Henry VIII: August 1524, 21-31

Pages 258-274

Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 4, 1524-1530. Originally published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1875.

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August 1524

21 Aug.
Rym. XIV. 18.
Bull, amplifying his former legatine powers for visiting and reforming religious houses, exempt and non-exempt. St. Peters, 12 kal. Sept. 1524.
22 Aug.
Vit. B. VI.
B. M.
586. CLERK to [WOLSEY].
Yesterday the Pope delivered to him certain articles for the intended truce, which he wished Clerk to consider with the Emperor's ambassador. Did so the same day. The Emperor's ambassador seems in great fear that they will be in evil case if the truce is not soon concluded. The Viceroy writes from Lombardy that the people hear so much of the French king's power, and his fresh setting forward for our camp, that he fears they will make some resolution; that he is sure they will do so if there is a battle, and Francis has the best of it; that the French king's camp is larger than ours, and he is more likely to strike battle because he gives out that he will not. For these reasons the Emperor's ambassadors say they want a truce, and, as Clerk thinks, they do not much care on what conditions. On their urging Clerk to incline thereto for the common good, he told them he had heard from the English ambassador in the camp that matters were as prosperous as possible, that they desired nothing more than to meet the enemy, and that they were strong enough to fight the whole power of France. They assured him that it was as they had said, and that if their camp did not retreat the French might easily take their artillery, and that wise men here who know the country think the same. Went to the Pope, who said they did not fear without cause; that the French king was not likely to be in worse state this year than now; that, with an army like his, and ours being no better seen unto, he might shortly be in better condition than now, when he would not be so easily talked with. He exhorted Clerk to incline to the truce, saying that he was almost at a point with the Emperor's and French king's ambassadors, and if Clerk would agree, it could be concluded in two days. Told him he had examined the articles, and had brought them back, with other conditions which seemed necessary, according to the King's instructions. The Pope said the matter that concerned the King most was his indemnity, for which he knew proper provision would be made; the chief matter was the time of the truce, which the Emperor's ambassadors would have for three years at least; and he had almost brought the French ambassadors to the same, and asked what Clerk would do about it. Said that there were other matters besides the indemnity, without which Clerk could not consent to a truce, and showed him the articles about the comprehension of the Scots, and the restitution of the French queen's dowry.
The Pope answered that he knew the King had told him to do all he could to obtain these, in which he would help him as much as he could; but he knew well that if the French king would not consent, Clerk would be ordered to conclude the truce without. Supposes he heard this from the archbishop of Capua. He then asked what Clerk could do about the time. Said his instructions were only "usque ad [finem] Aprilis proximi futuri." He said the French king was now "in a metely temperance," but if he had any success, it would be hard to bring him to this point; and asked Clerk to consent to three years, undertaking that Henry and Wolsey would consent. Said he could not go further than his instructions. His Holiness asked Clerk to write to the King about it, saying he thought it very necessary that the Emperor's wishes should be attended to. The Emperor's ambassadors, who are very earnest in the matter, have made two overtures; one, that Clerk should consent to the truce till the end of April, to take effect for two years, if the King consented in a month; the second overture was a truce till the end of April, to last as long as the King shall please, up to five years. Either of these, they thought, the Pope could induce the French to pass. Answered that he was contented with the latter, if the articles about the Scots and the French queen passed, without which he would consent to nothing. They and the Pope said they would do what they could to obtain those articles, but exhorted him not to stick at them. Told them he would give them an answer after they had tried to obtain them.
Delays matters as well as he can, for the sake of these articles, but knows that a speedy truce will be so beneficial for saving the army and expenses, and knows that the imperial ambassadors and the Pope will so press him that he will be obliged to consent to one of the above ways, if the French ambassador will do so. Will delay to see if the French will pass the above-said articles; and if not, will wait till he hears again from Wolsey. Rome, 22 August. Signed.
Pp. 4, slightly mutilated.
23 Aug.
Vit. B. VI. 169.
B. M.
Has received from Clerk his letters about his exertions for the confirmation of the legateship. Thanks Wolsey for his mention of him, but his aid was almost superfluous, as the Pope and the Datary are such firm friends of his. Is vexed at the transumpt from his office which the Friars Minors have exhibited in fear of Wolsey's jurisdiction. Does not know how or when it was issued, but his office is so large that he has five assistants to superintend expeditions, and they cannot inform him of everything. Would have detained it if he had noticed it. Silvester Darius and Melchior Langus will explain further. Will endeavor to obtain the removal of the Friars' exemption. Thanks him for the King's letters and his to the Emperor in his behalf about the see of Mela (Milevitana). Rome, 23 Aug. 1524. Signed.
Lat., pp. 2. Address pasted on.
His will. Proved, 25 Aug. 1524. Printed in Nicholas' Testamenta Vetusta, p. 601.
26 Aug.
Vit. B. VI. 170.
B. M.
589. PACE to [WOLSEY].
On 12 [August received] his letters dated 17 July, with the King's and his letters to Bourbon, the Viceroy, the marquis of Pescara, Beaurayne and the count de Pontievers. Wolsey must have misunderstood one clause in his letters, in which Pace said he should impute the loss of the French crown to Wolsey. Did not mean it as seriously as Wolsey took it, but only to stir Wolsey to that end. Desired Wolsey to regard that letter above all others, because Bourbon had never spoken so substantially and circumspectly as he had just before Pace's writing. Is not so foolish as not to know Wolsey's continual desire for the King's honor, and that the King might lose France if he spent his treasure out of time. But, so far are we from such an "inconvenient," that by Wolsey's wisdom and Pace's service the King will either obtain his rights entirely, or such conditions of peace as will be to his honor and profit, of which Pace never saw so great a chance as now. In his letters from Savilian he confessed that he was but one person, and that the matter required mature counsel, fully intending that Wolsey should take the best and leave the worst, and order everything according to his own wisdom, not Pace's opinion. Will make a more special answer, to show the King and Council that he did not write without reason.
The first thing he tried to find in the Duke was his inner mind, excluding all craft and simulation, to the King and the recovery of his rights, and whether he would so act as to show that he regarded the King's profit, and not his own only. Always intended to advise the King to contribute according as Bourbon's progress was to his purpose, and to restrain the payment if he perceived anything to the contrary. As to the conquests in Provence, Languedoc and Burgundy being for other men's profit, at the King's expence, this is a great error, and the fy[ne] man whom Wolsey mentions cannot deceive Pace about that. Does not trust him much, nor esteem his wisdom. Marseilles, which Wolsey separates from Provence, is but one of its head cities. When the Duke, on his solemn oath, in the most serious manner promised that he would go straight to Rienes to crown the King, thought this was some ground to build upon. Considers him a substantial man. If Wolsey thinks he will not keep his word or oath, is sorry he was sent to treat with him, and that the King intends to spend his money to restore him. Hopes no one will charge him with being in love with or corrupted by a Frenchman. Loves this man because he is good, noble and faithful. As to the recovery of the French crown, has trusted no one except Bourbon, noting circumspectly his substantial communication and faithful promise.
Wolsey wonders that in his last letters he advises the King to cross the sea, as there were not more than three or four days between that and his former letter, within which space he could have little further knowledge, the general hatred to Francis and goodwill to Bourbon not appearing to be as he wrote. Whatever he advises, Wolsey and the Council can dissuade. His reasons were that he thought the King was more prepared than he is, and that if he and Bourbon attacked France jointly, the Emperor being bound to do the same or send an army, Pace did not and cannot now see how France could defend himself. Since they have entered Provence, has hourly seen that his opinion was not all vain. Thought also, that Francis intended, as he does, to send all his power against Bourbon, so that the King would meet no resistance. Had credible information from the French council that Francis could not raise more than 24,000 foot and 1,200 men-at-arms, with all of whom Bourbon woudl not refuse battle, and, if divided, they would be but feeble.
Bourbon had daily news from his secret friends, which moved him to proceed in haste, and gave him great hope of victory. Has seen also the Emperor's letters to the Viceroy, commanding him to obey Bourbon in everything, and to pledge the whole crown of Naples rather than lack money.
These reasons made him write more vehemently in his last letter than he had done before; but he merely suggested it to the King and Council, considering himself as only one, and the most unwise. Now that he sees from Wolsey's letters that the King cannot so easily pass the sea, it is his duty to accommodate himself to their deliberation, which he will do without further disputation, and work here as he is commanded. As to the hatred to Francis, and the goodwill to Bourbon, has heard less of it from Bourbon and his adherents than from men of other nations in France, and from Frenchmen themselves, who all confess that the persecution of Bourbon is the maddest thing the King ever did. In all the parts they have passed through, the hatred to the King appears openly, and he is called a tyrant; the instances of which are too shameful to rehearse; and they complain universally that the Duke did not come sooner. If the Viceroy had not kept back the men-at-arms, contrary to the Emperor's command and his own promise, they would have been in such a place that the King would have been contented with them. Thinks Wolsey will hear of the Viceroy's shameful acts from Clerk, who tells Pace that Master Pasquyll is making verses against him. Are secretly informed that he favors the French, and it is thought he seeks Bourbon's ruin, that he may have no superior about the Emperor.
Wolsey writes that Pace will daily find more and more difficulty about the French crown. The two greatest, to which he can find no remedy, are, the falseness of persons whom no one would suspect, the other, that Bourbon ... "which thing I would never have believed till now that I see it, ne he would have comen hither without promise of the Emperor of further aid, and hope of the King for their common profits." His acts hitherto correspond to his promise and Pace's writing; and, in spite of the detention of his men-at-arms, and the embezzling of the Emperor's money, he has taken most of Provence, and does not intend to desist till the princes who have sent him order him to do so. Gave his opinion that the King should proceed to Calais, for Wolsey to consider; but thinks that as he does not intend to invade France personally or by deputy, he had better stay in England, for the reasons Wolsey alleges. As to Bourbon's demand of money, and Wolsey's surprise that the Emperor's and the King money was spent about the 20th inst., cannot prevent the Duke from writing what he wishes, but perceives that he asks much ex superhabundante cautela, as he that asked 1,000 oaks and was content with 100. On leaving St. Laurens, 10 or 11 July, there was at Genoa 108,000 ducats of the Emperor's at least, so that matters are better than they made out, and, with the King's money, there will be sufficient for a whole month more. Hope to make shift till the end of September, by which time the Emperor will have, as his agents say, and as word comes from Spain, 100,000 ducats more at Genoa, besides the 200,000 which, as Pace wrote from Montcalier, were truly sent. Did not take this on trust, but saw the bills of exchange. Part of this was spent in the preparations for war; but that is no wonder. The Viceroy spent some of it on Italian affairs, notwithstanding the Emperor's orders to use the revenues of Naples for that purpose. All their vexation during the long absence of the King's money has been the payment of the Emperor's money by parcels, and not in one sum; for which they have this remedy, that many of the Spanish soldiers are well off, and can wait ten or twelve days for their wages; and the captains are rich, and, from love to Bourbon and Pescara, pay the men themselves. This will show Wolsey how ready they are to serve. They would fain be at Lyons as Wolsey desires. He may be quite sure that the King's money is not spent, for none of it is come; at which others marvel, and Pace despairs; for reports arise that none will come, and that Pace is sent to deceive them. If they only had half the sum promised, they would do some notable acts. In all their difficulties no one intends to sleep, but to do all they can to annoy the enemy. If from any reason they do not get the money, does not know what will become of them, save that they are all determined to die in battle rather than return with shame. Every man here takes the cause for his own, and studies not only to serve his prince, but to save his own life; for Francis is at Lyons, and says he will come in person with all the power he can. Never intends, saving the King's pleasure, to go to war again without ready money, for money paid as it now is, is rather wasted than spent. The enterprise has been sustained only by the goodwill of the army and this country to the Duke, without which they would have died of hunger. Has noted what Wolsey says about the expence of maintaining the army all the winter. In the first place, all war must be measured by the purse. Secondly, is in great perplexity, for the charge is very great, unless one can be sure of the result. But there is no fear of the army being scattered for want of money, for they would all be slain; the great danger is lest they should desert to the enemy for wages, which would place the leaders in great jeopardy, and hinder the enterprise next summer. The marquis of Pescara says the Spaniards are too honest to do so, and trusts they would rather suffer death; but they can have no like certainty about the lanzknechts. Tells him this, that he may consider how the army may continue in France this winter, or retreat with honor and safety.
If Bourbon does not receive the aid promised by Henry and the Emperor, it is hard to judge to what he will be driven by the force of the enemy and the unseasonableness of the year. If he is not slain, he must either proceed prosperously, or must lie in garrison. If the latter, the King should not give so much aid as he now does, but save for the war next summer. Advises a truce, if it can be obtained by means of the Pope, to last while the army is in garrison; part can then be discharged, and only the Spaniards, a few lanceknights, and the best horse retained, at the cost of 40,000 or 50,000 cr. a month. Meantime the King and Emperor can make provision of money, and procure a declaration and contribution from the Pope and the dukes of Milan and Genoa. Francis will perhaps refuse a truce unless Bourbon leaves France. Leaves it for Wolsey to consider.
The Duke is desirous of knowing the King's intention. When Pace gave him the King's and Wolsey's letters, and told him why the King had not crossed the sea, by reason of lack of victuals, &c., he was somewhat abashed. He said the King was a very wise prince, and could order his matters better than he could devise; and immediately sent for Beaurain. Pace meanwhile told him that the King was contented with his oath, and asked him the questions contained in Wolsey's letters, to which the answers are given in the book of articles sent from Montcalier. When Beaurain was come, the Duke said that he was true servant to both their princes,—that he was sent into France by them, hoping that they also would be there this summer. But as he saw he was not sure either of their persons or their armies, he wished them to write to their masters the state of affairs, and to ask whether they would continue the war, or make peace or truce, and whatever they commanded he was ready to do:—he especially wished that the army might not be lost. Beaurain answered that he had so written to the Emperor that he was sure he would rather spend all than allow the army to miscarry. Pace promised to write to the King, encouraging Bourbon to prosecute his enterprise, and assured him that the King would perform all he had promised. Reminded him that when the King and Wolsey wrote last, they did not know of his successes in France: told him of the great preparations made by the King, and that, as he knew where Russell was on St. Magdalen's Day, he could not be long absent, and then he would have money for a season. He answered that the provision for the army touched Pace and Beaurain; that he would proceed as long as they had one crown; that if the King's money came, he would cross the Rhone, unless a battle prevented him, and then "araise all his intelligence," and provide for money in his own country, where he will obtain enough for two or three months. As to going to Lyons, he says nothing could be more to his interest, and he will be content to execute the King's command. Beaurain also said that the army should pass, as the King commanded. Three rivers must be crossed to reach Lyons,—the Lisier, Durance and Rhone, one of the greatest in Christendom. There are no bridges, and none could be made on the Rhone without great difficulty, and the passages could be easily defended.
In his last letters acknowledged the receipt of Wolsey's of May 28, with the new treaty between the King and Emperor, the articles of truce, and copies of letters to Clerk and others. Could not obtain the Duke's oath and homage, as the King wished, but did not think it wise to waste time in demanding it, and so took the same oath in the most available manner, and set forward the enterprise. He does not intend to do homage to any prince, and he says he never did any to the French king, wherein he has a thing to show the King and Emperor that they may see he is a better servant to them than they now know. Wolsey writes that what the Duke speaks of was never promised in any treaty on the King's part. Is surprised at this, for he constantly affirms that it was promised. Never was privy to any treaty with him, and does not know what to say. As to the qualifications of the oath, is sure the Duke intends truly, for he is free from subtilty and craft. Has written, as Wolsey desired, to the Italian powers for money, "sed narrata est fabula surdis." Has also written from time to time to Clerk, who says that they will have good minds and fair words from Rome, but no contribution, except after a manifest victory, when they will not need it. The King's and Emperor's intended enterprise for next summer is necessary for both, and he hopes it will have the desired effect, which will be more likely if this army also attacks. Bourbon also approves of it; but he says the present summer was the right time, when the French were driven out of Italy, as his friends cannot declare themselves until the King and the Emperor, or at least their armies, enter France.
Mentioned in his letter from St. Laurens the capture of the prince of Orange, by reason of his neglecting the viceroy of Catalonia's advice to go another way and stronger. The report of the retreat of the Genoese army (fleet), and that the Duke was in Nice, in Savoy, is untrue; for the army was not there, and there were only 17 galleys of the Emperor. The Duke never entered Nice, merely passing it on his way to St. Laurens. Nice is not in Savoy, but on the other side of the mountains. They will never lack news of that kind to injure the expedition, which is displeasing to persons whom he has already mentioned. On leaving Italy they esteemed the said army but little, but soon found that without it they could have neither victuals, nor artillery, nor money conveyed to them, as the French fleet was strong, and was cruising for the purpose of intercepting their supplies. All had been lost if it had not been for the 17 gallies and the help of the lord of Monago, who has openly declared for Bourbon. For this reason the fleet is needed, as well as for the taking of Marseilles. The Genoese do not maintain it for their own advantage and the defence of Italy; it was prepared more by the Emperor's command than their own will. The Duke paid his money to the Emperor's agents, and imputes the lack to them. Does not expect any assistance from the army either in Provence or Languedoc. His other letters give the news since Gregory Casale left. Asks Wolsey to write in duplicate or triplicate, on account of the danger of the roads. At the siege of Marseilles, 26 Aug.
Would have sent this long before, if he had had sure conveyance. Signed.
Pp. 14, slightly mutilated.
Harl. 283.
f. 24.
St. P. VI. 331.
Weston, the Turcopolier, with others of his brethren now departing for Rome, has been commissioned to convey 10,000l. sterling, in crowns of the sun, to a place near Rome. At his arrival in Antwerp he is to communicate with Knight, who is ordered to repair thither from the lady Margaret's court. To avoid detection, the Turcopolier is always to be called Christopher Barber. The money is sent for a reserve, to be employed in the Duke's army in case of necessity, and they are to see it is not misapplied. Is surprised that, by their letters of the 17th, the payment of the Emperor's money for the Duke's contribution is retarded, "like as in all other proceedings the Emperor's folks make great avaunts and promises for payment of money, but when it cometh to the point nothing is observed." Is to urge the Duke to call for the Emperor's money, that the chief burden be not laid upon the King. Computes that if the Emperor had been punctual, it should have been the 30th day of July before the King's money was required, and the 27th of this before the 20,000l. sent by Russell was spent; after which, the Emperor contributing his part, it would be the 24th of September before the money now sent by the Turcopolier was infringed on.
Vit. B. VI. 178.
B. M.
2. Copy.
R. O. 3. Two modern copies.
29 Aug.
R. O.
Has today received his letter dated Hampton Court, 15th inst., saying he has heard that Fitzwilliam intends to make an enterprise on Basse Boulongne, which the King desires to be postponed. Assures him that he intended two or three other enterprises before that. His custom is to advise with the wisest of his captains, and his spies and guides, of three or four enterprises, but no one knows where he is going till he causes his trumpet to blow "Buttie a sayle." (fn. 1) If they did, he would soon repent it. Will, how- ever, postpone it for this month, unless he has other orders. Mons. de Fynes sent his lieutenant to consult Fitzwilliam, and they have determined to make a "course." Wishes to know the King's pleasure; for, in consequence of Wolsey's saying that there were 2,000 Burgundians who would join him from time to time, he had so fully determined on the "course" that he must meet Fynes when he sends for him. Trusts Wolsey reckons him to be the same man he was when last in England. Yesterday, Mons. de Byes, with all the garrison of Boulogne, laid an ambush within two or three miles of Guisnes, and sent forth his "vaundecurrers to make the laram." Sallied out, and drove him back without his doing any hurt or taking any booty, and then sent some men to Belle, who returned with six prisoners and 20 cows and mares. Guisnes, 29 Aug. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: To my lord Cardinal's grace. Endd.
29 Aug.
R. O.
The first discharge of the garrisons on this side the sea is performed according to his instructions, and the second shall be on Thursday. Only 200 foot and 30 horse will remain here, and 20 foot at Newenham Bridge.
Has sent to Wingfield the money Wolsey mentioned. Thinks he will still have a surplus, even after paying the garrison. Wishes Tuke to write Wolsey's pleasure about his going to France. Guysnes, 29 Aug. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: To my lord Cardinal's grace. Endd.
30 Aug.
Rym. XIV. 20.
593. JAMES V.
Commission to Gilbert earl of Cassillis, Sir William Scot and Adam Ottirburn to treat with Thos. duke of Norfolk and Thos. lord Dacre for a peace. Edinburgh, 30 Aug. 1524.
30 Aug.
R. O.
Have received his secret letter about Chr. Barbar. His orders shall be executed. "If other men halt, we shall not run, nor yet go, without such evident reason and cause as cannot be improved. We have stimulate other men to do for their part; they say they wol; if they do not, we shall order ourself therafter." At a convenient time Russell will go where Barbar's cause can be best ordered. The account in Wolsey's letters is true, and cannot be denied by any here. As to the person at whose dealing Wolsey marvels, no one can write worse of him than he deserves. At the siege of Marsilia, 30 Aug. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: To my lord Legate's grace. Endd.
31 Aug.
R. O.
Thanks him for his letters. Does not write a long letter, as he will see his letters to the King, and will hear from Pace. Is displeased at what has been told to Wolsey and the King, that the French King is intending to invade Italy with a great army, and that he ought to go to assist the Viceroy, which would be a great hindrance to the enterprise. Whatever the Viceroy may write, means to follow up the enterprise, as it has commenced so well, and thinks the French king will have enough to do elsewhere without crossing the mountains. Begs him to hasten the expedition on their side. Will come to meet them by Lyons and Paris. At the camp before Marseilles, 31 Aug. Signed.
Fr., pp. 2. Add.: A Mons. &c. le Cardinal legat d'Angleterre. Endd.
31 Aug.
R. O.
Has received his letter of 15 July, respecting the man whom Henry's secretary and ambassador (Pace) had sent from St. Lawrence's. Will hazard his life, if needful, in the service of the King and the Emperor. Is sorry that matters have not turned out so well as was desired, or according to the Emperor's commands. Thanks him for his offer, which he will endeavor to deserve. The said ambassador and secretary will furnish information of the occurrences here. This enterprise concerns the honor and interests of their majesties. Is rejoiced at the union of the realm of Scotland with that of England. "May our Lord enlarge your borders as much as your faithful servants desire." From the Camp above Marseilles, 31 Aug. 1524. Signed.
Italian, p. 1. Add.
31 Aug.
St. P. IV. 119.
R. O.
Angus has desired permission to visit the King, and show various things which touch him very sore. Hopes the King will befriend him, otherwise he and his friends in Scotland are in great danger. Newcastle, 31 August. Signed.
P. 1. Add.
31 Aug.
R. O.
To the same effect. Newcastle, 31 Aug. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: To my lord Legate. Endd.
31 Aug.
R. O.
Was lately instructed by Wolsey that Angus on his arrival in these parts was to proceed into Scotland for certain causes touching the young King his sovereign; but after the Earl had taken leave of the King and Wolsey, it was their desire that he should remain till affairs now in hand for the young King's surety were brought to a conclusion. The Earl has complied with the King's will, but in doing so has lost most of his friends in Scotland, and he now goes to the King in person to desire leave to return to his country. Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 31 Aug.
P. 1. Add.: To my lord Legate's grace. Endd.
31 Aug.
Calig. B. I.
B. M.
St. P. IV. 112.
Articles sent by Margaret queen of Scots to the King her brother.
1. Thanks him for his kindness to the King her son, and herself, and his present and assistance to the former.
2. Her son has been put to his state and governance, and Albany discharged of his authority, by all the lords in Parliament, except the bishops of St. Andrew's and Aberdeen.
3. Henry's letters to the King and Lords have been well received, and an answer made by the latter, of which she has given a copy to Norfolk's servant.
4. She has labored to know the minds of the Lords to peace, and they have ordained that the earl of Cassillis, the laird of Balwery and Adam Ottirburn should pass on Friday, 2nd Sept., in common with lord Akyris (Dacres), or others named by Norfolk, and bring articles containing the desires of the Lords, and to send ambassadors during the truce, which it is hoped may be arranged for three or four months. They desire,—1, a marriage between the King's daughter and his nephew, assured under the great seal and the seals of all the English lords, and approved in their Parliament. 2. That James be declared the second person of that realm (England), and have lands assigned him as prince of that realm. 3. That if the King should have a son, he should give James, in recompense for what he is "put fra," Berwick and the lands in "threype" (dispute) between England and Scotland.
ii. "Thyr is the desyris of the Lordis in speciall, as apperis weyl be copy of the artykylis closit wythin this; and my desires follows be ane odyr vrittyn closit therein."
1. Thanks to the Cardinal for referring to her what should be given to those that take her part; "but I consider that his Grace has mekil ado, and therefore I cannot devise the sammyn, but at hys pleasure." Thinks Arran should be rewarded with the colour of the Order of England, and a pension. He has now the Order of France, and a pension of 900 francs. If this were done, it would save Henry other great expences. He might also send Margaret some money to give to such lords as take her part, whose names she has written in these articles. Wishes to know the King's pleasure, what she shall do with the bishops of St. Andrew's and Aberdeen, who are now in [her] hands. Has done more for St. Andrew's that any other, but could never get his good will. Thanks the King for the money given her to furnish 200 men about her son's person. Many lords believing that Albany will yet come, he would not allow the Act that was passed in Parliament to be pronounced till St. Giles' day be past. Thinks Henry should write to Arran, promising to protect him and all that will take her part against Albany. The King would have incurred great expences if Margaret had not made great diligence to break the Lords. Must be sure of 10,000 men to take her part in case Albany come. Has no refuge but Henry, if the Lords desert her. The coming of this lord, who comes for three or four months' peace by sea and land, must be well regarded, lest it be done to put off the time, and work another way with France. Thinks the Lords should make surety that they will send ambassadors for a final peace; and the abstinence, mean while, should be from month to month, not all three months at one; and that there should be a clause in it, to make it void if the duke of Albany come. Hopes Henry will consider what pains she has taken in this matter, and if peace be made let her be recognized as the sole maker of it. Advises that a benefice be given to Arran, for one of his sons, worth 400l. or 500l. Scots; the bp. of Murray had the like at her marriage. Begs Henry to pay no heed to those who labor for Angus's coming to Scotland, but to keep his promise to her, according to the articles sent by Wolsey. As to the coming of the earl of Cassillis, Margaret told the Scotch they would not be listened to unless they send ambassadors to conclude a peace during the truce that is taken now. The Lords are inclined to the old league with France, which she said would not be accepted.
Wishes to know the King's pleasure on every point of these articles, for now is the time she can best labor all matters. The bishop of St. Andrew's has sent to Rome in hurt of the King her son. Complains of Dacre's saying to Scotch folk, he wonder they let have any woman authority, especially her. Thanks the King for 2,000 merks Scots, sent to the King her son, and 800 to herself. Has all the offices in her hand, and no one lays out money but herself. Albany has given most of the King's property to great lords, so that he has nothing for his support. Edinburgh, 31 August. Signed.
31 Aug.
Cal. B. I. 263.
B. M.
Green's Princ.
IV. 387.
Supposes he knows what has been done concerning her son's authority, and the discharging of Albany's governance at this Parliament. It is well begun, and, with her brother's help, shall continue. Has received kind and loving writings from her brother and the Cardinal, by Norfolk's servant Halz; who has also given the King's writing to her son and the Lords, who have received them right heartily, as he will see by the articles she sends to the King. Great thanks and rewards are due from her brother to her part-takers, especially to Arran. Hopes he will consider this, for his honor and the safety of her son. It could not have been brought to its present state without the help of Arran and his friends; for the most part, and the greatest persons, were against them, as appears by our deeds towards them. Halz can show him the truth. Asks him to remind the King that she and her part-takers have done a great act, not without great pain and cost, and great "beryng fwrth"; "and in so far as vee have dwn towschyng the gret men, and thay may get owrance of me and my part-takers, thay vol pwt owz to the utarmost evil that thay may dw." Trusts the King, Wolsey, and Norfolk will help them to bear forth their quarrel against all their evil willers, as their letters promise. Begs Norfolk to take pains to bring these matters to a good end, and that they may not fail on her brother's part. Sends writings to the King, with her articles and answers, which Norfolk may see, so that he can send her his advice. Asks him to see that she has a speedy answer from the King and Wolsey. Has many requests to ask for safe-conducts, which she cannot refuse, but she wishes him to do nothing without a special writing or token from her or her son. Wishes a conduct for these men that are to come. 31 Aug.
No one is to see the articles but himself.
Hol., pp. 4. Add. Endd.
Calig. B. I.
St. P. IV. 114,
Supplication made by certain Scotch lords to the Pope, for a legate to be sent into Scotland, to proceed against the archbishop of St. Andrew's and other churchmen accused of treason, the Archbishop having planned an insurrection within the realm, which, if he had failed to accomplish, he meant to have secretly departed with other conspirators "to solicit some great party in contrair the King."
ii. Schedule sewn to the above, (fn. 2) with the names of the lords that have given special bands to the Queen, viz., Arran, Murray, Lennox, Eglinton, Glencairn (this name struck out), Cassillis, Maxwell, Glammis, Awindall, Livingston, Sympill, Halkat and Symmerfill.
Calig. B. VII.
St. P. IV. III.
Have received his loving letters dated Oking, 15 Aug. Thank him for his promises of support to his nephew and to themselves in maintaining his authority. Have no doubt of his affection to their sovereign, and trust that, former causes of displeasure now ceasing, perfect amity may be established between the two realms. At the palace of Edinburgh.
Pp. 2. Endd. by Wriothesley: "A copy of a letter sent from the lords of Scotland to the King's highness."
31 Aug.
Vit. B. VI. 182.
B. M.
Has received his letters of 30 May, by Russel, and those of 27 July and 7 Aug. Hears from Pace that the King is informed that Francis intends to invade Italy; and that he fears Bourbon will be obliged to go to aid the Viceroy, and thus the French enterprise be hindered. Does not know who has told him this; but whatever happens, and whatever the Viceroy writes, does not intend to give up this enterprise, as it has commenced so well.
Begs him to advance his army on that side; if he does, will try to meet him by way of Lyons; unless the King and Emperor wish otherwise, though he thinks that the best way. Has discussed matters with Pace. The camp near Marseilles, 31 Aug. Signed.
Fr., pp. 2.
31 Aug.
Harl. MS.
283, f. 48.
B. M.
St. P. VI. 333.
605. WOLSEY to PACE.
Has received his letters dated Torvois, the 3rd, by Gregory de Cassalis, advertising the prosperity of the Duke and his army. The Duke has sent by Sir Gregory letters to the King and Wolsey. Has seen the instructions of Pescara delivered to Cassalis, &c. Has shown the same to the King, who is greatly pleased with the Duke's conduct. Thanks him and the Marquis for their advice of setting forth his army, "for the helping whereof ye desire me to lay my Cardinal's hat, crosses, maces and myself in pledge at this time." It was resolved by the King and Wolsey apart, and afterwards by the Council, that Cassalis should return to Bourbon with the King's reply, to the intent that by Pace's information, of which no small estimation is held, the King's measures might be determined accordingly.
Had hoped that Pace had received a packet of letters from the King and Wolsey, directed to Bourbon and others, and dispatched on the 18th of July, in answer to their request for the King's invasion of France this year, showing that it would be a hindrance to the common affairs, and by no means advisable, unless by some general revolution in France the King might easily obtain the crown. Is sorry that these letters did not reach Pace before Cassalis was despatched, as then Pace and the Duke might have qualified his charge.
They urge that the Duke's successes, the intended capture of Marseilles, the flight of the French army, and the refusal of the Swiss to serve the French, are strong motives why the King should advance his army. Wolsey thanks them for their good intentions, but urges in reply that Provence is a weak and open country, with only two strong places, Marseilles and Arles, still in the French king's hand; and that if the Duke remain where he is, and is suffered to continue there by the French King, wasting and consuming his means, he will, for lack of entertainment, be compelled to abandon Provence; and France in one day, without expence, will recover as much as the duke of Bourbon, with the Emperor's and King's excessive charges, has obtained in all this season. If the Duke should continue in Provence, it would be unwise of the King to advance his army at this season of the year, for this can only be done with effect if Bourbon, passing the Rhone, should march towards Lyons, and thence into the bowels of France. In that event the King is ready to move; and has directed letters to his captains to bring in men, and has sent this day Sir Richard Jerningham to Lady Margaret, to put in readiness the Emperor's contingent, and provide carriages and other necessaries. Pace is therefore to urge on the Duke to enter France; and, on the receipt of his determination, the King's army will cross to Valenciennes, and, joined by the Imperialists, will march to Paris or the Rhone, as shall be thought best. Is to ask the Duke's advice on these particulars, and urge him to send some gentlemen into France, to practise with his friends for the benefit of the said army.
He shall also remind the Duke that it was agreed, whenever the King, in person or by his lieutenant, invaded France on this side, his portion of the expence for the Duke and his army should cease, and fall upon the Emperor; and he is therefore bound to ascertain how the Emperor is furnished for that purpose; for it is possible he may either lack the money, or at least make such show of it that the Duke will be disappointed, and the whole burden would fall on the King and his army alone.
It is thought here that the Emperor is not furnished to bear this charge, or minded that the Duke should take any ways for the King's profit, but turn everything to his own advantage. And even if the Duke should advance into Lyons, he might, by a private arrangement between himself and the Emperor, be contented simply with the recovery of his own countries of Auvergne and Bourbonnois; to which purpose nothing would more conduce than to distract France by an invasion from England. It is necessary that Pace should consider these things carefully, and not allow himself to be seduced by fair promises; for, unless the Duke is sincere in his professions, it would be great unwisdom in the King to send over an army at this time of year.
He is also to urge Bourbon and Pescara to enlist, on being joined by the Almains, Italians and Spaniards, which were left behind; and not to pass the Rhone without first taking Marseilles and Arles, for in the French king's hands they will cause the Duke many perils.
Pace writes, that whenever the Duke passes, all the subjects of Provence come in, and give him their obedience. But he does not state in what manner, and whether it be in the King's name and to the King's use, to whom alone it is due. Wolsey insists, that if he take Lyons or other places, it shall be only in the King's name; and if he receives any emolument, it is to be accounted as money laid out by the King for the Emperor, who is bound to bear the whole expence of such an invasion. Unless the Duke is candid in this matter, it is clear he has no intent to help the King to his title, and it would be but little wisdom in the King to assist him.
At the More, 31 Aug. 1524.
An early copy.
Vit. B. VI. 183.
B. M
2. Modern copy of the same.
R. O. 3. Another modern copy.
31 Aug.
Vit. B. VI. 193.
B. M.
606. PACE to [WOLSEY].
On the day that Gregory Cassalis departed Bourbon set out for Torves, on his way to fight the French, who, hearing of it, retired to Avignon, which stands on the Roan, and divided their army among the towns near. The Duke marched on to Ayse, which city sent out eight orators to offer to surrender; and the next day the consuls, more than 80 in number, gave him their oath of fidelity. The day following he entered the city to put it in order, and obtain money, of which he could not get much, because the French had carried away the rich men. He found out by his spies that Francis was at Lyons, sick "of his owne Frenche disease," and it was said he would come to the field personally with all his power. His army was still divided, but intended shortly to encamp on the Durance, near the Duke's army. Bourbon, therefore, left Ayse for the open field, intending to attack the French as soon as they arrived.
After 7 or 8 days, during which the French did not appear, Bourbon deliberated about the other part of Casalis' instructions,—the taking of Marseilles,—which, as Wolsey says, would be profitable to the Emperor and to Genoa. The army, however, thinks solely of its own profit, wishing it were a pie's nest to be thrown down with a bird-bolt; for without taking it they can neither proceed nor keep what they have; and, besides, the terror of its capture would prevent any other cities resisting. Are thus compelled, more by necessity than will, to do what is both difficult and dangerous. Some of the best of the Spanish captains were sent to review it, and reported that it was a strong town, well repaired, and a weighty thing to attempt; but if they were commanded to set on it, they would do their duties. Bourbon and Pescara started to view it at midnight on the 14th, with 2,000 Spaniards, arriving there at daybreak. They found it difficult; but, con- sidering that the French army flees battle, and that they can do nothing without taking it, they determined to do so, hoping that the French might come to succor it, and give battle. Some suggested that the French would try to recover Ayse, to raise the siege; and the Duke, therefore, left a garrison under De la Mote, with orders to keep spies abroad, and send word to him when the French were approaching, and he would then send him aid, as there is a great quantity of victuals there. The Duke's chief anxiety is to pass the Roan. He says that he will then have a plain victory, for all his intelligences will then discover themselves; that he is sure of 12,000 gentlemen; that Francis knows well that he could not drive him out of his own country, and has therefore come to stop him. The Marquis does not think the French will fight unless the King joins the army. His army is the larger, but not so good men. Monfort, a chamberlain of the Emperor, has come with news that the Emperor's army marched towards Perpynyan a month ago, and should be there by this time. Another, sent to the viceroy of Naples, has brought the same news. If it is true, Bourbon says he will cross the Roan by their aid, and Wolsey will then be likely to see the revolution he looks for. All are determined not only to serve their princes, but to save their own lives; for it is come to that now.
Sees no cause but to hope well, [if they] be not destitute of money. On the 19th the Duke and all the army arrived, and laid siege. The French gallies came as near as possible, and shot at the field till night, when a few French made a sally, but were repulsed by the Spaniards, eight taken and eight killed. In the morning the Duke had two cannons planted to shoot at the fleet, which came about nine o'clock, and landed 200 or 300 men, who were suddenly attacked by the Spaniards, and all taken prisoners or slain; among the former, a baron of Naples. On our side there was slain only Richmond, a gentleman of the Duke's, once servant to the King. Have not yet lost eight men by the firing from the gallies and the town. The gallies were driven away by the guns placed on the hill, and dare not approach so near. 700 Italians coming to the army were met by about 2,000 Italians and French and a number of villains. Many were killed and wounded, and at last our men lost their baggage and many of their weapons. On the 23rd the town was battered to make a breach for the Spaniards, but after four hours it was seen that our powder was not good enough, and the captains determined to undermine the walls, and cut off the water, meanwhile sending for more powder.
On the 26th Russell arrived with the King's money, almost too late; but he was detained by the dangers of the road. Desired the Duke and Marquis to see that the money was profitably spent, and to procure the money Beaurayn promised. They answered that for their own necessity they were compelled to spend the King's money well, and that they intended to send Beaurayne in two or three days to the Emperor; and he promises to return in three weeks. This was determined on the 26th.
As to the Duke's intelligences, knows no further than he says and Pace sees. He says that what Pace has already written will happen when they have crossed the Roan. Has seen the aid afforded him by the lord of Monago and three or four other gentlemen, and he has had a secret treaty with a great captain at sea, which has been disturbed by the interception of a letter, but not to the prejudice of the said captain. Sent an account of some of his friends in France by Casali. A man of re[ligion] has been with him disguised, and promised "many great things to be done in time convenient." The copy of De la Roche's letter will also have informed Wolsey about it. La Pallisse's brother has left France for his camp. Had forgotten to say that if they cross the Roan it will be impossible to keep Provence; and Bourbon says he does not much care for it, for if the enterprise succeed he can easily recover it. At the siege of Marsillia, 31 Aug. Signed.
Pp. 6, mutilated.
31 Aug.
Vit. B. VI. 196.
B. M.
Hears from Bourbon and Pescara that he has written to them advice about the enterprise, offering to send them forces, and suggesting an invasion of Dauphiny; which is wise counsel, and he supposes they have answered him. Begs him, however, first to fulfil the treaty between the King and Emperor, by which the latter is bound to supply cavalry and the sum of 100,000 cr., according to the promise made to the King by the Emperor's ambassador in England. The other 100,000 cr. from the King will certainly arrive, for money is of the greatest importance now; and if the Emperor does not send his portion, the King will not be bound to contribute, and thus this undertaking, so well commenced, will fail. Hears that he is in doubt why the King has not crossed the sea, nor sent an army. To this the King was not bound, though he much wished to do it; but he heard from lady Margaret that no supplies would be given him by Flanders, a thing which was never denied before to any English king invading France. The King writes, however, on Aug. 7, that the French are so beset by land and sea that there will be an opportunity of effecting it, especially as he has settled Scotch affairs, and expelled the French party there. If the Viceroy had said freely at Savinia that the enterprise could not succeed without the invasion by the King, he would have given a reasonable answer. Now it is necessary to take counsel, and to behave so that no shame may accrue to their princes, which cannot happen if the agreements are carried out. The siege of Marseilles, 31 Aug.
Lat., pp. 2, copy, slightly mutilated.
31 Aug.
Vit. B. VI.
B. M.
Arrived here on the 26th with his charge in safety. Four or five days before wrote to Pace to ask Bourbou to value the angelo at 67½ sous, which he did; but they could not obtain more than 64 sous, and the was obliged to allow it, as the men were determined not to take them for more than 60 sous. At the siege before Marseilles, 31 Aug. Signed.
P. 1.
31 Aug.
Lettere di
I. 131.
Francis needs have no fear of Bourbon's army alone, and it cannot be aided by other armies till next year. Nor will he have any difficulty in obtaining money from France, which will readily grant supplies for its own defence. There is no ground for the suspicion that his subjects are not loyal; and I cannot believe there is a single person in France who would prefer the Emperor and the king of England, on whom Bourbon depends as his sovereigns, to his own natural King. The writer discusses Francis' proposed enterprise against Milan, &c., and says, "Do not believe that the desire of having Milan is the sole cause of such enormous labors as we witness, but natural hatred, augmented to a great extent by the vainglory which has sprung up in the minds of these young princes, each endeavoring to prove himself the most powerful to injure the other." Garzano, last of Aug. 1524.
31 Aug.
Vit. B. VI. 180.
B. M.
On the 22nd inst. sent two [bulls] of the ampliation of the legateship, for the jurisdiction and the faculties.
Have delivered to the Pope the articles of the truce, with protestations that he shall not show them to the French till they have sent in their demands. The French ambassador has a commission, but so qualified that he is ashamed to show, it, and has sent for another. Hears from Pace, 16 Aug., that they are determined to attack Marseilles. The marquis of Pescara complains that the men-at-arms have not come, for lack of money. They were then this side of the mountains. There was no word either of the arrival of the King's money. If the camp had had everything necessary they would have done some notable feat, as the French have been both slack and cowardly. Pescara, in his letters to the Emperor's agents and the Pope, exhorts them to fall to a truce, and says they are likely to be in great danger for lack of food; for the enemies' host increases, and provision diminishes; nevertheless Marseilles shall be assaulted, and they are determined rather to die than flee. The Pope is now anxious for a truce.
Reminds Wolsey that he cannot agree with the Emperor's ambassadors, who wish for a truce of four or five years; and his instructions are only till the end of April. Begs him also to remember the comprehension of the Scots. Can do nothing till he hears again. De la Roche, who lately came from Spain, was whole and merry at Clerk's house six days ago, and this morning is dead, which the Pope says will be a great impediment to the common affairs. He will send immediately to the Emperor. The Archbishop will leave in five days. The French refuse everything in treating of the truce. Told the Pope that he had sent the bulls to Wolsey, and how much Wolsey would feel obliged for them. He again asked Clerk to write to Wolsey "for Godds saake to use mercye with thois friars, sayeng that they be as desperatt bestes past shame, that can lee[se] nothyng by clamors." He has consented to the bull "for the supplement" of the college in Friswids. Hopes to get it sped through the Archbishop before he leaves. The sooner Wolsey puts it in hand the better, for then the rents will bear great part of the expense of building. Rome, 31 Aug. Signed.
Pp. 3, slightly mutilated. Add. To my lord Legate's grace. Endd.
Ibid. f. 177. 2. Extract from the above, omitting what concerns Wolsey alone.
Pp. 2.
Grant by Edmond bishop of Salisbury to Matthew cardinal Gurk, at the instance of his procurator, William Poplaye, of a pension to preserve him from want and mendicancy in his old age, on his resignation of the canonry of Horton, in Salisbury Cathedral. This grant is with the assent of William Knyght, the present canon.
Imperfect, pp. 2.
Aug./GRANTS. 612. GRANTS in AUGUST 1524.
1. Sir Henry Wiat. Grant of a messuage called Foreriders, with houses, lands, &c. named, in the parishes of Nevynden, Bartelisden, Fange, and Southbenfleet, Essex, which formerly belonged to the hospital of Melton, near Gravesend, Kent, and came to the King on its dissolution, as appears by an inquisition taken before Th. Franke, escheator, 18 March 15 Hen. VIII., at Stratford Langthorn, Essex, with the issues thereof, from 6 May 16 Ric. II. Del. Westm., 1 Aug. 16 Hen. VIII.—S.B. Pat. p. 1, m. 30.
6. John Underhyll. Presentation to the church of Merston-Morten, Linc. dioc., void by death. Del. Hampton Court, 6 Aug. 16 Hen. VIII.—S.B.
11. John Too, gunner. To be a gunner in the Tower of London, with 6d. a day, being part of the 12d. a day which Nich. Love had from 1 Aug. 16 Hen. VIII., when Love died. Del. Hampton Court, 11 Aug. 16 Hen. VIII.—S.B. Pat. p. 2, m. 2.
12. Wm. Ameas, Th. Ameas, and Peter Ameas, of Lentwardyn, alias of Moketre, Wm. Hopton, of Hopton, Wm. Palfrey, of Marlowe, and John Longford, of Witton, Salop. Pardon. Del. Hampton Court, 12 Aug. 16 Hen. VIII.—S.B. Pat. p. 2, m. 10.
13. John Smith, mariner alias yeoman. Protection; going in the retinue of lord Berners, deputy of Calais. Monastery of Charsey, 13 Aug. 16 Hen. VIII.—P.S.
18. Robt. Salmon, of London, waterman, alias of Beconsfeld, Bucks. Pardon for having on 13 Jan. 15 Hen. VIII. broken into the premises of John Long, at Beconsfeld, and stolen 25l. in money. Del. Westm., 18 Aug. 16 Hen. VIII.—S.B. Pat. p. 2, m. 6.
18. James Jankyn, yeoman usher, and John Wogan, gentleman usher, of the Chamber. To be raglers of co. Cardigan, S. Wales, in survivorship, on surrender of patent 13 Nov. 13 Hen. VIII., granting that office to Jankin, vice Sir Griffin Rice, deceased. Del. Hampton Court, 18 Aug. 16 Hen. VIII.—S.B. Pat. p. 2, m. 5.
18. Lawrence Clayton, gunner. To be gunner in the Tower of London, with 6d, a day, which Nicholas Love, deceased, had. Del. Hampton Court, 18 Aug. 16 Hen. VIII.—S.B. Pat. p. 2, m. 9.
22. Jersey. Sir Ric. Mabon dean of Jersey, and Jo. Lemprière to have the custody of the register rolls, and the seal of the office of bailiff, also the administration of justice in the island, during a question pending between Sir Hugh Vaughan, captain, and Helyer Carteret, bailiff of Jersey. In criminal causes Lemprière will act alone on account of the spiritual character of Mabon. Hampton Court, 22 Aug.—Pat. 16 Hen. VIII. p. 1, m. 38.
28. Thomas Spert. Protection for Ralph Folvyle, of Westminster; going to the wars.—P.S. 28 Aug. 16 Hen. VIII.


  • 1. "Booty! Assaillex!"—"Booty" is spelled "Buttye" in the same letter.
  • 2. The schedule is no longer attached.