Pages 243-262

Lincoln Wills: Volume 1, 1271-1526. Originally published by British Record Society, London, 1914.

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Aglet, Aglytte. An ornament, used (a) properly of a gold or silver tag or pendant attached to a fringe; whence (b) extended to any metallic stud, plate or spangle worn on a dress (N.E.D.). 130

Aimelitus (Lat.). Enamelled. 16

Almemes. Alms. 180

Alydays. Holy-days. 87

Alyen. To alien or transfer the property or possession in anything. 28, 30

Alywe. Alive. 108

Amita (Lat.). An amice. 14–15. See Vestment

Amteyne. An anthem. 25

Anenst. In the presence of, before. 113

Anourements, annowrments. The ornaments, accessories or furnishings of a church, altar, etc. 65, 142–3

Apparatus (Lat.). Equipment. See Vestment

Apparel. See Parura

Arche. An ark, q.v. 165

Are. An heir. 121

Ark. A chest, box, coffer; a large wooden bin for storing flour, bread, etc. 4, 98, 113, 138, 165

Armett. A hermit. 145

Armilausa (Lat.). A cloak; strictly a short cape covering the shoulders. 17

Armory, amery. A cupboard or ambry. 180

Arr'. Arable. 65

Assiners, assyners. Assignees. 72, 90, 94, 105

Astate. See Estate

Aueȝ. Plural of Ave, i.e. Ave Maria. Here are meant the beads, or set of beads, on a rosary corresponding to the number of aves repeated. 17. See also Pair

Aula (Lat.). Halling or tapestry or painted cloth for the walls of a hall, chapel, etc. The usual Latin form is aulœum. 9. See Jesse, Painted cloth

Ave (Lat.). See Aueℍ

Aventail. See Eventale

Awght. Owed. 45

Ayres, Ayrres. Heirs. 90, 108


Bage. A bag. 42

Ballde, ballyd. Bald, i.e. streaked or marked with white, especially on the face. 58, 145

Baly. A bailiff. 55

Banquer. A banker, a covering, generally of tapestry, for a bench or chair (N.E.D.). 17

Bayst'. Bastard. 160

Bayt. Bate, contention, debate. 101

Bead-roll, beedrowlle. A list of persons to be specially prayed for. 71, 94

Bedes, beddes, beides, bedys, beydes. Beads. See Pair; also Index of Subjects, s.v. Beads

Bedstocks, bedstokes. The front and back parts of a bedstead, between which the cross bars were laid. 180

Beforelsdars. Before the elders, homage, jury or council (cp. 'consell', p. 70) [of the manorial court]. The clause on p. 70, with which this one should be compared, provides for the renewal of the tenure, on payment of a fine to the lord and his heirs, at the end of each period of 99 years. The present clause (p. 72) provides for the appointment of new feoffees when the number of feoffees is reduced to two, without the payment of a fine to the lord and his heirs. If the word makyndg' is treated as redundant the meaning is plain. (cp. p. 127, last line). 72

Beinge. Buying. 84

Belded, belldyd. Builded upon. 42, 89

Bendys. Ribands, sashes; or perhaps=bands, i.e. collars or ruffs. 165

Beqwyet. To bequeath. 32

Bered. Buried. 32, etc.

Beseke. To beseech. 22

Beste, best. Best beast. 27, 35, 87, etc.

Biga (Lat.). A two-wheeled cart. 75

Bisold. Be sold. 93

Black monks of Lincoln. The monks of the Benedictine priory of St. Mary Magdalene on the eastern side of Lincoln, now popularly known as 'Monks' Abbey'. The priory was a cell of St. Mary's Abbey, York. 4, 140, 150

Blacker. A wheelwright's tool (see context). Probably a variant of 'blocker,' a tool for some form of blocking: a.d. 1407, 'Lego Petro apprenticio meo j. chipax . . . j. blokker, j. twybyll' (Testamenta Eboracensia [Surtees Society], i, p. 347, quoted by N.E.D.). 32

Blakedovyd. See Dowed

Blodius (Lat.). Of blue colour. 60

Bokill. A buckle. 84

Bolle Caffes. Bull calves. 145

Bond. Bound (cp. Bowden). 27

Bond lyne. A bundle of line or flax. 60

Bornyng. See Burling

Bot, bote. A boat. 120

Bowden wane. A wain bounden [with iron, cp. 'iron bonde carte' (p. 27)]. 88

Bowgh, Bowthe. Bought. 21, 49, 73, 104

Bowr. A bowyer, a maker or seller of bows. 37

Boysse of key. A bow or yoke of kine (N.E.D. s.v. Bow). 131

Boyte[s]. Boats. 73

Boyttes. Boots. 165

Brede, breede. A breadth or width. In early times linen was made in a long narrow web several widths of which had to be sewn together to form a sheet. 45

Brent. Branded [with the owner's initials or mark] (cp. Brandid, p. 145). 113

Brewgent leddes. Brewing-leads, vessels for brewing in. 61

Briges. Bridges. 104

Bring forth. To bring forth for burial. 57–8, 103, 129

Broken. Separated into parts. 112

Browthup. Brought up. 22

Brysse. A brace, a carpenter's tool for boring. 32

Burling, bornyng, burning. A yearling ox or heifer. 46, 58, 70, 73, 168, 174, 179, 182

Burnetum (Lat.). A cloth of dyed wool of superior quality, originally of dark brown colour (N.E.D.). 3

Bussellus (Lat.). A bushel. 3

Butt. A land, q.v.; especially such a land when short of its full length owing to the irregular shape of the boundary of the field. 160

Bygest. Biggest. 91

Byllys. Bills. 166


Calaber. A kind of fur obtained from some foreign species of the squirrel. Apparently adopted from the French Calabre, Calabria, a province of Italy (N.E.D.). 17, 108

Camisea (Lat.). A shift. 3

Camlet, chamlet, shamlet. A costly fabric made of silk and camel's or goat's hair or wool. 116

Caneby. A canopy. 42

Cantrye. A chantry. 44

Canuaℍ. Canvas. 18

Capital messuage or mese, cheyff messe, hed hous, hed place, principal place, principal messuage. The messuage occupied by the owner of a property, containing several messuages. 5, 26, 39–41, 56, 64–5, 72, 152, 160, 169, 171

Caractamen (Lat.). Probably a cart. The usual form is 'carecta.' 3, 3n

Carpet. A thick fabric, commonly of wool, used to cover tables, beds, etc. (N.E.D.). 1–3, 6, 17

Catalles. Chattels. 158

Catertens. Quatertemps, the four fasting-seasons or Ember-weeks. 177

Cawsse. Causey, causeway. 178

Celled. Sold. 35

Celure, cillour. A canopy over a bed, dais, altar, etc. Another form is 'Silour.' 17

Certum (Lat.) for sertum. A girdle. 15

Chafing-dish. A vessel to hold burning charcoal or other fuel, for heating anything placed upon it; a portable grate (N.E.D.). 38

Chalo (Lat.). A chalon, i.e. a blanket, counterpane or coverlet for a bed; apparently, as stated by Du Cange, from its place of manufacture, Chalons-surMarne, in France (N.E.D.). 3

Chamber, to her. To provide her a chamber. 140

Chamlet. See Camlet

Chantry. See Commemoration

Charches. Charges. 42

Charger. A large plate or flat dish. 15n, 144

Cherche grevys. See Church greves

Cheverell bage, on. One cheverel bag, i.e. a bag made of kid-leather. 42

Choir, quere, queyr, qwere. (a) The part of a church appropriated to the singers. 38, 41, 43, 68, 71, 113, 118, 126–7, 142, 162, 176; (b) The organized body of singers. 64, 94. Cp. Quere man

Chon. See Echon

Chorus (Lat.). Choir, q.v.

Church greves, cherche grevys. Church-grieves, churchwardens. 56, 61

Churchmasters. Churchwardens. 44, 65, 129, 141

Churchvrth. A churchyard. 49

Church work. See Fabric

Cillour. See Celure

Ciphus (Lat.). See Cup

Classicum (Lat.). A peal of bells. 8

Clausyrys, clawsures. Enclosures, closes. 116, 137

Clerk. A member of any of the orders, including the minor orders, of the Church. As the scholarship of the Middle Ages was practically confined to the clergy, the notarial and secretarial work of the kingdom was done by such clerks. Passim. See King's clerk

Cob-irons, cobb yrons. The irons on which a spit turns, irons hung on the bars of a kitchen-range to support the spit. Also said sometimes to=Andirons or fire-dogs (N.E.D.). 83

Cobreder. Co-brethren. 176–7

Cocliaria (Lat.). Spoons. 36

Coeffe, coeffer. A co-feoffee. 81

Cologne, one orphray of. One orphray made of cloth manufactured at Cologne. 14

Commemoration of the dead. The following account of the usual funeral and commemorative services will serve to explain references which occur on almost every page of the present volume—

(a) Funeral services—

(i) Vespers of the Office of the Dead, which took place on the evening before the funeral-day, was known as Placebo, because the office began with the antiphon Placebo Domino in regione vivorum (Psalm cxvi, 9, in Book of Common Prayer). 24, 27–9, 60, 64, 71, 80, 105, 114, 118–19, 153–4, 175, 177, 181

(ii) Matins of the Office of the Dead, which began nominally soon after midnight, but in practice considerably later. It was known as Dirige, dirge, durge, etc., because it began with the antiphon, Dirige, Domine, Deus meus, in conspectu tuo viam meam (founded on Psalm v, 8). 24–9, 42, 50, 60, 64, 71, 73–5, 79–80, 94–5, 105, 114, 118–19, 122–3, 133, 135, 153–4, 168–9, 171, 175–7, 179, 181, 182

Sometimes to add to the impressiveness of the service, the reading or the singing of particular antiphons and psalms and the reading of particular collects and lessons was assigned to different persons. Nine lessons are specified in obits on pages 153–4. In one case the testator directs that Placebo and Dirige are to be done in his house where his body lies (p. 24).

It is sometimes specified that Placebo and Dirige are to be sung 'with Commendation' (pp. 80, 105, 153), i.e. Commendatio Animarum, which consisted of the following—

Psalm cxix (without the Gloria).

Antiphon. Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine: et lux perpetua luceat eis.

Kyrie eleyson. Christe eleyson. Kyrie eleyson.

Pater noster.

Psalm. Domine, probasti (cxxxix).

V. Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine.

R. Et lux.

V. A porta inferi.

R. Erue, Domine.

V. Credo videre.

R. In terra.

Dominus vobiscum.

Et cum spiritu tuo.


Oratio. Tibi, Domine, commendamus animas famulorum famularumque tuarum, et omnium fidelium defunctorum: ut defuncti seculo tibi vivant: et que per fragilitatem mundanæ conversationis peccata admiserunt tu venia misericordissimæ pietatis absterge. Per Christum, etc.

Requiescant in pace.


In Morley church, near Derby, there is a copy of an inscription on a small brass plate which is above the piscina in the chapel. It is a direction for the Commendatio Animarum to be said privately at mass on behalf of members of the family of Stathum, and seems to have been put up by John Stathum (died 1454), who is buried in the north chapel of the chancel— 'Ffor the sowles of Rafe, Godyth, Thomas, Elizabeth, Cecill and John & of theyr suxcessoures & for all cristen sowles: de profundis, &c.: pater noster, &c.: ave maria: et ne nos: requiem eternam, &c.: domine exaudi oracionem: with this orison Inclina domine, &c. John Stathum ordeynd this to be said & more writen in other diuers bokes'.

In modern Roman Breviaries the Commendatio Animarum is merged in the ordinary office of the dead as its concluding portion; and the name Commendatio Animæ is given to the litany and prayers used at the departure of the soul.

In one passage (p. 175) it is specified that Placebo and Dirige are to be sung with the 'suffrage thereoff'. In the second copy of the will in Book 1543–56 (f. 64d.), 'suffrages' was first written and then the final s was struck out. 'Suffrage' seems to be used here in a collective sense for a form of prayer largely composed of suffrages, and to correspond to what is elsewhere called Commendation (v.s.).

(iii) Mass for the Dead, was known as Mass of Requiem, owing to its introit Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine; et lux perpetua luceat eis. 24–9, 42, 50, 60, 64, 71, 79–80, 94–5, 105, 114, 118–19, 122–3, 133, 135, 153–4, 168–9, 171, 176–7, 179, 181

In the foregoing account of the Funeral Services the editor is greatly indebted to Dr. Clark's Sixty-three Lincoln Diocese Documents, pp. 8–9 (Early English Text Society); and, in the case of 'commendation', to Mr. A. Hamilton Thompson.

(b) Commemorative Services—

(i) The Funeral Services described above were in many cases repeated on the Seventh Day after death (pp. 2, 6, 25, 27, 33, 42, 44, 60, 74, 84, 118, 175–6); on the Thirtieth Day or Month's Mind (pp. 25, 27, 33, 42, 44, 84, 175–6, 181); and on the anniversary of death, called the Anniversary, Obit, Year-day, ℍer daye, Twelve-months Day (pp. 2, 3, 6, 11, 14, 20, 26, 28–9, 42, 45, 50–1, 59, 62–4, 66, 71, 77, 80, 84, 88, 94–6, 98, 100–1, 103, 105–6, 110, 114, 118–19, 121–3, 127–8, 130–1, 137, 139, 142–3, 145, 151, 153–4, 157–8, 162, 165–6, 168–9, 171, 176, 179, 181–2). Such obits were often ordered to be continued for a term of years (pp. 6, 51, 59, 101, 143, 153–4, 165); sometimes for long periods, e.g. 80, 96, 98 or 99 years (pp. 114, 139, 154, 157, 162, 179); and frequently in perpetuity (pp. 20, 28–9, 66, 71, 77, 80, 98, 110, 121, 171).

(ii) A Trental was a set of thirty requiem masses, said on one day or on thirty different days. 27, 32, 39, 44, 51–2, 56, 58–9, 61, 63–4, 77, 84, 88, 95–7, 112, 116, 118, 121–2, 128, 142, 151–2, 162, 178, 180–1, 183, 185

The rule about saying the thirty masses of the trental of St. Gregory, referred to on page 64, was as follows:—Whoever may desire to keep the trental of S. Gregory must celebrate three masses of the Lord's Nativity, three of the Lord's Epiphany, three of the Purification of St. Mary, three of the Annunciation of the same, three of the Lord's Resurrection, three of the Lord's Ascension, three of Whitsun-Day, three of the Trinity, three of the Assumption of St. Mary the Virgin, three of her Nativity, and let these masses be celebrated within the octaves of the above-mentioned feasts, all as on their day, but with special collects after the collect for the day. Let him also say daily Placebo and Dirige with nine psalms, lessons and anthems, except in Eastertide, when the service must be said with three; and let the Commendation of Souls be said so many times, etc.—(Sarum Missal).

(iii) Daily masses for terms of varying length—three months (p. 67), one year (pp. 25, 30, 32, 53, 67), two years (pp. 65, 144, 184), three years (p. 39), seven years (p. 27), forty years (p. 65), from Ash-Wednesday to Low Sunday for sixty years (p. 87).

(iv) A Chantry was an endowment for the maintenance of one or more priests to say masses daily for the souls of the founder and other persons specified by him. 10–11, 25

(v) There is a very interesting account of the founding of a 'Donative' in the church of Croft 'for ij speciall causys', namely prayer for the souls of certain persons and 'the mayntenynge of the service of god of the halyday' (p. 70). The priest is to have liberty to go pilgrimage to Rome, or to St. James (Santiago de Compostela, q.v.) or elsewhere (p. 71); and to go to his friends and make merry with them one month in each year (p. 72); and his tenure of the office is to be perpetual except in the case of misconduct (p. 72). 70–2. See also Beforelsdars, Donatyffe

(vi) A perpetual Deaconship was founded in the church of Bolingbroke 'to have godd the more honorably servyd' and certain souls 'prayed for there fore evermore' (pp. 68–9). The context shows that the office was to be served by a priest, and the term 'deaconship' is unusual in this connection. Its use may be compared with the word 'deaconry', a name given to the chapels and oratories in Rome, under the direction of the regionary deacons or cardinal deacons. There was a deaconship at Sedgebrooke, the incumbent of which was called 'deacon' (Subsidy, p. 70; L.R.S., ii, p. 204; ibid., viii, p. 70).

The bequests for funeral and commemorative services often include additional sums with a view to adding to the impressiveness of the services and to ensuring a large attendance of worshippers, both of priests (pp. 13, 85, 122, etc.) and of the poor and others (pp. 26–7, 42, 45, 84, 114, 122–3, 153, 177, etc.), Sometimes the church bells are to be rung (pp. 27, 95, 114, 169, 176–7, etc.). Twice deacons are to ring (pp. 27, 169). In some cases the bell-man, 'goyng in the town as is accostomyd', is to summon the worshippers, thus 'doyng his duete' (pp. 27, 169, 176). Sometimes food is to be provided for those who come, e.g. 'bred and drynke' to the value of 2s., which the visiting priests are to have 'with the parishe prest . . . within the churche' (p. 26); 'white breed or kakes' and 'ayle' (p. 29); bread, ale and 'chese' (p. 153). In some cases the services are to be performed cum nota, i.e. sung to music (see Note). Frequently torches, tapers and other lights are to be provided (see Torch; also Index of Subjects, s.v. Wax).

Commendation. See Commemoration

Componed. Compounded. 116. See Scala Caeli

Compter. Counter. 91

Concluding. Including. 126

Consell. Council (see Beforelsdars). 70

Contreth. Country. 182

Conveyances of buildings 'with the ground, etc., under them.' The instances of this form of conveyance all occur in the neighbourhood of Kirton in Holland, and the same form is sometimes used in conveying land in that district at the present day. 47, 64, 87, 90–1, 103, 111, 160, 167

Coomb, comb, combe. A dry measure of capacity, equal to 4 bushels (N.E.D.). 127

Cope. A Cup q.v. 114

Copy. A copy of court-roll, or a holding of land by such copy. 31, 65, 84, 90, 116, 140, 143, 171

Copyeℍ. Copies, see Copy. 127

Copys. Copes. 139. See Vestment

Corporas, corporys cloth. A cloth, usually of linen, upon which the consecrated elements are placed during the celebration of the Holy Eucharist, and with which the elements, or the remnants of them, are covered after the reception. The usual form is corporal. 14, 77

Corpse-present, corse-present. See Mortuary

Corvisor, corvysor. A shoemaker. 29

Cossy or hayres. Cousin or heirs. The final n in cossy has probably been carelessly omitted by the scribe. 'Cousin' in ancient legal language meant 'next of kin', and the phrases 'cousin or heir' and 'cousin and heir' frequently occur in legal documents of former days. 32

Costæ (Lat.). Costers, hangings for the sides of an altar, bed, etc. Another form is costurœ. 9

Costume. Custom. 111, etc.

Cot. A coat. 103

Cote. A cottage; a building for sheltering small animals. 65

Cotew. Perhaps an unfinished attempt to write 'continuing'. Probably the word 'pence' has been omitted after 'iiij'. 105

Coucher, cowcher. A large breviary that lay permanently on a desk in a church or chapel (N.E.D.). 178

Courtepye. A short coat, cloak or tabard of coarse material, worn in the 14th and 15th centuries (N.E.D.). 6

Covenans. Covenants. 50

Cowmptable. That can be counted. 129, 130

Cownterpoynt. A counterpane. 45

Cr'en. Christian. 53

Croall. Coral. 84

Crose gerdyll. Perhaps a belt with a cross or crucifix hanging from it. Cp. 'a velvytt gerdill with a sylver pendand' (p. 84, 1. 18 from foot). 91

Cross cloth. A cloth to veil the Cross during Lent. 64, 150

Cruets. See Fial, Fiolæ

Crystendom. Christening. 179

Culcitra (Lat.). A cushion. The classical form is 'culcita.' 38

Cup. Several words are used in the present volume to denote drinking-vessels—

(a) Cup or, in Latin, Cupa, a general word, probably used especially of a vessel with a foot and stem, and therefore called 'a standyng cupp' (p. 85), 'a standyng cope' (p. 114). Sometimes it had a cover (p. 85). At page 15, lines 20–2, the Latin 'cupa' is used three times, and in the last case the 'cupa' is accompanied by a gilt ewer of the same set (secta). 15, 85, 114

(b) Goblet, which occurs in English wills and has been used to translate the Latin 'Ciphus' (in classical Latin 'scyphus'), a general word, but used especially of a large drinking-bowl, without handles, with (p. 15) or without (p. 6) a foot, sometimes furnished with a cover (pp. 15, 16, 55), which in one case apparently covered three vessels (p. 21). Some of the owners of these bowls seem to have had a particular affection for them since they gave them names—'Nutte' (p. 6), 'Nut' (p. 16), 'Boll' (p. 16). In the ordinances of St. Michael's gild, Lincoln, mention is made of four of the goblets (ciphos) which are called fullas having been filled with ale. Perhaps 'fulla' = 'olla,' and means a flagon. In the ordinances of a Grantham gild there are 'tres ciphos vocatos masers', which are valued at 40s. These instances suggest vessels of a considerable size (Toulmin Smith, English Gilds, pp. 173n, 174n). 5–6, 15–17, 21, 50, 55

(c) Godet (adopted from the French godet), in Latin Goddetus or Godetus, probably a small cup with a cover (p. 17). At page 15, six godets are enclosed within a seventh with a cover. 15, 17

(d) Mazer, maser, masour, masser, mazer goblet, etc., in Latin ciphus de murrha, ciphus murreus. Mazer properly means a hard wood, usually maple, used as a material for drinking cups, whence it came to signify a bowl, drinking cup or goblet, generally of a considerable size, made of 'mazer' wood, with a band of metal round the brim and a small disc of metal at the bottom. There is a fine specimen of such a mazer in Epworth parish church. A mazer seems generally to have had a foot but no stem; in three places, however, a 'standing' mazer is mentioned (pp. 34, 44–5), which probably means that the vessel had a very short stem. A cover is mentioned on page 34, and again on page 45, where it is described as 'of wood.' Geoffrey le Scrope was accustomed to drink from a black mazer (p. 17). For a long note on the word 'mazer', see Peacock, English Church Furniture, pp. 194–5). 6, 17, 22, 34, 44–5, 49–50, 83, 91, 110, 136, 138–9, 174

(e) Pece, in Latin pecia, a cup, especially a wine-cup, or drinking vessel, called 'peciam vel cupam' (p. 5); sometimes furnished with a cover (pp. 15, 16, 17, 22, 44). In one case two peces are encased in one boiled skin (pp. 15–16). In Middle English 'pece' is a common spelling of 'piece', from which 'pece' in the sense of a drinking vessel may, perhaps, be a development, cp. 'a piece of plate' (N.E.D.). 5, 15–17, 22, 44, 84

Cupa (Lat.). A cup q.v. 15

Cussyneℍ. Cushions. 17, 18

Custom work, custum werke, one rode of land of the. A rood of the land in respect of the tenure of which certain work was due to the lord according to the custom of the manor. 158


D'. See D1'

Daker, deaker. See Dicker

Day of the monythe. The thirtieth day after death. 79. See Commemoration

Defectus (Lat., plur.). Dilapidations. 8

Defend. To forbid. 172

Defendyng. Resisting, preventing. 41

Dekey. To decay. 71

Dellin. To dwell in. 99

Departyd. Divided into parts. 95

De Profundis (Lat.). Psalm cxxx (in Book of Common Prayer), which was one of the psalms in Vespers of the Dead (see Commemoration) in the Sarum Breviary. 25, 64

Desking. The providing with desks, seats or pews. 62

Devotion. Worship directed to a special object. 91

Devyded, londe leyng. Land lying in scattered selions or strips in an open field (see Land). 158

Dewte. Duty. 20

Di', d' (Lat.). Dimidium=half. 32, 72, 74, 76, 111, 126–7, 132, 134, 136, 149, 158, 160, 166, etc.

Diaconita (Lat.). A deacon. 8

Dicker, daker, deaker, deker, dykker. The number of ten, being the customary unit of exchange in dealing in certain articles, especially hides or skins. 83–4, 93, 147

Dirige. See Commemoration

Dischard. The discharge, fulfilment. 50

Dishous. Dishes. Possibly the reading should be 'dishons' in which case there is a double plural—'en' (obsolete) + 's'. 131

Disped. Probably a clerical mistake for 'disposed.' 129

Dispende. The dispending. 45

Disposed. In good health or condition (obsolete). Cp. the use of the word 'indisposed'. 144

Dog. An iron band with teeth or claws for gripping or holding. 32

Dolte. Dealt. 27

Dominus (Lat.). This title has generally been translated 'Sir', q.v.; but on page 16 (1. 9, and 1. 2 from foot) it has been rendered 'lords', since those to whom it is applied were persons of great account. Passim

Donatyffe. A donative, a benefice which the founder or patron can bestow without presentation to or investment by the ordinary (N.E.D.). 70, 71. See Commemoration

Done, doyn. Spent in the performance of divine offices. 53, 101, 107–8

Dosserium (Lat.). A dossal, an ornamental cloth hung at the back of the altar. The usual form is dorserium or dorsale. 9

Doublet, dublet. A close-fitting body-garment, with or without sleeves, worn by men in the 14th to the 18th centuries (N.E.D.). 22, 41, 84, 100, 110, 116

Dowed, dovyd. Dulled or faded (a northern word) (N.E.D.). 58, 145

Downe. Done. 71

Dressyng. Equipment. 41

Dubler. A doubler; a large plate or dish. 147

Durge. See Commemoration

Duttes. Duties. 56


Echoon, echon, iche, ichon, everychon, ylke. Each, each one. 106–7, 139, 150, etc.

Eder. Either. 172

Ell, xij feet by the. Twelve feet as measured by an ell-measure. 12

Errys. Heirs. 102

Eshe treys. Ash-trees. 78

Estaple. See Staple

Estate, astate. To make an estate of (a thing) to (a person): to give an interest in, a legal right or title to (N.E.D.). 21, 29, 57, 77

Eventale. An aventail, the movable front or mouth piece of a helmet which may be raised to admit fresh air (N.E.D.). 16

Eyers, eyreℍ, eyris, eyrys. Heirs. Passim


Fabric, fabrica (Lat.), warke, worke, werkes, churchewarke, church werkes. The fabric or works fund of a church. The bequests to these funds for the maintenance of the fabric of parishes churches are very numerous. Scarcely less common are the legacies to the fabric fund of the cathedral, 'owr ladys warke' (p. 94), 'our lady werkes' (p. 35), 'the wark of the moder church' (p. 67), etc. Out of this fund certain chaplains were maintained to offer mass on behalf of the fabric in the northernmost chapel of the great south transept, popularly called 'the Works chantry' (L.R.S. vii, p. 142, n 3). Sometimes in the Latin wills 'opus' is used instead of 'fabrica,' and 'operatio' occurs once in the same sense (p. 59). Passim

Facion. Fashion. 84

Fad'. Father's. 121

Fader. Father. 25, 27

Fano (Lat.). A maniple. 15. See Vestment

Felloes, feloos. The curved pieces of wood which, joined together, form the circular rim of a wheel (N.E.D.). 32

Fial. A fiole, phial, cruet (see Cruet, p. 77). 27. Cp. Fiolæ

Fide (Lat.). Faithfully. 65

Fien. A fine payable to the lord on a transfer of land. 72

File. A filly. 145

Find, fynd. To support, maintain, provide for. 25, 77, 89, 106, 139, 155, 163, 181–2, etc.

Finding, fynding, fynning. Support, maintenance. 21–2, 26, 39, 45, 58, 65, 86, 106, 109, 160, 163, 173–4

Fiolæ (Lat.). Cruets. 14. Cp. Fial

Foole. A foal. 81

Foregoers. Predecessors, ancestors. 179

Form, Vicars of either. See page 14, n 2

Found, fond, fund. Supported, maintained. 20, 186

Fre land, fre lond. Freehold land. 90

Frerr' prechorus. Friars Preachers, Dominican or Black Friars, 50

Fun'. Found, proved. 72

Fund. See Found

Fustian, fust'on. A blanket made of a kind of coarse cloth consisting of cotton or flax (N.E.D.). 45

Fynding, fynning. See Finding


Gaberdine, galberdine. A loose upper garment. 150

Gallows, gallos. An iron support for a pot over a kitchen fire. 103, 180

Gang. A set (of spokes). 32

Garcio (Lat.). A page (see p. 17, n18). 17

Garnish, ganesh, garnesh of vessels. A set of vessels for table use, especially of pewter. A set is said to contain 12 platters, 12 dishes, 12 saucers (N.E.D.). 45, 188

Garth. A small piece of enclosed ground, usually beside a house or other building, used as a yard, garden or paddock (N.E.D.). 69

Gauds, gaudes, gaudeℍ, gawdes. Ornamental beads; especially the larger and more ornamental beads placed between the decades of Aves in a rosary. 17, 44, 142

Gawded. Furnished with gauds. See Gauds. 153

Gerys. Gears. 125

Gette. Jet. 91

Give and to sell, to. To devise land to give and to sell=to devise absolutely. 53

Goblet. See Cup

Goddetus (Lat.). See Cup

Graceman. The title of a chief official of a gild, used especially in Lincolnshire. 30, 106

Grawyn. Graven. 35

Grece. Grass. 48

Gresgronde. Grass-ground. 113

Gressyng. The grassing, agisting, taking (the horse) in to pasture. 49

Grice. The young of a badger; here the fur of the animal. 17

Grone. Ground. 83

Ground, bring to the. To bury, 187

Gydinge. The guiding, management. 139

Gyff. If. 108


Halbe. An alb. 174. See Vestment

Hale. Hall, guild-hall. 25

Halling. See Aula

Halyday. Holy-day. 70

Handfast, handfest, my wyffe afor gode and recorde. My wife, handfast before God and witnesses. Handfasting sometimes means betrothal, and sometimes, as here, a probationary form of marriage. The latter meaning of the word is explained by Scott in The Monastery (chapter xxv), 'She is not my wife— but she is handfasted with me, and that makes her as honest a woman . . . We Border-men are more wary than your inland clowns of Fife and Lothian— no jump in the dark for us—no clenching the fetters around our wrists till we know how they will wear with us—we take our wives, like our horses, on trial. When we are handfasted, as we term it, we are man and wife for a year and a day— that space gone by, each may choose another mate, or, at their pleasure, may call the priest to marry them for life—and this we call handfasting'. (See N.E.D.). Brand (Popular Antiquities, ed. 1841, ii, pp. 54–5) sees a Danish origin in the custom, and says that strong traces of it remain in the villages in many parts of the kingdom, instancing Portland Island, where 'the young women, selecting lovers of the same place (but with what previous Rites, Ceremonies, or Engagements, I could never learn), account it no disgrace to allow them every favour, and that too from the fullest confidence of being made wives the moment such consequences of their stolen embraces begin to be too visible to be any longer concealed'. Perhaps some of the peculiarities of Scottish marriage law may have their origin in this custom. 41

Harbour, harborre. Shelter, lodging. 121

Hare. An heir. Passim

Harnessed, harnest, hernest. Furnished, equipped; mounted with silver or other metal. 35, 45, 91, 120, 142

Hawe. Have. 20, 21, 22, 108

Head house, hed hous, hed place. See Capital messuage

Head-sheet, hed schet. A sheet put at the head of a bed (N.E.D.); or a topsheet, a coverlet put on the top of the other coverings. 45

Hearse, herce. A framework of iron or other metal, originally intended to carry lighted tapers and other decorations, fixed over a bier, coffin or tomb. 71, 95, 105, 153

Heckford, heckforth. A heifer. 62, 131, 168

Hede messe penny. The penny or payment for high mass. 153. See Mass-pence

Heges, hegges. Hedges. 129

Hegyng. The word is inexplicable, and there is probably some mistake in the text. The sense seems to be that the land was to be sold under the supervision of the testator's executors or feoffees [see Occupyers] for 4l. 13s. 4d. to the gild for 105 years (see Peeres), out of which money the gild was to have 6s. 8d. given to it; or, if the gild was unwilling to purchase, the land was to remain to Roger, who was to give 4l. 13s. 4d. to the executors or feoffees and 6s. 8d. to the gild. (For instances of devises for religious purposes for terms of 80 and 99 years see pages 157, 162, 179). 134

Here, herre, heyer. An heir. Passim

Hernest. See Harnessed

Heyll. Health. 50

Heynd. An end. 42

Hobohe. A hautboy, hoboy, oboe; a wooden double-reed wind instrument. 54

Hog, hoge, hogge. A sheep hog; a young sheep from the time it ceases to be a lamb till its first shearing. 49, 56, 90, 180, 182–3

Hoggeshed of yrne. A hogshead of iron. Hogshead was sometimes used as a measure of weight—'1600 Hyll Arith. xiii 66, 112 Poundes weight maketh 1. hundred weight. 5. of those hundreds . . 1. Hogshead weight' (N.E.D. s.v. Hogshead). 77

Hoill. The whole. 107

Hokys. Hooks. 131

Holly. Wholly. 84

Honourment, honorment, honorworment. The action of honouring or embellishing. 71

Horse trees. The beams on which the timber is placed in a saw-pit (Halliwell); trestles. 68

Hospitium (Lat.). A lodging. 39

Hostelmenteℍ. Hustlements, household goods. 22

Hu'gh. Query a hutch q.v. 41

Humate. Buried. 153

Humely. Humbly. 22

Hutch, huch, hu'gh, le hutche. A chest or coffer. 38, 41, 83–4


Ichon, Iche. See Echoon

Illuminator. One who embellishes letters with gold and colours, or manuscripts with ornamental writing so embellished (N.E.D.). 4

Imagery. Figured work. 42

Impayrethe. Decays. 72

Incertus for insertus (Lat.). Inwrought. 15

Inclina. This was one of the collects used at Matins or Lauds of the Office of the Dead, and sometimes in the Commemoration of Souls (see Commemoration). The collect was as follows—'Inclina Domine, aurem tuam ad preces nostras, quibus misericordiam tuam supplices deprecamur: ut animam famuli tui, quam de hoc seculo migrare jussisti, in pacis ac lucis regione constituas, et sanctorum tuorum jubeas esse consortem. Per Christum, etc.' 64

Incontinent. Immediately. 124

Indefeccion. In default. 71

Indument. A garment, robe. 28

Inheretamentes. Inheritaments, hereditaments. 81

Inhoneste. In honesty; in a respectable or becoming way. 72

Inquyer. To require. 29

Inward stuffe. Stuff within the house, household goods. 48

Ivalow. In value. 142

Jack, Jacke, Jake. A Jack, a coat of fence, a kind of sleeveless tunic or jacket, formerly worn by foot-soldiers and others, usually of leather quilted, and in later times often plated with iron (N.E.D.). 91, 102, 142

Jesse, aula de (Lat.). Tapestry of Jesse, that is, a hanging embroidered with a genealogical tree representing the genealogy of Christ from the root of Jesse, used in churches in the middle ages. 9. See Aula

Jontre, jwnter. Jointure. 20, 55


Kerkeℍerde. Churchyard. 50

Kever. A cover. 34

Keyst. A kist, box, chest, coffer. 53

King's clerk. A clerk (q.v.) in the service of the king. 8n

Kirtle, kertill. A man's tunic or coat; frequently used as the equivalent of Latin tunica. As the common name of an article of male attire, kirtle seems to have gone out of use about or shortly after 1500. Also a woman's gown; a skirt or outer petticoat (N.E.D.). 61, 67, 84, 110, 130–1

Knoppys. Ornamental knobs, bosses, buttons, tassels, etc. 42, 45

Kyrkgrawes. Kirk-graves, churchwardens. 143

Kyrkmasteres. Churchwardens. 71

Lagena. A gallon (see L.R.S. vii, p. 235). 5

Lame. A lamb. 67, etc.

Land. A portion of land of indeterminate area, comprising a ridge or narrow strip lying between two furrows formed in dividing an open field; also called a ridge, rig, selion, butt. 48, 160

Lantern-light. The light, sheltered by a lantern, which was used when the Sacrament of the Altar was taken to the sick. Sometimes, however, lanterns were used in church—'For Candyll for burning in the lanteryn on Wynter mornings in the body of the Churche' (Cox, Churchwardens' Accounts, p. 167). 54, 56, 63, 67, 152

Laske. A lisk or lesk, i.e. a loin or flank (common in Lincolnshire). 58

Lat' sargayntes. Late belonging to Sargaynt. 64

Lath. A lathe, barn. 64

Latten, laten, latyn. A mixed metal of yellow colour, either identical with, or closely resembling, brass (N.E.D.). 62, 100

Lattyn. To be let. 74

Lavaterium, lavatorium (Lat.). A laver. 4, 38

Lawe house. Query low house. 78

Leade. A lead. See Plumbum. 46

Leder. Leather. 84

Lee land. Meadow land. 25

Leful, levefull. Permissible, right, lawful. 30, 71, 109, 130, 150–1, 177

Leiffe. To leave. 85

Leigh. Light. 67, 77

Lenon. Linen. 91

Leser. Leisure. 137

Lest neste. Least, smallest size; cp. 'mydillineste'. 91

Lesur. Leasow, meadow-land, pasture. 184

Leveytt. Levied, raised (of a sum of money). 121

Levys. Is left, remains. 103

Lewing. Living. 118

Leygh, Leyℍh. A light. 42

Libra, li', lib' (Lat.). A pound. 27, 123, 168

Lige. To lie. 53

Lignum (Lat.). A log. 4

Lisk. See Laske

Lith. Lieth. 62

Liveloud. Livelihood. 26

Lond, longd. Land. 57, 68, etc.

Lyend. Lying. 42

Lyffe, on. See On lyffe

Lygth. Light. 147

Lyne. See Bond lyne


[M]. Maria (see p. 14, n3). 14

Make. Marks. 32

Makes, I. I make. The use of the final s has been verified. In most cases the final es is plainly represented by the usual contraction for es, and not by a mere flourish after the k (pp. 30, 32, 55, 68, 82–3, 88, 90, 92, 95, 98, 101, 123, 135, 163–4, 167–71, 175, 180–1). But in some instances the word is uncontracted— 'makes' (pp. 30, 50), 'makys' (pp. 20, 67, 94, 174). Cp. 'maketh', 'makyth' (p. 89); also 'I . . . giffes' (p. 32), 'I . . . ordens' (p. 142), 'I . . . settes' (pp. 166, 186); also Testamenta Eboracensia, part iv, 'I . . . gyff and bewittes' (p. 30), 'I . . . ordeyns and makes' (p. 26), 'I . . . ordeigne, maketh and declarith' (p. 41).

Maniple. See Vestment

Mansion. A dwelling-house. 55, etc.

Mantulata (Lat.). A woman wearing the cloak or habit of a religious order; a vowess or nun. 44

Marble. A cloth of mottled or dappled colour, resembling that of variegated marble. 116, 120

Marcerus (Lat.). Mercer. 76

Mareses. Marshes. 126

Marieng gown. Marrying or marriage gown; cp. weddinge gowne (p. 103). 116

Marken, markeℍ. Marks. 21–2

Maslin (in Lat. Mixtilio). Mixed grain; especially rye mixed with wheat (N.E.D.). 9

Maslin. A kind of brass. 100

Mass of Requiem. See Commemoration

Mass-pence, mass penny, mespeny. A penny or, in a more general sense, a payment to a priest for saying a mass; also a payment to other ministers assisting the priest. 64, 75, 94, 100, 105, 123, 153, 169, 177

Materace, matters. A mattress. 6, 84

Mazer, maser, masour, masser. See Cup

Meche. Milch. 136

Medley. Of mixed colour, variegated, motley. 116

Merchant of the staple. See Staple

Mese, meisse, messe. A messuage. 28, 29, 30, 56, 70, 72–3, 152, 162, 163, 169

Meseℍ. Messuages. 173

Mess, messe. The mass. Passim

Milne. Mill. 34, 35, etc.

Minster. Minster, which is a shortened form of 'monastery,'=a monastery, or the church of a monastery; also applied to any church of considerable size or importance, especially a cathedral or collegiate church. It is very commonly applied to the cathedral church of Lincoln. The use of the word 'monastery' (p. 31) in this sense is unusual. 31, 142, 171

Mixtilio (Lat.). See Maslin (mixed grain)

Mo, moar, moe, moo, mooe, moor, moody, mor, mowy, moy. More. Passim

Moder. Mother. 22, 25–6, 83, etc.

Monastery. See Minster

Mone. Money. 21

Mortmain. The condition of lands held inalienably by an ecclesiastical or other corporation. Such alienations, being injurious to the rights of the king and the mesne lords, were restrained by various statutes, and could only be made by royal licence. Attempts to evade the statutes were made by appointing feoffees in trust for long terms of years (see pp. 70–2). Mortmain, or the 'dead hand,' seems to be a metaphorical expression for impersonal ownership. 8n, 13n, 162

Mortuary, mortuare. A gift or offering due by custom to the incumbent of a parish from the estate of a deceased parishioner. Its nature was regulated by local custom, but it commonly consisted of the best beast, best garment or other chattel; for which reason it was sometimes called the 'principal' (in Lat. 'principalium', pp. 19, 35, 74). The offering was often brought with the corpse and presented at the church door, which practice seems to have led to the name of corse-present or corpse-present being given to it— 'my corsepresent to be gyffyn of my best goodes as use and custome requiryth' (Will of Thomas Cowde, 1529, Lincoln Consistory Court, Book 1520–31, f. 259). Selden (History of Tythes, 287, c.10) says that a mortuary is an offering to the church as a satisfaction for the supposed negligence and omissions that the defunct had been guilty of in not paying his personal tithes; but in the present volume there are very many instances of bequests to the testator's church or its high altar (passim) or to the sacrament (p. 126) for tithes and oblations forgotten in addition to the provision for the payment of a mortuary. In one case only (p. 119) does a testator bequeath his 'best beyst' for his mortuary and 'forgoten tythes.' Passim

Morture. Mortuary, q.v. 62

Motely. Motley, diversified in colour, parti-coloured. 56

Moung, in. In ming; the land of different owners lying mixed is said to be lying in ming. 139

Mydillineste. Of middling size. 91

Mynesters. Administrators. 139

Nare lome, a. An heirloom. 21

Nawe. A nave, the central part of a wheel. 32

Neat, neet, net, neytt. An ox, bullock, cow or heifer. 93, 133, 136

Neat-house, neythouse. A shed or house for cattle. 62

Nessare. Necessary. 147

Net hydes. Neat-hides. 93

Nexid. Annexed. 75

Nobet, a. An obit. 20, 94–5

Noble. A former English gold coin, first minted by Edward III, having the current value of 6s. 8d. (or 10s.) (N.E.D.). 122

Noneste, a. An honest. 20

Noon. Nothing. 28

Note, nott, noytt, with; notatus (Lat.). With musical notation, with music; used to describe a service which was sung as opposed to one that was said. Cp. 'To be buryed with note of the hole qwere' (Lincoln Consistory Court, 1520–31, f. 263 d.). 16, 42, 50, 60, 135, 179


Obit. See Commemoration

Obligate. An obligation, condition. 57

Oboe. See Hobohe

Obolus (Lat.). A halfpenny. 4, 142

Occupyers. Occupiers of the goods of a deceased person, executors and administrators. 134

Oder. Other. 28, 30, 70, 71, 90, 94–6, 99–101, etc.

Oft. Aught. 108

On lyffe, on lyve, of lyve. In life, alive. 69, 71, 90

Or. Before. 42, 83, etc.

Orelles. Or else. 54

Organs. The word 'organ' was formerly used in the plural apparently to express the composite nature of the instrument. With 'organs' cp. 'the bag-pipes', 'the pipes' (N.E.D.). 77, 169. See also Pair

Orphrey, orfray. An ornamental border or band, especially on an ecclesiastical vestment, sometimes richly embroidered (N.E.D.). 13, 14

Os. As. 21–2, 40–1

Othe. Or their. 135

Otheophilus (Lat.). A godchild. 59

Other. Either. 103, 107, etc.

Over leder. The upper leather of a shoe, or a prepared skin suitable for an upper leather. 93

Oviale (Lat.). A sheepfold. 4

Oxgang. The eighth part of a carucate of land, varying from 10 to 18 acres; a bovate. 143

Painted cloth. A hanging for a room, painted or worked with figures, mottoes or texts; tapestry. 42, 77

Pair of rosaries. A 'pair' in the 14th century and later was often used in the sense of a set (not limited to two) of separate parts forming a collective whole, such as the several parts of a structure or of a complicated musical instrument, etc. Cp. 'a pair of stairs'='a flight of stairs'; a 'pair of organs'='an organ' (see Organs); 'a pair of cards,='a pack of cards'. Perhaps 'a pair of rosaries' here='a rosary', the plural being used to express the composite nature of such a string of beads. Cp. the similar use of the plural in Organs (q.v.). 43. See also Aueℍ

Pannetus (Lat.). Paned or slashed, made of strips of different coloured cloth joined together, or of cloth cut into strips, between which ribs or stripes of other material or colour are inserted (N.E.D.). 5

Parabell. Probably. a mistake for 'partable'=sharing in. 50

Parchemyne. Parchment. 27

Parelinge. Parelling, equipment or arraying. 52

Parochanes, peryssheng'. Parochians, parishioners. 71, 106

Part. To divide. 95

Parura (Lat.). An apparel, ornamental embroidery on certain ecclesiastical vestments, such as an alb, amice, etc. 15

Patlet. An article of apparel worn about the neck and upper part of the chest, chiefly by women; originally a neckerchief of linen, ruff, collar, etc. Another form is partlet (N.E.D.). 81

Payn. A pan. 59

Peas stake. Probably a stack of peas. 27

Pece (Lat. pecia). See Cup

Pechisse, pechys. Hides (cp. p. 83, 1. 8). 'Petch, a dried pelt or skin used to make size for warps (Yorkshire)' (The Dialect Dictionary. The word, however, rests on the authority of one correspondent). Spetch (not obsolete)=a piece or strip of undressed leather, a trimming of hide, used in making glue or size; another form is 'speck' (N.E.D.). 84, 93

Peeres. Probably a clerical mistake for 'yeeres', years. 134

Pelois. Pillows. 45

Pennaund. A pendant. 35

Penny. This coin was of silver for a long period, and it was for many hundred years the only coin in circulation in England. Hence 'penny' was used as a general or vague term for a piece of money, a sum of money, money. 3, 76. Cp. Pennyworth, Thyrd peny

Pennyworth. Money's worth, goods of the value of a penny; used in the phrases 'in penny and pennyworth,' 'in money and pennyworth'. Cp. 'of money or value' (p. 43). 175

Perceyve. To receive. 34, 154

Peridot, peridod. In Middle English a name of the chrysolite (N.E.D.). 16

Perkes light. Perhaps the light on the perk or bar or beam before the rood. 46

Pertica (Lat.). A perch of land. 158

Pertrouble, pertrubbyll. Perturb, trouble greatly. 166

Peryssheng'. See Parochanes

Phallara (Lat.). Rustic implements. 75

Phial. See Fial

Pingle, pyngle, pyngull. A paddock, a close. 123, 160

Pittance. An occasional additional allowance of food, wine, etc., bequeathed to a religious house or order in consideration of masses to be said according to the appointment of the benefactor. 14

Pixe. See Pyx

Placea (Lat.). A plot [of land]. 4, 38

Placebo (Lat.). See Commemoration

Plates. Plates here are evidently armour, since they are mentioned along with a helmet and aventail. A pair of plates would probably be a breast-plate and back-plate. The fact of their being, in this case, covered with red velvet, suggests that they were intended to be used as defensive additions to ordinary clothing, and not for war. 16

Plugh. Plough. 41

Plumale (Lat.). A feather-bed. 3

Plumbum (Lat.). A leaden vessel, a lead (p. 46); a large pot, caldron or kettle; originally a vessel made of lead, but early used without reference to that metal (see N.E.D. s.v. Lead). 2, 3, 6, 46

Posnet, pocenet'. A small metal pot or vessel for boiling, having a handle and three feet (N.E.D.). 4, 60, 84, 92

Pottinger, potyger. A vessel for holding soup, broth, etc.; a small basin, porringer. 131

Pounced, pownsid. Of metal-work: embossed or chased by way of ornament (N.E.D.). 44

Powdrat. Powdered, decorated with a multitude of spots or small figures, scattered over the surface. 91

Poytment. Appointment. 44

Pratte taker. A partaker. 84

Precula (Lat.). A rosary. 43. See Pair of rosaries

Prefore. Before. 114

Prepositus (Lat.). A reeve. 2, 6, 9

Presawyd. Preserved. 20, 21

Prest. Priest. Passim

Principal. See Mortuary

Principal messuage, principal messe, principal place, principal tenement. See Capital messuage

Principalium (Lat.). See Mortuary

Privilege place. A place enjoying certain privileges and immunities. 161

Pro. (Lat.). For. 40

Pyx, pixe. The vessel in which the host or consecrated bread of the Sacrament of the Altar was reserved. The pyx-cloth was used to veil the pyx. 183

Quadrans, Q', quad'. A farthing. 4, 149

Quaterium. A quarter, fourth part. 59

Quatertemps. See Catertens

Quere, qwere. See Choir

Quere man. A quire or choir man, i.e. able to sing. 85

Quey, que, quie, quye, qwy, qwye. Properly, a young cow before it has had a calf; a heifer; but note 'a que of iij yeres old' (p. 110), 'a qwey that hath a calffe' (p. 170). 49, 110, 122, 145, 147, 170, 182

Quey calf, que calffe. A female calf. 145

Qwyltum (Lat.). A quilt. 59


Raynes. Cloth of Raines, a fine kind of linen or lawn made at Rennes in Brittany. 6

Reband, rebon. Riband. 130, 131

Record. A witness. 32, 83, 184, 187

Red Ark, the. Evidently a well-known box for offerings in Lincoln cathedral, which probably derived its name from its colour. Mauncer Marmyon (a.d. 1505) bequeathed 'to the Reparacion of the moder churche of lincoln iijs. iiijd. to be put in to the Red arke' (Lincoln Consistory Court, 1532–4, f. 40), which suggests that the contents of the box were devoted to the fabric-or repair-fund. 113, 138, 162

Rede made. Ready made. 147

Reed. Red. 58

Religion, woman of. A woman given up to a religious or monastic life. 21

Reparelled. Repaired. 151

Reparention. Reparence, repair. 98

Repraysons. Reparations. 72

Rewenes. Revenues. 21

Ride and go, ryde and goo. To be active, spare no pains, in helping. 68, 175, 186

Rigg, ryg, rygge. A ridge. See Land. 132, 134, 160, 174, 185–6

Rindel, see Rowel

Rochetum (Lat.). A frock. 3

Romthe. Roomth, space. 106, 150

Rosaries, a pair of. See Pair

Rosytt. Russet. 100

Rouncy (in Lat. runcilus). A horse; especially a riding-horse. 3

Rowel. A ring or hoop, wherein candles were fixed, to hang before the rood or an image. Such a ring was often called a trendal or trendle: in the Midlands and East Anglia roundel, rindel were more usual forms (see Cox, Churchwardens' Accounts, p. 165). 71, 139

Royde. The rood, cross. 89

Ruggyd. Shaggy. 58

Runcilus (Lat.). See Rouncy

Ryndyll. See Rowel. 71


Sack, friars of the. This was a small order of friars, which had about nine houses in England. Their proper style was 'Friars of the Penance of Jesus Christ', but they were more commonly called 'Friars of the Sack', from their habits being either shaped like a sack, or made of sack-cloth. Their house at Lincoln was situated in the suburb of the city in Thornbridgegate street. The order was suppressed, that is forbidden to admit new members, in 1274 (Dugdale, Monasticon, vi, pp. 1606–7; Victoria County History, Lincolnshire, ii, p. 225).

Sacring time. The time of the consecration of the Eucharistic elements. 113

Sacrist, sacristan. An official charged with the custody of the sacred vessels, relics, vestments, etc., of a religious house, church, gild, etc. (N.E.D.). 18, 176

St. Gregory, trental of. See Commemoration

St. Hugh of Lincoln. I.e. the shrine of St. Hugh at the western end of the ladychapel of the cathedral, immediately behind the high altar (see Dr. E. Mansel Sympson, Lincoln, pp. 194–5). 120

Sallet, salytt. In mediæval armour, a light globular head-piece. 91, 102

Salus populi. A votive mass, so called from the opening words of the introit, to be used for any necessity (Sarum Missal). 71

Santiago de Compostela. Called 'St. James' in the text (p. 71), a town in Spain where, according to the legend, the bones of St. James (San Jago) were discovered, in a.d. 835, by the bishop of Iria Flavia (the ancient name of Padron), who was guided thither by a star; hence the name Compostela (Campus stellœ, the field of the star). The relics were, in 1884, solemnly affirmed by the pope to be still beneath the cathedral. The shrine attracted many thousands of pilgrims in the Middle Ages, and was an especial favourite with Englishmen (Chambers' Encyclopœdia). 71

Sawde. Hire, pay (Halliwell). 108

Sawen. Sown. 162

Say, sey. A cloth of fine texture resembling serge; in the 16th century sometimes partly of silk, subsequently entirely of wool (N.E.D.). 103

Scala Caeli. Santa Maria Scala Caeli is the circular church—one of three churches —in the abbey of Tre Fontane, outside the Porta San Paolo at Rome, on the site of St. Paul's martyrdom. In it St. Bernard is related to have had a vision of souls, for whom he was saying mass, ascending by a ladder into heaven, and to it an indulgence was attached. Hence, the name was applied to chapels and altars in England, and to the masses said there, to which the same indulgence was attached (see N.E.D.). Among the privileges granted in 1510 by Pope Julius II to the members of the gild of our Lady in St. Botolph's church, Boston, were the following—that whosoever should come every Friday to the chapel of our Lady in St. Botolph's church, should have as much remission of sins as if he went to the chapel of our Lady of Scala Caeli; and that whosoever should say or cause to be said in the same chapel at Boston masses for souls departed in the pains of purgatory should have the full remission due to those who visited the chapel of Scala Caeli and also obtain full remission for the souls in purgatory (Fox, Acts and Monuments, ed. 1684, ii, p. 420; Thompson, The History and Antiquities of Boston, pp. 136–8).

The present volume contains several bequests for masses at Scala Caeli— page 95, where the place of performance is not specified; page 165, 'att boston or order place'; pages 106, 142, presumably at Lincoln; page 100, probably at Grimsby; page 116, 'in our ladyes quere in Spillesby. . . if it may be componed for the offering to our ladies gild in Boston', i.e. if a composition can be made [by a suitable payment] with the gild for the loss which it would suffer through the saying of the masses elsewhere than in Boston. Other wills in the Lincoln Consistory Court mention masses at Scala Caeli 'in our lady chapell in boston' (Book 1520–31, f. 209d.), at Boston (ibid., ff. 157, 157d.); and at either Lincoln or Boston (ibid., f. 234). 95, 100, 106, 116, 142, 165

Scherman. See Shearman

Scotland, sword from. Perhaps a claymore. 1

Scutra (Lat.). A dish. 38

Seal. A deed under seal. 175, 187

Seam, seme. A pack-horse load; often identified with a definite quantity, varying according to the commodity and locality. In the case of grain a seam often equalled 8 bushels (N.E.D.). 127, 187

Secular priest. A priest who belonged to the secular clergy as distinguished from the regular clergy; living in the world, and not in monastic seclusion. 42

Seeke. Sick. 142

Sekerston. A sacristan. See Sacrist. 176

Selion. A portion of land of indeterminate area comprising a ridge or narrow strip lying between two furrows formed in dividing an open field (N.E.D.). See Land. 4

Sepulchre light. The light which was burnt before the Easter sepulchre. 4, 5, 6, 71, 73, 88, 119, 168

Sepulture. The Easter sepulchre. 119

Seremoneℍ. Ceremonies. 127

Serge, sherge. A wax taper (Halliwell). 71, 79, 119, 153, 186. See also Torch

Set. To ordain, appoint, bequeath, allot. 93, 120, 166, 186. Cp. Unset

Settes. See Makes, Set

Setto. Given or assigned to. 21

Seventh Day. See Commemoration

Sey. See Say

Seyll. Sole, solely. 21

Shamlet. See Camlet

Shearman, scherman, sherman. One who shears woollen cloth (N.E.D.). 29, 50

Sheder. A female sheep; especially a lamb from eight or nine months old to her first shearing (N.E.D.). The words, heder (masc.) and sheder (fem.) are, however, sometimes used of other animals, e.g. 'ij sheder calvys. . . .ij heder calvys' (Lincoln Consistory Court, Book 1532–4, fo. 57d., 58); 'iij heder burlynges' (ibid., fo. 59). 182

Shep. Cheap. 109

Shepe. Ship. 104

Shift, shyft. A dividing, division, 155

Shift, schyfte. To shift, divide. 111, 129

Shiftyd. Divided. 129

Shipe. A sheep. 60, 65

Shyft. See Shift

Side-coat, syde cotte. A long coat, great coat. 110

Sighte, sigh. Oversight, supervision. 53, 83, etc.

Silour. See Celure

Singing bread and wine. The wafer-bread and wine used in the celebration of Mass, which was commonly sung, though often said (Fowler, Rites of Durham, Surtees Society, vol. cvii, pp. 193–4)

Sir (in Lat. Dominus). A title commonly applied to the clergy in former times. Passim. See Dominus

Sitting. Situate. 99

Skene, schene. A skene, i.e. a form of knife or dagger, in former times one of the chief weapons of the Irish kerns and of the Scottish Highlanders. 41

Solidus. A sum of money. 16

Songe. I.e. expended in the singing of masses. 40

Sored. Sorrell. 162

Soreld foole. A sorrell foal. 81

Spertled. Scattered, distributed (Halliwell, s.v. Spirtle). 156

Stabellum (Lat.). A stall (in a church). 43

Stag, stagge. A young horse; used also of the males of other animals. 22, 47, 70, 145

Stake. A stack. 27

Stamnum. (Lat.). A stall (in a church). 54

Standing cup. See Cup

Stang, stayng, ston, stong. A rood of land. 66, 73–4, 76, 89, 93, 97–8, 100, 103, 111, 130, 134–5, 152, 171, 174, 185

Staple or Estaple, merchant of the. The merchants of the staple were those merchants who had the monopoly of exporting the principal raw commodities of the realm, especially wool, woolfels, leather, tin and lead; wool figuring the most prominently among these staple wares. A staple (originally=a scaffold for the sale of goods) was a town to which the staple wares had to be brought for sale or exportation, and at which they were weighed and sealed under the seal of the mayor of the staple. At such staples as were ports the wares were also weighed by or in the presence of the collectors of the king's customs. At various times Lincoln and Boston were staple towns. Sometimes there was only one staple town, and this was situated abroad, at Bruges or Calais or elsewhere. From the time of Richard II until 1558 the foreign staple was at Calais (C. Gross, The Gild Merchant, i, pp. 140–3). 175

Statutum (Lat.). A judgement. 9

Staytt. See Estate

Sterthuppes. Stirrups. 41

Stila (Lat.). A little bell. 38

Stillicidium (Lat.). Properly, the rain-water falling from the eaves of houses, and so used here for the eaves themselves. 6

Stir. A steer. 145, etc.

Stoke. A stock. 34, 75, 127

Stoles. Stalls. 41

Ston, stong. See Stang

Storrys. Stears. 159

Stragulatus (Lat.). Embroidered. 15

Stresse. A distress. 73

Streyne. To distrain. 73

Stricke. See Strike

Strike, stricke. A bushel. 98, 102, 116, 119, 132, 136

Strynkes. Strings. 42

Suffrage, the. See Commemoration

Superpelectulis (Lat.). A tippet. The usual form is 'superpelliceum'. 24

Super-tunic (in Latin supertunica). The super-tunic or surcoat, as it was sometimes called, was a long garment with sleeves, which were sometimes tight and sometimes loose and open, reaching to the wrists. It was used, at least in early times, only by persons of rank, by whom it was worn over the tunic (q.v.) (Clinch, English Costume, p. 20). 3, 5, 6

Swade. A swath, a piece of meadow-land the width of the sweep of a scythe. 166

Swyncott. A swine-cote, pig-stye. 61

Syde cotte. See Side-coat


Tabernacle. An ornamented receptacle for the pyx containing the consecrated host. 121

Table, Tabull. A picture. 77

Tabula (Lat.). A board (for making tapers upon); a counter. 5, 38

Taill indenture. An indenture creating an entail. 123

Taper. See Torch

Tawny, tany. Cloth of a tawny colour. 40, 42, 84, 116, 150

Tayled. Entailed. 77

Tenandes. Tenants. 70

Tentes. Tenths, tithes. 39

Tenuara (Lat.). A tenement. 31

Testament. See Will and testament

Thackborde, cc. Two hundred thack-boards, or wooden roofing tiles or shingles (N.E.D. s.v. Thack). 39

The. They. 64–5, etc.

Thing, think. A piece of property; here used with reference to real property. 84, 116–7

Thing, the. They think. 50

Thirtieth Day. See Commemoration

Thowthe. Thought. 21

Thrugh. A through-stone, a horizontal grave-stone. 153

Thyrd peny, the. I.e. every third penny, i.e. the third part. 73. Cp. Penny

Tire, tyre, tirement. Equipment, outfit (of a cart, plough, etc.). 69, 73

To. Till. Passim

Toft, toffte. Originally, a homestead, the site of a house and its out-buildings Often in the expression 'toft and croft', denoting the whole holding, consisting of the homestead and attached piece of arable land (N.E.D.). 23–4, 69, 124, 152, 156, 184

Toftstede. A homestead. 89

Toga (Lat.). A Roman garment; probably used here, as a general word, for a robe. 22–3, 39

Torch. A torch is properly something twisted. Torches, which were very commonly used at funeral and commemorative services, were made of resinous wood, or of twisted hemp or other similar material, soaked with tallow, resin, etc., or, sometimes, of twisted wax (Cox, Churchwardens' Accounts, pp. 161, 165). Serges, q.v., and tapers, on the other hand, seem to have been nearly always made of wax. The torches were sometimes of enormous size, as also were the tapers— 'xx torches of the length of xij feet by the ell' (p. 12); 'viij torches and iiij tapurs of viij lib' weight of wexe' (p. 27); 'two tapers of xx pounds weight of wax shall then be burnt about my body' (p. 12). 12, 27, 106

Towel. A cloth, especially, a linen cloth for the altar. 6, 31, 109, 131

Township. The inhabitants of a town or village as a community, or in their corporate capacity. Cp. 'by the holl councell of the towne' (p. 61). 129

Travys. Traverse, trouble, vexation. 119

Tree, tren'. Made of a tree, wooden. 100, 146

Trental. See Commemoration

Treys. Trees. 78

Tull. To. 40

Tunic (in Lat. tunica). A garment, in shape like a modern shirt, generally bound about the waist with a girdle, worn by all classes from Roman times till (at least) the fourteenth century (pp. 1, 3, 17). In a later will, a.d. 1514, a testator leaves 'unam blodiam tunicam vocatam Jakytt' (p. 60). 1, 3, 17, 60. See Kirtle

Tyell lande. Entailed land. 139

Tyna (Lat.). A tub. 6

Tyre. See Tire


Unce. Ounce. 84

Unset. Unappointed, unbequeathed. 120. Cp. Set

Unwite. Unbequeathed. 88. See also Witt

Use. The order of service as celebrated according to the usage or custom of the churches of Sarum, Lincoln, York, etc. 9, 15, 16

Vachetus (Lat.). See Wachetus

Valour. Value. 25–6, 130

Vane. A wain. 69

Veluetum. Velvet. 14

Vestment. A vestment usually included the amice, alb, stole, fanon or maniple, and chasuble worn by the priest at the celebration of the Holy Eucharist, and sometimes the dalmatic and tunicle (or pair of tunicles, as they were often called) with the amices, albs, girdles and maniples for the gospeller and epistoler, and a stole for the deacon (Inventories of Church Goods, Surtees Society, vol. xcvii, p. 172 and passim). A complete vestment with all its equipment (pp. 14–15) also included one or more copes, and sometimes hangings for the altar, etc. 'I bequeath . . . the complete suit of my vestment of red cloth-of-gold, namely, nine copes, a chasuble, tunicles or dalmatics, a frontal and sub-frontal with the curtains belonging to the same, and a cloth for the lectern, with albs, amices, stoles, and maniples to the same belonging' (Testamenta Eboracensia, part i, p. 399, Surtees Society). 'A vestment of fyne black velvet that is to say iij coopis a vestment and ij tonacles with the albes and other things thereto belonging, price lxvjl. xiijs. iiijd.' (Will of William Brown, of Stamford, P.C.C., 22 Milles. Cp. the will of Dame Margaret Broune, P.C.C., 30 Milles). Vestment, 14–15, 67, 71, 77, 96, 174; alb, 15, 174; amice, 14–15; chasuble, 13, 15; cope, 13, 96, 139; dalmatic, 13; maniple, 15; tunicle, 13

Vestura (Lat.). A crop. 2

Vesympull. Fee simple. 69

Virgate. A yard-land, being a quarter of a hide, containing from 12 to 40 acres. 8n

Vowess, Wowes. A woman who has taken the veil, a nun. Used as the equivalent of 'Mantulata' (q.v.). 44

Vyce, vyse. Advice. 65, 89


Wachetus, vachetus (Lat.). Watchet, of pale blue colour, or, perhaps, cloth of that colour. 3

Wang. See Wong

Wanne. See Wone

Ware, ward, wared, waryd, warryng. To ware, etc.=to lay out money, labour, etc., spend. 41–2, 77, 103, 143, 174

Weders. Wethers. 130

Wedsett. To pledge. 28

Weeght weeke, xxti stone. Perhaps for '20 stone weight of wheat', 'weeke' in that case being a clerical mistake for 'weete'. The large quantity specified seems to forbid the interpretation 'wick' for lamps. 133

Wele, well, welle, weyll. The weal, wealth, health, welfare, profit. Passim

Will and testament. At the period covered by this volume the words 'will' and 'testament' were not synonymous. 'Will' was applied to a disposition of realty and 'testament' to a disposition of personalty. Passim

Willet. Willed, disposed of by will. 132

Wimble. See Wymbel

Wimple. A covering for the neck, chin and sides of the face, formerly worn by women out of doors, and still retained by women of some religious orders. 3

Wirten. Written. 74

Witt, wite, wyt, wytt, I. I bequeath (pp. 28–9, 32, 35, 99, 100, 105, 110, 120, 149); and (in the past participle) witt, wite, witted, wyt, wyten, wytton= bequeathed (pp. 29, 32, 52, 77, 100, 106, 108, 128, 138, 164, 166, 171, 174, 177, 186). Cp. unwite=unbequeathed (p. 88), and wittword=a legacy (p. 83). It is probable that 'witt' was originally a perverted form of 'quethe' (obsolete, except in the past tense 'quoth')=to speak, say, declare, bequeath; but it seems to have become established, at least in Yorkshire and Lincolnshire, as a separate word. Or it may have descended by a process of shortening and corruption from 'bequeath', which appears in old wills under many different forms— 'beqweth', 'bequete', 'bewete', 'bewhete', 'bewithe', 'bewite', 'bewit', 'bequit'. The transition from 'bequeath' to 'witt' would not be difficult. First the two syllables of 'bequeath' would be written as separate words, and then the first would disappear. Thus we have 'beqwyet', 'be witt', 'be wytt' (p. 32), 'be queth' (p. 62), 'be witted' (p. 30), 'witt', 'wytt' (p. 32). Numerous instances of 'witt', etc., occur in Testamenta Eboracensia— 'wit', 'wite', 'witt', 'wyt', 'wyttis'='bequeath' (part iii, pp. 223, 239; part iv, pp. 13, 24, 41, etc.); 'bewit'='bequeathed' (part iv, p. 30); cp. 'be wit', 'bewitt'='bequeath' (ibid., pp. 27, 169, 183).

Wittes. Witness or witnesses. 90

Wittword. A legacy. Cp. Quethe-word, a legacy (N.E.D.). 83. See also Witt

Woll. Wool. 105

Wolte. A vault. 103

Won. One. 48

Wone, wanne, wones, wonnyng, wonnys. To wone=to dwell. 72, 105, 109, 111, 121, 167, 176

Wong, wang. Marsh or low land; a meadow. 157, 160, 185

Work, works, church work. See Fabric

Wowes. See Vowess

Wull. Wool. 127

Wymbel. A wimble or auger for boring wood. 32

Wyt, wytt, wytte. See Witt

Yates. Gates. 114, 130

Yche, yche on. Each, each one. 136, 139

Yearday. See Commemoration

Yeres. Heirs. 48, 61, 70, etc.

Yeringe. Yearling. 122

Yeven. Given. 27, 150, 161

Yeyrne, yerne. Iron. 103

Ylke, ylk on. See Echoon

Yoner. Younger. 72

Yow, yew, yowe. A ewe. 56, 90, 109–10, 129, 132, 141, 145, 166, 180

ℍeff. If. 145

ℍer, ℍere. A year. 41, 114, 116, 118, 145, etc.

ℍer daye. A year-day. See Commemoration

ℍerely, ℍerly. Yearly. 114, 157

ℍowe. A ewe. 157

ℍowys. Ewes. 127