seland towards Biscay, worth 500,000 cr. There is no arrest made, at Fawmouth or elsewhere, of any such fleet. Before Paget's departure (as he knows) nine ships bound for Spain, with soldiers and merchandise, were driven by weather into Fawmouth, and there were victualled and refreshed, and afterwards departed at their pleasure, save that 600 of their number, having no money or victuals, sued for service in the King's wars and were accepted. After having ministered such clemency to them the King marvels that this untrue bruit has obtained such credit with the Emperor; and thinks it strange also that the Emperor should be grieved at his entertaining Spaniards, seeing that the treaty plainly declares that whenever he makes war he may hire any number of the Emperor's subjects and use them against the enemy, who must "still be called a common enemy." The King approves Paget's answer to Score, putting the difference between obligation and consideration, and desires them to insist upon the treaty, not only in that matter of the declaration, but also that of the traffic with France, the arrest, &c., laying the words plainly before them like as in last letters the Council signified those touching the arrest. This examining of things by the treaty the King think an honorable and friendly way, and he is content to remit them to commissaries of both sides or even (if things come to extremity, as he trusts they will not) to indifferent judges. He thinks the caution demanded unreasonable; and he himself, "after promise made," frankly released his arrest. Under such a caution his subjects would be bound to answer for all old or new actions, and also liable to be troubled upon every light occasion. If the caution is still insisted upon, the King thinks that the Emperor's subjects should give like caution on their part. He requires them to use diligence in this, and meanwhile to procure the discharge of his own munitions and provisions and as much of the rest as possible.
Draft corrected by Petre, pp. 13. Endd.: M. to Mr. Secretary Mr. Paget and Mr. Wotton, viijo Marcii 1544.
8 March. 327. Border Garrisons.
R. O. Privy Council warrant to the Treasurer and Chamberlains of the Exchequer to deliver bearer, Thomas Jeffrey, to be conveyed into the North and delivered, by indenture, to Sir Ralph Sadleyr, for the garrisons and other charges, 5,000l. st.; and for his own costs in conveying it 40l. Westm., 8 March 1544. Signed by Wriothesley, Russell, Hertford, St. John and Petre.
P. 1. Add.
8 March. 328. Shrewsbury, Tunstall and Sadler to Henry VIII.
Add. MS.
32,656, f. 189,
B. M.
ii.. No. 422.
Send letters received from Lenoux and Lord Wharton, with others from Robert Maxwell and from Wm. Buckton, Lord Evers' servant who is now here. Linoux's suit is so honest that they must commend it. The slaughter at this late mischance in Scotland seems less than was supposed, for ransomed soldiers come home daily. But no gentlemen are ransomed except John Tempest and Fras. Norton, who have agreed with their takers to pay 40l. apiece. Enclose a letter from Sir Thos. Hilton to Shrewsbury, and as Hilton has been very forward at this time and can serve "in that thing which he desireth" at less charge to the King than any other man, they commend his suit. Alnewycke, 8 March 1544. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.
8 March. 329. Mary of Hungary to Chapuys and Van der Delft.
viii., No. 20.
Paget arrived on the 27th ult. and requested the Emperor to raise the embargoes, as the King had released everything although much of the merchandise belonged to Frenchmen; he also desired the Emperor to declare against France. The Emperor caused answer to be made, in presence of the ambassador Wotton, that his embargo was imposed to avoid greater troubles and would be raised when the English released theirs, but they still retained much property at Boulogne and Calais, made new seizures daily, and had stopped ships equipped in Zeeland to carry Spanish infantry into Spain; with regard to the declaration, Hertford and Winchester were shown that the Emperor was not bound thereto, and even if he were the present season was inconvenient. Paget, apparently downcast at so strong a reply, exclaimed that his master entered war for the Emperor's advantage and was now deserted by the Emperor, who, since his treaty with France, had made no attempt to obtain peace for him, Arras and other ambassadors at Calais during Card, de Bellay's negociations having never tried to smooth matters; as to the seizures, although it could be proved that the owners were French, the King released all; and as to the declaration, all his colleagues of the Council considered the Emperor bound to it and never yet heard the reasons which made it inconvenient. The Emperor's commissioners replied that it had been plainly proved that the Emperor was not bound, and the considerations which made it inconvenient had been often alleged, but, for Paget's satisfaction, two of them might be repeated, viz., (1) the unreasonableness of making a peace with France and forthwith breaking it, and (2) the impending invasion by the Turk, in which the Germans expected the aid promised by the King of France; as, however, a definite answer was demanded, the Emperor would justify his action to the world. Paget said that he only asked for a definite reply in the matter of the seizures; the reasons alleged for deferring the declaration were weighty and he would not discuss them, but he earnestly hoped for a favourable answer as he had always favoured the Emperor's party.
The Emperor thereupon made a reply (copy enclosed) which was repeated to the English ambassadors on the 4th inst. Paget was much dissatisfied; but the Emperor decided to adhere to it and had it repeated to Paget in presence of the two English ambassadors here. He again remonstrated, and suggested as means of settlement that if the Emperor released everything the King would do the like, and old claims such as that of the Burgos merchants and Jasper Doulchy might be referred to commissioners, while in future Netherlander might frequent France (not carrying victuals or munitions) as long as the question of declaration remained undecided. The Emperor intimated that he would agree upon this basis if assured that the King would confirm it. Paget protested that it was only his own suggestion and he could not negociate thereupon, but would hear what might be said. The commissioners then gave him a draft of conditions founded upon that suggestion, protesting that it was their own and not authorised by the Emperor.
Meanwhile arrived a secretary named David Paniter from Scotland with credence to Mary setting forth how the Emperor was induced to declare against the Scots last year, and begging her to obtain him audience of the Emperor. The English ambassadors were at once informed that the Emperor had no quarrel with the Scots and wished to know what answer should be made to this Scottish envoy. They tried to get out of it on the ground that they had no instructions; but at last said that the envoy might be told that the Scots should make terms with the King and they would be reconciled with the Emperor.
As Paget had said that the Emperor did nothing to bring about peace for England, the commissioners said, as of themselves, that if the Emperor thought that his intervention would be agreeable to the King he would offer it, and possibly the coming of this Scottish envoy might give an opportunity for opening negociations for peace or truce. The English ambassadors promised to consider it, and asked for delay in order to communicate to the King the writing above referred to. Meanwhile they begged that Chapuys and Van der Delft should not be informed of their negociations. Their courier left to-day. Chapuys and Van der Delft must note what is done there and report with all diligence, without indicating any knowledge of Paget's negociations. Brussels, 8 March 1545.
viii., No. 21.
2. "A report to the Emperor of what passed with Secretary Paget on the 2nd March 1545." [A fuller account of the first interview between Paget and the commissioners described in § 1.]
Ib., No. 22. 3. Note of the Emperor's reply. [Mentioned in § 1 as read to the English ambassadors on the 4th March.]
Having considered the report of communications with Paget, the Emperor answers that he ordered the seizures, not to injure English subjects, whom he welcomes in his dominions, but to satisfy his own, who complain of ill-treatment (described) by the English ever since his recent treaty with France. As soon as the seizures were decreed the Emperor informed the English merchants as above, and that their property would be released upon like release being made in England; and sent M. Tourquoyn to the King. An undertaking was made for release on both sides, but his subjects were still unable to recover their property; the Emperor, however, being informed that Flemish ships were released, ordered a similar release of English ships here. Although his ambassadors have written of the release of certain herring and pitch, no mention is made of herring and other merchandise sold before, nor of property seized at Calais and Boulogne; and, moreover, vessels carrying Spanish infantry into Spain, on board which were also gentlemen of his household and Spanish merchants, with much property, are detained in England.
The above are ample grounds for continuing the embargo; but, to please the King, the Emperor is willing to release it upon "good cautionary security" that the King will make like release on both sides of the Channel, indemnify the owners of merchandise sold, forward the ships which carried the infantry on their voyage to Spain, without retention of men, goods, artillery or munition, and settle the claims of the Burgos merchants and Jasper Doulchy. The King must undertake not to hinder the voyages of the Emperor's subjects into France; and a conference is to be appointed to consider complaints on both sides and devise measures for the future.
Ib. 4. Draft agreement referred to in § 1.
The two monarchs will raise all embargoes laid since the commencement of the last war and recompense owners of merchandise already sold; questions of property alleged to belong to French subjects being referred to commissioners of both sides. The King of England shall set free the ships equipped in Zeeland conveying Spanish soldiers to Spain, and not retain the soldiers either with their consent or otherwise; for soldiers who abandon the Emperor's service are considered rebels and therefore cannot be harboured in England. If the ships have sailed without the soldiers, the King shall provide other ships for them. In future, subjects of either side shall navigate freely, provided that the Emperor's subjects carry to France no victuals or munitions of war.
8 March. 330. Francis I. to the Diet of Worms.
See Bucler and Mont's letter 11 June following.
9 March. 331. Henry Suthwike to John Johnson.
R. O. Calles, 9 March, 1544:—I trust that by my last of the 26th ult. you perceived the sale of Mr. Cave's fells and 1,000 of yours at 15 nobles argent comptant. There are of Mr. Cave's 34 less than the cocket, viz. of London's 2,983 and of country's 3,000.
"Our English merchants and their goods be still staid in Flanders, notwithstanding great suit for them made to th' Emperor by the King's Majesty's ambassadors. Many men fear the end; yet have I good, and in manner certain, hope that th' Emperowr will not break with us."
I wrote to Mr. Cave to know if he would have his 50l., to be paid 16 Sept. by Ant. Franson, payable to some Flemish acquaintance. Cornelys Ban and his company came hither yesterday. Here are many better fells than yours (which did not rise well in telling out); but if two or three parcels were despatched, yours would come in, and I will do my best. "The Boston men are greedy of sales and so is Mr. Wethers, who hath very good fells." If our merchants be shortly at liberty I intend to be at the payments of the Cold Mart (where it may please you to appoint me 30l. for what you owe to Mr. Coope and Mr. Leveson) to "declare a piece of my mind to Markes Backyeir and his company, who order us very ill (denying payment of their debts till our men be released)," as I wrote. "Kesten wool is sold here for the full price 2 parts argent and 1 part at 3 marts' or a year's day. I reckon it will be shortly argent comptant."
Hol., p. 1. Add.: at Glapthorne. Endd. as answered from London, 12 March.
10 March. 332. Chapuys to Bave.
viii. 23.
Having no time to write to their Majesties writes these few lines to say that the English appear cooler than they were, the Councillors having thrice refused to receive complaints from the Queen of Hungary forwarded by the Ambassador and Chapuys. The Council wrote to the Deputy of Calais touching the farmer (censier) detained at Calais and the Ostend complaints, but have done no more therein. It is easy to see what sort of redress will be given after the embargo is raised. The Council's answer to fresh complaints is that they must be settled according to the procedure appointed by the treaty. With regard to the Scottish ambassador in Flanders, the King was satisfied with what his ambassador wrote. The English have sent a Frenchman (fn. n3) who is married and settled here to arrange something at Brussels with Morette, and the English ambassadors there are constantly visiting the French ambassador. The King's people going on a foray over the Scottish Border have lost 2,000 horsemen, including one of their best captains, son of the Warden of the Marches. The King believes that the Earl of Douglas led the Scots, but will not admit that more than 1,500 of his men fell. No one escaped death; and, as they had dismounted to fight, all their horses fell to the enemy. Fortune softened this blow by the English capture, a week ago, of two Scottish ships bound from France with munitions and valuable property. Many Italian and Spanish captains are here, including Gamboa, who is made maestre de campo with 150 ducats monthly. London, 10 March 1545.
10 March. 333. South Malling College.
R. O.
Rymer, xv. 65.
Surrender by Robt. Peterson, elk., canon and dean of the collegiate church, rectory or deanery of Southmallyng, Suss., within the immediate jurisdiction of the abp. of Canterbury, William Levyt, elk., rector of Ryngmer, John Ponet, (fn. n4) clk., rector of Southeram, John Leeff, elk., rector of Framfeld, canons or prebendaries of the said collegiate church, and the penitentiaries, chaplains, sacrists and clerks there, of their said deanery, prebends, canonries or college with all its possessions in cos. Suss., Hants and elsewhere. Dated 10 March, 36 Henry VIII. Signed by Robt. Peterson, Wm. Levet, John Ponet, John Leffe, and Thos. Fyscher. Seal appended.
Note by Ric. Rede, one of the clerks of Chancery, that this was acknowledged before him the same day. Enrolled Cl. Roll, 37 Hen. VIII., p. 4, m. 30.
Parchment. See Eighth Report of Dep. Keeper of Public Records, App. II. 41.
10 March. 334. Paget to Henry III.
R. O.
St. P., x. 333.
I, immediately upon arriving here, despatched bearer, Jehan Toulorge, into France with the letter to the Queen of Navarre, in the form which the King saw at Greenwich when Paget showed the minute of Mr. Bryan's letter. Encloses the Queen's reply, together with the copy of his letter, to declare that she charges him amiss with naming the Emperor hypocrite, whereas he named no one and Henry knows who he meant. Toulorge will report his conference with her.
Yesterday Scory came to speak with him upon two points, viz.:— (1) To know whether the Emperor should give audience to the Scottish ambassador? Saying that the first time would not matter ("and yet that should not be these two or three days"); and then the Emperor would only hear him, and put off the answer upon plea of sickness. (2) To say that the Emperor would not deny licence to send hence Henry's munition, provided that he was not himself disfurnished of powder thereby, as he was like to be, since Damoysel demanded 100 last, a quantity not to be gotten in all this country.
Paget answered, touching the Scots, that he could say no more than at last conference with Scory and Skipperius. And here, because of a bruit that 8,000 men had lately been slain by the Scots, he told the truth of that adventure; and his opinion that the Scots that were come in to Henry had treasonably contrived it with the Governor, for the Scots notified it hither as done before it happened and, on the very day of the fight, Paget was asked if the King's lieutenant was not slain or taken and 8,000 men with him. Scory thought this not unlikely, and that it would be proved if the Governor did not punish the Scots that had come in to Henry. Finding Scory very temperate and doulce, Paget thought to "insinuate" himself with him, and so told him he was himself no dissembler or flatterer and must take him to be a man of good, and be frank with him. Here Scory said that he indeed could not dissemble nor flatter, and had told the Queen so when she called him to service; and made a long discourse of the displeasure he had incurred by his plainness, even from Henry who was now his good lord again, and how the Queen and he thought there was no such cause to break amity with England as with France, with whom peace could hardly continue long. Details at great length his reply to this, in which he touched Scory with the treaty (a thing which here cannot be borne, and yet no opportunity is lost of reciting to them places both in last treaty and that of the year '20, and that of Cambray and Duke Philip's grants, and so pricking their consciences) and dwelt upon the unreasonableness of giving faith to Mons. Darras, and the unkindness of the arrest. Scory answered that, to be plain, the ships were arrested because war was expected, for the Emperor's ambassador had reported how people murmured at this peace taken by the Emperor, and others told how the King had spoken indignabunde of it, and, after Hertford and Winchester's departure, the Emperor's subjects were everywhere taken up. Paget replied that that showed what an evil conscience did, as the ships were arrested because they carried Frenchmen's goods; and spoke for the release of such wares as were sent hither for the satisfaction of Henry's credit. Scory asked for a memorial of it, and promised the licence for the powder this day.
"I have sent to Barow for a docquet of their names that make th'exchange, thinking to have it to-morrow. Your Majesty's agents be discharged three days past; and, likewise, for your kerseys in Maynardes handling tomorrow I am promised a discharge, with licence to convey out for this time but 25 lasts wheie Scory promised for 100, th'Emperor answering therein (as he saith) that your Majesty shall have always from time to time as you list, but, until he be informed how himself is furnished, he prayeth us to be contented at this time, which (Scory saith) shall be within three or four days. Thus your Majesty seeth how they seek delays and delays." I have pressed Scory with his promise but can get no other answer. "Me thinketh they use your Majesty for their purpose, and likewise all the rest with whom they have to do"; but if they come not quickly forward with the relaxation immediately upon our receipt of your next advertisements "there is no manner of good to be hoped at their hands," and you must take some other way. I mean not, under correction, to fall even now out with them but to use them as they use you, "and in the meantime to see for yourself." Bruxelles, 10 March, very late in the night, 1544. Signed.
Pp. 8. Add. Endd.
10 March. 335. W. Bucler to Petre.
R. O. We have at large written to the King how we have proceeded. Pray send me word, if my man return not again very shortly, whether to return or tarry here. "All news here are old to you and therefore I let them pass." Commend me to my lady your wife. Fra (Frankfort), 10 March.
P.S.—Dr. Wotton will forward letters to me. Grandvell has been at the Diet at Wormys these eight days. The King of the Romans is looked for shortly. "The Princes of Germanie are (sic) yet come. Except th'Emperor come himself in person men reckon there will be done nothing of moment. The Turke is at Andrinople. Whether he will come forth or nay there be divers opinions."
Hol, p. 1. Add.: To, etc., Sir William Peters, knyght, one of the cheff secretaris to the Kynges Matie. Endd.: Mr. Buckler.


  • n1. March 4.
  • n2. Neuburg in Bavaria.
  • n3. Jean Toulorge? See No. 234.
  • n4. The name is struck out and the word "resolvit" written above.