Henry VIII: January 1529, 1-10

Pages 2255-2269

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 4, 1524-1530. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1875.

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January 1529

1 Jan.
Le Grand, III. 268.
Writes by a courier sent by the ambassador of Venice to the Signory to report his reception. He has been received most honorably. Afterwards, in private conferences, remonstrances had been made to him about that blessed matter of Ravenna and Cervia, to which he would need to give good ear (avoir grans oreilles). Nothing has been done here since my letters of the 25th ult. The time has been consumed, both by the King and Wolsey, in fêteing Campeggio, at which I have sometimes been present. I think Wolsey would not be well pleased if I did not tell you of his causing farces to be played in French, with great display, saying, in conclusion, that he does not wish anything to be here which is not French in deed and in word. He is very anxious to know if you approve of his ideas conveyed to you by Thade, à propos of which he is much surprised that the Emperor has thus recalled the General of the Cordeliers. Campeggio says the Emperor in this is full of ill will, and determined to do the worst he can, and advises that he should be pressed hard (qu'on le pousse royde), which is the true way to bring him to reason, especially if there be a vital point in Spain. He approves highly, however, of the enterprise of Germany, by whatever means it can be carried out, and seems to expect as much good as the other Legate from this general truce and assembly of Avignon, especially if the truce should be of long duration, conceiving that the Emperor meanwhile may remedy his affairs, the children all the while remaining "en la trempe." I assure you, so far as I see, he is not opposed to the common affairs here.
Wolsey has asked me when Mons. de Warty will come, and what he is to do, saying that the King had promised Dr. Tayler to send him immediately. I pretended to know nothing about it, and said that he might have been detained in consequence of the despatch of Thade, by whom he had sent ample instructions. He said he saw no occasion to send a man express, and he told me so expressly, which I think he did on account of Spain.
The ambassador of Hungary has arrived here, and says that the others will not be there for 15 days, as indeed there is no need. I am surprised, to say the truth, that I have been put to so much trouble about him, for he does not wish to speak to Wolsey except through me (par ma bouche), and he has told me that several times before his departure thence he had been assured that I was fully instructed; yet till now I have not heard a word about it, and am perplexed not to be able to give him advice. I do not refuse to hear all his case, but I would not proceed too far without knowing the will of Francis; and as great alarm exists among the Flemings and Spaniards about his coming, and the more it increases the more difficulty there will be in "their" passage, I have spread reports in such wise that the Flemings are quite convinced that Francis is sending one gentleman, and the English another, towards the kings of Bohemia and Hungary, and also to those of Poland and Denmark, at the suggestion of the Cardinal here, in order to reconcile them, and prevent the way being opened to the Turk, who makes such great preparation to invade Germany. Wolsey has approved this overture, and spread a like report on his side. You will understand what it means if it reaches you. The Hungarian ambassador assures me that there is no fear of its interfering with the practices of Germany, considering what he has already written from France, and more recently since he came here. There are some here who would be injured by the Turk's invasion, who offered to get a safe-conduct from lady Margaret for such a good purpose. If you think it well, I will keep the matter in suspense while our men can save themselves by sea, which cannot be before the middle of February. Fresh news has come that great assemblies are beginning to be made in Germany; the Flemings say it is for Champagne and Lorraine, but I think otherwise.
While writing, I have received yours of the 23rd ult., which had to wait long at Calais for passage. Tomorrow Wolsey will return from Greenwich, and on Sunday I will go and see him, and learn if he has anything new by a courier who arrived by this passage. I hope he has said truly, for he brings great news, as a New Year's gift to the King, that Andrea Doria is defeated, and has lost 12 of his galleys. But as to what you report to me of the opinion of De Vaux, if that be all, you need take no trouble, for I have considered that opinion well, which is, that the letters from England to the Pope, making mention of this private peace of the Emperor with the King, are of the 8th November. Now I wrote to you at that time to the same effect, and probably of the same date, in the great letter I sent to Francis; and afterwards, by others more recent, I told you that the return of Silvester had effaced all that, so that if there be nothing later you need not mind, for it seems to me they are at this moment wonderfully far off from the purpose; and Wolsey is so founded upon the last that I sent you by Thade, that he could not talk enough about it, and says that if he can but once cross the sea for this object he will do marvellous things. I do not say that if he found he could bring about the peace better or as well by the other road of private treaty, he would not set about it, especially as it would more than ever increase his influence; but I cannot persuade myself he would ever do it without your consent; and I think you have nothing to fear if affairs do get worse.
By a corner of your letter I perceive that you have no great wish that the ambassador of last year should come to you; nor do I wonder, for he is certainly rather high-handed, and I think it will turn out according to your desire. I know how to help to follow up that which has been begun, of which I informed you by Thade; but think you would do well to amend the fault you have done towards him, "si ainsi se doibt baptizer," for he is quite like the others, and I assure you has far more power. Complains of some things that have been said of him in France, which might have been more reasonably imputed to him if it had been found that he had acquired houses and castles, and had managed the finances. If any more such complaints are made, wishes Montmorency would appoint some one to receive and send money who can do it more economically.
By your letters it appears that Francis is pleased with Wolsey's overtures. The merchants here have received news of the arrival of this good prophet, the General of the Cordeliers, at Genoa, and they say he has brought a good sum of money. London, 1 Jan.
1 Jan.
Galba, B. IX. 102. B. M.
Jehan Dacorde, a Spanish shipowner, complains that about six weeks ago, after having sold his merchandise at London, he was driven to the port of Chambre (Camber), in England, by the weather; where, on Dec. 1, he was attacked by two French galleons, and two of his ships sunk, and the four others were driven ashore and plundered by the French. He has been to the Council to ask restitution, but obtained nothing but the ships, without the rigging, artillery, &c., most of which was taken by Englishmen. His loss is 30,000 ducats. He has asked for letters of marque, which she will not grant without informing Henry. As this is a direct infringement of the truce, demands restitution. Malines, 1 Jan. 1528. Signed.
Fr., pp. 3. Add. Endd.
1 Jan.
Ibid., f. 101. B. M.
5135. THE SAME to [WOLSEY].
To the same effect. Malines, 1 Jan. 1528. Signed.
Fr., pp. 2.
1 Jan.
R. O.
Letters patent enabling Wolsey to annex to his college of Ipswich the churches of St. Peter, St. Nicholas, St. Clement, St. Mary the Virgin ad Clavem in Ipswich, Whersted, Cretingham, Thurstoun, Felixstow, Walton, Rumborough, &c. Westm., 1 Jan. 20 Hen. VIII.
Lat., vellum, beautifully illustrated with a portrait of the King and the royal arms.
2 Jan.
Galba, B. IX. 140. B. M.
Wrote last on the 24th of Dec., about a matter of great importance, the treating between party and party. Hears that if there be no impediment by our means, the king of Portugal will answer for as much as the King has done in times past, and the administrators of this enterprise wish to exclude the King and Wolsey from the knowledge of it. Wishes him to tell Wolsey of this. Could give him ampler information if he might come over. Has obtained a further respite in Harman's case till the last Friday in Feb., by which time he hopes for sufficient instructions. Has written also to Friar West. My Lady recommends herself to Wolsey, to whom she has written in favor of the Spaniards, marvelling that the French are allowed to drown Spanish ships, kill the men, and plunder the goods in the King's jurisdiction, as has lately happened in the Camer port. Encloses a copy of the complaint to the Council. She asks for restitution. Machlyng, 2 Jan. 1528.
Hol., pp. 3. Add. Endd. The words in cipher deciphered.
3 Jan.
Vit. B. XI. 7. B. M.
The General, cardinal of the Holy Cross, has arrived. Writes about his commission to Vincent Casale. The Pope feels sure that no peace can be concluded unless he and Wolsey go to the Emperor in Spain, which he is ready to do, if Wolsey will also go. He will send a nuncio to the King about it. Rome, 3 Jan. 1529. Signed.
Lat., p. 1, mutilated.
3 Jan.
Vit. B. XI. 8. B. M.
Extract from a letter of Gregory Casale to his [cousin] Vincent, dated Rome, 3 Jan.
The General, cardinal of the Holy Cross, has arrived "ad por[tum]." He wishes to go to Naples before the publication of his arrival, that he may bring back the cardinals who are hostages in triumph. The Pope read in the consistory his letters, stating that he had commission to restore the cardinals and 150,000 ducats which the Imperialists had extorted from him. Has persuaded the cardinals of Mantua and Farnese to exhort the Pope not to let this opportunity of peace pass by. Went to the Pope and showed him that no time could be more suitable for a peace; for both the Emperor himself and the Imperialists had shown that he would rather die than be compelled to make peace, but that he would do so if he were drawn to it by the Pope and the Kings. He is master of Lombardy, and has recovered Naples with honor. If he now accept the conditions which he refused in more adverse circumstances, it would be great glory to him, and would show that the destruction of the Holy see was done by his party for their defence, and not with any bad intent. Besides, although appearances are so favorable to him, he must see on reflection that he is more weak than ever; for the Imperialists cannot blockade or drive away the small army of Renzi, so that if next spring forces were maintained in Apulia, and the war carried on in Lombardy or Flanders, the allies would gain whatever they wished. Cannot, therefore, but think his Majesty intends peace. Told his Holiness that if he knows the Emperor to be of this opinion he ought not to lose a moment, for if he waits for the spring matters will have altered. The allies must provide what is necessary for war, unless peace is concluded. Warned him specially of treating for himself with the Emperor, which would cause jealousy between the Princes, and would increase the Emperor's arrogance.
His Holiness answered that what he had said was true, but that the Cardinal of the Holy Cross brought nothing except the restitution [of the hostages] and the fortresses; that as to a general peace, the Emperor desired the fulfilment of the treaty of Madrid, and insists on the settlement of Italian affairs by the Pope. Said that the Emperor would do the con[tra]ry to what he and the Imperialists had always asserted, "si nunc [mit]tere voluerit Burgundiam propter hanc novissimam victoriam," and he did not believe that this was possible. He answered that the General asserted that it was true, and he asked him what the Emperor would do if he went to Spain in person; to which the General answered that if the Pope showed him that honor "... [quo]niam re vera adduceret illum ad omnia honesta, nam poterit ... quod alias facere voluerit talia et eas accipere conditiones qu[as] ... Sanctitati denegare nequibit, videns quod ipsa moveatur propter ruin[am] ... cui ob particularem injuriam Cæsar omittere non debet ut ... [si]miles alias afferens rationes, quæ super hac re adduci poss[unt]. Sanctissimus D. N. pro certo habet quod quum tantum honoris ejus access ... sit allaturus Cæsari non posset ipse hujusmodi petitionem ejus Sanctitati den[egare] ... ad hæc ipsa sperat se hujusmodi rationes Cæsari super ejus commodo, et u ... ostensuram, quas ejus consiliarii ignorant et non intelligunt."
Said that the more he placed himself in the hands of the Imperialists the more arrogant they became, alleging past circumstances as a proof; and told him that if he went to the Emperor, it would cause great suspicion, considering his goodness and the cunning of the Spaniards. Persuaded him to peace, telling him that every Christian prince desired quiet; that the only obstacle was to find a method of treating, and he thought that if the Pope, the king of England, and Wolsey united for this purpose, appointing one as a head, it would not be very difficult. His Holiness replied, that if he went to Spain he would wish Wolsey to accompany him; but he did not wish to go as Pope, nor Wolsey as a Cardinal, but as joint ambassadors. The French king should be consulted. The Emperor should be asked to dismiss Andrea Doria, whom the Pope would engage, and would make the voyage in his galleys and those of Rhodes. He would stay awhile at Marseilles to speak with the French king. He did not wish Casale to write much about this, for he intends to send an ambassador to England. The Legate has spoken of it to the French king, who approved of it, and promised to meet the Pope. Giacomo Salviati showed [him] the Legate's letters on the subject. Warned the Pope again not to treat of private matters, for the least knowledge of this would cause an interruption, for all the powers of Italy would watch him as enemies.
Is certain that Wolsey would govern him. The General has a commission to offer the Emperor's daughter to the Pope's nephew, and to restore him. Thinks his conversation with the Pope will prevent him from declaring for the Emperor.
Showed him that his offer of going to the Emperor will be a reason for refusing to make any agreement with the Imperialists.
Lately St. Pôl sent 500 horse and 3,000 foot to take Doria, whose house is near Genoa. They were just discovered in time for Doria to send some baggage to Genoa, and he with 20 men resisted them until the bridge of the city was raised, and then he entered the city by a secret gate. The following night three ships with 1,700 Spaniards came to Genoa. It is thought they will go to Milan.
Lat., pp. 6.
[3 Jan.]
Vit. B. XIV. 6. B. M.
5140. ITALY.
... "Iste Generalis C[ardinalis S. Crucis] ... descendit, dein ... dies, totidem et ... vult ire Neapolim ... erant Smus D. N. 1. ... Generalem habere in [mand]atis re ... 150,000 ducatorum quos Cæsarei milites ... ram intelligeret nonnulla bona nova q ... nem domas suæ Sanctitatis. Quod quum ego a nonnu[Ilis] ... nostris amicis intellexissem, volui antequam alloqueret[ur] ... si quid retegere possem, et inter cætera effeci quod Ca[rdinales] ... [et] Farnesius loquerentur cum ejus Sanctitate eamque hortarentur [nullam occa]sionem concludendi pacem omittere, quum sit quod res esse n ... apto, nec magis ad propositum; super qua re dicti cardinales ... runt cum Smo D. N. quibus ejus Sanctitas adeo aperuit hanc ... [ut] ego perceperim quo tendere volebat. Deinde me contuli ... ea die locutus sum, eique affirmavi meam ita ferre opin[ionem] ... succedat; ad quod credendum adducebar quod is est hodie statu[s rerum ut] pro facilitanda pace nullo pacto optare possemus, quia et ... [præ]dicavit et imperiales semper prædicarunt ejus Majestatem esse pr ... vim coactam ad pacem deventuram, sed si videret ab [rege] Christianissimo se ad pacem attrahi aut similibus mediis ad ea[m] ... [salvo] suo honore ne videretur per vim coacta pacem co[ncludere] ... hodie bene conveniunt quia dici potest quod Cæsar sit ... quum nullum obstaculum illic habeat ad exercitum conf[œderatorum] ... ravit tanta sua cum gloria et honore regnum ... sare hucusque nulli alii tam prospere cess ... resolveret ad pacem concludend[am] * * * tingueret ejus patrata facinora ... em Sedis Apostolicæ per suos factam ... non propter aliquem malum effe[ctum] ...
Mutilated. Vannes' hand. Modern marginal note: "1529 ut puto, 3 Januarii, Roma, Greg. Casalius."
3 Jan.
R. O.
5141. HUGH SHAWE, Alderman of Our Lady's Guild, Boston, to CRUMWELL.
In fulfilment of his letter for provision of fowls for my lord Cardinal, sends herewith 2 cranes, 3 byttors, I heronsewe, 11 grey birds, 13 plovers, 8 "wypys," 14 stints, 11 teals, 2 knots, and 1 yarewhelpe. Would have sent more if he could have got them. Has had 16 men riding about these three days to find them. Boston, 3 Jan., 2 o'clock in the morning.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: To, &c. the right worshipful Mr. Crumwell, this be delyvered at London. Endd.
6 Jan.
Vit. B. XI. 11. B. M.
5142. _ to _
"... Signore et padron mio osservandissimo."
Has heard that the bishop of Aquila has entered Aquila, taken the Viceroy prisoner, and killed all the Spaniards there. There are said to be near Ascoli 700 men-at-arms, 600 light horse, and 4,000 infantry. Advises men to be sent to protect Aquila. (Here follows a line of cipher.) 6 Jan. 1529.
Hol., Ital., p. 1.
6 Jan.
R. O.
Sends by his brother, the bearer, Cromwell's fee of 40s. Hoping that he continues to be friendly in all his causes, as he promised when the writer was last in London, begs him to further his charter sealing, in which he was of counsel with him. From the monastery, 6 Jan.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: To his very loving friend Mr. Cromwell, servant to my lord Legate's grace.
6 Jan.
R. O.
Grant by the duke of Norfolk to cardinal Wolsey of the priory of Felixstow; and appointment of Ralph Sadler and Hugh Whalley as his attorneys. Dated 6 Jan. 20 Hen. VIII.
Lat., vellum; with the arms and crest of the Duke, beautifully tricked and emblazoned.
R. O. 2. Another copy.
R. O. 5145. FELIXSTOW.
"A remembrance unto Mr. Cromewell of certain utensils that I saw at Filstou."
In the hall: three standing boards set fast in the ground; old hangings, of little value, stained, of the life of Job. In the parlor: a cupboard with two "awmeries," value at 5s.; an old long table next the window; a small square side table, and two old short forms an ell long, of little value. In the buttery: a bin for bread to be chopped. In the cellar: nothing. In the chamber over the parlor: a small bedstead, "and a noghty lok." "All the locks about the house been nought." Two old square chests; a pair of rude andirons. In the next chamber: a small bedstead, and an evil lock; a new clothes press.
Reminds Cromwell of certain alterations to be made in the lease when Peteley comes.
P. 1. Endd.
R. O. 5146. R. (?) to CRUMWELL.
Asks Crumwell to help him to obtain the ferme of Filsto (Felixstowe) from Petely. His wife met him in Southwark and asked for it, but he refused her. Would like to have it by Easter.
He asks 20l. for it, but it goes but for 12l., and went before for 10l., which Blakman of Shoreham paid. Asks Cromwell to send for him to the White Hart at Southwark, where he is staying, and doubts not he will make an end with him, "for he is very slypper in his promises."
Does not wish to give more than 12l. Thinks his matter is somewhat hurt by Edw. Ashe.
Does not expect to make much profit, for the ground is barren and stony.
Hol., p. 1.
8 Jan.
Vit. B. XI. 12. B. M.
5147. ITALY.
Dated the 8th, received 12 Jan. 1529, from "il Signore Cavaliere" [Sir Gregory Casale].
News has come today that Camillo Pardo and the count of Aquila have entered Aquila, having killed and put to flight the Imperialists. 700 lanzknechts have arrived at Popolo. Pardo and the Count have written to the French ambassador, that if he will send them 700 infantry they can hold out against all the Imperialists in the kingdom. Advises the placing of 1,500 foot in Aquila, which would prevent the Imperialists from levying any subsidy in the kingdom of Naples. Rome, [8] Jan. 1529.
The English have not yet arrived. ... Signore (the Pope ?) has been ill with rheumatic fever; the fourth attack is expected tomorrow, which may be dangerous. It would be well if the cardinals from Venice were here.
Ital., p. 1, copy.
Cal. D. VI.
341. B. M.
5148. W. KNIGHT to _.
Some in England would suspect him of negligence, but he hopes to clear himself from that charge. "It is great marvel unto me the sudden alteration of matters. I thought at my departing from you that the devise for indiction of peace and a presidie to be given unto the Pope was the high and godly invent[ion] that should cause tranquillity in all parties, and have quieted the King's mind." Perceives that there is "some cacade that interturbeth all godly devices." The French king will have no truce, and intends sending shortly one of his privy chamber to the King to require 10,000 men for his enterprise on Spain. Will understand by Vincent de Casalis and a chamberlain of the Pope's, which departed hence two days past, "how untoward the Pope is in the King's great affair." He and his fellow expect to be recalled on their arrival. Will stay at Lyons till such doubts be resolved "as we write [of to] my good lord Legate." Will receive a letter with this, written at their suit to the Pope, "in the King our master's cause." "Farewell with this good new year."
P.S.—Despatched Thadeo for Rome yesterday, who will be there in eight days, as soon as Sir Francis Brian. Begs that the delivery of his obligation to William Popley may be remembered, and that Sir Petre may return to them, albeit they are countermanded, and that he may be paid 14 crowns which Knight and his fellow had disbursed for his coming into England. Signed as above.
Hol., mutilated, pp. 2. Begins: "Right honorable."
8 Jan.
R. O. St. P. VII. 141.
Though it may seem to some that we proceed negligently, yet when you have seen the two letters we have sent to Wolsey, you will perceive we could not have done otherwise. Nothing was more disagreeable to us than, after we were sufficiently instructed for your high matter, to find the French king nowise willing to accept a truce, and to learn by Gregory's (Casale) letter to you of the Pope's untowardness. If what Vincent, his brother, says be true, our going to Rome will be in vain. Paris, 8 Jan. Signed.
Add. Endd.
8 Jan.
Vit. B. XI. 13. B. M.
5150. KNIGHT and BENET to [WOLSEY].
At their first coming to the court at St. Ger[mains], met in the great chamber a near kinsman of Sir Gregory Casalis, who said he was sent to the King and Wolsey by Sir Gregory. Told him to come to their lodging at his return to Paris, and they would give him letters to the deputy of Calais for his better passage. When he came, finding that they were going to Rome, he told them that the Pope was never more afraid of the Imperialists than now, as many of those who were present at the sack of Rome were there now, in great triumph and reputation, "and ... the Emperor's ambassador, the archbishop of Capu[a] ... of the Cæsarians, that susurred daily in the Pop[e's ears, sometimes] advising, sometimes threatening the Pope for gra[nting the] commission." He daily shows signs of repentance for having granted it, saying that he is undone if the decretal comes to the knowledge of the Emperor. Sir Gregory was told by Salviati, who wholly governs the Pope, that if sentence were given by the decretal, it not only would have no effect, but would be cause of the Pope's deposition, for the cardinal of Mayence had written that nothing would so much corroborate Luther's sect as granting this divorce. Vincent says it is not enough to put the Pope out of fear, but the Imperialists must be so handled that they will dread the King and his confederates.
See evidently that their voyage to Rome will be frustrate, for they cannot know the Pope's mind but by expounding and requiring the particular degrees in order. If the Pope refused the first and second requests, and they then attempted him with the third, they would disclose everything and obtain nothing. The whole matter would then come to the Emperor's knowledge, "and what might after be sp[oken, and] of all likelihood written, that might sound unto th[e King's] dishonor, and consequently unto his high disp[leasure, your] Grace can best conjecture." If the French ambassadors should call upon them to move the Pope to take the proposed guard, their untowardness would show that they do not intend to contribute unless the Pope will [grant] some secret requests, and the French will perceive that your pretence of doing so for the French king's sake is merely dissimulation, and that it is intended to put him to expence merely to obtain your own ends. It will also be the means of making known many dangerous secrets. Have, therefore, told Sir Fra[ncis Bryan] to consider ... instructions, and also to find out from Sir Gregory how the Pope is disposed towards the King's affair. If he be well minded, "then they be f ... of all things for concluding of the presidie, if the ... untoward, and they be required by the French ambassa[dors] to offer unto the Pope the guard, forasmuch as it y[s to be s]upposed that he dare take none, by offering they shall know what he meaneth, and if they do find him content they may say that we have the commission, and that they must tarry our arrival."
Are going today to Lyons, that the King may not conceive any suspicion by their staying here. Will wait there for further orders. Paris, 8 Jan. Signed.
Pp. 4, mutilated.
9 Jan.
Vit. B. XI. 15. B. M.
Arrived today at Florence. [Bryan] writes of the dangers of the road. On their arrival at Bologna on the 5th, the prothonotary, the governor of the town, sent his brother to bring them to his house. He asked Brian after Wolsey, and then inquired about the progress of the King's affair, which he was surprised to hear was not yet finished, especially as he knew that sufficient commissions had been granted to Wolsey and Campeggio. He said he was sure the Pope would confirm whatever they decided. When Brian told this to Vannes, they determined to discover his opinion, as far as possible; for he has great authority with the Pope, and the whole state of Bologna is subject to him as a king, and he receives frequent messages and letters from the Pope. After delivering to him the letters of the King and Wolsey, told him that the cause of their journey to the Pope was to express the King's desire for the public good, and his assiduous care for the preservation of the Church, which Gambara said he knew much better than they could tell him. Bryan then desired him to use his influence with the Pope in the King's favor, which he promised to do most solemnly, but asked why sentence [was] not [given] by the Legates. "Putavi ego Petrus non esse ... et nihilominus de producta brevis copi[a] ... dicendum. Putat ne, inquam, D. V. R. [Pontificem] memoriam ullam meritorum Reg[iæ majestatis] tenere, et eo tempore præstitorum quum existim[aret] futurum nunquam ut ejus Sanctitatis opera egeret; putat n[e], inquam, D. vestra, pontificem eo esse animo, ut hu[ic] sanctissimo et plusquam necessario regiæ Majestatis vo[to] velit tandem satisfacere, nec alio ullo respectu addu[ctus] illud clanculum perturbet, aut differat ?"
He answered that this was undeniable. Said that if they found the Pope of this mind they would easily obtain what would make the King's cause secure. He said he supposed they would obtain everything except the decretals. The Pope then, [they answered,] will not grant them, because the King's cause most needs them. He asked what was the use of decretals if the Pope would confirm every thing. Answered that he might die or change his mind, which would seriously injure the King's honor and the whole kingdom. After Gardiner's departure, the cardinal S. Quatuor, De Monte, and Simonetta had openly advised the Pope not to grant this. Why did they not openly say so in Gardiner's presence, and give their reasons ? He answered that they were silent lest they should prejudice the judges. Why, I said, is it necessary to move with so much caution ? What, he answered, if the Pope binds himself to confirm in two months whatever sentence the Legates pronounce ? (A line or more lost.) "... mus, sed ubi animum Pontificis cognov[erimus] eum ad nostrum Regem perscribemus, D ... cupere se dixit, ut Romæ adesset, m ... interim offerens casu quo regia causa op[tatum] effectum sortiatur, dixit se scripturum ad Sangam ... qui si rescripserit ejus præsentiam posse nego[tium] juvare, statim veniet alioquin pro officio ... tatem obtulit. Mihi præterea Petro secreto [dixit], Pontifex forsan timet, ne si indicatur concili[um] ... illi objiciatur, quod novum jus in re tanta condi ... et veteri detraxerit ad solam principis g ... et ea satis justa causa privationis ce ... queat, diximusque non decere pontificem ... adductum metu, de principe optime merito ... sanctissima male mereri, adduximus e ... pontificem Alexandrum in re consimili ... consiliariis, regi Hungariæ olim ... potestatis plenitudine satisfecisse, judicare ... prothonotarius, quam disparia essent merita Regis [nostri] et regis Hungariæ; omnem ille operam nava[turum] se promisit, quam diximus nos esse ab eventu ... maturos; et de hac re non plura sumus loqu[uti], Dominusque Brianus de omni sermone Regiam Majestatem suis literis certiorem nunc facit."
(A line lost.) "[s]pes omnis a Generalis adventu derivatur et pacem haud dubie subsecuturam confido," if the French king will give up his right to Milan and pay his son's ransom.
The courier who is sent by the French ambassador cannot wait till he copies this letter fairly. Florence, 9 Jan. 1528. Signed by Bryan. Vannes' signature lost.
Lat., mutilated, pp. 6.
9 Jan.
R. O. St. P. VII. 143.
Since my last to you from Chambery, to write all that has happened would be tedious, especially as I have written to the Comptroller, to Norris, and to all my fellows of your Grace's chamber. On reaching Bologna, on Twelfth even, at 4, we were met by Martyn, secretary to the governor Gamber, and his nephew, by whom we were well received. The Governor asked me of your matters, and when I told him that they were not well, "he stepped back and blessed him, and sware to me on his faith he went (weened) it had been done." On this I was somewhat bolder, and told him you trusted no one so much as himself, as he had great power with the Pope. He said if he had been my lord Legate he would have given judgment on your side long ago; and he wondered the Legates had not done so, as they had a commission from the Pope for that purpose, and whatever they did the Pope would confirm. We asked him what would be the result if the Pope should not confirm, or should die; and he asked us, in reply, whether we would be contented if the Pope should bind himself by a bill to confirm the Legates' judgment, which he thought the Pope would do. We desired him to further the cause, and he said if he were Pope he would do it for two reasons: 1st, because the Pope might do it; and, 2ndly, because he knew England well, and if the King should die without heirs male it would cost the lives of 200,000 men. We thanked him, promising large offers if the matter took effect.
We cannot tell if he knows of any brief. I did not speak of it. He said he thought the Pope would not grant any decretal. He volunteered this. His reason was that cardinal St. Quatuor and others had told the Pope he might not. "But at our coming to Rome we trust that if fair words, large offers of money or pension, or bishoprics, or if all this will not serve, with some bold words we shall win these men." We said if the Pope were Pope, he might act as Alexander had done on a former occasion, in spite of all the cardinals. Other matters we have written to Wolsey. We trust to be at Rome on Tuesday. "I would have written to my mistress that shall be, (fn. 1) but I will not write unto her till I may write that shall please her most in this world. I pray God to send your Grace and her long life and merry, or else me a short end." Florence, 9 Jan. Signed.
Add. Endd.
9 Jan.
R. O.
Lady Margaret has refused, without consulting the King, to grant letters of mark to the Spaniards living in Flanders, who have complained of the violation of the truce by the French within English ports. She trusts that the King will have the French duly punished. From his house in the suburbs, 5 id. Jan. Signed and sealed.
Lat., p. 1. Add. Endd.
9 Jan.
MS. Simancas.
The King, having lately felt a scruple regarding the marriage between himself and her, has sought counsel of many learned men, and finally has referred the matter to be judged by the Pope, who has given a commission to the Cardinal here, and another sent by his Holiness, for the purpose. Has exhibited to the King two copies, the one of a bull, and the other of a brief, which were sent to her along with the Emperor's letters, and signed by some of his secretaries. That of the bull agrees with the bull itself, which is here; but, in the absence of the original brief, she is informed by her counsel that the copy will not suffice to be read before a judge. Begs him for the love of God to help her to obtain justice. Is sure he would regret to see her parted from her husband, and her child prejudiced. If the brief were here, she could demand her rights by law. Trusts the Emperor, being so nearly related to her, will not allow her to be dishonored. Begs, therefore, that he will send the original brief to the frontier of Bayonne, whence the King will provide to have it conveyed safely through France. The Emperor may order a copy to be made according to law, by a judge ordinary or bishop, taking with him a notary (tomando consigo notaria para el corso). Has given a procuration to the bearer, her chaplain, Thomas Abel, on this matter, and begs by all means to have the original. Hampton Court, 9 Jan.
Begs his favor for Juan de Montoya, who goes to conduct her chaplain through Spain, that he may go and come freely.
Spanish, modern copy.
ii. Thomas Abel to Charles V.
Is sent by the Queen to desire of his Majesty what may be most to her profit. She requests (1) that his Majesty in nowise give up the brief, notwithstanding that the Queen's letter earnestly requests it, as she was compelled under oath to write in that manner. (2.) That Charles should write to his ambassadors at Rome to use every effort to prevent the matter being examined (no se vea) anywhere but in Rome, for they have not yet begun to examine it in England; otherwise the Queen's cause will be in great danger. If the Pope reply that the Queen herself has not asked it, the ambassador shall say that she neither says, nor writes, nor signs anything but what the King commands her; for to this she is compelled by a solemn oath. (3.) The Emperor's ambassadors should complain to the Pope that he has given so many injunctions (mandamientos) against the Queen without having heard the parties, and should ask that he do not do so in future. (4.) The Emperor should send to England a good canonist as his ambassador, that he may, when needful, speak in the Queen's business, as they cannot refuse to hear an ambassador, as they did those sent by Madame from Flanders, whom they ordered to return. (6.) (fn. 2) That Charles should order good canonists and legists to examine the matter, and write to the Queen thereon something that she can make use of.
Spanish, modern copy.
Add. MS.
4622, f. 111. B. M.
"Advice to be given to the Queen's grace by her counsellers."
"Forasmuch as your Grace now late did show unto us of your Council the copy of a bull and a brief concerning your marriage, whereof by your commandment we delivered a copy to the King's highness," his Council, on examination and search in his treasury, where no corresponding brief can be found, but only a bull, suspect for many reasons that the original of that brief must be a forgery. When, therefore, process shall begin against you, the production of that copy will be of little use. You must, therefore, en- deavor by all means, for the King's satisfaction, "and as ye tender the continuance of love" between him and your Grace, to procure the original, which is now in the Emperor's custody. This, it is thought, you may easily obtain from him, if you write, telling him that your husband has conceived a great scruple concerning your marriage, for which he has felt it necessary to apply to the Pope, who has commissioned two legates to investigate it; and that your counsel inform you that the production of the copy of the brief will not be sufficient. You should desire him, out of regard for your honor and that of your child, to send it to England, telling him that, if conveyed to his confines near Bayonne, the King will provide for its safe passage through France. You may offer that an authentic copy be made, for which you have given procuration sufficient to your messenger, and which being deposited in his treasury will serve his purpose as well as the original; but that you have bound yourself to exhibit the latter within three months at the furthest.
If you decline to follow this course, it may be greatly to your hindrance; "for if we ourself were judges in this matter, and should lawfully find that where ye might ye did not do your diligence for the attaining of the said original, surely we would proceed further in that matter as the law would require, tarrying nothing therefore as if never any such brief had been spoken of." You had better also write to the Emperor's ambassador, from whom you had the copy, desiring him to write in your behalf to the Emperor. If the Emperor refuse, the Queen should make protest that he does her wrong, and appeal to the Pope for compulsories and other remedies. To satisfy the King, she should also protest, in presence of a notary, that she will use no delay, but endeavor bonâ fide by all means to obtain the brief as soon as possible.
Modern copy, pp. 8.
R. O. 5156. THE DIVORCE.
Memorial of things to be said in answer to the Emperor by the English ambassadors, if the matter of the King's marriage be touched upon, and an appeal of the Emperor be spoken of.
First, they must take care not to say anything about the case themselves; but if anything be said about it by the Emperor or his councillors which calls for a reply either on the whole case or any part thereof, they are to adapt their answer thereto according to the following instructions:—
1. If it be objected that the cause rests on no good foundation, but is instigated by some one in hatred to the Emperor, after so many years, &c., it will then be necessary to relate the origin and progress of the whole affair, how it came to light, how carefully it was examined at home and abroad, then referred to the Pope, discussed at great length before him, and finally committed to be examined, viz., that whereas the King for some years past had noticed in reading the Bible the severe penalty inflicted by God on those who married the relicts of their brothers, he began to be troubled in his conscience, and to regard the sudden deaths of his male children as a Divine judgment. The more he studied the matter the more clearly it appeared to him that he had broken a Divine law. He then called to counsel men learned in pontifical law, to ascertain their opinion of the dispensation. Several pronounced it invalid. So far he had proceeded as secretly as possible, that he might do nothing rashly. He then assembled the bishops of England, and the most learned men both in divine and human law, by whom with mature deliberation all that could be said both for and against the marriage was epitomised in one volume. By common consent the cause was declared one for the Pope's judgment, and the King accordingly sent ambassadors to the Pope with the book containing the merits of the case. The matter was discussed before the Pope by Simonetta, dean of the Rota, cardinals Monts and St. Quatuor and Dr. Capasuk, auditor of the Rota, and afterwards by Vincent de Perusio. On being pressed to declare their opinions, the Pope asked the ambassadors instead, if they would undertake a general commission to be executed in England, and he would confirm the sentence. After long intercession, the ambassadors, finding there was no hope of getting the Pope to pronounce an opinion, addressed his Holiness, telling him that it was apparent he either would not or could not pronounce an opinion;—that if he could not, people would think God had taken from him the key of knowledge, and that pontifical laws which were not clear to the Pope himself deserved to be committed to the flames, as they had been elsewhere; but that if he could and would not do what he ought to do willingly, viz., show an erring man the way, it was gross dereliction of his functions. And they urged the Pope not to be wanting to a prince to whom he confessed himself under such obligations. To this his Holiness only replied by asking them to be content with a general commission, and not insist upon a direct sentence. The ambassadors then told the Pope that he did in fact the very thing he would not in words; for what was granting a commission but an acknowledgment, in part, of the goodness of the cause ? At last the ambassadors had to accept a commission to cardinals Wolsey and Campeggio, and returned. Thus it is evident every step has been taken which behoved for the proper cognisance of the cause before the Pope himself; nor would the King have been at so much trouble and expence if he had only cared to indulge his own desires.
2. If only parts of the case be touched upon, as, whether such marriages are prohibited by Divine law, a little book has been drawn up, the arguments of which might be briefly referred to. Reasons adduced to show that the prohibition in Levit. xviii. applies to the wife of a deceased as well as of a living brother.
3. If the papal dispensation be alleged, it may be replied, that many learned men doubt the power of the Pope to dispense, and all agree that he cannot do so except for the most urgent causes, which are not found in the bull of Julius.
4. If mention be made of the brief which is with the Emperor;—there are grave suspicions about this brief, which, even if taken separately they be insufficient, collectively they are of great force. First, there is no entry of it in the registers at Rome. (2.) It is not in England, where it ought to be. (3.) It appears to have the same date as the bull, and it is extremely unlikely that a bull and brief should both be issued the same day about the same cause, or that a dispensation under wax should be more efficacious than one under lead. (4.) Further, it corrects the errors (vitia) in the bull which have lately been brought to light, and that to a quite unnecessary extent, as in omitting the word forsan lest it should suggest a doubt. (5.) Lastly, it is not dated according to the computation used in papal briefs, by which the year begins at Christmas; for, according to that computation, the date is before Julius became Pope.
5. If it be said these arguments reflect dishonor on the Emperor, as he who uses a forged document is no less guilty than a forger, it may be replied that the King quite acquits the Emperor of all intentional error in the matter, as he might easily have been imposed upon.
6. If anything be said of sending the brief to England;—there are many reasons why it should be sent:—(1.) It properly belongs to the King and Queen, to whom it is addressed, not to the Emperor. (2.) It concerns them to have true and valid dispensations. (3.) When the cause was heard in England, messengers from the Queen were sent to Spain to procure the original and not a transcript, that in such an important case the judges might decide with their own eyes; and though the Emperor might allege that it was in danger of being lost by the way, the loss would not concern him, but the King and Queen. The Emperor, no doubt, had good reason for sending only a copy when peace was not firmly established, but the King has no doubt he will send the original now in proof of his friendship to the King.
7. If the Emperor say the King's cause ought not to be judged in his own kingdom, it is to be answered that the Pope has judged otherwise, as the Emperor's ambassador at Rome can bear witness, in whose presence the English ambassadors related the whole affair from the beginning. (2.) What place could be more convenient for an examination of noblemen and other witnesses, and for an exhibition of documents which it would not be right to take out of the kingdom ? The only real objection to such a course, viz., the power of a prince in his own kingdom, ceases in this case, as the King has always submitted himself freely to judgment, and allowed the Queen both foreign and English counsel. (3.) If England be an unsuitable place, how much less suitable is Rome, which was in the power of the Emperor, and is not even yet free.
Lat., pp. 26.
9 Jan.
Vit. B. X. 29*. B. M.
Since writing last on the 28th ult., the chevalier Vincent Nuscinelly, who was captain of 300 men at Barletta, under the charge of Simon Romano, has come hither, and reports that on Dec. 5 Rence had with him more than 6,000 men-at-arms, besides 500 or 600 light horse; that Barletta was well fortified and provisioned, and that the prince of Melfy, Federic Caraffa, and other barons of the kingdom were there. At Trani the Venetians have under the charge of Camillo Ursin 3,000 foot and 500 "capellets," and 16 galleys. Thought this number was exaggerated, but finds that the King has in la Pouille 8,000 men and 1,000 light horse, including the Venetians. On the 7th inst., the countess of Montorio sent a gentleman to tell him that Jehan Franc, brother of the count of Montorio, left la Matrice (Amatrice) on the 2nd with 250 harquebusiers and a number of peasants, and took Monte Real, which lies between Amatrice and Aquila, defeating the Spanish garrison. On the following Sunday, the peasants round Aquila assembled, and, with the help of some of the citizens, stormed the town, and took prisoners Julio de Capua, lately come to Abruzzi as viceroy in place of Sciarra Colonna, and the captain of the town. Is expecting letters from Camillo Pardo and the count of Montorio. Has urged the lords here to supply payment for 1,500 men to send to Pardo and the count for the safety of Abruzzi. (fn. 3) Asks him to send thither the abbot of Farfa and Stephano Colonna, with their men. They could, with the favor of Rence, make la Bruce and the Pope secure.
His Holiness is much pressed by the cardinal Cordelier to declare himself imperialist. Florence, 9 Jan. 1528. Signed: Clau. Dodieu.
Fr., pp. 3. Add.: Au Roy mon souverain seigneur. Endd.: De M. de Velly, Fleurence, 9 Jan. 1528.
10 Jan.
R. O.
Had intended to elect Sir Thomas Sudborne; but, by the advice of their counsellors, have compromitted the said election into Wolsey's hands. Recommend Sudborne to Wolsey's favor. Butley, 10 Jan. 1528. Signed: Will'mus Gymbold, subprior et præsidens—Johannes Debynham—Jacobus Denyngton—and eight others, all named. The last is Thomas Yppiswyche, by whom the letter was evidently written.
P. 1. Add. and sealed. Endd.
10 Jan.
R. O.
5159. WM. GOLDWIN, Master of the School at Ipswich, to WOLSEY.
Expresses his gratitude and that of the people of Ipswich. Sends specimens of the handwriting of some of the boys, who, he hopes, will soon be able to speak Italian. The number is increasing, so that the schoolhouse is becoming too small. 4 id. Jan.
Hol., Lat., p. 1. Add. : R., &c., Thomæ card. Ebor. et de latere Legato.
10 Jan.
R. O.
5160. JAMES HYLL and THOMAS CHAUSER, Bailiffs of Ipswich, to WOLSEY.
Give their willing assent to Wolsey's request that the lands of old assigned to the grammar master at Ipswich should be amortised to Wolsey's college, for the support of the new master of grammar in the school there. Thank Wolsey for having so much consideration for the weal of the town. Ipswich, 10 Jan. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.


  • 1. Anne Boleyn.
  • 2. No 5th head is given in the copy.
  • 3. Here occurs a passage in cipher.