The Environs of London: Volume 1, County of Surrey. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1792.
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The name of this place has been variously written, in public records, and by the ancient historians. In the earliest record extant, it is called Lambehith; in Doomsday Book, probably by a mistake, Lanchei; in the ancient historians, it is spelt Lamhee, Lamheth, Lambyth, Lamedh, and with many other variations, some of which were probably occasioned by the errors of transcribers. Most etymologists derive the name from lam, dirt; and byd or bythe, a haven: but Dr. Ducarel will not allow the etymology, as the letter b appears in the earliest record; he derives it therefore from lamb, a lamb; and byd. The greatest objection to this derivation is, that it seems to have no meaning.
Situation and boundaries.
Lambeth is situated near the river Thames, opposite to Westminster; it lies in the eastern division of Brixton hundred, and is bounded by the parishes of St. George, Southwark; Newington Butts; Camberwell; Stretham; Clapham; and Croydon.
Nature of land.
The parish is about sixteen miles in circumference. In Doomsday Book, it is said to contain twenty plough-lands and an half. By a land-scot, levied about the beginning of the last century (fn. 1), it appears to have contained 1261 acres of arable land, 1026 of pasture, 125 of meadow, 13 of ozier, 37 of garden ground, and 150 of wood, making in the whole 2612 acres; the commons and waste land, supposed to be about 330 acres, not being charged, will increase it to 2942 acres. At present, the arable is supposed to exceed the grass land, in a proportion of six to four; and the meadows are supposed to be about a fourth part of the latter. About 250 acres are now occupied by the market gardeners. Mr. Malcolm's nursery grounds occupy nearly 40 acres. The soil is various, but consists chiefly of gravel and sand; there is no chalk. At the extremity of the parish, towards Croydon, a well was lately sunk to the depth of near 300 feet, through an unvaried stratum of argillaceous earth.
The whole parish, which is separated into six divisions, pays the sum of 2963l. 13s. to the land-tax, which is assessed in the following proportions:
|The Bishop's liberty,||pays||580||2||4||which is at the rate of||1||4||in the pound.|
|The Prince's liberty,||481||4||2||1||1|
|Marsh and Wall liberty,||929||9||6||1||6|
Market and fair.
Archbishop Hubert Walter obtained a grant (fn. 2) of a weekly market at Lambeth from King John, and a fair for fifteen days, upon condition that it should not be detrimental to the interests of the city of London. In the Archbishop's MS. Library is a charter from the city, signifying their consent, stipulating only, that the fair should begin on the morrow after the anniversary of St. Peter ad vincula (fn. 3). The market and fair are both now discontinued.
Historical facts. Death of Hardicanute.
The earliest historical fact on record relating to Lambeth, is the death of Hardicanute, which happened there in the year 1041 (fn. 4), whilst he was celebrating the marriage-feast of a noble Dane. He died suddenly during the entertainment, some say of poison, others of intemperance.
Harold, son of Earl Godwin, who usurped the crown after the death of Edward the Confessor, is said to have placed it on his head with his own hands at Lambeth (fn. 5).
Henry III. held a solemn Christmas here in the year 1231, under the superintendence of Hubert de Burgh, his chief justice (fn. 6). The next year a parliament was held at Lambeth, on the 14th of September; wherein the fortieth part of all moveables was voted to the king, for the payment of a debt which he owed to the Duke of Bretagne (fn. 7). It is most probable, that both these events may be appropriated to the palace at Kennington.
Outrage at Lambeth church in 1643.
A most violent outrage was committed in the church at Lambeth, on Sunday the 19th of February 1642–3. The story is variously told by the journalists of the different parties. On the one hand it is asserted, that the tumult began in consequence of some of the parish officers rebuking a soldier, who sat with his hat on during divine service; that the soldiers were assaulted by the watermen, and driven out of the church, whence they were obliged to retire to their court of guard, where the watermen continued to assault them by throwing of stones; that they were under the necessity of firing in their own defence, and that one person was killed, and another wounded (fn. 8). This information was given to the House of Commons. On the other side it is said, that the soldiers who had the guard of Lambeth House (then a prison (fn. 9) ), at the instigation of Dr. Leighton, broke into the church with muskets and other weapons; that they tore the Common Prayer Book to pieces, pulled the surplice off the minister's back, and committed other outrages to the great terror of the people, till the watermen came to their rescue. This account, which was printed in the Mercurius Aulicus, the court paper, published at Oxford, is probably exaggerated. It seems pretty clear, however, that the soldiers were in fault, as the House of Commons, upon the petition of Doctor Featley, and other inhabitants of Lambeth, ordered that they should be removed, and another company placed in their room. At all events, it stands on record as an instance of the fatal effects of civil discord, from the outrages of which no place, however sacred, is exempt.
About the time that Cromwell was made Protector, Mr. Bushell, a man well known for the philosophical pursuits, in which he was employed by Lord Chancellor Bacon, concealed himself in a house in Lambeth Marsh, during which time he constantly lay in a long garret, hung with black baize; at one end was painted a skeleton, extended on a mattress; at the other, was a small pallet bed; the walls were covered with various emblems of mortality. Here he continued above a year, till his friends had made his peace with the Protector (fn. 10).
Earthquake at Lambeth.
In the Philosophical Transactions is an account of some damage done to a pot-house in Lambeth by the earthquake in 1750 (fn. 11).
Lambeth appears to have had two distinct manors at the time of the Conqueror's Survey; one of which contained twelve, and the other six plough-lands. The latter was held by the monks of Waltham, of King Harold, and was regranted to them by Edward the Confessor (fn. 12). At the time of the Survey it belonged to Earl Morton. It was valued, in the Confessor's time, at 100 s. afterwards at 4l. I imagine this to have been, what was afterwards called, the manor of South Lambeth and Stockwell; the description of its boundaries in the Confessor's charter, wherein the river is not mentioned, confirms the conjecture.
Manor of North Lambeth.
The other manor, that of North Lambeth, is said to have belonged to the church of St. Mary at Lambeth, at the time of the Conquest: it had previously been the property of Countess Goda (fn. 13), the Conqueror's sister, who gave it to the church at Rochester (fn. 14). The Conqueror seized it, and gave a part thereof to Odo, Bishop of Baieux, but he afterwards restored it to the convent, together with the patronage of the church. In the year 1197, the Bishop and church of Rochester granted the manor of Lambeth, with the advowson, to Hubert Walter Archbishop of Canterbury, and his successors, in exchange for the manor of Darente, and other premises (fn. 15). It has been annexed to the see ever since. In the Confessor's time it was valued at 10l.; at the time of the Conqueror's Survey, at 11l.; in 1291, at 15l. (fn. 16); in Archbishop Bourchier's time, at 27l. 16s. 7½d. (fn. 17); and in Archbishop Parker's time, at 30l. per annum (fn. 18).
Manor-house, or Lambeth palace.
The manor-house or palace belonging to the Archbishop of Canterbury is situated near the river: it is a very large pile of building, and exhibits the architecture of various ages. It appears that Lambeth palace was, in a great measure, if not wholly, rebuilt by Archbishop Boniface, about the year 1262 (fn. 19). If any part of this structure now remains, it is the chapel; the architecture of which indeed might induce one to ascribe it to a more early period. The windows resemble those of the Temple-church, which was built in the twelfth century. Under the chapel is a crypt, a part of which is represented in the annexed plate. The arches are built with stone, as is the chapel. The roof of the latter is of wood, and flat; it is ornamented with the arms of Archbishop Laud. The windows were formerly of painted glass, which was put up by Cardinal Morton (fn. 20). The repairing of this glass, which contained the scripture history of the Old and New Testament, was imputed as a crime to Archbishop Laud on his trial, and the windows were destroyed by the Puritans.
Archbishop Parker's tomb.
The remains of Archbishop Parker were deposited in this chapel,
at his own request, under an altar-tomb which he had erected for
himself near the communion-table. The following inscription,
written by Doctor Haddon, was affixed to it:
"Sobrius et prudens, studiis excultus et usu,
Integer, et veræ religionis amans,
Matthæus vixit Parkerus, foverat illum
Aula virum juvenem, fovit et aula senem.
Ordine res gessit, recti defensor et æqui:
Vixerat ille Deo, mortuus ille Deo est."
When Lambeth-house was purchased by Scott and Hardy, in the last century, the former having possession of this part of the palace, removed the Archbishop's tomb, and turned the chapel into a dancing-room (fn. 21). The leaden coffin was sold to a plumber, and the Archbishop's corpse was thrown into a hole in one of the outhouses. After the Restoration it was discovered, and re-interred in the chapel (fn. 22). The spot is marked by a marble slab, thus inscribed: "Corpus "Matthæi Archiepiscopi tandem hic quiescit." Archbishop Sancroft placed the old monument in the corner of the vestibule of the chapel, and caused the following inscription, said to have been written by himself (fn. 23), to be affixed to it:
"Matthæi Archiepiscopi cœnotaphium, corpus enim, (ne nescias, lector,) in adyto hujus sacelli olim rite conditum, a sectariis perduellibus, anno MDCXLVIII, effracto sacrilegè hoc ipso tumulo, elogio sepulchrali impiè refixo, direptis nefariè exuviis plumbeis, spoliatum, violatum, eliminatum; etiam sub sterquilinio (proh scelus!) abstrusum: rege demum (plaudente cælo et terrâ) redeunte, ex decreto Baronum Angliæ, sedulo quæsitum, et sacello postliminio redditum, in ejus quasi medio tandem quiescit. Et quiescat utinam, non nisi tubâ ultimâ solicitandum. Qui denuo desecraverit, sacer esto."
Portraits in the vestry.
In the vestry are some portraits, among which are Cardinal Pole; Dr. Williams Bishop of Chichester in 1696; Dr. Evans, Bishop of Bangor in 1707; Dr. Gardiner, Bishop of Lincoln in 1694; Dr. Whichcote, the learned Provost of King's College; and Dupin, the writer upon ecclesiastical history.
The great hall was rebuilt by Archbishop Juxon, after the civil wars, upon the old model, and at the expence of 10,500l. (fn. 24) It is 93 feet in length, and 38 in breadth. It has a Gothic roof of wood.
The guard-room, which appears to have been built before the year 1424 (fn. 25), is roofed like the hall, and is 56 feet long, and 27½ feet wide. In this room is a whole length picture of Henry Prince of Wales.
The long gallery, built about Cardinal Pole's time, is 90 feet in length, and 16 feet in breadth. The wainscot remains in its original state, being all of mantled carving. In the windows are several coats of arms painted on glass; being those belonging to various Archbishops of Canterbury. Some of a more ancient date were removed when the bay-window was made. Over the chimney-piece is a portrait of Martin Luther; a very fine picture of Archbishop Warham, by Holbein (fn. 26); and a portrait, said to be Catherine Parr (fn. 27). The gallery contains also an original picture of Archbishop Parker, by Lyne (fn. 28), a whole length of Cardinal Pole, and the following amongst other portraits:—The Archbishops Arundell (fn. 29), Chichele, Cranmer, Grindall, Whitgift, Abbot, and Sheldon; Pearce, Bishop of Bangor; Mawson, Fletcher, Moore, Patrick, and Gooch, Bishops of Ely; Lloyd and Hough, Bishops of Worcester; Burnet, Bishop of Sarum; Thomas, Bishop of Winchester; Bishop Hoadley, painted by his second lady; Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne; and Rundle, Bishop of Derry. The view from the bay-window of the gallery is remarkably beautiful. St. Paul's cathedral, Westminster Abbey, and the bridge, are seen to great advantage between the clumps of trees in the pleasure grounds, which exclude the rest of the city.
In the great dining-room, which is 38 feet 9 inches by 19 feet 6 inches, are portraits of all the archbishops, from Laud to the present time. In these we may observe the gradual change of the clerical dress, in the articles of bands and wigs. A large ruff anciently supplied the place of the former; Archbishop Tillotson was the first prelate who wore a wig, which then was not unlike the natural hair, and worn without powder.
Archbishop Cornwallis built a handsome and spacious drawingroom and a dressing room in the year 1769.
The library occupies the four galleries over the cloisters, which form a small quadrangle. It is said by Aubrey (fn. 30), to have been built by Archbishop Sheldon; but it is much more probable, that he only restored it, and that the galleries are even older than the foundation of the library, for which the see is indebted to Archbishop Bancroft, who left all his books to his successors, upon condition of their giving due security that they would hand them down entire. On failure of such security, they were to go to the college then about to be established at Chelsea; and if that foundation should never be completed, to the university of Cambridge. Archbishop Abbot, by his will, bequeathed his own books to the library.
During the civil wars, the books were all seized by the parliament, and the use of them was first granted to Dr. Wincocke (fn. 31); they were afterwards given to Sion college (fn. 32); many of them however got into private hands, and the library was in danger of being dispersed, when Selden, who was a lover of literature, and had considerable weight with the government, suggested to the university of Cambridge, their right to the library under Archbishop Bancroft's will, and afforded them such assistance in their claim, that in the month of February 1647, both houses of parliament concurred in an ordinance for removing the Lambeth library to Cambridge (fn. 33). After the Restoration, it was demanded by Archbishop Juxon, and restored to his successor, who prosecuted the claim. Such of the books as were got into private hands were recovered, as far as it was possible; and an ordinance of parliament was made that the books belonging to the late Archbishop of Canterbury, which were in the hands of John Thurloe, and Hugh Peters, should immediately be secured (fn. 34).
The library was augmented by the Archbishops Sheldon, Tenison, and Secker, particularly by the latter, who had a very valuable private library, out of which he left to his successors all the books which were not already in the Lambeth library (fn. 35). The present number of books is supposed to be about 25,000 (fn. 36). There is only one book which is known to have belonged to Archbishop Parker, being distinguished by his arms; as are those of the Archbishops Bancroft, Abbot, Laud, and Sheldon.
Painted-glass and portraits.
In the windows of the library is some painted glass, consisting of the arms of some of the archbishops; those of Philip King of Spain, in very brilliant colours; a portrait of Archbishop Chichele, &c. Among the pictures, are an original one of Archbishop Bancroft; and portraits of Fox, Bishop of Winchester; Dr. Peter Du Moulin, and Dr. Wilkins, two learned divines, the one a librarian, the other a domestic chaplain at Lambeth. There are likewise a set of prints of all the Archbishops of Canterbury from 1504, to the present time, collected by Archbishop Cornwallis.
Library of manuscripts.
The library of manuscripts is situated over the western part of that which contains the printed books. It is divided into two parts, the one containing the registers of the see of Canterbury, which are in excellent preservation; and the other, miscellaneous manuscripts, divided into four sets, viz. those collected by various archbishops; those of Archbishop Tenison; and the collection of Henry Wharton, and George Carew, Earl of Totness. This library contains many very valuable manuscripts; amongst those of singular curiosity, are the following:—A translation of the wise sayings of Philosophers, by Woodvile, Earl Rivers, with a beautiful illuminated drawing of the Earl presenting his book to Edward IV. which has been engraved for the royal and noble authors.—A vellum book, containing thirty-five very rich illuminations, representing "the daunce of "Machabree," commonly called Death's Dance.—A curious Saxon MS. of a book written by Adhelm Bishop of Shirebourn, in the eighth century, with a drawing of the bishop in his pontifical chair; and a lady abbess, presenting to him eight of her nuns (fn. 37).—Archbishop Cranmer's household book;—and a curious and complete copy of Archbishop Parker's Antiquities, printed in 1572, and interleaved with original MSS. of records, letters, &c. This curious book, which had been lost out of the library, fell into the hands of Dr. Trevor, Bishop of Durham, who restored it in 1757 (fn. 38). The edition is so rare, that only two other copies are known to be extant.
The great tower at the west end of the chapel, usually called the Lollard's tower, was built by Archbishop Chichele, in the years 1434, 1435 (fn. 39). The expence of building this tower, which is of stone, amounted to about 278l. On the west side is a Gothic niche, in which was placed the image of St. Thomas. At the top of the tower is a small room called the prison, wainscotted with oak above an inch thick, on which are several names, and broken sentences in old characters, cut with a knife, as "Chessam Doctor." "Petit Iouganham." "Ihs cyppe me out of all el compane, amen." "John Worth." "Nosce teipsum," &c. In the walls of the room, are fixed large iron rings, intended, as it is supposed, to confine the Lollards, and other unfortunate persons, who are said to have been imprisoned there.
It is certain that the archbishops, before the Reformation, had prisons for the punishment of ecclesiastical offenders (fn. 40). Queen Elizabeth frequently made Lambeth-house a prison, not only committing the Popish Bishops Tunstall and Thirlby to the Archbishop's custody, but divers other prisoners of rank. The unfortunate Earl of Essex was confined here before he was sent to the Tower (fn. 41); the Earl of Southampton (fn. 42); Lord Stourton; Henry Howard, brother of the Duke of Norfolk (fn. 43); and many others. It was usual for them to be kept in separate apartments, and to eat at the Archbishop's table.
The gateway and the adjoining tower, which are of brick, were built by Archbishop Morton about 1490 (fn. 44).
Gardens and park.
The gardens and park, which contain near thirteen acres, are laid out with great taste. They have been much improved by the present Archbishop, who has made a very convenient access to the house, for carriages, through the park.
In the garden, against the wall of the palace, are two fig-trees of a very extraordinary size, covering a surface of fifty feet in height, and forty in breadth. The trunk of the larger is twenty-eight inches in circumference. They are of the white sort, and bear very fine fruit. The tradition is, that they were planted by Cardinal Pole (fn. 45).
Residence of the archbishops at Lambeth.
It has been said, but erroneously, that Stephen Langton is the first archbishop upon record who resided at Lambeth. Hubert Walter was there in 1198 (fn. 46). Many of the public acts of the metropolitan were performed at Lambeth, in the chapel of the church of Rochester, long before the exchange with the archbishop took place (fn. 47).
Catherine of Arragon.
Catherine of Arragon, upon her first arrival in England, was lodged with her ladies, for some days, in the "Archbishop's inne" at Lambeth (fn. 48).
Queen Mary, who furnished the palace at her own expence for the reception of Cardinal Pole, sometimes honoured him with her company (fn. 49).
Queen Elizabeth's visits to Lambeth were very frequent. She dined with Archbishop Parker in 1568 (fn. 50), and visited him again in 1573 and 1574 (fn. 51). The following account of her visit in 1573 is given in Archbishop Parker's Antiquities: "The Queen removing from Hampton Court to Greenwich, visited the Archbishop at Lambeth, where she staid all night. That day was Tuesday—the next day, being Wednesday, it was usual, as it was the season of Lent, that a sermon should be preached before the Queen. A pulpit therefore was placed in the quadrangle, near the pump, and a sermon was delivered by Dr. Pearce. The Queen heard it from the upper gallery that looks towards the Thames; the nobility and courtiers stood in the other galleries (fn. 52) which formed the quadrangle. The people from below divided their attention between her Majesty and the preacher. When the sermon was over, they went to dinner. The other parts of the house being occupied by the Queen and her attendants, the Archbishop received his guests in the great room next to the garden below stairs. Here on the Tuesday he invited a large party of the inferior courtiers. In the same room, on the Wednesday, he made a great dinner; at his own table sat down nine earls and seven barons; at the other table, the comptroller of the Queen's houshold, her secretary, and many other knights and esquires; besides the usual table for the great officers of "state, where sat the Lord Treasurer, the Lord Admiral, the Chamberlain, and others. The whole of this charge was born by the Archbishop. At four of the clock on the Wednesday afternoon, the Queen and her court removed to Greenwich (fn. 53)." Archbishop Grindall soon fell under the Queen's displeasure, and it does not appear that she ever honoured him with a visit. His successor Whitgift received repeated marks of her favour. I find no less than fifteen of her visits to him upon record; she frequently staid two, and sometimes three days at Lambeth (fn. 54).
Lambeth palace attacked by the apprentices, 1641.
Lambeth palace became the first object of popular fury during the commotions of the last century. Archbishop Laud had always been disliked by the Puritans, and was grown particularly obnoxious, from having advised the King to dissolve the parliament (fn. 55). On the 9th of May 1641, a paper, said to have been written by John Lilbourne, was stuck up at the Old Change, to excite the apprentices to rise, and attack the palace of Lambeth (fn. 56). The Archbishop had notice of their intention, and fortified his house as well as he could. On the 11th, at midnight, it was beset by about 500 men (fn. 57), who continued there two hours, but did no other mischief than breaking a few windows. Whitlock says, they set at liberty some prisoners (fn. 58). Some of the ringleaders were apprehended, and one of them was executed for high treason (fn. 59). The Archbishop, whose life was daily threatened, removed, by the King's desire, to Whitehall (fn. 60). A few months afterwards he was committed to the Tower.
Arms removed from Lambeth.
In the month of January 1642, an ordinance was made for removing the arms from Lambeth-house (fn. 61); but it does not appear to have been executed till the August following, when Captain Royden entered the palace, for that purpose, with 200 foot and a troop of horse (fn. 62). The number of arms which were found there, was very much exaggerated in the Parliamentary Journals (fn. 63). The Archbishop, in his Diary, declares, that he had no other arms than those which he bought of his predecessor's executors; and that they were not sufficient to equip 200 men. He complains that the officers left only six swords, six carbines, three halberts, and two half pikes, to desend that great house.
Lambeth-house seized by the Parliament.
Made a prison.
The same year, an order was made by the House of Commons, that some of their members should receive the Archbishop's rents, and apply them to the use of the commonwealth (fn. 64). On the 8th of November, Captain Brown, with a party of soldiers, entered Lambethhouse, to keep it for the Parliament (fn. 65). Soon after, the House of Commons voted, that it should be made a prison, and that Doctor Layton, or Leighton, who had been severely punished by the High Commission court, should be appointed the keeper (fn. 66). At first, some of the Archbishop's servants were suffered to continue there; but upon a petition of Doctor Leighton's, stating, that they made his prisoners unruly, they were removed (fn. 67). The furniture was sold, and the wood and coal reserved for the soldiers. The Archbishop complains, that he was not indulged with any of it for his own use at the Tower (fn. 68).
Prisoners of note confined there.
Amongst the prisoners confined at Lambeth-house during the civil wars, were the Earls of Chesterfield and Derby (fn. 69); Sir Thomas Armstrong, who was afterwards executed for being concerned in the Duke of Monmouth's rebellion (fn. 70); Doctor Allestry, a celebrated divine (fn. 71); and Richard Lovelace, the poet (fn. 72). There appears to have been a great mortality among the prisoners here in the autumn of 1645, when many entries of their burials are to be found in the parish register; among others, is Sir George Bunkley, who was Lieutenant-governor of Oxford, and distinguished himself for his valour and activity at the siege of Basing (fn. 73).
Lambeth-house was put up to sale in 1648, and purchased, with the manor, for the sum of 7073l. 0s. 8d. by Thomas Scot and Matthew Hardy (fn. 74). The former was Secretary of State to the Protector, and one of the persons who sat on the trial of Charles I. for which he was executed at Charing-cross in 1660.
Lambeth-palace threatened in the year 1780.
In the year 1780 Lambeth-palace became once more exposed to the fury of a mob. The infatuated rioters, amidst their zeal against popery, had been possessed with an idea, that the Archbishop, Cornwallis, was a favourer of the Catholics (fn. 75). On the 6th of June, a party of several hundred persons, who had been previously assembled in St. George's Fields, came to the palace, crying "no popery." They knocked at the gate, which was secured; receiving no answer, they went away, saying, that they would return in the evening. Upon this alarm, the Archbishop and his family were prevailed upon to leave Lambeth. They removed first, by way of Battersea, to Lord Hillsborough's house in Hanover-square; afterwards they went to Wimbledon, and upon receiving intimation that they were not safe there, removed again to Lord Hillsborough's house in Kent, where they remained till the disturbances were over. In the mean time application was made for some soldiers to defend the palace. A detachment of the guards was immediately sent, and centinels were placed on the tower, and at all the avenues. On the seventh of June, a party of the Hampshire militia, then on their march to the camp, was ordered there. The next day they were succeeded by the whole of the Northamptonshire militia, who continued there some weeks; during which time the strictest garrison duty was observed. The officers were entertained by the Archbishop's chaplains, Doctor Lort and Doctor Vyse, who remained there the whole time. The soldiers had their meals in the great hall. On the eleventh of August, the military quitted Lambeth.
Lambeth an asylum for learned men.
Duke of Ormond educated there.
Lambeth-house has, at various times, proved an asylum for learned foreigners, who have been obliged to fly from the intolerant spirit of their own countrymen. Here the early reformers, Martyr and Bucer, found a safe retreat (fn. 76); and here the learned Anthonio, Archbishop of Spalato, was entertained by Archbishop Abbot. The celebrated Duke of Ormond, then Lord Thurles, was educated, under the care of the same prelate, by command of James I. The Archbishop, who thought it a very unreasonable task imposed upon him, is said to have been very negligent of his charge (fn. 77).
In 1776 the palace at Lambeth was determined to be extraparochial by a suit in the common pleas.
Foundation of a collegiate church at Lambeth.
The history of the foundation of a collegiate church at Lambeth may be briefly told thus:—Archbishop Baldwin having made preparations for building a convent at Hakyngton in Kent, was opposed in his intentions by the monks of Canterbury, who thought that such an institution would be prejudicial to their interest. The court of Rome favoured the monks, and the Archbishop was obliged to abandon his design. He procured therefore a piece of ground at Lambeth, by an exchange with the church of Rochester (fn. 78), and there laid a new foundation. His opponents being by no means satisfied with the alteration of the site, renewed their application at the court of Rome, and prosecuted their suit with such success, that Archbishop Hubert Walter, who had completed the plan of his predecessor Baldwin, was obliged after the convent was actually built and inhabited, to dismiss the monks, and level the walls with the ground. Nothing can be a greater proof of the unbounded power of the Roman pontiffs in that age, than that a design which had received the approbation of the prelates and nobles of this land, which coincided with the inclination of the monarch, and was supported by his authority, should be instantaneously though reluctantly abandoned, on the receipt of a Papal bull. The destruction of the convent took place in the year 1199. There was afterwards a compromise between the monks of Canterbury and the Archbishop, by which it was agreed that he might build a church at Lambeth any where, except upon the foundation of that which had been destroyed by the Pope's command; that he might place therein a certain number of Premonstratensian canons, and endow it with rents out of some churches belonging to the see of Canterbury; but they stipulated that he should not perform any of the archiepiscopal functions therein (fn. 79). It does not appear that the Archbishop ever availed himself of the permission under these restrictions. Such are the leading facts of a transaction which appears to have occupied the public attention very much at the time it happened, and which has been recorded by all our ancient historians (fn. 80). Gervase of Canterbury has given the account of it very much at large (fn. 81).
Bishop of Rochester's palace.
The site of the convent, with the adjacent area, was afterwards granted by Archbishop Hubert Walter to Gilbert de Glanville, Bishop of Rochester (fn. 82), for the purpose of building a house there for himself and his successors, who resided there occasionally till the 16th century (fn. 83). Archbishop Bradwardin died at this house in the year 1348 (fn. 84). In Bishop Fisher's time, a most execrable murder was committed there by a cook; who, by throwing some poison into a vessel of yest, not only destroyed seventeen persons belonging to the family, but some poor people also, who were fed at the gate; for which horried deed he was boiled to death in Smithfield, by a law made for that purpose (fn. 85).
The Bishop of Rochester's house, which was called La Place (fn. 86), came into the hands of the crown in Henry VIII.'s time, who granted it to Aldridge Bishop of Carlisle, and his successors (fn. 87); it then took the name of Carlisle-house, but does not appear ever to have been inhabited by the Bishops of that see, who leased it out. In 1647 it was sold to Matthew Hardy, for 220l. (fn. 88) Since that time its history exhibits some remarkable vicissitudes (fn. 89). It was first a pottery, then a tavern and a common brothel; and was afterwards inhabited by Mr. Froment, a celebrated dancing-master, who endeavoured, without success, to get it opened as a public place. On the site of it, there is now an academy. The premises are still surrounded with some of the ancient walls.
The parish church of Lambeth is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and is situated near the water side, adjoining the Archbishop's palace. The church was rebuilt between the years 1374 and 1377 (fn. 90). The tower, which is of freestone, still remains; the other parts of the present structure appear to be about the age of Henry VII., and most probably were built at several times, in the latter end of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th centuries. In the list of benefactions to the church, we find some who contributed to the building of the north aisle in 1504, others to that of the south aisle in 1505. Archbishop Warham was a principal contributor to the building of the west end in 1519. The east end was probably rebuilt before the list of benefactors commenced. Howard's and Leigh's chapels were built in 1522. The church now consists of a nave, two aisles, and a chancel. The nave is separated from the aisles by octagonal pillars and pointed arches, over which are several coats of arms in stone, which are engraved in the History of Lambeth. The church, which is built of flints mixed with stone and brick, was repaired and ornamented in 1769; at which time the Howard and Leigh chapels were incorporated with it.
Figure of the pedlar.
In one of the windows over the nave is the figure of a pedlar and his dog, painted on glass; the tradition concerning which is, that it was intended for a person of that occupation, who bequeathed a piece of land to the parish, now called Pedlar's Acre. It has been suggested (fn. 91), and with great probability, that this picture was intended rather as a rebus upon the name of the benefactor, than as descriptive of his trade. In Swaffham church in Norfolk, is the portrait of John Chapman, a great benefactor to that parish; the device of a pedlar and his pack occurs in several parts of the church; which circumstance has given rise to nearly the same tradition as at Lambeth (fn. 92).
Tombs and monuments.
On a flat stone on the north side of the chancel is the figure of a man in armour, engraved on a brass plate, with the arms of Clere; being the tomb of Thomas Clere, Esq. who died in 1545. Over it was formerly a tablet with the following epitaph, written by the celebrated Earl of Surrey:
"Epitaphium Thomæ Clere qui fato functus est 1545, auctore Henrico Howard comite Surriensi in cujus felicis ingenii specimen et singularis facundiæ argumentum appensa fuit hæc tabula per W. Howard, filium Thomæ nuper Ducis Norf. filii ejusdem Henrici comitis Surriensis.
"Norfolke sprung thee, Lambeth holds thee dead,
Clere of the count of Cleremont thou hight,
Within the womb of Ormond's race thou bred,
And sawest thy cosin crowned in thy sight;
Shelton for love, Surrey for Lord thou chase,
Aye me while life did last that league was tender,
Tracing whose steps thou sawest Kelsall blase,
Laundersey burnt and batter'd Bulleyn's render:
At Muttrell gates hopeless of all recure,
Thine Earl half dead, gave in thy hand his will,
Which cause did thee this pining death procure;
Ere summers four-times seven thou couldst fulfill,
Aye, Clere, if love had booted care or cost
Heaven had not wonne, nor earth so timely lost."
Catherine wife of Lord William Howard.
On another slab is inlaid the figure of a woman upon a brass plate; she is habited in a robe, ornamented with coats of arms; at her feet is a squirrel. The vestiges of a Gothic canopy, and several labels, are to be traced upon the stone, to which was formerly affixed the following inscription:
"Here lyeth Catherine Howard, one of the sisters and heires of John Broughton, Esq. son and heire of John Broughton, Esq. and late wife of the Lord William Howard, one of the sonnes of the right high and mighty prince Lord Thomas, late Duke of Norfolke, High Treasurer and Earl Marshal of England; which Lord William and Lady Catherine left issue behind them, lawfully begotten, Agnes Howard, the only daughter and heir; which said Lady Catherine deceased the 23d day of Aprill, Anno Dni. 1535, whose soule Jesu pardon."
This lady was indicted, with her husband, for concealing the misdemeanors of her namesake Queen Catherine Howard; and being convicted, they were both sentenced to perpetual imprisonment; but were afterwards pardoned (fn. 93).
At the upper end of the chancel in the north wall is a rich Gothic tomb, ornamented with foliage; under a flat arch are traces of two small brass figures with labels in their mouths, which have been torn off; underneath is the following inscription in the black letter, upon a brass plate:
"Sub pedibus ubi statis, jacet corpus Magistri Hugonis Peyntwin legum doctoris, nuper Archi. Cant. reverendissimorum patrum Dnorum Johannis Morton Cardinalis, Henrici Dene et William Warham Can. Archiepiscop. audien. causar. auditoris. Qui obiit 6 die Augusti, Anno Dom. 1504. Cujus anime propitietur Deus. Amen."
The tomb is ornamented with the arms of Peyntwin.
On the same side is a monument of white and black marble, to the memory of Robert Scott, Esq. In the centre is his bust well executed; it is surrounded with military trophies in basso-relievo. On the tablet underneath is the following inscription:
"Nere to this place lyeth interred the body of Robert Scott, Esq. descended of the ancient barons of Bawerie in Scotland. He bent himselfe to travell and studie much, and amongst many other thinges, he invented the leather ordnance (fn. 94), and carried to the Kinge of Sweden 200 men; who after two yeares service, for his worth and valour was preferred to the office of quarter-mastergenerall of his majesty's army, which he possessed three yeares. From thence, with his favour, he went into Denmarke, (where he was advanced to be generall of that King's artillerie,) there being advised to tender his service to his own prince, which he doinge, his majestie willingly accepted, and preferred him to be one of the gentlemen of the most honourable privie chamber, and rewarded him with a pencion of 600l. per annum. This deservinge spirit, adorned with all endowments befitting a gentleman, in the prime of his flourishinge age, surrendered his soule to his Redeemer, 1631.
"Of his greate worth to knowe who seeketh more,
"Must mount to heaven, where he is gone before.
"In Fraunce he took to wife Anne Scott, for whose remembrance shee loveinglie erected this memoriall."
Over the tomb are the arms of Scott, Or, 3 lions' heads erased Gules; impaling Vert, a greyhound springant Argent.
On the south side of the altar, opposite to Peyntwin's monument, is that of John Mompesson, which nearly resembles it; the ornaments are not quite so rich. A small brass figure has been torn off; underneath the vestiges of which is the following inscription in the black letter:
"Hic jacet Johannes Mompesson de Bathampton Wyley in com. Wilts, Arm. e domesticis reverendissimi patris Willielmi Warham Cantuar. Archiepiscopi primarius, virtute et pietate clarus; duxit in uxorem Isabellam siliam et cohæredem Thome Drewe, armigeri. Obiit quarto die Maii, anno 1524. Cujus anime propicietur Deus. Amen."
The monument is ornamented with the arms of Mompesson, Arg. a lion ramp. Sab. impaling Erm. a lion passant guardant Gules, for Drewe.
Against the same wall is a monument with the following inscription:
"In memorie of Anthony Burleigh, third sonne of John Burleigh, late of the Isle of White, Esq. who was Lieutenant General to King Charles I. of blessed memorie; and was put to death at Winchester, the 26th of January 1647, for endeavouring to release his sacred Majesty, then prisoner in Carisbroke castle, in the said Isle of Wight. His two elder brothers were slaine at Worcester sight, in the forces of his present Majesty King Charles II. this being the last of that loyal family, except his truly loving and sorrowful sister, who caused this monument to be erected. Obiit 17° die Feb. anno Dni. 1681, ætatis suæ 48. Spe resurgendi."
On the same side of the chancel are the monuments of the Archbishops Hutton and Cornwallis, with the following inscriptions, the former of which was drawn up by the late Michael Lort, D. D.
"Infra conduntur reliquiæ Matthæi Hutton, S. T. P. Episcopi Bangorensis, A. D. 1743, deinde Archiepiscopi Eboracensis 1747, tandem Cantuariensis 1757, qui obiit 19 Martii 1758, ætatis suæ 65. Et Mariæ uxoris ejus, quæ obiit 13 Maii A. D. 1779, ætatis suæ 86, duabus relictis filiis quæ pietatis ergo monumentum hoc utrinque parenti posuerunt, A. D. 1781."
"Fred' Cornwallis, Archiep. Cantuar. 1768,
Obt 19 Mart. 1783, Æt. 70."
There are inscriptions also nearly to the same effect, upon slabs in the chancel, which cover their graves.
Within the rails of the communion table is the tomb of Archbishop Bancrost, with the following inscription on a flat stone:
"Hic jacet Richardus Bancroft, S. Theologiæ professor, Ep[iscop]us Londinensis primo, deinde Cantuariensis Archiep[iscop]us, et Regi Jacobo a secretioribus consiliis. Obiit 2 Novemb. A. D[omin]i. 1610, ætatis suæ 67."
Adjoining the last-mentioned tomb, is that of Milo Smith, Archbishop Sheldon's secretary; the stone is thus inscribed:
"Milo Smith, reverendissimi in Christo patris, ac Dom. Dom. Gilberti Archiep[iscop]i. Cant. secretarius hic jacet. Obiit 17mo die Febr. Ano Dni. 1671."
In the middle of the chancel is the tomb of Archbishop Tenison, with the following inscription:
"Here lyeth the body of Thomas Tenison, late Archbishop of Canterbury, who departed this life in peace on the 14 day of December 1715."
There is an inscription also for his wife Ann, who died Feb. 12, 1715.
Aubrey gives the following historical inscription from a monument on the north side of the chancel which is now removed:
"Here lieth the body of Henry Skipwith, Esq. 3 son of Sr Richard Skipwith, Knt. which Sr Richard was chief of that antient family denominated of the towne of Skipwith, in Yorkshire, the ould landes of Hugo son of Baldrick, a great baron in his time, whose daughter and heir Eneburga was the wife of Robert de Estoteville, Baron of Cottingham and Gnarsburge, and Vicecomes Eboraci by inheritance, whose predecessors came in barons with the Conqueror, and were the greatest lords in Yorkshire. Patrick, second son of this Robert de Estoteville, had by his mother Eneburga, given him "the towne of Skipwith, and therefor was named Patricius de Skipwith, in the time of Henry the First, since which time in lineal descent they have continued the name of Skipwith, in equestrious successour, two of them having bin Kts. Bannerets, and matched with heirs of very remarqueable families, and great possessions both in Yorkshire, their first seat and by maridge with the heir of Skipwith, in the countie of Yorke. They have bine linked and are nerely allied to manie honourable houses; the Erle of Howard, Erle of Bathe, Erle of Lindsey, and others. This Henry Skipwith was bred in the Netherlands, under that famouce Generall the ould Lord Willoughby, and afterwards went lasten into Irland, at the siege of Blackwater, where he did divers good services upon the enemie, and at the siege of Kinsaile, where he slew a Spanish commander hand to hand. He was Lieutenant-colonel to the late Erle of Totness, and at a salie by the Spaniards out of Kinsaile receiving a wound, and forcing the Spaniards out of a fort, for which singular deed, his generall, the then Lord Monjoy, and his colonell, the then Lord Carew, much graced him after that memorable siege. For his signal merit it pleased Queene Elizabeth to give him the prime honor to build hir the fort of Castle-Purque, which commanded Kinsaile, where before he had won honor; she gave him the constableship of that fort, and the ward therein, which was confirmed by King James, who bestowed a pension on him, having sundry times modestly refused the order of knighthood. He was for his wisdom made one of the councell of state for the province of Munster, being one of the ouldest captains in his time, who continuing a pensioner to our most excellent King Charles, departed this mortal life March 7, Anno D[omi]ni 1630."
On the south side of the chancel are the monuments of William Suthes, master mason of Windsor Castle, who died Oct. 5, 1625; Ralph Snowe, treasurer to four Archbishops of Canterbury, a great benefactor to the church and parish, who died Mar. 21, 1707, aged 95; William Beeston, Esq. who died in 1639; Mrs. Elizabeth Barston, who died in 1703; her son-in-law Jonathan Chilwell, Esq. who died in 1731, and others of the family; and Mrs. Elizabeth Newbury, who died in 1785.
On the north side is a tablet to the memory of some of the children of Dr. George Hooper, Bishop of Bath and Wells.
On flat stones are inscriptions to the memory of John Mason, Esq. who died in 1768. ("He was bargemaster to the late King and his "present Majesty.") John Alsop, Esq. comptroller and treasurer to two Archbishops of Canterbury, who died in 1611; Robert Thompson, LL. D. secretary to two Archbishops, who died in 1683; Catherine wife of John Battely, S. T. P. who died in 1685; Mr. Peter Schrieber, who died in 1715; and Mrs. Esther Reynell, who died in 1791.
Aubrey has preserved the inscriptions of several tombs and monuments which formerly were in the chancel, but have long since been destroyed. They were in memory of the following persons: Cuthbert Tunstall, Bishop of Durham, who died in 1559; Thomas Thirlby, Bishop of Ely, who died in 1570; (a part of this remains;) George son of John Lord Dynham, who died in 1487; Philippa his daughter, who died in 1485; William Uttinge, S. T. P. who died in 1480; Thomas Poole, Esq. of Dichelinge, in the county of Sussex, who died in 1609; Elizabeth Howard, Countess of Wiltshire (no date); Sir Ambrose Payne, parson of Lambeth, and bachelor of music, who died May 29, 1528; Peter Betesworth, of Chidden, Co Somerset, who died in 1613; and Andrew Perne, S. T. P. who died April 26, 1589.
Elizabeth Duchess of Norfolk.
In Howard's chapel was formerly the following epitaph upon
Elizabeth Duchess of Norfolk, written by her brother Henry Lord
"Good Dutchesse of Norfolke
the Lord have mercy upon thee;
who dyed at Lambeth,
The last of November, 1558.
"Farewell, good lady and sister dere,
In erth we shall never mete here;
But yet I trust, with Godis grace,
In heven we shall deserve a place;
Yet thy kindness shall nere depart
During my life out of my hert;
Thou wast to me both far and nere,
A mother, a sister, a frende most dere:
And to al thy frendes most sure and fast,
Whan fortune had sounded the froward blast.
"And to the powre a very mother,
More than was known to any other;
Which is thy tresure as this day,
And for thy sowle they hertily pray,
So I shall do that here remayne
God thy sowle preserve from payne.
"By thy most bounden brother,
Henry Lord Stafford."
On the pavement were brass plates to the memory of John, Henry, and John, sons of the Earl of Surrey, who died in 1501, 1502, and 1503; Thomas Howard, who died in 1508, he was son of Thomas Lord Howard, afterwards Duke of Norfolk, by his wife Anne, sister to Edw. IV; Charles son of Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey; Henry son of Thomas Duke of Norfolk, who died in 1513; Richard son of Thomas Duke of Norfolk; Elizabeth Lady Fitzwalter, wife of Henry Lord Fitzwalter, and daughter to Thomas Duke of Norfolk.
On a stone of grey marble was the effigies of Thomas Duke of Norfolk himself, on a brass plate with an inscription—a drawing of his effigies and arms is preserved in a beautiful MS. on vellum, in the possession of the Earl of Northampton. The Duke of Norfolk died in 1524; he was buried at Thetford (fn. 95).
In the middle of the chapel was an altar-tomb, to the memory of Agnes Duchess of Norfolk, with her arms and effigies on a brass plate.
There were the tombs also of Jane Wynkesley, Gentlewoman to Ann Duchess of Norfolk, who died 34 Hen. VIII. and Mr. John Butcher, who died in 1695.
A few of the monuments which still remain, are to be seen in the north aisle. On the floor is a large slab, on the verge of which is an inscription, nearly obliterated, to the memory of Margaret, wife of Archbishop Parker, who died in 1570, and her son Matthew, who died in 1521.
On the south wall, between two of the arches, which separate the aisle from the nave, is the monument of Christopher Wormall, who died in 1639, and others of his family. On the north wall, those of Robert Marsh, Esq. who died in 1704; Judith, wife of Captain George Ralegh, (Nephew of Sir Walter,) who died in 1710; and that of Colonel Morley, and his son-in-law Bernard Granville, Esq. On the latter is the following inscription:
"Near this place lye interred in the same grave, the bodies of the honourable Col. Cutbert Morley, who was buried on the 30th of June 1669, and of the honourable Bernard Granville, Esq. who espoused Anne, the daughter and heiress of the said Cutbert, and dyed the 14th of June 1701, aged 71 years. As also of the honourable Anne Granville, relict of the said Bernard Granville, and daughter to the said Cutbert Morley, by Catherine, daughter "to Francis Earl of Scarsdale, who dyed the 20th of Sept. following, 1701.
Hic juxta mortales deposuit exuvias Bernardus Granville, inclyti herois Bevilii Granville, qui ad Lansdown in agro Somersetensi, regias tuendo partes fortiter occubuit, filius; Johannis comitis Bathoniæ, frater; nec non serenissimo principis Carolo secundo a camera, cui tunc temporis exulanti prima reditûs auspicatissimi omnia fœlix nuncius apportavit. Uxorem duxit Annam filiam unicam & hæredem Cutberti Morley de Normanby in agro Ebor. ex Catharinâ Francisci comitis de Scarsdale filiâ, quam Annam viduam inconsabilem, præ pio dolore optumi conjugis cum quo hic sortitur tumulum, non diû superstitem reliquit. Hoc cum Cutberto, civili grassante bello, regii juris assertore strenuissimo, fortisque dilapsæ fidissimo comite, amoris ergo in conjugem ac socerum, hic se recondi jussit. Ex prædictis nuptiis suscepit sobolem, Bevilium, Georgium, Bernardum, Annam et Elizabetham. In quorum indole virtutis paternæ supersunt vestigia. Diem ob. supr. Jun. quart. dec. anno mil. sept. primo, ætatis 71."
Over the monument are the arms of Granville—Gules, 3 Clarions Or; impaled with Sab. a leopard's head Arg. jessant de lis Or.
In the north aisle is the tomb of Jane, wife of Captain Willis Machell, who died in 1773.
Near the vestry door, in the south aisle, is a marble slab, to the memory of the celebrated antiquary Elias Ashmole; on it was the following inscription, now so much worn that very few of the words are legible:
"Hic jacet inclytus ille et eruditissimus Elias Ashmole Lichfeldiensis, armiger. Inter alia in republicâ munera, tributi in cervisias contrarotulator, fecialis autem Windsoriensis titulo per annos plurimos dignatus: qui post connubia duo in uxorem duxit "tertiam, Elizabetham, Gulielmi Dugdale, militis; garteri principalis regis armorum, filiam, mortem obiit 18 Maii 1692, anno ætatis 76; sed durante Musæo Ashmoliano Oxon. nunquam moriturus."
In the same aisle is the tomb of William Broughton, Esq. who died in 1715.
Over the gallery are the monuments of John Goston, Esq. who died in 1686; Sir Peter Rich, Knight, who died in 1692; William Hammond, Esq. who died in 1710; John Arundell, who died in 1713; Joseph Pratt, Esq. who died in 1754, and others of that family; and John Morris, Esq. who died in 1781. Under the gallery, against the east wall, is a tablet, to the memory of Richard Lawrence, merchant, who died in 1661.—At the end of the inscription is the following singular line:
"Absalom had no sons, and he built him a pillar."
Against the east wall is a small monument, to the memory of Anne Tydnam, wife, first of Thomas Marshall, and afterwards of John Mannynge. She died in 1583. The figures of herself, her two husbands and children, are cut in freestone, upon a flat surface, in imitation of the brass plates. Against the north wall of the nave is a tablet to the memory of Thomas Theobald, merchant, who died in 1721.—On flat stones are inscriptions to the memory of Jane, wife of Edward Moore, Esq. of Stockwell, who died in 1780, and of Thomas Tolson, Esq. who died in 1788.
At the west end of the church, against the south wall, is the
monument of Nathaniel Hookes, Esq. who died in 1712. In the
passage between the church and the palace is the tomb of Archbishop Secker, over which is the following inscription:
Archbishop of Canterbury,
Died Aug. 3, 1768, aged 75."
In the church-yard is the monument (fn. 96) of John Tradescant, which
was erected in 1662, and repaired by subscription in 1773, when
the following inscription was restored:
"Know, stranger, ere thou pass, beneath this stone
Lye John Tradescant, grandsire, father, son;
The last dy'd in his spring; the other two
Liv'd till they had travell'd art and nature through,
As by their choice collections may appear,
Of what is rare in land, in seas, in air;
Whist they (as Homer's Iliad in a nut)
A world of wonders in one closet shut:
These famous antiquarians that had been
Both gardeners to the rose and lily queen,
Transplanted now themselves, sleep here; and when
Angels shall, with their trumpets awaken men,
And fire shall purge the world, these hence shall rise
And change their garden for a paradise."
Tombs in the church-yard.
In the church-yard are also (among others) the tombs of Jacob Duché, Esq. of Philadelphia, who died in 1708; John Ransum, Esq. who died in 1746; Daniel Buffington, Esq. who died in 1780; William Faden, the original printer of the Public Ledger, who died in 1783; Samuel Swabey, Esq. who died in 1790; Francis Wood, Esq. who died in 1783; Captain Wilson, who died in 1785; the Reverend Alexander Mair, who died in 1781; William Chilwell, Esq. who died in 1731; Frances, wife of Thomas Baker, Esq. who died in 1781; Mr. Peter Buscarlett, who died in 1761, and others of his family; Hugh Hancock, son of John Hancock, Prebendary of Canterbury, who died in 1752; Mr. Richmond Thornycroft, who died in 1771; Thomas Green, Esq. who died in 1779, and others of his family; Fenwick Lyddall, Esq. of London, who died in 1781; Ann, wife of Thomas Connor, Esq. and Sarah, wife of the Reverend Francis Kelly Maxwell, who both died in 1780.
Against the south wall of the church, near the door, is a tablet, to the memory of Mr. William Bacon, who was killed by a flash of lightning, July 12th, 1787.
The burial-ground in the High-street was consecrated in the year 1705 by Archbishop Tenison, who gave it to the parish. The ceremonial of the consecration is inserted at length in his Register (fn. 97).
Amongst the tombs in this cemetery are those of the following persons: Mary, wife of Clement Preston, Esq. of Horton, in the county of Gloucester, who died in 1771; John Pritchard, Esq. who died in 1776; Keturah, wife of the Reverend Primat Kemp, Rector of Shenley, Bucks, who died in 1789; Henry Baylis, Gent. of Stroud, in the county of Gloucester, who died in 1789; and William Milton, an engraver, who died in 1790.
The advowson of the Rectory of Lambeth belonged to the monks of Rochester, under the grant of William the Conqueror, till the exchange took place between that church and the Archbishop of Canterbury, since which time it has been the property of his successors. In 1291, it was taxed at forty-five marks, exclusive of a pension of five marks paid to the Bishop of Rochester (fn. 98). This pension was procured by Gilbert de Glanville, in the year 1196, as a compensation for certain profits which he received out of the manor of Lambeth (fn. 99) :—it is still paid. It was presented at the inquisition at Kingston (in the year 1658) before the committee appointed to inquire into the state of ecclesiastical benefices, that Mr. John Rawlinson was then Rector of Lambeth; that the profits of the rectory were about 190l. per annum; that several houses in the parish of Lambeth were above two miles from the parish church, and scarcely two furlongs from that of Camberwell; and that many houses in Norwood were about four miles distant from Lambeth, and not more than two from Stretham. The Commissioners, however, who were vested with powers to unite, or separate parishes, did not think fit to divide these hamlets from Lambeth (fn. 100). The rectory is valued in the King's books at 32l. 15 s. 7½d. A parsonage-house was built by act of parliament in the year 1778 (fn. 101).
Rectors. Gilbert de Glanville.
Gilbert de Glanville, Bishop of Rochester, and Lord Chief Justice of England, was instituted to the rectory of Lambeth in the year 1196 (fn. 102); the same year in which he procured the pension out of the rectory for his successors in the see of Rochester. It is not improbable, therefore, that he accepted of the living to facilitate that design.
Thomas de Eltesle.
Thomas de Eltesle, chaplain to Archbishop Stratford, was instituted in 1348 (fn. 103), and was the first master of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge (fn. 104).
Henry, Bishop of Joppa.
Henry, Bishop of Joppa, erroneously called, in the History of Lambeth, Henry Jopper, or Joppen, was instituted in 1471 (fn. 105).
John Porye, instituted in 1563 (fn. 106), translated Leo's History of Africa (fn. 107).
Thomas Blague, instituted in 1576 (fn. 108), was Dean of Rochester, and author of some sermons (fn. 109). There is reason for supposing that he had a share in writing the Antiquities of the Church of England, a book which goes under Archbishop Parker's name, and is generally supposed to have been the work of various learned persons, who were entertained under his roof, and employed by him in divers useful publications. In a letter from Edward Deering to the Lords, in which he endeavours to exculpate himself from the charge of prophesying that Parker would be the last Archbishop of Canterbury, he says, that Mr. Blague commending, in his presence, a work that he was about of the Archbishops of Canterbury, he (Mr. Deering) said, that he would do well to be somewhat long in the life of the present Archbishop, as peradventure he was the last that would sit in that place (fn. 110).
Daniel Featley, who was instituted in 1618, was a native of Oxfordshire, and a fellow of Corpus Christi College. He commenced his career as an author with a little tract called, A Handmaid to Devotion, which was well received. He afterwards entered into the field of controversy, in which his pen became constantly engaged. At a time when the cause of religion was one of the greatest pretexts for civil commotion, this could not fail of rendering him a distinguished character. Featley was in principles a Calvinist; the editors of the Biographia (fn. 111) call him an eminent Puritan divine. In many points, indeed, he is said to have favoured that party, and to have been much caressed by them, as they thought that considerable support might be derived from his learning and character (fn. 112). In 1642 he was appointed one of the assembly of divines, and, whilst he sat there, was employed by the House of Commons to review St. Paul's Epistles, and to make marginal annotations and expositions (fn. 113). He adhered, however, too much to the forms and establishments of the church of England to continue long in favour with a party of men who were conspiring its destruction. He was soon afterwards articled against before the committee for plundered ministers, by whom he was voted out of his living of Lambeth. From this sentence, which was given at a very small meeting, he appealed, and was restored by a full committee, who passed a censure upon the articles which had been exhibited against him (fn. 114). About this time it happened, that a letter of Dr. Featley's to Archbishop Usher, then at Oxford, was intercepted. In this letter, which it must be owned does not reflect much credit upon his disinterestedness, he desires the Archbishop to represent to the King, that he was secretly his friend; that he kept his seat in the assembly of divines only to render him service; and concludes with a request, that he might be promoted to the first vacant Bishopric or Deanery (fn. 115). Upon this discovery, the committee were so far exasperated against him, that in their resentment they forgot justice and consistency, for they punished him upon the very articles which they had before voted false and scandalous (fn. 116). He was thereupon deprived again of his church preferment, and committed a prisoner to Petre-house (fn. 117). After some months strict confinement, being in a very infirm state of health, he was permitted to go upon bail to Chelsea college, of which he was Provost (fn. 118). He died there April 17, 1645, in the 61st year of his age, and was buried at Lambeth on the 21st. His funeral sermon, which is extant, was preached by Dr. Leo; the same, says a journalist of that time (fn. 119), who preached on "Adam, where art thou?" when one Mr. Adams answered, "Loe, here am I." Dr. Leo, in his sermon, speaks very highly of Dr. Featley's character, from an intimacy of many years, gives a little sketch of his life, and takes some pains to confute a report of his being insane in his last illness. One of the parliamentary writers, who cannot be suspected of partiality towards Featley, speaks of him as a man "famous for learning, and for his great pains-taking in confuting of the most dangerous and pestilential tenets of the priests, jesuits, and ana"baptists (fn. 120)." Dr. Featley published the lives of Bishop Jewell and Archbishop Abbot, and very numerous controversial tracts (fn. 121).
John White, who procured the living of Lambeth after Dr. Featley's deprivation, usually went by the name of Patriarch White of Dorchester. He was esteemed one of the most moderate and learned among the Puritans. Dr. Featley's library was given him till he should recover his own books, which had been seised by Prince Rupert. White published "Directions for studying the Scriptures;" Commentaries on the two first chapters of Genesis, and a few small tracts (fn. 122).
Robert Pory, instituted to the rectory in 1663, was one of the most remarkable pluralists of his time. Poor Robin's Almanack, which was first published in that year, is said to have been so called in ridicule of him. In the first page was "Imprimatur, Robert "Pory (fn. 123)."
Thomas Tomkyns, who published several loyal pamphlets, succeeded Pory (fn. 124).
George Hooper succeeded the last-mentioned incumbent, and resigned the rectory in 1703, on being made Bishop of St. Asaph. He was soon afterwards translated to Bath and Wells, in which see he continued till his death, which happened in 1727. Bishop Hooper published a collection of sermons, several theological works, and a treatise on ancient weights and measures (fn. 125).
The next rector of Lambeth was Edmund Gibson, afterwards Bishop of London, well-known in the learned world for his many excellent and useful publications; particularly the Codex, or Body of Ecclesiastical Law, and an edition of Camden's Britannia.
John Denne, D. D. instituted to this living in 1731, was Archdeacon of Rochester, the archives of which church he arranged with great care and diligence, and made considerable collections towards its history, with a view to publication. Dr. Denne was chaplain to Bishop Bradford, whose daughter he married. He died in 1767, aged 75. Several of his sermons are extant (fn. 126).
The present rector of Lambeth is the Reverend William Vyse, LL. D. who was instituted in 1777, on the resignation of Dr. Beilby Porteus, the present Bishop of London, then promoted to the bishopric of Chester.
A chantry was founded in the church of Lambeth in the year 1312 by Thomas Romayne; and endowed with six marks annual rent, issuing out of certain houses in London, after the death of his wife Juliana (fn. 127).
Another chantry was founded by John Wynter, lord of the manor of Stockwell, at what period does not appear; it was restored by Ralph Legh, lord of the same manor, in the reign of Henry VI. and endowed with 10l. annual rent (fn. 128). Sir John Legh granted the lands which had belonged to this chantry to Henry VIII (fn. 129).
The parish register commences in the year 1539, and, excepting a few deficiencies in the latter part of the last century, appears to have been very accurately kept.
Comparative state of population.
|Average of Baptisms.||Average of Burials.|
|1680–1689||about 185||about 265|
The period of 1680—1689 is not quite perfect in the register, but the average may be calculated pretty nearly at the numbers set down. It may be observed, that the burials have uniformly exceeded the baptisms; and that they have both increased, from the first period to the time of the last average, in a ratio of nearly 7 to 1. In the period of 1780—1789, the average of baptisms, during the last five years, exceeds that of the former five by 74; that of burials being nearly equal. By an account taken in the beginning of the present century, it appears, that the parish of Lambeth then contained 1400 houses. In 1778 the houses, being numbered by Mr. Middleton, amounted to 2270. In October 1788 they were numbered again, and were found to be increased to 3759. At Michaelmas 1791, the number was 4030. The present number is about 4150, including those which are empty; building; or newly built, and not yet inhabited; these are calculated at nearly 500. The building of Westminster-bridge may be considered as the æra when the rapid increase of the population of this parish commenced. The workhouse, which is under very excellent regulations, contains about 300 persons.
In 1603 there were 566 burials, of which 522 were in the last six months. Twelve corses were frequently buried in one night, sometimes fourteen. In 1625 there were 623 burials; in 1665, 753; the greatest mortality prevailed in the autumn of each year, as may be seen by the following table:
|In July||61||In July||25|
Miscellaneous Extracts from the Register.
"Oct. 8, 1545, Sir George Corne the curate buried."
Agnes Duchess of Norfolk.
"Oct. 13, my Lady Agnes olde Dutchesse Norf. buried." This Duchess of Norfolk was daughter of Hugh Tilney, Esq. and sister and heir of Sir Philip Tilney. She was second wife of Thomas Earl of Surrey, who was created Duke of Norfolk in 1513 (fn. 130). This entry relates perhaps to the celebration of her funeral. She was buried at Thetford.
"May 11, 1554, the Lady Bridgewater buried." Catherine, daughter of Thomas Duke of Norfolk by his second wife, was married to Henry Daubeney Earl of Bridgewater (fn. 131).
Elizabeth Duchess of Norfolk.
"Dec. 8, 1558, the Dutchess of Norfolk buried." She was the second wife of Thomas Howard, the second Duke of Norfolk of that name, and was daughter of Edward Stafford Duke of Buckingham (fn. 132).
Countess of Oxford.
"Feb. 22, 1558–9, my Lady of Oxford was buried." Anne daughter of Thomas Duke of Norfolk married John Vere Earl of Oxford (fn. 133).
"Nov. 29, 1559, Cutbert Tunstall a Popish Byshop was buried." Bishop Tunstall was a striking instance of the vicissitudes of fortune; being deprived, restored, and deprived again. Unlike most of his brethren in the reign of the cruel Mary, he behaved with great moderation and humanity towards the members of the reformed church. On the accession of Queen Elizabeth he was sent to Lambeth-house in the month of July 1559, and committed to the free custody of Archbishop Parker, who treated him with the utmost kindness and humanity; and at his death, which happened on the 18th of November following, buried him at his own expence in Lambeth church (fn. 134). Bishop Tunstall wrote several theological treatises.
The following epitaph, written by Dr. Haddon, was inscribed upon
"Anglia Cutbertum Tunstallum mæsta requirit
Cujus summa domi laus erat atque foris,
Rhetor, arithmeticus, jurisconsultus et æqui,
Legatusque suit; denique præful erat,
Annorum satur et magnorum plenus honorum,
Vertitur in cineres aureus iste senex.
"Vixit annos 75.—Obiit 18 Novem. 1559."
"Aug. 18, 1570, buried the right worshipful vertuous and godlye matron mistress Margaret Parker, late wife of the most reverent father in God Matthew Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, and lieth in the south chapel called the Dutchess of Norfolk's chapell." Mrs. Parker had purchased the inheritance of the Duke of Norfolk's house, to which this chapel belonged. The Archbishop, who wrote a treatise on the lawfulness of priests marrying, was privately married to her before the statute which enjoined celibacy to the clergy was repealed (fn. 135). Queen Elizabeth, who could never be reconciled to this part of the reformation, is said to have expressed her dislike of it thus rudely, upon taking her leave of Mrs. Parker, after having been sumptuously entertained at Lambeth:—"Madam I may not call you, Mistress I am ashamed to call you; yet as I know not what to call you, yet I thank you (fn. 136)."
"1570, Aug. 28 daie, buried Mr. Thomas Thurlebye, Doctor of the civil lawe, borne in Cambridge, and student sometyme of Trynity Hall there, and sometyme Bushop of Westminster, afterwards Bushop of Norwich; and in Q. Marye's daies Bushop of Elye; who in the tyme of the noble Kinge Edward, prosessed the truthe of the Holy Gospell; and afterwards, in the tyme of "Queene Mary, returned to papistry, and so continued in the same to his end; and died the Quene's Majes prisoner within my L. Grace's house at Lambeth." Bishop Thirleby was introduced at court by Archbishop Cranmer (fn. 137), and was a favourite with Henry VIII. who employed him in some foreign embassies. He was the first and only Bishop of Westminster. Queen Mary joined him with Bonner in the commission for burning his former patron Archbishop Cranmer, over whom it is said that he shed tears, whilst his companion acted the part of an unfeeling inquisitor (fn. 138). Thirleby was ten years a prisoner in Lambeth-house, where he was treated with great humanity; and at his death his remains were laid by those of his fellow-prisoner Tunstall, in the chancel of Lambeth church; the following short inscription was placed over his grave:
"Hic jacet Thomas Thirlebye, Olim Eps Elien.
"Qui ob. 26 Aug. Anno Domini 1570."
Upon opening the ground a few years ago for the burial of Archbishop Cornwallis, Bishop Thirleby's body was found entire in a leaden coffin. It was wrapped in fine linen. The face was perfect; the beard white, and of great length. On the head was a silk cap, adorned with point lace; a slouched hat with strings was under the arm. The coffin was properly closed up again, and has been covered with a brick arch (fn. 139).
"June 6, 1575, was buried the Right Reverend Father in God Matthew Archbishop of Canterbury." Archbishop Parker's bowels were deposited near the remains of his wife and son in the Howard chapel (fn. 140); his body, as mentioned before, was interred in the chapel of the palace.
"1589, May the first daye, buried Mr. Andrew Perne, Doctor." Doctor Perne (fn. 141) was a native of Norfolk, Dean of Ely, and Master of Peter-House Cambridge. He is accused of having changed his religion four times in twelve years; it is acknowledged at the same time, that by his influence he saved many innocent persons from the flames. Dr. Perne was much given to jesting, of which the following instance is told among many others:—One day he happened to call a clergyman a fool, who was not totally undeserving of the title; but who resented the indignity so highly, that he threatened to complain to his diocesan the Bishop of Ely.—"Do," says the Doctor, "and he will confirm you." Fuller (fn. 142) tells an extraordinary story relating to Dr. Perne's death, which he attributes to the mortification he received from a jest passed upon him by the Queen's fool:—The Doctor was at court one day with Archbishop Whitgist, who had been his pupil. The afternoon was rainy, yet the Queen was resolved to ride abroad, contrary to the inclination of the ladies of the court, who were to attend her on horseback. They employed Clod, therefore, the Queen's jester, to dissuade her majesty from so inconvenient a journey. Clod readily undertook the task, and addressed her majesty thus:—"Heaven dissuades you, it is cold and wet; "earth dissuades you, it is moist and dirty. Heaven dissuades you, this heavenly-minded man Archbishop Whitgist; and earth dissuades you, your fool Clod, such a lump of clay as myself; and if neither will prevail, here is one who is neither heaven nor earth but hangs between both, Dr. Perne, and he also dissuades you." "Hereat, says Fuller, the Queen and the courtiers laughed heartily, whilst the Doctor looked sadly; and going over with his Grace to Lambeth, soon died."
Dr. Richard Cosin.
"Dec. 1, 1597, Richard Cosen, Dean of the Arches, buried." Dr. Cosin is spoken of as a very learned man and a general scholar. He never published any thing except a Defence of the High Commission Court. There is a life of him by Bishop Barlow, who had been his pupil, and who was educated at his expence (fn. 143).
"Nov. 3, 1610, the Right Reverend Father in God, Richard Bancrost Archbishop of Canterbury, buried." Archbishop Bancrost died at Lambeth on the 2d of November. By his will he ordered his body to be buried in the chancel of the church there, within fifty hours after his decease; and that Abbot, Bishop of London, Harsnet, Bishop of Chichester, or one of his chaplains, should be desired to preach his funeral sermon in Lambeth church within a month, and make such mention of him as might tend to God's glory (fn. 144).
Dr. Simon Forman.
"Sept. 12, 1611, Simon Forman, Gent. buried." This was Forman the celebrated astrologer; he was of a very respectable family, being the grandson of Sir Thomas Forman of Leeds, Knt. and great-grandson of another Sir Thomas Forman. He was born at Quidham in Wiltshire in 1552, and was apprenticed to a druggift in Salisbury. He afterwards set up a school there, and having acquired the sum of forty shillings, set off to Oxford, where he became a poor scholar at Magdalen College, and continued there two years. He then applied himself to the study of physic and astrology; and after having travelled to Holland for that purpose, settled in Philpot Lane, where his practice was opposed by the physicians, and he was four times fined and imprisoned. To obviate these difficulties he went to study at Cambridge, where he took a doctor's degree, and got a licence to practice; being thus fortified against all future attacks, he settled at Lambeth, where he openly prosessed the joint occupation of a physician and astrologer. "Here he lived," says Lilly (fn. 145), "with good respect of the neighbourhood, being very "charitable to the poor, and was very judicious and fortunate in horary questions and sicknesses." He was much resorted to by all ranks of people; among others, the famous Countess of Effex applied to him for his assistance in her wicked designs, and wrote many letters to him, in which she calls him "dear father," and subscribes herself "your affectionate daughter, Frances Essex (fn. 146)." Lilly says, that Forman would frequently lock himself up in his study to avoid her; but the contrary appeared upon the trials of the Countess of Essex and Mrs. Anne Turner, for the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury. Upon the Countess's trial, a book of Dr. Forman's was produced, in which he made all his visitors write their names with their own hands before he would proceed to exercise his art. It is said that the recital of the names produced much mirth in the court, producing many unexpected discoveries, and that the Chief Justice Coke sound his own lady's name upon the first leaf (fn. 147). A strange story of Dr. Forman's death is thus told by Lilly:—"The Sunday night before he died, his wife and he being at supper in their gardenhouse, she being pleasant, told him that she had been informed he could resolve whether man or wife should die first. Whether shall I (quoth she) bury you or no? Oh, Trunco, (for so he called her,) thou wilt bury me, but thou wilt sore repent it. Yea, but how long first? I shall die, said he, ere Thursday night. Monday came; all was well. Tuesday came; he was not sick. Wednesday came, and still he was well; with which his impertinent wife did twit him in the teeth. Thursday came, and dinner was ended, he very well; he went down to the water-side and took a pair of oars to go to some buildings he was in hand with in Puddle Dock. Being in the middle of the Thames, he presently fell down, only saying, an impost, an impost, and so died; a most sad storm of wind immediately ensued (fn. 148)." He died worth one thousand two hundred pounds, and left one son named Clement. Dr. Forman published several books, on the philosopher's stone, magic, astrology, natural history, and natural philosophy; two treatises on the plague, and some religious tracts (fn. 149). Some of his MSS. on astrology are in the British Museum (fn. 150). The study of that science, which is now consined to a few illiterate impostors, was then prosessed and countenanced by persons of the greatest learning and respectability. Dr. Forman's pupil and successor was Dr. Napier, rector of Lindford in Buckinghamshire, and son of Sir Robert Napier of Luton Hoo. He is said to have surpassed his master in physic and holiness, to have conversed with the angel Raphael, and to have cured diseases by constellated rings (fn. 151). We have had empirics and enthusiasts of late who have prosessed to cure diseases by means as extraordinary, and who have had their pretended conferences with angels; nor have there been wanting those who have been credulous enough to listen to them. Dr. Napier's papers came into the hands of Mr. Ashmole, and are now in the Museum at Oxford. Lilly says, he was present when Dr. Napier invocated several angels; but he does not tell us that they obeyed his call; he says also, that he instructed several ministers in astrology, whom he protected by his interest with the Earl of Bolingbroke (fn. 152).
Lambeth seems to have been famous for the residence of astrologers. Contemporary with Dr. Forman was a Captain Bubb, who lived in the Marsh; not having been so successful in his practice as his neighbours, he got into the pillory, and ended his days in disgrace (fn. 153). Francis Moore, the original author of the almanac which still goes by his name, resided at Lambeth also, where he practised as an astrologer (fn. 154).
"Jan. 29, 1617–8, Hoc tempore obiit Sir William Foster, Knt. whose bowels were buried here." Sir William Foster was buried at Wandsworth.
Sir Noel Caron.
"Jan. 25, 1624–5, Sir Noel Caron, embassador from the United Provinces, buried." Sir Noel Caron's funeral certificate expresses, that he was leger ambassador from the States of the Netherlands to the English court, for the space of 33 or 34 years, in which time he performed that place with much honour and good to his own country and state here. He died at his house at Lambeth, Dec. 1, 1624, and was buried with due solemnity in the chancel of the church there. Archbishop Abbot preached his funeral sermon.
"Feb. 22, 1671, Milo Smith, Esq. Secretary to the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, buried." He was secretary to Archbishop Sheldon, and wrote a practical paraphrase on the Psalms (fn. 155).
"Jan. 16, 1673, Eliz. daughter of Thomas Blood, buried." I imagine this to be the famous Col. Thomas Blood, so well known for his daring attempt on the regalia in the Tower, and his attack on the Duke of Ormond. He was pardoned, set at liberty, and, strange to tell! had a pension allowed him about the year 1671 (fn. 156).
"Jan. 22, 1701, Bernard Granville, Esq. buried." He was father of the celebrated Lord Lansdowne, and son of Sir Beville Granville, who was slain near Bath in the civil wars. He was the person entrusted with the last dispatches from General Monk to Charles II. which contained the invitation to return and take possession of his kingdom (fn. 157).
In 1709 are several entries of the burial of Palatine children and women, and again in 1749 (fn. 158).
"Dec. 16, 1715, Thomas Tenison, Lord Bishop, buried." Archbishop Tenison published a pamphlet against Hobbes, and a treatise on the Difference between Idolatry and Superstition. At eighty years of age he put the crown upon the head of George I. (fn. 159) By his will he directed his body to be buried in a private manner in the chancel of Lambeth church, and requested that no other inscription than what now appears should be put upon his tomb.
"Jan. 1, 1757, Thomas Cooke, Gent. South Lambeth, buried." Thomas Cooke was the son of an innkeeper in Essex. He became an author at an early period of life. A translation of Hesiod, from which he obtained the name of Hesiod Cooke, has been reckoned his best work. He attacked Pope in a poem entitled, The Battle of the Poets, which procured him a niche in the Dunciad. His dramatic productions, some of which were acted at Drury Lane, were by no means successful. His other works consisted of various odes, a volume of poems, the life of Andrew Marvel, translations of Terence and Cicero, an edition of Virgil, and some treatises on religious subjects, written in the unitarian principles. He undertook a translation of Plautus, which was never completed, and was for some years author of the Craftsman. Cooke came to live at South Lambeth in 1740, where he remained till his death. He died in great poverty, and was interred in the burial ground in High-street, by a subscription, set on foot by Sir Joseph Mawbey; the remainder of which was given to his wife and daughter. Mrs. Cooke survived him only a few months, and his daughter, whose imprudence had driven her into Lambeth workhouse, died there the ensuing year. Sir Joseph Mawbey has three volumes of Cooke's MSS. in folio, and a tragedy called Germanicus.
"Mar. 5, 1757, Edward Moore, Gent. South Lambeth, buried." Mr. Moore was the son of a dissenting minister at Abingdon. He is well known by his dramatic performances of the Foundling and the Gamester; by his Female Fables, and other poems, particularly "the "Trial of Selim the Persian." He was author also of a periodical publication called the World, in which he was assisted by some eminent literary characters, who are yet living. Whilst he was engaged in this publication, he resided at South Lambeth in a house now occupied by Mr. Graham. He died there a few days after the last number came out, and was buried in the burial ground in High-street.
"May 27, 1758, the most Reverend Father in God, Matthew Hutton, Archbishop of Canterbury, buried."
"Aug. 9, 1768, the most Rev. Father in God, Thomas Secker, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, buried." Archbishop Secker was buried, at his own request, in the passage which leads from the church to the palace; and he strictly forbad any monument or inscription being placed over his grave. An excellent Life of the Archbishop, written by Dr. Porteus the present Bishop of London, is prefixed to his sermons. Archbishop Secker is well known to all the friends of Christianity by his admirable lectures on the church catechism.
"Mar. 27, 1783, Frederic Cornwallis, Archbishop of Canterbury, buried."
Countess de la Motte.
"Aug. 26, 1791, Jean St. Rymer de Valois, Countess de la Motte, buried." This unfortunate lady, who is well known for the share she had in some mysterious transactions which took place a few years ago in the court of France, ended her days in great misery and distress in this parish. A few weeks before her death, in order to avoid the bailiffs, she jumped from a two-pair of stairs window, by which rash act she broke her thigh, and was otherwise terribly maimed. A Life of the Countess, said to be written by herself, has lately been published in two volumes.
Instances of longevity.
The following instances of longevity occur in the parish register.
"Nov. 4, 1704, buried Joana Keys, widow; 104 at her death."
"Jan. 8, 1738–9, Elizabeth Bateman, aged 102, from Kennington Lane, buried."
"Jan. 22, 1788, William Cobb, aged 101 years, buried."
To these may be added a few instances of aged persons, who are said to have died in this parish, taken from other sources of information.
"June 28, 1736, died Mr. Thomas Drayman, at Vauxhall, in the 106th year of his age. He was formerly a surgeon in the royal navy. He had a quick ear, good sight, and wrote a very good hand to the last (fn. 160).
"Jan. 20, 1743, died at Lambeth, Mr. Wills, aged 102 (fn. 161).
"In April 1743, died at Stockwell, aged 102, Mr. Horn, formerly an eminent grocer in Southwark (fn. 162).
"May 16, 1749, died at Lambeth, Mrs. Hellings, a widow gentlewoman, aged 103 years (fn. 163).
"Mrs. Margaret Baise, a widow lady, died at Stockwell in June 1777, aged 107 (fn. 164)."
The benefactions to this parish have been liberal and numerous. About 800l. has been bequeathed to the poor by various persons, of which Col. John Bingham left 100l.; Sir Noel Caron, 50l.; Esther Tradescant, 50l.; Archbishop Juxon, 100l.; and the Archbishops Parker, Grindall, Whitgift, Bancroft, Abbot, Laud, Sheldon, Tillotson, and Tenison, various sums.
Sir Noel Caron, in the year 1622, built and endowed seven almshouses for poor women. They are situated near the road which leads to Kingston, not far from Vauxhall turnpike. Over the gate is a Latin inscription, signifying that they were founded by Sir Noel de Caron in the year 1622, the 32d year of his embassy. The present income of these alms-houses is 28l. per annum, exclusive of a legacy of 1100l. which was bequeathed to them by the Dowager Lady Gower in the year 1773.
Major Richard Lawrence, in the year 1661, founded ànd endowed a school for twenty boys of the Marsh liberty. A master and four overseers are to be chosen by the parish. This school is now incorporated with another in the Back-lane, which was instituted in 1731, and supported by the voluntary contributions of the inhabitants; the number of boys now educated therein is fifty, a certain proportion of whom are annually put out apprentices. Archbishop Tenison, in the year 1704, founded and endowed a school for the education of twelve girls. Another charity-school for girls was instituted by subscription about two years ago, which has met with very liberal support; a house has been built for the purpose, and thirty children are now educated there.
The following are the principal annual benefactions to the parish. A person unknown left a piece of land called formerly the Church Hope, or Hopys, now Pedlar's Acre. In the year 1504, it produced only 2s. 8d. per annum; it is now let on lease at the yearly rent of 110l. and is capable of further improvements. A fine of 800l. was received by the parish upon granting the lease in 1752. Edmund Walcot gave the ground on which Walcot Place is now built; it was valued at 26l. per annum, and is now let at 84l. 10s. 0d. Mr. Henry Smith left 10l. per annum to buy coats and gowns for the poor. Ralph Snowe left the interest of 100l. to buy bibles for poor children. Mr. Bryan Turberville left the interest of 100l. to which his son and daughter added another 100l. to apprentice two poor children. The conditions of the legacy were, that the children should not be apprenticed to chimney-sweepers, watermen, or fishermen; that no Roman catholics should enjoy any benefits of the charity, and that the rector and churchwardens should always keep in good repair a tablet on the outside of the church tower, setting forth the particulars of the bequest. The tablet is affixed to the south side of the tower, and the inscription is very legible. Divers other small annual benefactions have been left to the parish. Their objects are various; some are left to the poor without specifying any particular purpose; some are appropriated to such of the poor as do not receive alms; some to apprentice children; others to educate them; and others to buy bread and clothes for the poor. The whole income of the parish estates at the present rents, as specified in the table which hangs up in the vestry, amounts to about 370l. per annum. The deeds and other writings relating to them are kept in a large chest, arranged in a very methodical manner.
In the same place are deposited the parish accounts, which commence in the year 1504; after the ensuing year there is a chasm till the year 1516, from which period they are complete down to the present time. Having, by the permission of the rector and churchwardens, examined the more ancient books, I here subjoin some curious extracts, which differ from those already given from the parish accounts at Kingston. It is to be observed, that no traces of the games of the Kyngham or Robinhood are to be met with in these books.
|"1505. Received of my Lady Lysle's chapleyn, for wast of torches at the christening of the steward's childe||0||0||8|
|1514. For halowing the vestments||0||1||8|
|1515. Received of the men for oke money||0||5||7|
|— — — of the wyffs for oke money||0||15||1|
|1516. To James Calcot for payntyng of Judas||0||0||6|
|A labourer's wages per diem||0||0||5|
|Paid for dyinge of buckram for the letty clothes (fn. 165)||0||0||8|
|— for paynting of the lettny clothes||0||0||8|
|— for lynynge of the lettne clothes||0||0||4|
|"Recd of the gaderynge of the churchwarden's weyffes on Hoke Monday (fn. 166)||0||8||3|
|1519. For a quarter of colls to make the halowyd fire||0||0||7|
|— For two small boltts of yern to the sepulker||0||0||2|
|— Paid for smoke money at Seynt Mare Eves (fn. 167)||0||2||6|
|— Item, for garlonds and drynk for the chylderne on Trenyte even||0||0||6|
|— To Spryngwell and Smyth for syngyng with the procession on Trenete Sonday even||0||0||12|
|— Item, for four onssys of garnesyng rebonds at 9d the ounce||0||3||0|
|1522. Paid Calcot for St. Christopher's banner (fn. 168)||0||4||8|
|1523. For the Bishop's dynner and hys company on Saynt Nycolas' day (fn. 169)||0||2||8|
|1523. Paid for candylls when the chapell was halow'd||0||0||2|
|"Temp. Phil. & Mary. Paid to Jamys Calcott for washing owth the scriptures owth of the clothe that hangyd before the rood lofte||0||3||4|
|— A staff for Judas crosse||0||0||4|
|Paid to Mr. Lee of Adynton, for a coope of blew velfet with marlyans of gold, and a sewte of vestments of the same for prest, deacon, and subdeacon||3||6||8|
|— Paid to the ringers on the 19 daye of September, when the Quene's grace came into Lambet church||0||0||4|
|— When tydyngs came that the Quene was brought a bed (fn. 170)||0||0||6|
|— When the Quene's grace came from Westminster to Lambet in the monet of July||0||0||6|
|— To the women that made garlands||0||0||9|
|— For a holy water sprynkill||0||0||2|
|— To the waytes of London for coming home with our procession from St. George's church||0||2||0|
|7 Eliz. Paid the ringers when the Queen went to Nonsuch||0||2||0|
|— When the Queen's matie went to the Erle of Sussex||0||1||4|
|1570. Recd of the vestments and copes, sold by consent of the parish—For the borders of the herse-cloth and for the images taken out of the communion cloths—Sold to John Hamond||0||3||4|
|1570. For the white satin that was the cross in the black clothe||0||0||8|
|— For a sepulcre cloth of white sarsnet, sold to Mr. Oliver St. John||1||0||0|
|— For a canopy cloth of red velvet with starrs embroidered, and bullions of silver and gilt||2||10||0|
|— Paid for a dinner at the King's-head (fn. 171), at the sale of vestments for divers of the worshipful of the parish||1||0||0|
|1571. When the Queen's matie rode about the fields||0||1||0|
|— At the overthrow of the Tourck (fn. 172)||0||1||0|
|— At the Queen's matie going to my Lord of Sissix 2 times||0||3||4|
|1573. When the Queen's matie was in St. George's Fields||0||1||0|
|1575. When the Queen's matie toke her horse here||0||2||6|
|1578. For two books of the order set forth by the Queen's magesty for the plague||0||0||6|
|— For our charges when we went before the commissioners for the said order||0||1||0|
|— To poore women that were sworn there||0||0||4|
|1583. When the Queen's grace came from Richmond to Bansbie-house||0||3||4|
|1583. Spent at our goinge about to inquire for those that came not to churche, and for other honest men with us (fn. 173)||0||7||0|
|Paid for ringing when the Queen's majesty dined at Clapham (fn. 174) and went to Greenwich||0||3||4|
|1585.—When the Queen removed from Greenwich to Barnelms, July 11 (fn. 175)||0||2||6|
|— For ringing when the Queen of Scots was put to death||0||1||1|
|Dec. 21. For ringing when the Queen came to my Lord Borowe's (fn. 176), and on the morrowe when she went to Greenwich||0||5||6|
|1587.—— When the Queen came to dine with my Lord Admiral (fn. 177)||0||1||6|
|—— When the Queen dined at Stockwell (fn. 178), when she removed from Greenwich to Richmond||0||3||0|
|1588. To two men for bringing the church armour after breaking up of the campe||0||1||2|
|1589. When the Queen went to my Lord of Warwick, and returned through Lambeth||0||2||0|
|1592. When the Queen went to Sir George Carye's||0||2||0|
|1599. Paid to the ringers the 26 daye and the 27 daye of July, when the Queen came from Greenwich to Foxehalle; the ringers gave their attendance the fyrste day, and her Majestie came not till the next day||0||5||6|
|1601. May 23. To the ringers when the Queen came through Lambeth, and took horse at my Lord of Canterburie's gate||0||4||0|
|—— Aug. 6. When she toke water at Lambeth, and went to the Bishop of London's||0||5||4|
|1602. Ap. 19. When she went through Lambeth to my Lord Chamberlen's||0||2||6|
|1603. To the ringers, being the proclamation day of our noble King||0||7||0|
|1607. For mending the windows where the picture of the Pedlar stands||0||2||0|
|Aug. 22, 1613. To a poor scholar||0||1||6|
|1615. An iron for the hour-glass||0||6||8|
|1629. To a poor minister||0||0||6|
|Feb. 13, 1641. For making a bonfire at his Majesty's going to parliament||0||1||6|
|— Paid for trayning when the mutiny was in Lambeth, against the Archbishop||1||0||0|
|1643. For bedding sent to Kingston for the soldiers, by vertue of a warrant from the Lord General||0||14||6|
|— For taking down the cross of the steeple||0||2||0|
|— For taking down the rails that were about the communion table||0||1||0|
|— To the ringers at the regaining of Lecester (fn. 179)||0||6||0|
The ferry at Lambeth belonged to the Archbishops of Canterbury, as lords of the manor. The profits were usually granted by patent (fn. 180) to some of the officers of the archbishop's household, an annual rent of 16d per annum being reserved, which by degrees increased to 10l. Upon the building of Westminster-bridge the ferry was taken away, and an equivalent given to the see of Canterbury, and to the patentee, for his interest therein (fn. 181).
In Archbishop Islip's register is a licence to the Bishop of Rochester to build a bridge at Stangate (fn. 182), for the convenience of himself and family, and others resorting to his house.
A trench is said to have been cut through the parish of Lambeth by King Canute, for the purpose of conveying his fleet to the west side of London-bridge, to attack the city by water. The editor of the last edition of Aubrey says, that some traces of it were visible in his time (fn. 183). From the increase of new buildings no vestiges thereof are now to be seen, and the conjectures about its course are very various (fn. 184). After all, it is at least as probable that any remains of a trench which might have been visible half a century ago, were of that which was made in the year 1173, for the purpose of altering the course of the river, when London-bridge was rebuilt. This trench is said to have been begun in the east about Rotherhithe, and to have ended about Battersea (fn. 185).
In the History of Lambeth, in the Bibliotheca Topographica, are several ancient commissions for divers persons to survey the banks of the river within the parish of Lambeth, and the adjoining parishes; to take measures for the repair, and to impress such workmen as they should find necessary for that employment (fn. 186).
Norfolk-house, the residence of several of the Howard family, was situated where Norfolk Row now stands. In the Smith's shop belonging to Betts's stocking manufactory, the back part of which is opposite to that row, there is an old chimney-piece formerly belonging to one of the rooms. After the attainder of Thomas Duke of Norfolk, this house came into the hands of the crown, and was granted by Edw. VI. to William Parr, Marquis of Northampton, being then valued at 3l. 10s. 10d. per annum (fn. 187). The Marquis a few years after surrendered it again to the King, in exchange for the Bishop of Winchester's palace in Southwark (fn. 188). In the first year of Queen Mary, it was restored to the Duke of Norfolk (fn. 189), and was inherited by his son Thomas, Earl of Surrey, the poet (fn. 190), who was educated here under the tuition of Leland the celebrated antiquary; and who alienated it to Richard Garth and John Dyster, of whom it was purchased by Matthew Parker, Esq. in trust probably for Mrs. Parker, the Archbishop's lady, whose property it was at the time of her death (fn. 191).
Palace of the Bishops of Hereford.
In Fore-street is said to have been a palace belonging to the Bishops of Hereford, which is now a pottery (fn. 192).
Nearly opposite the south side of the church-yard is an old house which has Archbishop Whitgift's arms painted on glass, with the date of 1595 in some of the windows. It probably was the residence of Dr. Cosin, to whom the Archbishop gave some messuages in Lambeth in the year 1593 (fn. 193).
Oratory at the Checker Inn.
In Bishop Waynfleet's register at Winchester, is a licence to John Calcot, host of the Checker-inn at Lambeth, (dated 1455,) to have an oratory in his house, and a chaplain for the use of his family and guests, as long as it shall continue decent and reputable, and well adapted for the celebration of divine service (fn. 194).
In the Marsh liberty is situated the Asylum, for the reception of orphan girls, an excellent public charity instituted in the year 1758.
Westminster Lying-in Hospital.
In the same liberty is the Westminster-Lying-in Hospital, another public charity, instituted in 1765. As neither of these are otherwise connected with the parish of Lambeth than by their local situation, I shall say nothing farther of their establishment.
Manufactories, &c. Plate-glass.
About the latter end of the last century a manufactory of plate glass was established at Vauxhall in this parish, under the patronage of the Duke of Buckingham; the principal artist was Rossetti. It was carried on with very great success, and the glass was thought to excel that made at Venice, or any other nation. In an advertisement of the year 1700, this manufactory is called the Old Glass-house, known by the name of the Duke of Buckingham's house (fn. 195). Some mills for sawing, smoothing, and polishing of marble, were erected at Vauxhall about the year 1675 (fn. 196), which do not now exist. An extensive callico-printing manufactory has also been removed.
The importation of foreign timber, which for many years has formed a very considerable and important branch of our commerce, has been a source of prodigious wealth to the parish of Lambeth, where there are several wharfs for that trade, supplied with stores that are almost incredible.
At Vauxhall are some very large distilleries, and several potteries. The manufacture of stone earthen-ware pots is said to have been first introduced there from Holland.
Beaufoy's vinegar works.
On the site of Cuper's Gardens are Messrs. Beaufoy's extensive vinegar works. Mr. Pennant, who went over the premises and took the dimensions of the vessels, mentions a vessel full of sweet wine, containing 58,109 gallons, or 1815 barrels of Winchester measure; and another full of vinegar, which contains 56,799 gallons, or 1774 barrels of the same measure; the lesser of which exceeds the famous Heydelberg ton by 40 barrels. Besides these enormous vessels, there are several others which contain from 32,500 to 16,974 gallons each.
In the year 1769 Mrs. Coade established here a manufactory of artificial stone, which is cast in moulds and burnt. It is intended to answer the purpose of stone, for every species of ornamental architecture, at a much cheaper rate than carving. Where it has been placed in exposed situations it has been found to endure the frost very well.
A manufactory for making patent shot was established in this parish about three years ago by Messrs. Watts. The principle of making this shot is, to let it fall from a great height into the water, that it may cool and harden in its passage through the air, so far as to prevent its receiving any pressure by falling into the water; a circumstance attending the common shot, which falls scarcely a yard before it touches the water, and thereby loses in some measure its spherical shape. The height of the tower at the Lambeth manufactory from the ground to the top of the turret, is about 140 feet; the shot falls 123 feet six inches.
About the same time Messrs Boulton, Morgan, and Co. established a manufactory at Lambeth, under the title of the Woollen-yarn Company. Every branch of the clothing manufacture, from the first sorting of the wool to the making of the cloth, is here carried on entirely by machinery. The trade is confined to the coarse sort of cloths, which are exported for the most part to America and the West Indies. The same company are engaged also in the cotton works. About five hundred persons are employed on the premises, above two hundred of whom are children.
About the beginning of the present century there was a place of public entertainment in this parish, called Lambeth Wells. It was situated in a place now known by the name of Lambeth Walk. The avowed purpose of opening it was, on account of a mineral water, which was sold there at 1d. a quart. The music began at seven o'clock in the morning, and the price of admission was 3d. (fn. 197) Several years afterwards a monthly concert was held there, under the direction of Mr. Goodwin, organist at St. Saviour's, Southwark. At the same time, Erasmus King, who had been coachman to Dr. Desaguliers, read lectures and exhibited experiments in natural philosophy, the price of admission being 6d. (fn. 198) In 1752, a penny wedding was advertised to be kept at this place, after the Scotch manner, for the benefit of a young couple (fn. 199). The Wells becoming at length a public nuisance, the proprietor was refused a licence, and the premises were let to a Methodist preacher (fn. 200).
The site of Messrs Beaufoy's distillery was, in 1636, the garden of Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel (fn. 201). The premises were afterwards rented by one Cuper, who had been the Earl's gardener, and from him obtained the name of Cuper's Gardens (fn. 202). They were opened as a place of public diversion about the middle of the present century, and were well frequented, being occasionally honoured with the presence of the Prince and Princess of Wales (fn. 203). They were then kept by a widow, whose name was Evans (fn. 204). The company were entertained with fireworks, illuminations, and music; particularly with the performance of one Jones, a clebrated performer on the harp. The Gardens were suppressed as a place of public diversion in 1753; but the house was kept open for some time as a tavern. In Cuper's Gardens were formerly some mutilated statues, the refuse of the collection brought by the Earl of Arundel from Italy. These fragments were drawn and engraved for the last edition of Aubrey's Antiquities of Surrey. The greater part of them were removed in the year 1717, having been purchased by Mr. Waller of Beaconsfield, and Mr. Freeman of Fawley Court. Those which remained were covered with rubbish. They were afterwards dug out by Mr. Theobald, a subsequent proprietor of the premises, and most of them were given by him to the Earl of Burlington, who took them to Chiswick (fn. 205).
A riding-school, for the exhibition of feats of horsemanship, was established in this parish about the year 1768 (fn. 206), by Mr. Philip Astley. At first it was an open area. In the year 1780 it was converted into a covered amphitheatre, and divided into pit, boxes, and gallery. In 1786 it was newly fitted up, and called the Royal Grove; it is now advertised as the Royal Saloon, or Astley's Amphi theatre. Between the feats of horsemanship, short interludes are performed, and tumbling, rope-dancing, &c. exhibited.
The first mention of Vauxhall, or as it was anciently called Faukeshall, occurs in a record of the 20th year of Edw. I. (fn. 207) It might possibly derive its name from Foukes de Brent, who married Margaret de Ripariis, and thus became possessed of the manor of South Lambeth, to which this place appears originally to have belonged (fn. 208).
Edw. II. granted the manor of Faukeshall to Roger Damorie (fn. 209). Upon his attainder for taking part with the barons against the King, about two years afterwards it was granted to Hugh le Despencer (fn. 210); who being executed in 1326 (fn. 211), the manor appears to have been restored to the widow of Roger Damorie, who gave it to King Edw. III. in exchange for some lands in Suffolk (fn. 212). It was afterwards granted to Edward the Black Prince (fn. 213), and by him given to the church of Canterbury, to which it still belongs; as Hen. VIII. when the monastery was suppressed, gave it to the dean and chapter.
Sir Thomas Parry's mansion.
Copt-hall, and Vauxhall houses.
Near the Thames was formerly a large mansion belonging to Sir Thomas Parry, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and held by him of the manor of Kennington. Here the ill-fated Arabella Stuart, whose misfortune it was to be too nearly allied to a crown, remained prisoner for twelve months, under the custody of Sir Thomas (fn. 214). This house, in Norden's Survey (fn. 215), taken Ao 1615, is called Copt-hall; and is described as being opposite to a capital mansion called Fauxe-hall. The latter I imagine was the ancient manor house, which probably was either pulled down or fell to decay soon afterwards, its name being transferred to its opposite neighbour. In the survey taken by order of parliament (fn. 216) after the death of Charles I. Sir Thomas Parry's house is described as "a capital messuage called Vauxhall, alias Copped-hall, bounded by the Thames; being a fair dwelling-house, strongly built, of three stories high, and a fair stair-case breaking out from it of nineteen feet square." It was then the property of the crown, having been surrendered to the King in 1629 by John Abrahall, tenant thereof, and heir of Sir Thomas Parry. After this time it was described by the name of Vauxhall only. In 1652, the parliament having determined that Vauxhall-house, which had been reserved by a former order (fn. 217), should be sold (fn. 218), it was purchased by John Trenchard of Westminster (fn. 219). After the restoration of Ch. II. it was leased to Henry Lord Moore, afterwards Earl of Drogheda, together with the demesnes, for thirtyone years; with a proviso, that if his majesty should think fit to make use of the house or any part thereof, it should be surrendered upon a proper allowance being made for the same (fn. 220). The King availed himself of this proviso the year after the lease was granted (fn. 221), and settled at Vauxhall one Jasper Calthoff, a Dutchman, who was employed in making guns, and other warlike implements for his majesty's service (fn. 222). A part of the premises was occupied a few years afterwards by Peter Jacobson, a sugar-baker (fn. 223).
Sir Samuel Morland.
In 1675, Sir Samuel Morland obtained a lease of Vauxhallhouse (fn. 224), made it his residence, and considerably improved the premises. Sir Samuel being a great mechanic, every part of his house showed the invention of the owner; the side-table in the dining-room was supplied with a large fountain, and the glasses stood under little streams of water. His coach had a moveable kitchen, with clock-work machinery, with which he could make soup, broil stakes, or roast a joint of meat. When he travelled he was his own cook (fn. 225). Vauxhall-house was granted to Mr. Kent, a distiller, for 28 years, in the year 1725 (fn. 226). The site thereof is now leased to — Snaith, Esq. and still occupied by under-tenants as a distillery.
Tradition of Guy Faukes.
There does not appear to be the least ground for the tradition that Vauxhall, or Fauxhall, was the residence of Guy Faukes, except the coincidence of names. Jane Vaux, or Faukes, mentioned in the History of Lambeth as holding a copyhold tenement at Vauxhall in the year 1615, was the widow of John Vaux. The infamous Guy was a man of desperate fortune, and not likely to have a settled habitation any where, much less a capital mansion. It appears, however, that the conspirators of the detestable plot in which he was concerned held their meetings in Lambeth at a private house, which was burnt down by accident in the year 1635 (fn. 227).
Spring Gardens, Vauxhall.
The premises now known by the name of the Spring Gardens, Vauxhall, were in 1615 the property of Jane Vaux, widow, abovementioned: the mansion-house upon the estate was then called Stocden's (fn. 228). Jane Vaux left two daughters, one of whom was the wife of Barlow, Bishop of Lincoln (fn. 229). The moieties of the estate, which was divided between them, passed through various hands till the middle of the present century. Jonathan Tyers, Esq. purchased one moiety of George Doddington, Esq. for the sum of 3800l. in the year 1752, and a few years afterwards bought the remainder (fn. 230). I have not met with any certain account of the time when these premises were first opened for the entertainment of the public. The Spring Gardens (fn. 231) at Vauxhall are mentioned in the Spectator (fn. 232), as a place of great resort. Mr. Tyers was proprietor of the gardens as tenant at least twenty years before he purchased the estate, which is still vested in his representatives. Vauxhall Gardens are open every evening (Sundays excepted) during the greater part of the sum mer season for the reception of company, being illuminated with a great number of lamps. The entertainment consists of a concert of music, which, in fine weather, is performed in the open air. The price of admission till the present season was one shilling; all refreshments being then paid for separately. It is now two shillings, including tea and coffee.
Fort at Vauxhall.
When the city and suburbs of London were fortified by order of parliament, during the civil wars, a fort was erected near Vauxhallturnpike. It is described in a plan of London made at that time, and engraved in Maitland's History, where it is called a Quadrantfort, with four half bulwarks.
On the road to Wandsworth, not far from the turnpike, is a spring of very clear water, called Vauxhall Well, which is said never to freeze.
The manor of Kennington, then spelt Chenintune, was held of Edward the Confessor by Theodoric, a goldsmith, who was suffered to continue in possession thereof at the Conquest. There is no record to show when it came into the hands of the crown. John Plantagenet, Earl of Warren and Surrey, had a grant of this manor in the ninth year of Edward II. (fn. 233), and in the same year re-granted it to the king (fn. 234). His father, John Earl of Surrey, a celebrated warrior, died there in 1304 (fn. 235). Probably he held the manor for life, or he might have been keeper of the palace for the crown. Edward II. granted it afterwards to Anthony Pessaigne de Janua, and his heirs, in exchange for certain premises in London (fn. 236). It soon reverted to the crown, either by exchange, forfeiture, or escheat; for two years afterwards the king granted it to Roger Damorie (fn. 237). Having undergone the same alienations as the manor of Vauxhall, it was vested in the crown 11 Edw. III. and was afterwards made part of the duchy of Cornwall (fn. 238), to which it still continues annexed.
Extent and value.
The manor is said in Doomsday-book to contain two ploughlands and an half: it now contains about 300 acres. At the time of the Conquest it was valued at 3 l. per annum. In the Survey of 1649, at 111 l. 6 s. 2¼d. (fn. 239) Lands in this manor descend to the youngest son; and in default of sons, are divided equally amongst the daughters. The manor was sold in 1650 as crown property, and was purchased by William Scott of Little Marlow (fn. 240).
Residence of the Kings at Kennington.
Various conjectures have been entertained concerning the residence of our kings at the palace of Kennington. The following historical facts, collected from good authorities, will show that it was occasionally inhabited by them as late as the reign of Henry VII. The parliament held by Henry III. at Lambeth is supposed by some writers to have assembled at this palace; and it is still more probable that he kept his Christmas there in 1231. Edward III. kept his Christmas there in 1342 (fn. 241). When Lord Percy, in the same reign, was in danger from the mob as a favourer of Wickliff, he fled to Kennington, where the Princess of Wales with the young prince were then residing (fn. 242). When Richard II. returned from France with his young queen Isabella, they lodged for a night at the palace of Kennington, before they went to Westminster (fn. 243). There is a grant of Henry VI. dated from his manor of Kennington, Ao 1440 (fn. 244). Henry VII. previous to his coronation, came from Kennington to Lambeth, where he dined with Archbishop Bourchier (fn. 245); and Leland says, that Catherine of Arragon was there for a few days (fn. 246). Henry VIII. farmed out the manor. Camden says, that in his time there were no traces of the palace at Kennington (fn. 247). It was probably pulled down after it ceased to be used as an occasional residence by the kings; and the manor house, described in the Survey of 1649, built on the site. It is there called a capital messuage, but appears by the description to have been small. It was leased by Charles I. when Prince of Wales, to Sir Francis afterwards Lord Cottington, and was sold by order of parliament in 1649; Richard Graves, Esq. of Lincoln's-inn being the purchaser (fn. 248). In Charles II.'s reign it was leased to Henry Lord Moore (fn. 249). The present lessee is Robert Clayton, Esq.
Kennington Common is the usual place of execution for criminals tried in this part of the county. The rebels who were condemned at St. Margaret's Hill in 1746 suffered here. On this common is a bridge called Merton Bridge, which formerly was repaired by the canons of Merton Abbey, who had lands for that purpose.
Kennington gave the title of Earl to the Duke of Cumberland, son to George the Second.
The manor of Stockwell was anciently called the Manor of South Lameth, and comprehended, I presume, Vauxhall, South Lambeth, and Stockwell. Baldwin de Insula died seized of that manor in the reign of Henry III. (fn. 250) It was then valued at 19l. 16s. 4½d. Margaret de Ripariis, Countess of the Isle of Wight, died at her house at Stockwell seized of the manor of South Lameth 20 Edw. I. (fn. 251) It afterwards came to Thomas Romayne (fn. 252), after the death of whose widow, Juliana, her estates were divided among her daughters, and Stockwell fell to the share of Roesye de Boreford (fn. 253). Sir James de Boreford had a licence for an oratory in his manor-house at Stockwell in 1351 (fn. 254), and ten years afterwards a grant of free warren there (fn. 255). The manor afterwards belonged to John Harold, burgess of Calais, who conveyed it to John Dovet and Sir Thomas Swinford, by whom it was settled on his wife Catherine (fn. 256), afterwards the third wife of John of Gaunt. It afterwards passed to the families of Wynter (fn. 257), Molineux (fn. 258), and Leigh (fn. 259). Sir John Leigh died at his manor of Stockwell, 15 Hen. VIII. (fn. 260) Twenty years afterwards his son conveyed it to the king (fn. 261). It was granted by Queen Mary to Anthony Brown Viscount Montague (fn. 262), who died seized thereof 34 Eliz. (fn. 263) It does not appear how it reverted to the crown, but it is enumerated among the king's manor-houses, in a household book of the first year of James I. (fn. 264) Two years afterwards it belonged to Sir George Chute (fn. 265), and was sold by the executors of one of his descendants to Sir John Thornycroft about the latter end of the last century, since which time it has continued in the same family, being now the property of Henry Thornycroft, Esq.
A part of the manor-house is still standing, and the ancient moat exists, but without water. The tradition of its having been the property of Thomas Lord Cromwell is without foundation; as in his time it belonged to Sir John Leigh the younger. Several of the acts of John de Stratford, Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor, are dated from Stockwell (fn. 266). The site of the manor-house is now the property of Mr. Barret, for the remainder of a thousand years lease.
The hamlet of Stockwell contains about 100 houses, exclusive of those about Brixton Causeway, which are not considered as a part of it. A chapel of ease was built here in 1767, towards which Archbishop Secker gave 500 l.
About twenty years ago a singular imposition was practised at the house of a Mrs. Golding at this place, which was reported to be haunted. Great numbers of people of all ranks went to see the feats of this imaginary ghost, who caused the furniture to dance about the rooms in a very surprising manner. A pamphlet was published on the subject, called "The Stockwell Ghost;" but the imposture was never completely detected: there were various conjectures respecting the author, some suspecting Mrs. Golding's daughter, others a maid servant. Mrs. Golding and her daughter being both dead, there was an auction at the house a few months ago, when the dancing furniture sold at very extravagant prices.
Manor of Levehurst.
The manor of Levehurst is joined with Stockwell in most of the records. I find one, however, in which it is mentioned as being held separately by Robert Forth, LL.D. who died seized thereof 37 Eliz. his son Thomas being his heir. It was then valued at 5 l. per annum, and is described as being in Lambeth Dean. The manor is not now known.
Manor of Lambeth Wick.
The manor of Lambeth Wick belongs to the Archbishop of Canterbury, having been included in the exchange with the church of Rochester. In the taxation of 1291 it is called the Grange, or farm of Le Wyke. It is now on lease to Lord Holland.
Within this manor is a mansion called Loughborough-house. It was advertised by that name in 1682, and probably was, at a former period, either the property or residence of Henry Lord Hastings of Loughborough. It is now an academy, in the occupation of Dr. Roberts.
South Lambeth lies between Stockwell and Vauxhall. Here was the capital mansion of Sir Noel Caron, ambassador from the States General. A small part of it, which still remains, is called Caron House, and is now an academy.
Physic garden of the Tradescants.
Near the same spot was the physic-garden of the Tradescants, which was one of the first established in this kingdom. The elder Tradescant had been gardener to the Duke of Buckingham, and other noblemen; and was afterwards promoted to the service of Charles the First. He travelled over a great part of Europe and Africa in search of new plants; many of those introduced by him were long called by his name. Sir William Watson, and other members of the Royal Society, visited the site of Tradescant's garden in 1749, but found very few trees remaining, which appeared to have been planted by him (fn. 267). There are now no traces of it. A catalogue of the plants cultivated by Tradescant at South Lambeth, with an account of the rarities and natural curiosities which he had collected, was published in 12mo in the year 1656 by his son, under the name of Museum Tradescantianum; to which are prefixed portraits both of the father and son, by Hollar. The Tradescants were usually called Tradeskin by their contemporaries; the name is uniformly so spelt in the parish register, and by Flatman the painter, who in a poem mentions Tradescant's Collection:
"Thus John Tradeskin starves our wondering eyes
By boxing up his new-found rarities (fn. 268)."
John Tradescant the younger gave his whole collection to the learned Elias Ashmole, who succeeded him also in his house at South Lambeth, and came to reside there in 1674 (fn. 269). He found some difficulty in getting possession of his friend's noble present, and was obliged to prefer a bill in chancery against his widow (fn. 270). Ash mole was much respected by his contemporaries, and was frequently visited at South Lambeth by persons of very exalted rank, particularly by the embassadors of foreign princes, to whom he had presented his book on the Order of the Garter (fn. 271). It is well known that Tradescant's Collection was given by Ashmole to the University of Oxford, where it forms the principal part of the Museum which goes by his name, and which was first built for its reception.
Dr. Ducarel, author of the History of Lambeth Palace, and of Croydon, and other topographical and antiquarian works, resided at South Lambeth, and died at his house there in the year 1785 (fn. 272).