Henry VIII: January 1523, 1-15

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 3, 1519-1523. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1867.

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'Henry VIII: January 1523, 1-15', in Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 3, 1519-1523, (London, 1867) pp. 1156-1171. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/letters-papers-hen8/vol3/pp1156-1171 [accessed 12 April 2024]


January 1523

1 Jan.
R. O.
Payments by Jo[hn] Myklowe, late treasurer of the King's chamber, from 1 June 13 Hen. VIII. to 1 May 14 Hen. VIII., and by Edmund Pekham, from 1 May 14 Hen. VIII. to 1 Jan. 14 Hen. VIII.
To John Ryman, gardener, by a warrant dated 12 June 13 Hen. VIII., for making a garden at Newhall, 60l. To Sir Wm. Fitzwilliam the younger, for dispatching posts when in France, upon a bill signed by Wolsey,—June 13 Hen. VIII., 66l. 13s. 4d. To John Trees, yeoman of the Jewel House, for conveying money to Ireland, 10l. To the prior of St. Bertlemew's, for the King's buildings at Newhall, by a warrant dated 27 June 13 Hen. VIII., 1,000l. To Henry Smith, clerk of the Works, for the buildings at Windsor, 300l.; for those at Bridewell, 1,000l. To Sir Ric. Wynkfelde, in prest of his diets as ambassador to the Emperor, 100l. To Sir Henry Guyldeforde, for the buildings at the castle of Leeds in Kent, 150l. To Robt. Brigendyne, in prest on a warrant dated Aug. 13 Hen. VIII., for rigging the King's ships, 100l. To Thos. Forster, clerk, comptroller of the King's works, for the buildings at Greenwich and Eltham, 200l. To Ric. Sidnor, treasurer of the Princess, for expenses of her household, 300l. To the prior of St. Bartilmewe, for the buildings at Newhall, 2,000l. To Thos. Forster, for the buildings at Greenwich, 300l. For repairing the mint houses in the Tower, 100l. To Wm. Holland, goldsmith, paid in advance, for making the King's new year's gifts, 200l. To Ric. Sidnor, by warrant 5 Nov. 13 Hen. VIII., 300l. To Sir Andrew Windesore, towards the charge of 124 coats for the yeomen of the Guard, 300l. To John Copynger, for the mint houses in the Tower, 100l. To Henry Norryce, for repairing the King's lodge in the park of Felyjohn, 50l. To Sir Robt. Wynkfelde, ambassador to the Emperor, by warrant dated 28 Dec., 100l. To Thomas Forster, for buildings at Eltham, Greenwich, and Wanstead, 200l. To the bakers of London, in prest for bread and flour for the King's army at Calais, by warrant dated 30 Aug., 200l. To Wm. Pawne, for fortifications at Portsmouth, 100l. To Thos. Hongreforde, in prest for wheat and malt for victualling the army, 100l. To Wm. Blakenhall, for the conveyance of the ordnance from London to the North, 17 Aug., 200l. To Sir John Daunce, for war expenses, 500l. To Mr. Magnus, for the war in the North, 66l. 13s. 4d. To John Jenyns, for the King's ships, 22 Aug., 12l. To Sir Ric. Jerningham, treasurer of the Wars, in prest for wages of the army beyond sea, by indenture 28 Aug., 10,000l. To John Jenyns, for the war in the North, 4 Sept., 4,251l. 9s. 4d. To Robt. Lorde, for wages and victuals for the ships, 560l. To Sir Ric. Jerningham, for wages for the army, 13,000l. To Ric. Palshild, for victuals for the army, 22 Oct., 100l. To Robt. Nethersell, in prest for transporting the army to and from Calais, 200l.
To Sir Thos. Boleyn, his expenses as ambassador to the French king, by warrant of the Cardinal, dated 9 Jan. 13 Hen. VIII., 60l. To John Hopton, on a warrant dated 28 Dec. 13 Hen. VIII., for the navy, 2,000l. To Jas. Betts, for victualling the ships, by a bill signed by the Cardinal, 29 Jan. 13 Hen. VIII., 1,000l. To the lord Admiral, for victualling the ships, 100l.; in prest for his fee as lieutenant of Ireland from 26 Oct. 13 Hen. VIII. to Lady Day next, 1,240l. To Thos. Forster, for repairing the mint houses, 100l. To John Ricroft, Edw. Weldon, Wm. Honyng and Nic. Waryng, in prest for victualling the King's ships, 2,000l. To John bishop of Carlisle, for divers affairs on the borders of Scotland, 8 March, 4,000l.; in prest for money of his received by Sir John Style, late trea- surer of Ireland, 100l. To Sir Henry Guldeford, for repairing the castle of Leeds, 300l. To Dr. Hanyball, ambassador to Spain, 200l. To John Jenyns, for presting mariners and gunners for the King's ships, 153l. 2s.; for rigging the King's ships, 1,000l. To Hen. Smyth, for the buildings at Bridewell, 2,000l. To John Jenyns, for presting mariners, 1,000l. To Thos. Forster, for the buildings at Greenwich and Eltham, 200l. To Sir Edw. Guldeford, for repairing Dover Castle, 100l. To John Jenyns, for coats for mariners, soldiers and gunners, 556l. To Jas. Betts, for victualling the King's ships, 4,000l. To Ricroft, Weldon, Honyng and Waring, for victuals for the ships, 2,000l.
Pp. 6, slightly mutilated.
1 Jan.
R. O.
Accounts of John Shurley, cofferer, for the Household, from 1 [Octo]ber 13 Hen. VIII. to 1 Jan. 14 Hen. VIII.
Received.—Loan money, 7,790l. 6s. 10¼d. Arrearage of the 11th and 12th years, 792l. 18s. 8¼d. Victuals remaining in divers offices, 1 Oct. 13 Hen. VIII., 1,208l. 5s. 2½d. The increment of wheat, ao 13, 47l. 6s. 9d. Of Wm. Honnyng, for salt money, 10l. 13s. 4d.; for hides and fells of beasts dead in murrain, 74s. 1d. Of Mr. Sidnor, for 1 tun of Gascon wine for the Princess at Richmond, 113s. 4d. Of Nic. Hurleton, for 1 pipe of wine spent at St. George's Feast at Windsor, 56s. 8d.; for 1 hhd. of Gascon wine sold to Mr. Crane, 20s. Of John Mery, for spices sold, 3s. 4d.
From the Exchequer in tales and assignments, with 50l. for St. George's Feast, 19,444l. 16s. 3½d. Total, 29,307l. 14s. 6½d.
Whereof, allowed for the Household, 21,665l. 14s. 3d.; for victuals remaining in various offices, 1,090l. 17s. 4d; for "desperate tales" remaining in his hands, to be restored to the under treasurer, 3,100l. Total, 25,856l. 11s. 7d.
Borrowed by him from the King, 5,451l. 2s. 11½d. Spent in the Household, from 1 Oct. to 31 Dec. 14 Hen. VIII., 4,422l. 5s. 6d.
Due to the King, 1 Jan. 14 Hen. VIII., 1,028l. 17s. 5½d. Signed by Thos. Byrks.
Pp. 2. Endd.
2 Jan.
R. O.
Composition between Wolsey and Warham archbishop of Canterbury.
Lest executors and administrators should be compelled to needless expense in attending the courts of Wolsey and Warham, the Cardinal and Archbishop shall have joint commissaries to act by the authority of both in the province of Canterbury; the Cardinal alone to have commissaries in the province of York; but if the goods of the deceased amount to the value of 100l., his commissary in London must be resorted to. If deceased had goods within and also without the exempt jurisdictions of Westminster, St. Alban's, Bury St. Edmund's and Bewley (Beverley ?), the Cardinal's commissary shall have sole jurisdiction within, and the joint commissaries without. Both commissaries to be sworn to send the money to London within fifteen days after the feasts of Annunciation and Michaelmas every year, with the rings or seals of the deceased, to Robert Toneys and John Barret, who are deputed on behalf of both Cardinal and Archbishop to receive them, &c. In my manor of Lambeth, 2 Jan. 1522, 14 Hen. VIII. Signed: W. Cantuar.
Modern copy, Lat., pp. 2.
R. O. 2. Another modern copy.
Pp. 5.
2 Jan.
R. O.
2753. For PERPOYNT DEVANTUR, Merchant of the Hanse.
Licence to pass and repass to France, to recover certain ships belonging to merchants of the Hanse in London. Elthám, 2 Jan. 14 Hen. VIII.
Corrected draft; the latter part in Cromwell's handwriting, p. 1. Endd.: Mr. Perpoynt Deovanter.
R. O. 2. Similar licence to Deovanter and Antony van Reame, merchants of the Hanse. Eltham, 2 Jan. 14 Hen. VIII.
Draft, corrected by Cromwell, p. 1. Endd.
R. O. 2754. PERPOINT DEORNANTUR, Hanse Merchant.
Authority to Robt. Carter, of Wolsey's household,—Pesyer, of London, grocer, Thos. Crumwell, London, gent., Gerard van Warden, Hen. Melman, Geo. Gyse, and Ulric _, Hanse merchants, to collect his debts, which are as follows: Geo. à Byrom, of Salford, Lanc., 32l. 8s.; Wm. Wylde, of Salford, 5l. 13s. 2d.; John Foster, of Salford, 23l.; Thos. Curlyng, of Salesbury, 100l. 11s. 10½d.; Ric. Lowe, of Westchester, 7l. 10s.; John Robert, of London, brewer. 7l.
Latin draft, p. 1. Endd.: Perpoynt Deovanter.
3 Jan.
Vit. B. V. 121. B. M.
2755. PACE to WOLSEY.
"The s[ignor Hierony]mus" told him yesterday that he had received letters of the 10th ult. from the French court, stating that Albany, on his arrival, had offered to expel Henry from England, if Francis would give him 10,000 men and 500 men-at-arms, with Ric. De la Pole to accompany him. Francis had answered that he liked the enterprise, and would consider it with his council. The Venetian ambassador also writes that Francis is continually devising an enterprise against Scotland. The signor Hieronymus has sent a reply to the answer of the Signory to his first proposition, mentioned by Pace in his last letters, and desires a plain answer; he requires them to break with France and join the King and the Emperor, who would grant them a perpetual peace and the enjoyment of all their possessions in Italy for a certain sum of money; the alliance to be offensive and defensive, "vel saltem ad defensi[onem]" ... and they must engage to aid him if the French king returns to Italy or attempts to recover Milan. The Senate answered that they would conclude peace, and give him a competent sum of money, but they demand restitution of their towns taken by Maximilian, and offer to restore those taken by them in the same war, which they say are more valuable, though the Emperor's ambassadors think them less. The Emperor's ambassadors tell Pace they have no commission to make restitution of land without consulting the Emperor, and they wish the Venetians to consent to a peace without restitution. Does not think they will agree. They have elected three of their wisest men to treat daily with the Emperor's ambassadors, and both parties have chosen Pace as mediator. Does not see that his mediation can help them, as the difficulties are so great. Longer delay will probably ensue. Venice, 3 Jan.
Hol., pp. 4, mutilated.
B. V. 120*. B. M.
2756. [PACE] to WOLSEY.
P.S.—The Emperor's ambassadors and Pace, seeing that their affairs here were hindered by briefs sent to the signory by the Pope, since his arrival in Rome, have obtained a brief to exhort them to conclude peace with the Emperor without delay. They will make no answer about the dissolution of their amity with France, or a treaty with the Emperor, until peace is concluded between them.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: To my lord Legate's grace.
3 Jan.
Nero, B. VII. 38. B. M.
Being sent to Venice by the Emperor with power to treat for peace, thought it right to inform him of what was passing, on account of the inviolable frienship between the Emperor and the king of England (istum vestrum potent. Regem), and because he [Wolsey] is the chief cause of all the late successes against the French. The Emperor and his council, perceiving the necessity of prosecuting the war with France, without the hindrance of one in Italy, and having heard of the answer given to Pace, determined to exert themselves to establish an equal peace, and sent Adorno to Venice, as the signory had complained that no one was commissioned by the Emperor to treat with them. They must therefore either come to terms, or show that they are dissembling. In the former case the Emperor will have no hindrance, and Italy will be quiet; in the latter, they will be known and treated as enemies. As he owes his preservation to the King, and knows his good fortune cannot last unless the expedition against the French be successful, assures him that they can make no resistance, if Provence be invaded at the same time as the King invades Picardy and the Emperor the Spanish frontier. Provence is not naturally strong, has no fortified towns, and could be easily invaded either by land from the mountains near Nice, or, more easily, by sea from the coast of Liguria. Narbonne and the Lyonnois could not be attacked in a more convenient manner, so that three armies from different directions would meet in the centre of France, without doubt of a complete victory. Does not wish to extort more money from the King, but thinks he might diminish his forces in Picardy, and divide the expense with the Emperor, by sending his own commissioners and generals to guard against fraud. Venice, 3 Jan. 1523. Signed.
Lat., pp. 2. Add.: E'po Pacensi, Cæsareæ et Cath. [majestatis o]ratori apud Christianissimum Regem [Angliæ], &c. (fn. 1)
3 Jan.
Vit. B. V. 120. B. M.
Encloses a copy of a letter which has arrived at Rome with news of the capture of Rhodes, which is not yet confirmed. The sickness is decreasing. Most of the cardinals and many of the bishops have returned. If it does not break out again, the senate will be held continuously to treat of matters that have been delayed owing to the sickness. Couriers are incessantly arriving with news, which he will send daily to Wolsey. His servant, the bishop of Worcester, desires to be commended to him. Rome, 3 Jan. 1523. Signed.
Lat., p. 1. Add.
4 Jan.
Vit. B.V. 124*. B. M.
Express his gratitude to the King. Desires credence for Gab. Cæsanus, the bearer. Florence, 4 Jan. 1523. Signed.
Lat., p. 1.
4 Jan.
R. O.
Whenever he thinks of the King's kindness to him, and whenever he looks at the letters patent by which he protects him and his family, her emembers Wolsey's good offices. His secretary also, John Matthew Giberti, never ceases speaking of his benevolence. Sends Gabriel Cæsanus the bearer, to attend on Wolsey and to communicate Wolsey's wishes to him. He is a man of learning and of tried faith. Florence, 4 Jan. 1523. Signed. Ju. Vicecancell.
Lat., pp.2. Add. Endd.
5 Jan.
Galba, B. VIII. 208. B. M.
Wrote last on the 29th. Visited my Lady last night for the first time since Christmas, hearing the duke of Milan's ambassador had been with her. Learned nothing from her but that the castle of Milan was in such strait for victuals when the ambassador left, that the garrison were fain to eat horses and mules. The same ambassador goes shortly to England. On the 29th Dec. the garrison of Cannoye made an inroad to Peronne and carried off much booty without resistance. The said garrison is Hochstrate's company, and has had five meddlings with the French since August without losing more than four footmen. Though their captain has greater mind to handle money than courage to wear harness, God is pleased to defeat the French by his company. Berghes has recovered, and is expected by my Lady at Malines on Wednesday, for the meeting of the states of Brabant on the 15th. De Bure is perfectly whole, but "this winter his leg shall have much ado to fill his hose again." Ghent, 5 Jan. 1522.
When about to close the letter, the duke of Milan's ambassador came to his lodgings and dined with him, and said he was commissioned to go to the King.
Hol., pp. 3. Add.: To my lord the Legate.
5 Jan.
R. O.
On behalf of the duke of Milan, who sends a servant of his, the bearer, to offer the King his services and ask his advice about his affairs. He is a good and virtuous prince, and desires to live in accordance with the wishes of the Emperor and the King. Gand, 5 Jan. 1522. Signed.
Fr., p. 1. Add.
7 Jan.
Vit. B. V. 123. B. M.
2763. NEWS from ITALY.
Genoa, 7 Jan. Letters from France say that the expedition to Italy was flagging; that the King was occupied in sending aid to Fontarabia; he had asked the Scotch for their promised aid against England; was collecting money diligently, and had publicly sold the merchandise of the Genoese for 100,000 ducats. The Pope has written to Venice, to persuade them to make a league with the Emperor. Bernardinus Bartholotus has returned from England, and says there is no appearance of warlike preparation in France, except that Francis was sending aid to Terouenne, while the king of England was making great preparations. The Pope has sent his troops to Rimini, which continues obstinate. It is thought Pandulf will come to Rome to ask pardon. The Pope has treated the Swiss ambassadors well. They will return home appeased. The bishop of Veroli is sent to the Swiss. If any good is done, thanks are due to English management. The Emperor's plans about Italy should not be put off, and ambassadors should be immediately sent to the Swiss.
Genoa, 8 Jan. The Pope persists in sending the bp. of Veroli. There is a difficulty about the 36,000 Rh. fl. due to the men of Zurich. The Pope offers to pay 12,000 and the duke of Milan 6,000. The former wishes the remainder to be paid by the Emperor's officers, by the king of England, and by the card. De Medici; but none of them can be induced to do it. The bishop of Veroli has instructions to obtain neutrality from the Swiss, with a promise of assistance if the French seem likely to come into Italy; to propose an alliance similar to that with former popes, and to exhort them to preserve universal peace. The plague seems likely to spread again. The Pope had a narrow escape from the fall of a wall on his way to chapel. Two of those walking before him were killed, and several hurt.
Lat., pp. 3, mutilated. Endd.
10 Jan.
R. O.
St. P. VI. 110.
2764. WOLSEY to BOLEYN and SAMPSON. (fn. 2)
Has received their letters by Thos. Tychet addressed to the King and himself, as also those of 11 and 17 Nov., notifying their arrival and reception by the Emperor; the good and kind answers made by his majesty; his fidelity to the treaties; annoyance to be done this year against the common enemy; the charge of the ambassadors of Portugal; general pardon granted to the Spaniards, and the feats done at Fontarabia;—all which was very satisfactory. Letters arrived at the same time from the Emperor to his ambassadors in England, of which they gave Wolsey a copy, concerning three points:—1. The overtures for a truce from the French king to the Emperor through Prosper Colonna and otherwise; 2, the charge of the ambassadors of Portugal for the marriage of their master and the Emperor's sister; 3, the enterprises to be made this year against the common enemy, the entertainment of the Swiss and of lanceknights for defence of Milan.
They are to deliver to the Emperor the letters of the King and Wolsey sent herewith, and say the King is rejoiced to hear of his good health, of his daily successes, his prudence in pardoning his disobedient subjects, of the good speed of those sent by his majesty for the discovery of new lands and "finding of the spicery." After a convenient pause they are to rehearse the three said points in the Emperor's letters, and commend his determination to adhere to his promises and never treat for peace without the King's consent. The King is also much pleased by the answers made by the Emperor to Prosper Colonna and others, and doubts not that the enemy, finding the King and the Emperor so firm, will shortly be glad to make them much more advantageous offers. As to the overtures of the two marriages offered by Portugal, the King has full confidence that the Emperor will observe all promises made to England.
As to the common affairs, considering the need of celerity, the King has had various conferences with Wolsey and the council; at which the Emperor's ambassadors have always been present, with the following results. The King is informed by spies and otherwise that Francis, finding the affairs of Milan "somewhat difficile for this time," intends this year to bring his chief power against the Low Countries and Calais. With this object he has been staying at St. Denis, and avaunts that he will be avenged on that side; for which purpose, although Albany and the Scotch lords promised that an honorable person should have been sent to the King to treat for peace, yet at the Duke's instigation and promises of money, ordnance and other aid by the French king, the Scots have broken their promise and gone wholly to his devotion. Albany has lately returned to the French king, to show him the state of Scotland, and to provide money, captains, and ships, with which he means to return thither shortly. The king of Denmark is going to Scotland in person to give them assistance. To prevent aid being sent to the Low Countries or Calais, Francis is also preparing a great army by sea, which is to set forth by the 1st March next.
As the King perceives by their letters and the Emperor's that his majesty cannot be sufficiently provided to meet the charges of sundry great armies this summer to invade France both in Picardy and on the Spanish frontier, and also for the great expedition next year, the King has got ready an army of 30,000 men to pass by land into Scotland, under the earl of Surrey and another of 3,000 men to be sent thither by sea. He intends also to repair in person and reside near the frontier for a season, to organise further invasion if necessary. These preparations will be as great a charge to the King as if he were to pass with his army royal into France. To keep open the sea passage the King is determined to set forth another army by sea of 7,000 men, and as certain Spanish ships and mariners remain in Zealand, of those that were sent under Lascano, the King has desired the Emperor's ambassadors to write to lady Margaret and have them join the King's ships at Portsmouth, retaining the soldiers, who are not meet for the sea, for the defence of the Low Countries. They are therefore to ask the Emperor's aid, according to the treaties, for fleets to guard the seas, and that such a number of men may be sent from Spain as, in addition to the said mariners, may make up 3,000, for the transport of whom four or five good ships should be sent, besides those under Lascano in Zealand. The King hopes no objection will be raised to this demand, considering how small the Emperor's portion is in comparison with that which he must provide. It may be expected that, when these forces have joined the King's navy before the month of March, the French king will certainly forbear to send any of his ships to sea; but provision should be made with bankers and others that money be always forthcoming for the wages and victualling of the said 3,000 men. If victuals should be sent out of Spain, as last year, where everything but wine is dearer, delay and losses will ensue. Therefore wine alone must be provided in Spain; all else by the bankers.
As to other exploits, the King thinks, considering his charges against the Scots and otherwise, that if the power of the enemy be so largely employed on this side as aforesaid, he will have little power of annoyance against Milan, and the Emperor cannot reasonably expect him to contribute to the support of the Swiss, Almains, or others, considering the great sums required for the expedition against France. For this cause they shall show unto his majesty that a better and more politic mean cannot be imagined for avoiding superfluous charges than, without appearing to desire it, for the Emperor to condescend to a truce this year; the same to be no other but a mere cessation and desisting from hostility for that season, not comprehending the realm of Scotland. For if the Scots enjoyed the benefit of the truce they would at its expiration be at the same advantage as now for the invasion of England, and no one could advise the King to leave the kingdom until any invasion on their part was impossible. The Pope might easily find ways and means enough for the same, and promote the restfulness and tranquillity of Christendom; putting Francis "in comfort that, such a truce once had, God may inspire the minds of Christian princes to condescend unto a further peace." By this means he might, as the head of Christendom, induce the three princes to the said truce, "with convenient protestation" to preserve the authority of the King and the Emperor, and upon condition that on the French king's refusal the Pope would fulminate against him the censures of the Church.
If the truce cannot be had without comprehension of Scotland, the King hopes "so speedily to advance his enterprises on this side," that "the stroke shall be stricken" before the treaty is concluded. The matter must be speedily set forth, if approved by the Emperor. The Pope has requested Wolsey's interposition by various briefs, and Wolsey has written to his Holiness his mind touching the truce, as a thing proceeding from the Pope himself. Sends his letter, with a copy to be presented to the Emperor, so that the original may be forwarded if agreeable to him, otherwise to be reserved.
Lastly, if the overture do not satisfy the Emperor, immediate order must be given to set forth an army in the Low Countries to join one which the King has promised for their defence. Substantial direction must be taken to keep them provided with money, victuals, and other necessaries, for want of which there is great division among them. In order to divide the French king's forces, considering how ill provided the Low Countries are both in men and money, a considerable force should be set forth on the Spanish side.
They are to hasten the Emperor's answer as much as possible, and learn how many men and ships are to be sent from Spain to guard the seas. It would be desirable that the Emperor should send, along with his four or five ships, two "zabres" of 30 or 40 tons, which will be convenient to land men and to reconnoitre the coasts. At my place beside Westminster,—Jan.
P.S.—The King and his council are devising how to keep the Swiss and Almains from serving France. Wolsey thinks that for this purpose Don Ferdinand should reside this summer either in the duchy of Wirtemberg or Ferrara. The Swiss would not join the French with such an ancient enemy at hand as the duke of Austria. The King has written to the lady Margaret to further this arrangement. The ambassadors are to provide ordnance immediately in Biscay and Ipusca for the King's army, according to a bill enclosed.
The bearer, John de la Sauch, made such haste to depart that the letters in the King's hand could not be written. They shall be sent after him, if possible, to the seaside.
In Tuke's hand, pp. 11. Add. and endd.
R. O. 2. Modern copy of the above.
Harl. MS.
6260. f. 126.
B. M.
3. Another modern copy of the same, dated 10 Jan.
10 Jan.
Calig. R. VI.
B. M.
Instructions by Albany to Georges Hay, sent to cardinal Wolsey.
The Duke had been always anxious to preserve peace; and when a question arose to withstand the cruel invasion of Scotland, he had withdrawn his army, at the request of Margaret and of Dacre, and had consented to an abstinence for a month, and at the Cardinal's wish had sent a secretary, desiring the prorogation of the truce till St. John's Day. This last has not been granted. Understands Clarencieux has been sent to make arrangements, demanding certain conditions touching the marriage of the King with the princess Mary, and a truce for sixteen years, on condition that Albany be not allowed to return to Scotland, and that no aid be rendered to France. If the Cardinal desires the peace of the two kingdoms, he must address himself to the Duke, as the whole business has been remitted to him. Desires him, therefore, to give credence to the bearer. He shall excuse the Duke's coming to Wolsey on the plea that he required to see his wife, who was ill, and that his absence had been the cause why the lords of his country had not condescended so easily to the wishes of England. He shall request an ample answer. The fewer people know this affair the better. None know it as yet, except the abbot of Glenlus, the papal legate in France. Directs him how to proceed in the event of Wolsey being unwilling to act, or requiring fresh instructions. "Fait a Vic," 10 Jan. 1522.
Fr., pp. 4.
12 Jan.
R. O.
Rym. XIII. 795.
Granting him a prorogation of the legateship for a term of five years, to be computed from the end of the last term. Rome, 1523, prid. id. Januarii, pont. 1.
Lat., vellum, sub plumbo.
12 Jan.
R. O.
Delayed to answer his last letters, as he hoped to wait on him soon after Christmas to talk over divers matters, which he would rather speak of than write. His physicians order him not to go now, but he hopes to be with Wolsey by the Purification of Our Lady, when he will supply what he now omits. Thanks him for his advice to live in high and dry grounds, like Knoll, and for his offer of lodging in Hampton Court. Thanks him for giving orders to his officers, as he writes in his last letter, to show as much favor to Warham's nephew, archdeacon of Canterbury, as to other archdeacons, touching their compositions for their jurisdictions. The bearer is one of his procurators, and will attend on Wolsey's officers for that purpose. Has admonished the dean of his Court of the Arches, so that he will not meddle again in matters which may be to Wolsey's displeasure. Thanks Wolsey for not dealing extremely with him. No officer of his shall continue in favor who willingly displeases Wolsey, and he has told them so himself. Has lately set up writings at Knolle, Otford, and Shoreham, against those who illtreated an apparitor of Wolsey's in these parts, ordering them to appear before him in fifteen days, under pain of cursing. Hopes to find them by that means or by espials. Knoll, 12 Jan. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add.: To the cardinal of York, legate de latere. Endd.
12 Jan.
Galba, B. VIII.
B. M.
Wrote last on the 10th. Last night the Audiencer showed me an extract from a letter received by my Lady from Lorraine, where Ric. de la Pole usually lies, stating that Francis had promised White Rose 12,000 foot, and that the said duke of Suffolk holds himself fully assured of them; that they purpose to have 8,000 Almains who will cross this frontier, and 4,000 of the Lower Countries; that Albany is disgusted at the truce made by the Scots with England, without his consent. The Audiencer brought me the forged royal, which I enclose; it was sent to my Lady from Ypres, as having been paid there when the King's army was returning out of Artois. Malines, 12 Jan. 1522.
Hol., p. 1, mutilated.
Cott. App.
XLVIII. 101.
B. M.
Confession of Simon [Jones ?] "born in the town of Munmuthe in Vals," taken prisoner in France. Spoke once with the [White] Roose, who "flattered" him, and gave him [money] to spend for three or four months. Was in his house at Easter, from Monday to Wednesday, and received from him three crowns of gold to go to England and inquire who was of his party. He also sent him to my lord of Vandomo at La Fera, five miles from St. Quentin, with a trumpet, who was to conduct him to the castle of Cambryege (Cambrai), and tell him the way to Valensiana. Was taken prisoner on the way "vyth an onest jentyll man, the wych [broug]ht me in the hey to Valensiana, to my loorde Marques dwellinge ... ne, and I ham there in presun and in payene." Has also been employed by the White Rose in the Emperor's lands, to inquire touching their operations against France and the English expedition to Picardy; "item [to] loke whate numbur of men the kyeng of Ingland [hath in his] governawnce and the Emprowr in hyssyn;" to tell lords Stafford and Derby his mind. My lord of Albany y ..., and they to raise a great power this summer in France, to land in Scotland. Has sent to inquire for four captains, to meet in Lorraine.
Mutilated, pp. 2.
Calig. D. VIII.
B. M.
Although they say the King is losing everything, both beyond the mountains and in Brittany, he is determined to ruin his enemies, among others the king of England, whom he has sworn "foy de gentilhomme" to undo; and whatever appointment may be made, you may be sure he will, for all the reports you hear. There are 6,000 francs archiers and adventurers in Normandy, ready to embark for Scotland at "le chief de Can ...," which is between Picardy and Honfleur. Their captains are Moye and the sieur de Etlan. There are fifteen ("qu[inze]"?) ships to carry them, and four others to conduct them. The King has sent Lautrec to Guienne with a number of men, to aid those in Fontarabia, but that is no great matter. The duke of Ferrara is the King's lieutenant beyond the mountains, and promises to outdo all the French captains. The Venetians and Swiss have told the King to march on boldly, for the money of Venice will not fail him; but the King does not like to trust too much. All the losses beyond the mountains are owing to the mutual jealousies of the French captains. These have been the death of many good men; for before Milan there remained monsieur de Graville, the son of the count de la Val, l'escuyer Bouc ..., the sieur de Beauvais, "qui estaient des mignons de ..." * * * When our men and the Swiss were defeated, the Grand Master, De Palice, and the treasurer Morele ... [were sent] after the Swiss, who had returned to their country, to recall them to order; but the Swiss retained with them "qu ... cens mille escuz" and the said lords as security for the rest of their pay, claiming wages for a double journey.
The band of the Spaniards have sacked everything, plundered Genoa, and [retired] to Lucain, Lucorne and Belyssone, in order to close the passages, and the French men-at-arms have been compelled to withdraw into Dauphiné. I left the King at Lyons "à la coste Saint André." There were with him 400 men-at-arms and 12,000 francs archiers and adventurers, with some artillery. He was determined to return beyond the mountains, but his council would not suffer it, nor the ladies either. The plan is now to attack Artois and Hainault, and perhaps Guisnes and Calais. The thing for you is to pour down upon France. Wherever you throw yourself, you will carry all before you. All the commons are with you, and cry daily "Vive le roy d'Angleterre." The King's mother has summoned the Constable (Bourbon) in Parliament to deliver to her the counties of Beaujolais and Chatelherault, at which he is displeased. Mischief will come of it. The Constable is much loved in * * *
Fr., pp. 2, mutilated.
13 Jan.
Vit. B. V. 127.
B. M.
After receiving his last letters, spoke to the Pope at large. He said he knew the King's trouble and expense in sending Wolsey to Calais, and his labor to conclude the matter; he considered also who was the breaker of the peace and author of these disturbances, which provoke the Turk to attack Christendom, and he knows well the subtilty, cavillation and inconstancy of the French, by his experience when he was in minoribus in Flanders, and cardinal and governor in Spain. He said he wrote the oftener to preserve peace, because of the danger of Rhodes, for if that island were taken the Pope could not stay in Rome, nor could any prince be in tranquillity, as it is the key of Christendom. Knows that he considers the honor of the King and of the Emperor as his own, and will show it when he sees the time.
The Venetians will attack Cremona in the spring. They have promised Francis 4,000 horse, 6,000 foot, and half the wages of 20,000 Swiss. Francis has sent to them the bastard of Savoy. He will fortify all his towns in Picardy, Normandy and Brittany, and invade Milan by way of Lombardy. The duke of Savoy will grant him a passage. The Emperor and duke of Milan have men but no money, for the victory of Naples cost 700,000 ducats. The Pope has given 12,000 fl. to the Swiss ambassadors, and has sent the bishop of Volaterra with Pace to exhort them to peace. Jeronimo Adorno, the ambassador from the Emperor and the duke of Milan to the Venetians, used such threatening language, that although they were minded to come to an agreement with the Emperor and the Duke, they immediately sent word to the French king that they would help him with all their power to recover Milan. Was told this by the Pope, and desired to transmit it to the King. Has sent a courier at his own cost, and directed the letters to Rayner de Bardis, in London, a Florentine merchant, a friend and servant to my lord De Medicis. The Pope will not openly disclose his mind at present, but thinks he will have occasion to do it soon. If anything prevent him, it will be his poverty, owing to the bad governance of Leo. If the French king come in person, Milan and all Italy is lost, for the Italians will do nothing without money. If he is well beaten in Italy, he is undone for ever. As the Emperor's army is victorious, it is proposed to march into France through Provence, where there are no strong towns or fortresses to stop them. The French king esteems Milan more than Normandy, Picardy and Brittany, for which he is not to be blamed, for, if once he were lord of Italy, he would set little by any prince.
The king of England's name is great in Italy, and if he sets his hand to these matters they will be at an end. Money would be required, which neither the Pope nor the Emperor have. If Henry wishes to have his will, money should be sent over to the Pope and cardinal De Medicis. If Milan is taken, Naples and Sicily will go, and the Pope will be under French control. The cardinal of Auch (Hauxitanus), legate of Avignon, (François Guillaume de Clermont,) is resident at Rome, and is daily plotting with those of the cardinals who are French at heart, the chief of whom is Volaterra, a mortal enemy to De Medicis. S. Crucis, bishop of Ostia, a Spaniard, principal of the college, Trivultio and most of the others are French. De Medicis, Campeggio, Cibo, Armelinus and others are Imperials. The cardinal Sion was a great loss. His authority and magnanimity were worth six of the adverse party. Cardinal Petrucci, governor of Sene, a great friend of the Emperor, is also dead.
If the King intends to provide money to defend the country, it must be done shortly, for the French will be on the move now they have gained the Venetians, who are delaying their answer to gain time for preparations. Troops have been sent by the Pope, assisted by the duke of Ferar, against Rimini, which has rebelled. The Duke's son and a doctor, his ambassadors with the Pope, offer from him to assist the King here. He can do much against the Venetians. His father, Hercules, was knight of the Garter. Advises the King to send it to the son, and recommends Thos. Tonge, York herald, a kinsman of his own, as fit to bring it, for he knows Italy well enough. At Christmas, Emery Boyaulx, a French knight, came from Rhodes, and told the Pope of the treason and death of the Chancellor, a Portuguese. A little succor of men and victuals would help them.
* Has had no answer from Wolsey about the title of S. Cecilia, which is better than he thinks. "It were pity to lose your right, which I am sure ye will not." Wolsey must send a proxy and commission for his right to the said title. "I know but few such in Rome." Has commenced an action in Rota against a Roman "who would have expelled de facto the right that your grace hath there." Requires the proxy and commission to maintain it. Sends by the bearer, Symon, a Florentine, servant to De Medicis, the bull of confirmation for the first legateship, and the five years granted per breve. Urged that it should be granted for life, but the Pope said he could not do so now, but would make a grant of equal value in a short time. As to the other faculties, he will grant no more, for many princes desire a legate in their country, which the Pope will not hear of. This bu[siness was] passed extraordinary by a secret way. The consistory would not have passed it. Has rewarded the secret officers, but has givec nothing as yet to the Datary, either for this or for St. Alban's. Am advised not to give him money, but other things, to the value of 100 ducats. He is most influential with the Pope, and very diligent in Wolsey's matters. He regulates everything by his office, and by special favor. His name is John Engyfort, a Dutchman. The Pope expects an answer to the briefs. Wolsey can do him no greater pleasure than to write to him often. "Of his age he is the most lusty man that ever I saw," but at his arrival he was in great danger of his life.
As to the money he took in Spain and Rome, in the former he took 700 ducats from a servant of the bishop of London, which he has often asked Wolsey to repay. Does not think any man who was ever sent from England was so often in danger of his life, or forced to spend so much; or that any prince ever sent such a poor man so far on such important matters. Will do all he can "but he that hath no money in Rome is but a beast," for no one will lend without caution or letters of exchange. Has taken in Rome 1,000 ducats from a friend of De Medicis, and has promised to repay it in six months to Rayner de Bardis, at the rate of 4s. 6d. a ducat. In the second week of Lent will be 800 ducats behindhand in his diets. Has paid 100 ducats to the courier, and there will be another hundred for the Datary. Everything is too dear for him to live on his diets. Would not care if he had sufficient promotion to maintain himself. Will get no money from his benefices for a year, for he took it beforehand, on leaving England. Rome, 13 Jan.
Hol., pp. 9, mutilated. Add.: R'mo, &c. Thomæ Cardinali, apostolicæ sedis legato, &c. Endd.
Ib. f. 125.
B. M.
Copy of the above, in Tuke's hand, omitting the paragraph marked.*
Pp. 4.
14 Jan.
Vesp. C. II.
B. M.
On the 16th Dec. Bluemantle arrived with a letter from the King to the Emperor, instructions for themselves, a copy of those to Sir Thomas Spinelly, the originals of which they had received from Touchett, his clerk; also copies of two letters of the King, with one of the Emperor to the Pope; copy of the Emperor's letters to his ambassador in England; copies of letters from Wolsey to the queen of Scotland and the duke of Albany, the articles of the said Duke, and withal a cipher. Had informed the Emperor of the arrival of their letters. Next day declared to him their instructions, thanking him for the answers given to the Portuguese, of which they had already written, the Pope and the French king, and the promise of aid to Rhodes. The Chancellor said there was no longer occasion for such aid, as the Turk had departed. The Emperor expressed his satisfaction on their telling him the King's desire to join him in an expedition against the Infidels; says he will be ready for the expedition into France; and is satisfied with Henry's answer to the Pope and Wolsey's letters into Scotland.
In regard to their proposal to make friends with the Venetians, the Chancellor says that Adurno is there with Pace, and has concluded a truce with them; that part of the Swiss are still good Imperialists; and the Imperial ambassador, with the help of England, will detach them from the French cause, or use other remedies, of which they wrote to Wolsey. Showed him privately the article touching Bourbon. They offered to translate it, but found he had been made acquainted with it by Beawrayn. On the 19th Boleyn read it "in my poor French;" present Nassau, the Grand Master, and Mons. de la Schawfe. Beawrayn's communication was much fuller than theirs. The Emperor will write to the King on that subject, but will deliberate as to his sister's marriage. They could get no other answer. On the 10th the Chancellor showed them the Emperor's letters to Beawrayn touching this matter, but refused to give a promise that full instructions should be sent him. The Emperor will advertise his ambassadors of his resolution.
Have less comfort of the Emperor now than at any other time. He complains of poverty, and declines to raise more than the ordinary number of men;—makes many excuses;—says that half the expense of the duke of Bourbon should be borne by the King, and that one of his sisters has been promised to the duke of Saxony, with 200,000 florins, so that he must compound with "the said Duke," and thinks he will be content with 100,000, "which the Emperor thinketh reasonable should be paid by you both." Has had word that Francis has promise of 20,000 Swiss, and intends to invade Italy. He is in treaty with the duke of Bourbon, proposing his marriage with Madame Reyny. The queen of Portugal is not coming. The King is in love with her, and will not suffer her. She has a daughter by the King's father, and therefore refuses him. Fontarabia has been revictualled,but with salt meat. Valladolid, 14 Jan. Signed.
P.S.—On the 15th and 16th sent to John Almayne to expedite the post. On the 17th the Chancellor told them that he was in hopes of sufficient treasure to levy men for the war, though many opposed it; and that the Emperor will send full powers to Beawrayn, as desired. The Emperor promised him the same on the 18th. At mass with him on Sunday 19th. 20th, the Chancellor told them there were men about the Emperor who endeavored to change his mind. On 22nd, they are, by the Chancellor's consent, to visit the Emperor for his final determination. The 24th, he assures them that the matter is in forwardness. Of the three ambassadors sent to the Swiss, of which they wrote to Wolsey, two have been lost at sea, sc., Raphael de Medicis and Scherlys de Acyer. The castle of Milan is in great distress for want of victuals. The Chancellor denies the report about the queen of Portugal, but acknowledges that the present King was in love with her, because they were to have been married first. The King his father would not suffer him to speak or come in her presence. Sunday the 25th, again urged the Emperor on the great matter. Have been shown a letter from the archbishop of Barrye touching the peace and the weakness of France. On the 2nd Feb. were with the Emperor going to church, who assured them that everything was ready, and that he had written his resolution to his ambassadors, but he did not speak very clearly. Think that he is more inclined to peace. He wished them to ask for full powers from England to act as commissioners for the latter purpose; but they declined. They think that Mons. de la Schawe advised him against war, lest France should be brought too low. Were present at an oration delivered by the Nuncio in the Emperor's presence in favor of peace. The Emperor shuffles with Bourbon. The Spaniards in Fontarabia offered battle on the 27th Jan. to Mons. de Palice, attempting to revictual it. All the French fleet is destroyed. 6th of February, news has just come of the revictualling of Fontarabia.
In Sampson's hand, pp. 21. Add. at page 93 b. Partly in cipher, deciphered by Tuke.
Harl. 295.
f. 139.
B. M.
2. Copy of the above, partly in Tuke's hand, and apostyled by him in the margin.
Pp. 14.
14 Jan.
Vesp. C. II.
B. M.
Have advertised the King of the articles delivered them by Bluemantle, Dec. 16th. Charles desires that an army should at once be sent forth to France, more, as the writers think, for fear of Italy than of anything else. The Emperor has given a doubtful answer of the marriage of his sister with the duke of Bourbon. The Chancellor is dissatisfied with the Pope's impartiality. Send a copy of his letter to the Pope. Notwithstanding the express desire of the Emperor "speedily to set forth the matter of the duke of Bourbon," whom he calls his kinsman, he has delayed it from the 17th Dec. to this day. On the 10th and 11th were again with the Emperor about it. Think the delay has arisen from want of money. They represented the danger of Bourbon seeking employment elsewhere. He is sending letters to the duke by Beawrayn. Wishes Mons. de Troylier were with him. Could get no answer respecting Lescano. Valladolid, Jan. 14. Signed.
P.S.—Have written to the King of their fresh news. Last day of Feb. (fn. 3) the Pope's ambassador Maximus Caracciolus was with them, assuring them the Emperor will never make peace without England. 2nd Feb. were with the Emperor. Have written to the King thereof. On the 5th with the Chancellor, who showed them the instructions for the ambassadors. He told them that if Fonterabia were once rendered, Bayonne would be easily gained. Lescano has returned. Recommend Windsor, who has had only 20s. for 100 days' service. The ambassador, of whom they wrote to the King, will be sent again to the Swiss. The French have revictualled Fonterabia. Valladolid, 6 Feb. Signed.
In Sampson's hand, pp. 7, partly in cipher; deciphered by Tuke. Add.
14 Jan.
R. O.
On the 11th Jan. Mons. de la Roche told me he thought the Emperor would assign Wolsey's pension on the bishopric of Toledo, and that Wolsey should send a proxy to some one here to receive the arrears and "acquit for" the portion now coming from the see of Palentie, and that speedily, as the bishop is dead and another appointed. He said that Sampson ought to have received letters for the Emperor, with credence, but they have not arrived. Supposes Wolsey has forgotten them, owing to other business. Owes his position as ambassador to Wolsey's goodness, and is desirous always to act for the King's honor. Is in danger to divers for this journey, as he had no plate nor other things convenient, but has been assisted by friends. Asks Wolsey to lend him 600 ducats of the money here payable to him, to procure silver "vessaull," for every mean man of any estimation is served with silver, and Sampson, though possessing other plate, has no "vessaull" but of tin, which prevents him from entertaining personages of estimation. If anything happen to him, the sum will always remain in plate for Wolsey. 14 Jan., Valedoly.
Hol., pp. 2. Add.: To my lord Legate's grace. Endd.
14 Jan.
Vit. B. v. 133.
B. M.
2775. J. M. GIBERTI to WOLSEY.
Thanks him for his letters and the King's to the Pope in his commendation, which have given him a better hope. Came immediately to Rome. If their intercession will not obtain him justice, he will never get it. Peter Vannes writes that Wolsey is glad to hear news from remote countries. Will write when there is anything worth telling. There is no news now except from Rhodes, which is being besieged for the seventh month, and is in great extremities. A Rhodian knight came here on 14th Nov. to ask assistance. He says there are scarcely 3,000 of the defenders left; that the Turks press the siege, though they have lost 60,000 men; that the plot of Andrew Maral, the next in authority to the Grand Master, to open the gates to them, was discovered, and he and his accomplices put to death; that only 300 knights remain, but the women emulate the courage of the men. There is no doubt that if assistance were sent the Turk would raise the siege. The besieged dread famine far more than their enemies. They have nothing but bread and water. Wishes the King was nearer Rhodes.
Letters from France mention the great preparations going on there for the invasion of Italy; but those who know the power of England think the French will have enough to occupy them at home. It is thought that now is the time for Henry to weaken the power of France. Wishes Henry would send money to assist Italy, which is exhausted by the continuous war. Their army is not sufficient to meet the French. They will distribute it in fortified towns, and so harass them; but Italy will be laid waste unless Henry keeps the French in their own country, and Wolsey lays the foundations of a lasting peace. Rome, 14 Jan. 1523. Signed.
Lat., pp. 3. Add.: R. &c. Th. car'li Eboracensi ac sedis ap'licæ legato.
15 Jan.
Galba, B. VII.
B. M.
Wrote last on the 12th. Had news this morning from Hoowstrant, first from Rome that the death is ceased. The Pope had heard that the Turk, having been repulsed in 17 assaults upon Rhodes, had withdrawn four miles. An Albanese, who stole out of the city, brought word that it could not hold out any time, and the Turk had returned and renewed the siege. He is still lying before it, though he has lost many of his Mamelukes, and it is hoped that by this time succors have arrived. It was also stated at Rome that the Hungarians had twice defeated the Turks, but no such news has been received by my Lady from the Archduke.
On the Pope consecrating a sword, as the custom is every year, when about to say the last collect, there fell a stone of 2 cwt. out of the vault above his head, and killed a Swiss of his guard; "howbeit his fatherh[ood] finished the ceremony, and hath sent the said sword unto the [Emperor]." The merchants have received news that th[e Emperor] has before Fonterabia 10,000 men on the land side, and on the side towards the sea has made such a bastion that the besieged have no hope; and that a party had been surprised attempting to convey victuals into the town. On the frontier of Haynault the Burgundians have defeated 400 French foot and slain their captain, and have taken a castle named Hiercchen. As to Terouenne, Fiennes lies still at Ayre, "though some think it cost forlore," as the Spaniards are not urgent to return to Spain. My Lady means to retain 1,000 of them. Today I have a letter from Hesdin, who has gone to Arras to see how it is provided with artillery. He says there is no report of any muster upon the French frontier, and that there never was greater poverty in France than now. Francis has cast merchants into prison for refusing to lend him money, and the duke of Vandome is replaced by the lord Pont Remy in the government of Picardy.
I hear from Antwerp that the king of Denmark has lost Stockholm.
The estates of the Low Countries are to meet at Malines this week. They are well disposed to supply money for the war, if they might be sure of the troops being paid, "and so the poor tylmen saved uneaten." They would grudge nothing if their men were paid like the King's, so I think they would rejoice to hear nothing more than that the King had set afoot amongst them; though they dare not speak out. Malines, 15 Jan. 1522.
Hol., pp. 3. Add.


  • 1. Though addressed to the bishop of Badajoz, the letter must, from the tenor of it, have been intended for Wolsey.
  • 2. Noted by Sampson at the end: "These arrived here the 13th day of February."
  • 3. Mistake for January.