The Environs of London: Volume 1, County of Surrey. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1792.
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THIS parish is assessed the sum of 107l. 16s. 10d. to the land-tax, which this year (1792) is at the rate of 2s. 1d. in the pound.
In the note (fn. 1) are references to the escheat-bundles in the Tower, relating to the manor of Addington.
Robert Aguillon had a grant of free warren there in the reign of Henry III. (fn. 2)
The manor, which belonged to the Knights Templars, was granted to Nicholas Leigh, June 25, 36 Hen. VIII. (fn. 3)
The soil of this parish consists principally of sand, gravel, and a rich loam. The market gardeners occupy about 150 acres; and Mr. Chapman, who rents a large farm there, cultivates about 100 acres for garden crops: there is also a small hop ground, the only one I believe in the neighbourhood; it contains about 7 acres.
The dean and chapter of St. Paul's had a charter of free warren in their manor of Barnes, in the reign of Edward II. (fn. 4)
Conjecture concerning the Lady Mary.
King James I. on his accession to the throne, granted the manor, for the remainder of Queen Elizabeth's lease, to Peter Vanlore (fn. 5); the conjecture therefore (p. 22.) concerning the Lady Mary, must be erroneous, as far as it relates to her having been under the care of the Walsingham family; as it appears that they were not suffered to enjoy any benefit from Queen Elizabeth's grant, after her majesty's death.
Kit Kat Club.
The portraits of the Kit Kat Club (see p. 15.) are now the property of William Baker, Esq. and are at his house in Hill-street, Berkley-square.
To the tombs in the church (p. 16, 17.) may be added those of Peter Combaulde, merchant, who died in 1717; Edward Byfield, Esq. who died in 1774; and Charles Nightingale, Esq. who died in 1791.
In the churchyard are those of the following persons: David Misplee, waterman to Charles II. James II. King William, Queen Anne, and George I. who died in 1716; Diana, wife of Capt. Darcy Savage, who died in 1726; Peter Marquet, merchant, 1730; Sir Philip Sydenham, Bart. 1739; Frances, wife of Joseph Lee, merchant, 1748; Mr. Bemish Hill, 1760; Mrs. Ann Dubordieu, 1768; Mr. William Hutchins, 1771; Mr. John Partington, 1778, and others of his family; Mr. Samuel Bowyer, of Serjeants' Inn, 1790; Caroline, wife of John Deffell, Esq. of Gower-street, Bedford-square, 1790; and George Wright, Esq. 1791.
Hezekiah Burton was buried at Barnes, Sept. 14, 1681. The malignant fever, mentioned p. 19. appears to have been very fatal; in that year there were 35 burials, a number more than double the average of that period. Mr. Burton's son, of the same name, was buried three days after his father.
John Hume, who was instituted to the rectory in 1749, quitted it in 1758, on being promoted to the see of Oxford; he was afterwards translated to Salisbury. His successor at Barnes was Ferdinando Warner, a celebrated preacher, and a multifarious author. He published several sermons; a system of divinity in five volumes; two volumes of ecclesiastical history; an illustration of the Book of Common Prayer; memoirs of Sir Thomas More; the history of the rebellion and civil war in Ireland, and the first volume of a general history of that kingdom; remarks on Ossian's poems; and a treatise on the gout, with an account of a peculiar method which he had adopted in his own case. He died a martyr to that disorder soon after the publication of this treatise, which destroyed the credit of his system (fn. 6). Mr. Warner published also a scheme for a provision for the widows and orphans of the clergy.
Christopher Wilson, Bishop of Bristol.
He was succeeded in the living of Barnes by Christopher Wilson, afterwards Bishop of Bristol, whom it is with regret that I must now call the late rector. Dr. Wilson was a man of very amiable manners, and had the good fortune of conciliating general esteem. Steady joyed not only the respect, but the friendship, of those who differed from him in opinion. When elevated to the bench, through the interest of the representative of his deceased friend the Marquis of Rockingham, he took the surest method of making the church to which he belonged, and its rulers, respected and esteemed, by maintaining the strictest discipline, at the same time that he behaved with the most unbounded affability to persons of every rank and description, particularly to the inferior clergy. The bishop published a few single sermons, preached upon public occasions.
The present rector of Barnes is John Jeffreys, D. D. Canon Residentiary of St. Paul's.
Anne Baynard (mentioned p. 24.) is said to have written several satires against the atheists (fn. 7).
Henry Fielding, the celebrated novelist, resided at Barnes, in the house which is now the property of Mr. Partington.
Derivation of Battersea.
Leland's derivation of the name of this place (see p. 26.) is to be found in the annotations to the Cygnea Cantio; his words are, Nomen loco inditum, ut ego conjicio, ex cymbis (fn. 8)."
The manor of Battersea was leased by King James to Aaron Best (fn. 9).
A monument of artificial stone, of Mrs. Coade's manufacture, has been lately erected over the south gallery of Battersea church, to the memory of John Camden, Esq. who died in 1780; and Elizabeth his daughter, wife of James Neild, who died in 1791.
In the church-yard are the tombs of Margaret, wife of Arthur Beardmore, Esq. who died in 1756; William Abbot, of Doctors' Commons, 1768; John Baptist Bushman, Esq. 1769; John Roberts, 1773; the Reverend Richard Woodeson, A. M. 1774; and Ridley Manning Webster, Esq. 1777.
Battersea bridge was built under the direction of the late Mr. Holland, and at the expence of fifteen proprietors, who subscribed 1500l. each. Its revenues, which are increasing, are now about 1700l. per annum.
Alice, wife of Raimond de Luke, (called in other records de Laik,) had the manor of Beddington for her dower, temp. Hen. III. (fn. 10) Isabella, wife of Richard Gaceline, (called in some records Gateline,) died seized thereof, in the reign of Edward I.; her heir was Arnulph de Clarak (fn. 11). The manor was then valued at 22 marks. The Corbets were in possession of it for a considerable time (fn. 12), and aliened it to the Morleys (fn. 13). Richard Willoughby granted it for life to William Carew, Porcionist of the church of Beddington, and Nicholas Carew, 26 Edw. III. (fn. 14); and a few years afterwards granted it in see to the latter (fn. 15). Nicholas Carew had a charter for (fn. 16) free warren in Beddington, as early as the first year of Edward II.
Reginald le Forrester's manor was held of Thomas Corbet, as of his manor of Beddington, (13 Edw. III.) by an annual rent of 8s. 4d. It consisted of eighty acres (fn. 17).
Simon Stowe gave eighteen acres at Beddington to St. Thomas's hospital, 3 Edw. II. (fn. 18) This constituted a part of what was called Frere's manor.
William Huse had a charter of free warren in Beddington, 11 Edw. II. (fn. 19)
To the tombs in Beddington church, (see p. 58–61.) may be added the following: A monument at the east end of the nave to the memory of Nicholas Carew, Esq, who died in 1721. In the nave is also a brass plate to the memory of Thomas Hunte, who died in 1538; another to the memory of Mary, wife of John Huntley, Gent. who died in 1638; and the tombs of John Bourchier, M. D. who died in 1756; Bourchier Walton, Esq. who died in 1779, and others of that family; and Dorothy, relict of James Garland, Esq. who died in 1792. In the south aisle are the tombs of Mrs. Elizabeth Brooks, who died in 1781; and Charles Maddox, Esq. of the South Sea House, who died in 1791. In the Carew aisle is the tomb of Joseph Ward, Esq. who died in 1767; and his daughter Lydia Henning, wife of William Augustus Skynner, Esq. who died in 1789.
In the church-yard are the tombs of "Honest Robin Betterton," who died in 1724; Mr. Walton Wood, of Newington Butts, who died in the same year; Bertrand Cahuag, who died in 1743; Elizabeth, wife of Mr. John Bowles, of Croydon, who died in 1751; and Mrs. Elizabeth Jennings, who died in 1771.
This parish is treated of by Stow, Aubrey, and other writers, as a part of the Borough of Southwark, to which it adjoins; it was omitted therefore in the alphabetical order; but as upon further inquiry it appears to be totally unconnected with the Borough, some account of its history is here inserted.
The word Bermondsey, or, as it is written in the Conqueror's Survey, Bermundesye, is of uncertain derivation. The last syllable denotes its being situated near the river. Bermond may be a proper name. This village is scarcely a mile from London Bridge, and lies in the eastern division of Brixton hundred. The parish is bounded by St. John, St. George, and St. Olave, Southwark; by Deptford and Rotherhithe. In 1641 it is said to have contained 514 acres of land (fn. 20), a considerable part of which has been since built on; of the remainder, the greater part is grass land, and occupied by cow-keepers. There is no corn, but about 110 acres of garden ground, the soil of which, from long cultivation and manuring, is become a rich black mould. This parish is assessed the sum of 3954l. 0s. 9d. to the land-tax, which this present year (1792) is at the rate of 2s. 9d. in the pound.
Trade and manufactures.
Bermondsey is a place of very great trade. The tanners, who are a chartered company, (having been incorporated by Queen Anne (fn. 21) by the name of "the master, wardens, and commonalty, of the art or mystery of tanners, of the parish of St. Mary Magdalen Bermondsey,") are very numerous, and carry on that business to a greater extent than is known in any other part of the kingdom. From a natural connection between the several trades, there are also many woolstaplers, fellmongers, curriers, and leather-dressers, and some parchement makers. The water-side is occupied by rope-makers, anchor-smiths, stavemerchants, boat-builders, and persons employed in furnishing various articles of rigging for the navy. There are two small docks. The calico printing and dying business is carried on also in a small degree in this parish, and there are some pin and needle makers.
A monastery for monks, of the Cluniac order, was founded at Bermondsey, by Aylwin Child, a citizen of London, in the year 1082 (fn. 22). William Rufus gave them his manor of Bermondsey (fn. 23). References to various subsequent grants will be found in the note (fn. 24). This convent was originally a cell to that of La Charité in France, and was seized by Edward III. among other alien priories in 1371. It was restored to its privileges within a few years, and continued to flourish till the year 1538, when it was surrendered to the crown, the annual revenues being then valued at 474l. 14s. 4¾d. Robert de Wharton, the last Prior, who was afterwards successively Bishop of St. Asaph and Hereford, obtained a pension of 333l. 6s. 8d. per annum. A list of benefactors to this convent may be found in Dugdale's Monasticon (fn. 25), and a list of its priors in Browne Willis's History of Mitred Abbies (fn. 26).
Death of Catherine, Queen of Henry V.
Catherine the Queen of Henry V. died in this abbey, Jan. 3, 1436–7 (fn. 27).
Persons of note buried in the abbey.
Among persons of note interred there, may be reckoned William de Morton Earl of Cornwall (fn. 28); Loufstane, Provost of London, An° 1115; Margaret de la Pole, (1473); and Dame Aimé Audley, relict of John Lord Audley, (1497) (fn. 29).
Remains of the abbey. King John's Palace.
Near the church-yard at Bermondsey is an ancient gateway, and towards the east some old buildings called King John's Palace. These buildings, which consist partly of brick, and partly of timber, intermixed with lath and plaster, carry the appearance of having been a part of the convent or its appurtenances. The traditional appropriation of very ancient houses to King John is not infrequent. The tradition in this instance is entirely unsupported either by history or record. The manor-house, or palace of Bermondsey, was given to the monks by William Rufus. The quotation inserted in Aubrey's Antiquities of Surrey (fn. 30), as the only conjectural proof that the kings of England had a residence at this place after the grant above-mentioned, has been totally misunderstood, and proves nothing. It is said in Aubrey's work, that Sir Thomas Pope built a house on the site of the priory which afterwards came to the Earls of Sussex. Some traces of the residence of the Earls of Sussex at Bermondsey are to be found in the parish register about the year 1595; but I have not met with the name in any title deeds or other records relating to the site of the convent. A considerable part thereof was sold by Sir Thomas Pope to Robert Bishop of St. Asaph, the last Prior, and having passed through various hands, is now the property of William Richardson, Esq. in whose garden is an ancient wall with crosses, and various emblematical devices worked with glazed bricks. The remainder of the site is for the most part if not entirely the property of William Smith, Esq. of Chiswick.
The manor of Bermondsey before the Conquest was the property of Harold, and as such was seized by the Conqueror. William Rufus gave it to the monastery founded at that place. After the suppression of the convent, Henry VIII. granted the site, with other lands at Bermondsey, together with a court leet, view of frank pledge, and right of free warren, to Sir Robert Southwell, Master of the Rolls (fn. 31); who the same year sold the whole of the premises to Sir Thomas Pope (fn. 32). Soon after this, Sir Thomas procured from the crown a grant of the rents of assize (fn. 33); and in the year 1556, aliened the manor to Robert Trapps, Esq. (fn. 34) in whose family it continued till the year 1717, when it was sold to Peter Hambly, Esq. grandfather of the reverend Thomas Hambly, the present proprietor.
At the time of the Conquest the manor was valued at 15l. per annum. At that time Earl Morton held lands of the king at Bermondsey, which was his residence (fn. 35).
Edward VI. granted certain premises in this parish, which had been part of the possessions of our Lady of Rouncival, to Edward Lord Clinton and Saye (fn. 36).
The Survey of Doomsday, which was made in 1083, mentions a fair and new church at this place. This, no doubt, was the conventual church then newly built. It was long afterwards that the monks of Bermondsey founded a parochial church there, and dedicated it to St. Mary Magdalen. The present structure was erected in 1680. It is of brick, and consists of a chancel, nave, two aisles, and a transept; at the west end is a low square tower with a turret.
Tombs in the church.
On the north wall of the chancel is the monument of Nathaniel Rossey, Esq. who died in 1733; and within the rails the tomb of Jeremiah Whitaker, rector of the parish, who died in 1654. On the north pillar of the nave is the monument of Sir William Steavens, Knt. who died in 1712. At the east end of the south aisle, those of William Castle, Esq. who died in 1681; and Elizabeth wife of Basil Wood, who died in 1730. In the same aisle are the monuments of Mr. John Russell, who died in 1770 (fn. 37); William Mason, Esq. who died in 1791; and near the south door that of William Browning, Esq. who died in 1758; and William Browning, rector, who died in 1740. Against the south wall, on the outside, is a tablet to the memory of Sir Thomas Steavens, Knt. who died in 1738; and others of that family.
Tombs in the church-yard.
In the church-yard are the tombs of the following persons: Capt. Charles Smith, who died in 1726; Mr. John Burgoyne, 1728; and Humphrey Burgoyne, Esq. (1735); William Wilkin, Gent. of the Great Lodge near Tunbridge, (1735); Mary, relict of Captain William Studholm, (1738); Captain Charles Chamberlain, (1740); Captain Robert Nowne, (1741); Captain John Blackabee, (1750); Captain James Thompson, (1753); Sir William Richardson, Knt. (1769); John Brett, Surgeon, (1769); Capt. John Lindsey, (1774); John Bickham, Gent. of Co. Somerset, (1774); Captain William Sparks, (1782); Elizabeth, wife of Capt. William Compton, (1782); Joseph Phillipson, General Accomptant of the Excise, (1782); Capt. Samuel Haycraft, (1785); Samuel Bowerman, Esq. (1787); Capt. Enoch Stickney, (1788); Thomas Lechmere, son of Richard Lechmere, Esq. of Newborn Hall, Suffolk, (1788); Mr. Richard Phillips, (1789); and Capt. George Butler, of Rotherhithe, and several of his children (no date).
The church-yard was enlarged in 1783.
Rectory and advowson.
The church of Bermondsey is in the diocese of Winchester, and in the deanery of Southwark. The advowson of the rectory belonged to the monastery, and has undergone the same alienations as the manor, being now the property of the Reverend Thomas Hambly, who is both patron and incumbent.
Rectors. Edward Elton and Jeremiah Whitaker.
Edward Elton, and Jeremiah Whitaker, two eminent puritan divines in the last century, were rectors of this parish; the former died in 1624, the latter in 1654. Elton published a volume of sermons in folio, an Exposition of the 9th chapter of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans; an Exposition of the Epistle to the Colossians, and, it is probable, other works. Whitaker was a member of the assembly of divines, and said to have been remarkable for his skill in the oriental languages. There is extant a sermon preached at his funeral, with an account of his life, (which contains nothing remarkable,) by Simeon Ashe. Several elegies on his death, and panegyrical poems, are annexed. He was succeeded at Bermondsey by his son William, who was author of a few single sermons, and was ejected at the restoration (fn. 38). Elton and the elder Whitaker lie buried in the same grave in the chancel, where is the following inscription:
"Where once the famous Elton did entrust The preservation of his sacred dust, Lies pious Whitaker, both justly twin'd, Both dead, one grave; both living, had one mind: And by their dissolution, have supply'd The hungry grave, and fame and heaven beside. This stone protects their bones, while fame enrolls Their deathless names, and heaven embrace their souls."
"The said Whitaker departed June 1, 1654, ætatis suæ 55."
Dr. Richard Parr, of whom some account is given in the parish of Camberwell, (p. 85.) of which he was vicar, was also rector of Bermondsey. His signature occurs in the register in 1676. He died in 1691.
Parish register kept with great accuracy.
The earliest date of the parish register is 1548. The manner in which it has been kept for the last sixteen years by the Reverend Henry Cox Mason, the present curate, deserves particular mention, and much commendation. Mr. Mason has adopted a plan nearly similar to that recommended by the present Bishop of Durham, who has some excellent observations on the importance of regularity and precision in the keeping of parochial registers, in his letter to the clergy of the diocese of Sarum. Notwithstanding the extreme populousness of the parish of Bermondsey, Mr. Mason has inserted with great accuracy the date of the birth of each child, as well as of its baptism, the prosession of its parents, and their place of abode. In the register of the burials, the age of the parties is inserted. Without such a plan, the parochial register, especially in a very populous parish, ceases to be of use either in ascertaining with precision the identity or age of a person, or the descent of a family.
Comparative state of population.
|Average of Baptisms.||Average of Burials.|
The principal increase of population in this parish happened between the year 1665 and the year 1680, within which period it was wonderfully rapid; the proportional increase during the last hundred years having been very small. The average of baptisms is only one fourth more within the last ten years, than it was during 1680–1689. In Maitland's History of London, printed in 1739, it is said, that there were then 2111 houses in Bermondsey; there are now about 3100, and new buildings are increasing very fast. The burials have uniformly exceeded the baptisms in a considerable proportion, which may be accounted for from the great number of dissenters and catholics in the parish, many of whom are interred here. There are two congregations of Independents at this place; one chapel for persons in Mr. Wesley's connection; a Roman Catholic chapel; a meeting for the Anabaptists; and another for the Antinomians. The Quakers have a burial ground, but no meeting.
The ravages of the plague appear to have been much greater at Bermondsey than at Lambeth, although the latter parish was the more populous. The following table will give some idea of its devastations.
It may be observed, that the average number of burials, at the latest of these periods, was little more than 100. In the year 1625, when the plague appears to have been most fatal, the total number of burials was 1117, being at least 1000 more than the average of that period; 20 persons were frequently buried in one night. It is observed in the register, that of the 263 persons who died in the month of September 1665, 185 were males. Two hundred and three persons died of the plague in 1636.
The following very singular entry occurs in the year 1604:
Singular ceremony of the re-union of a man and his wife, after a long absence, during which the woman had married another husband.
"The forme of a solemne vowe made betwixt a man and his wife, havinge bene longe absent, through which occasion the woman beinge maried to another man, took her again as followeth:
"The man's speach:
"Elizabeth, my beloved wife, I am right sorie that I have so longe absented mysealfe from thee, whereby thou shouldest be occasioned to take another man to be thy husband. Therefore I do now vowe and promise, in the sighte of God and this companie, to take thee againe as mine owne; and will not onlie forgive thee, but also dwell with thee, and do all other duties unto thee, as I promised at our marriage.
"The woman's speach:
"Raphe, my beloved husband, I am right sorie that I have in thy absence taken another man to be my husband; but here, before "God and this companie, I do renounce and forsake him, and do promise to kepe mysealfe only unto thee duringe life, and to performe all duties which I first promised unto thee in our marriage."
Then follows a short occasional prayer, and the entry concludes thus:
"The first day of August 1604, Raphe Goodchild, of the parish of Barkinge in Thames-streat, and Elizabeth his wife, were agreed to live together, and thereupon gave their hands one to another, makinge either of them a solemne vow so to doe, in the presence of us,
"William Stere, Parson.
and Richard Eires, Clark."
The following entry also is singular:
"James Herriott, Esq. and Elizabeth Josey, Gent. were married Jan. 4, 1624–5. N. B. This James Herriott was one of the 40 children of his father, a Scotchman."
The following instances of longevity occur:
Instances of longevity.
"Sarah Terrey, widow, aged 98, buried Feb. 12, 1741–2.
"Mr. Lovejoy, aged 100, from Bermondsey-street, buried July 15, 1744.
"Mr. Langworthy, of Long-lane, leather-cutter, aged 103, buried Sept. 4, 1750.
"Walter Wharry, aged 99, buried June 17, 1754.
"Mrs. Owen, from Dog-lane, aged 104, buried Aug. 19, 1762.
"Mrs. Rebecca Harrowman, aged 99, buried Dec. 16, 1764.
"Joseph Day, from Bermondsey-street, aged 105, buried June 11, 1769.
"Jarvis Whitehead, from Dockhead, aged 96, buried Feb. 13, 1770.
"Henry Phillips, aged 100, buried Oct. 3, 1774."
There are entries also of 15 other persons who have been buried at Bermondsey, from the age of 90 to 93 inclusive.
Mr. Josiah Bacon, by his will, dated 1709, bequeathed the sum of 700l. for the purpose of building a free-school, which he endowed with 150l. per annum, for the education of a certain number of boys (not more than 60, or fewer than 40) in writing, arithmetic, &c. This will was confirmed, in the year 1732, by Mr. Thomas Bacon, who charged certain estates in Huntingdonshire with the payment of the said sum. The master receives 80l. per annum, the usher 50l. the remainder is appropriated to repairs, &c.
A charity-school was established in this parish about the year 1714, to which various persons have jointly contributed about 430l. Mr. Nathaniel Smith, in 1755, bequeathed the sum of 40l. per ann. towards its support; and Mr. Edward Dockley, in 1789, 2l. per ann. Its annual income is augmented by the collections at two charity sermons.
The benefactions to this parish have been numerous and ample. The following brief recital of them is taken from a more enlarged account, printed at the end of the act of parliament for the better regulation of the poor at Bermondsey (fn. 39). Mr. Thomas Kendall gave two small tenements, the site of which is let for 2l. 6 s. per annum. William Gardiner, Esq. in 1597, left 10l. per annum to the poor; a messuage in Bermondsey-street, taken in lieu of this annuity, produces 9l. per annum, clear of all taxes. Mrs. Trapps, in 1624, bequeathed some lands at Westham, subject to a deduction of 1l. 6s. 8d. for a sermon; which now produce 8l. 8s. per annum. Mr. Richard Lockwood, in 1631, gave a messuage and premises in Bermondsey-street; now let at 6l. per annum. Mr. Andrew Dandy, in 1673, left money to purchase a piece of ground, for the purpose of paying 20 s. each annually to six poor persons. Mr. Josiah Bacon, in 1703, gave the sum of 150l. for the purpose of purchasing lands to buy bread for the poor; with this money two houses were built on a piece of ground given by Mr. Robert Banyard in 1659; these houses produce 10l. per annum. The parish has lands at Yalden and Marden in Kent, which were purchased with the donations of Mrs. Chibbald and various persons, and now produce 24l. 10 s. per annum. Mr. Full, in 1578, left 2l. 12 s. per annum, to buy bread for the poor. Mr. Stevens the same annuity in 1635. Mr. Wright, in 1673, an annuity of 3l. Mr. David Apsey, in 1740, the interest of 100l. after deducting 1l. 1 s. for a sermon. And Mr. Archadyne, in 1714, a small benefaction for the same purpose. Mr. Skidmore, in 1584, left 20 s. per annum for firing; and Francis Tyrrell, in 1609, five chaldrons of coals yearly, to be paid by the grocers' company. Sir John Fenner, in 1633, left 6l. per annum to buy bibles for the poor, and 5l. per annum for sick persons. Mr. Edward Martin, in 1645, left the third part of a moiety of 28 acres of land, with the messuages thereon, at Low Layton in Essex, for the purpose of buying bibles, in octavo, in English print, for the poor: it is expressly said in the will, that if the parish should dispose of the money to any other use, the benefits of the legacy should be transferred to the parish of Lambeth: this legacy produces now only 3l. per annum, but is capable of very great improvement at the expiration of a long lease. Mr. Bernard Hide left the sum of 4l. 10 s. to be paid by the salters' company, every tenth year, to 18 poor maids and widows of this parish. Mr. John Wright, in 1673, gave a rentcharge of 14l. per annum, payable out of some messuages in Bermondsey; 12l. 13 s. 4 d. of which is to be laid out in clothing for 12 poor women; and a farther rent-charge of 3l. per annum, for educating children. John Scrag, in 1531, left the sum of 6 s. 8 d. to be distributed annually among poor housekeepers; and Mr. Ralph Pratt, in 1607, an annuity of four marks to the poor. An allotment of 20l. per annum, being a rent-charge upon an estate at Bexhill, in Sussex, has been made to this parish, out of Mr. Henry Smith's benefactions.
Among some minutes taken from an old vestry-book of this parish, I observed the following: "Dec. 30, 1634, ordered, That Mr. William Case might come to vestry in his cloak, and sit there without his gown, notwithstanding an order to the contrary."
In this parish is a well-known place of entertainment, called Bermondsey Spa, from some waters of a chalybeate nature, which were discovered there about the year 1770; a few years before which period, Mr. Thomas Keyse, the present proprietor, first opened his premises as a place for tea-drinking; and exhibited, with great success, a collection of paintings of his own production, which, considered as the works of a self-taught artist, have much merit. About eight years ago, Mr. Keyse procured a licence for opening his gardens with musical entertainments, after the manner of Vauxhall. They are now open every evening in the summer season, the price of admission being one shilling. Fireworks are occasionally exhibited; and a few times in the course of the year, a very excellent representation of the siege of Gibraltar, consisting of fireworks and transparencies, the whole of which were constructed and arranged by Mr. Keyse himself, and do great credit to his mechanical abilities. The height of the rock is about 50 feet, the length 200; the whole of the apparatus covers about four acres of ground.
References to the escheat-bundles in the Tower, concerning the manor of Camberwell Buckinghams, may be found in the note (fn. 40).
The Beckwell family held the manor of Camberwell (consisting of nearly 300 acres) of the Earls of Gloucester, by the service of half a knight's fee, in the reign of Edw. I. (fn. 41); and they continued to be in possession of it 43 Edw. III. (fn. 42)
Robert Lyttel is said to have been the proprietor of the manor of Dowdale 43 Edw. III. (fn. 43) John, son of John Adam, died seized of part thereof the same year.
Robert de Bretynghurst held about 150 acres of land in Camberwell and Peckham, of the king, in capite, 9 Edw. III. (fn. 44); which most probably formed the manor called, from him, Bretinghurst. In the terrier of lands in Surrey (quoted p. 118.), the name of Wolsely must have been erroneously copied from the record for Dolsely. That family, whose name is variously written, Dolsely, Dolcely, Dolsaly, Doulshill, and Dolshill, were proprietors of the manor of Bretinghurst for several generations (fn. 45). Margaret Barnard and Simon Worsted, who severally died seized thereof, were allied to them (fn. 46). William Scott was proprietor of this manor in the reign of Hen. V. (fn. 47) : as his family continued to be in possession thereof till the time of Queen Elizabeth, William Credy, who is mentioned as its owner 3 Hen. VI. (fn. 48), must have possessed it by some temporary grant.
Peckham and Basyng.
Thomas Dolcely had the manor of Peckham also, which was held under the manor of Camberwell (fn. 49); and that of Basyng (fn. 50), which was held of the same manor, by a rent of 5 s. 10 d. The latter seems to have been annexed to Bretinghurst (fn. 51).
It appears, that there were two manors in Hatcham in the reign of Edw. I.; for Robert Burnell, Bishop of Bath and Wells, is said to have held the manor of Hatcham, which rendered suit of court at the manor of Hatcham Bavent (fn. 52). Henry Vaughan held a manor in Hatcham 43 Edw. III. (fn. 53)
John Abell had a charter of free warren in Hatcham and Camberwell 24 Edw. I. (fn. 54)
In the account of Camberwell church (p. 75.) for "a niche for holy water," read "a piscina."
The conjecture relating to the window at Camberwell (see p. 74.) must be attributed to Strype, as that parish is not mentioned in the early editions of Stow's Survey.
The brass plate to the memory of Margaret Dove remains at the west end of the nave. To the tombs in the churchyard (p. 80.) may be added those of Thomas Fox, merchant, who died in 1672; Henry Balowe, Gent. 1715; William Bourne, 1724; Robert Ford, Esq. 1727; Mr. Thomas Browne, 1732; Peter Cock, Esq. 1737, and others of his family; John Amy, Esq. 1745; John Brittnor, Esq. 1752; William Jephson, A. M. master of the grammar-school at this place, and vicar of Great Hormead, Herts, 1761; Capt. William Clarke, 1762; Samuel Brown Tufnell, Esq. of Norwood Green, 1763; Capt. John Peters, 1765; Gilbert Allix, Esq. 1767; George Edward Pakenham, Esq. 1768; Mr. Michael Mandeville, 1769; Henrietta, wife of Richard Henshaw, Esq. 1771; John Taylor, Merchant, 1780; David Thompson, M. D. of the Island of Jamaica, 1785; Mary, relict of Browne Claxton, Esq. and mother of John Claxton, Esq. F. A. S. 1786; Edward Marshall, Attorney, 1788; Ann, wife of John James, Esq. of Moor Court, in the county of Hereford, 1789; Capt. Jonathan Dring, 1791; Catherine, wife of Thomas Dale, M. D. 1791; and William James Gambier, Esq. 1791.
Tombs at Dulwich.
In the burial-ground at Dulwich are the tombs of Thomas Test, Esq. who died in 1779; John, son of Peter Thompson, Esq. of Poole in Dorsetshire, who died in 1788; and Winde William Vanderesch, who died in 1789.
In Stow's Annals (fn. 55), there is an account of the baiting of a lion in the Tower, under the direction of Edward Alleyn, the founder of Dulwich College.
Charity school founded at Dulwich by James Allen.
James Allen, Esq. formerly Master of that College, by his indenture, bearing date August 31st, 1741, gave a piece of ground at Kensington Gravel-pits, with six tenements newly erected thereon, to the master, wardens, fellows, &c. of Dulwich College, and their successors, in trust, for the purpose of establishing a charity-school, for the education of poor children living at Dulwich, or within one mile thereof; the boys to be taught to read, the girls to read and few. The master for the time being to have the sole management of the school, to appoint the school-mistress or mistresses, to make leases of the premises, and to receive the rents; for which trouble he is allowed to deduct out of the profits 5l. per annum, and the additional sum of 1l. 6s. to treat the tenants with a dinner. It is expressly said in the indenture, That whereas Archbishop Wake did by his injunction, Dec. 9th, 1724, ordain, that such twelve poor boys as could read in the New Testament, should be perfected in reading, and taught writing and arithmetic, by the school-master, and usher, at the college; the master should recommend the boys out of his school, as soon as they could read in the New Testament, to be educated according to the said injunction, and that he should give at the admission of each the sum of ten shillings. The premises now produce to the charity 21l. 6s. 0d. per annum only, but are capable of very great improvement at the expiration of the present lease. The houses, one of which is in the tenure of Sir Gervas Clifton, Bart. are good and eligibly situated, and are let on an average at about 25l. per annum. There are now about fifteen children in the school, for each of whom the master pays three-pence per week to the school-mistress.
Benefaction of Sarah Viscountess Falkland.
Sarah Countess of Suffolk, afterwards the wife of Lucius Charles, the late Lord Viscount Falkland, by her will bearing date May 6th, 1776, bequeathed the sum of 300l. to the master and warden of Dulwich College in trust, that the interest of the same should be distributed annually on Christmas-day, in equal portions between the poor brethren and sisters.
Market and fair.
Henry III. granted to this parish a weekly market on Tuesday, and an annual fair for three days, on St. Mary's Day, the vigil, and the day following (fn. 56). When this grant was made, Gilbert son of William de Colville was lord of the manor. William de Fiennes granted it to Queen Eleanor for a term of years (fn. 57). Nicholas Carew died seized thereof, 36 Hen. VI. (fn. 58); and his son Nicholas, 6 Edw. IV. (fn. 59)
The Lady Margaret Burwash, or Burgherste, held the manor of Stone-Court, in Carshalton, 46 Edw. III. (fn. 60) The site of this manor has been lately sold to — Palmer, Esq.
Mr. Broadhead's house (see p. 135.) was sold also a short time ago to J. H. Durand, Esq.
To the tombs in Carshalton church, (see p. 127–129.) may be added the following: In the chancel on the south wall, the monuments of Elizabeth, wife of Henry Byne, Esq. who died in 1687, and James Brace, Esq. who died in 1749; on the north wall that of John Braddyl, Esq. who died in 1753; and on the floor, the tomb of Christopher Muschamp, Esq. who died in 1660; at the east end of the nave, the monument of Dorothy, wife of George Burrish, who died in 1685; on one of the pillars that of Thomas Potts, Esq. who died in 1788; on the floor, the tomb of Martha, wife of Thomas Otgher, Gent. and daughter of Thomas Carleton, Esq. who died in 1706; and in the north aisle, the monument of Edward Fellows, Esq. who died in 1730.
In the church-yard are the tombs of Edward Whitaker, Admiral of the White, who died in 1735; Thomas Bradley, Esq. who died in 1739; and several others of that family; Rachel Grymes, who died in 1740; Paul Peter Savignac, who died in 1756, and others of his family; and that of one Humphreys, a corpulent barber, who was a famous dancer, with the following whimsical inscription:
"Tom Humphreys lies here, by death beguil'd, Who never did harm to man, woman, or child; "And since without soe no man e'er was known, "Poor Tom was nobody's soe but his own; Lay light on him earth, for none would than he (Though heavy his bulk) trip it lighter on thee.
"Died Sept. 4, 1742, aged 44 years."
The MS. mentioned p. 133. is annexed to Peck's Life of Milton.
The line "A comfort great, &c." is there printed,
"To comfort and to cure my corosie."
Tombs in the church.
To the tombs in the church of this parish, (mentioned p. 140–146.) may be added those of Francis Rogers, who died in 1688; Mrs. Jane Pattinson, who died in 1755; Thomas Kemp, D. D. rector of the parish, who died in 1769; Joseph Butler, Esq. of York, who died in 1785; Edmund Sanxay, Esq., Edmund Antrobus, Esq., and Leonard Hammond, Esq. who all died in 1787; and John Kempson, who died in 1788.
In the church-yard are the tombs of some children of John Dormer, Esq. of Lee Grange, in the county of Bucks; the Reverend Daniel Sanxay, who died in 1739; Catherine, relict of Michael Crake, Esq. (1740); Joseph Thompson, Esq. of Nonsuch, (1743); and James King, S. T. P. late rector of the parish, who died in 1780.
Richard Gower was lord of the manor in the reign of Edw. IV. and sold it to Sir George Ireland, Alderman of London (fn. 61).
The Rev. Sir James Stonehouse, Bart. LL. D. and rector of Clapham, died in the month of April last, and was succeeded by the Reverend John Venn.
Manor of Benchesham.
The manor of Benchesham was held under the Archbishop of Canterbury (fn. 62). Edward Brudenell had a grant of free warren therein, 19 Hen. VI. (fn. 63) The Morton family were in possession of this manor as early as the reign of Henry VIII. Sir Robert Morton died seized of it 6 Hen. VIII.; and his son, William, 14 Hen. VIII. (fn. 64)
Manor of Crowham.
King Edw. III. in the 46th year of his reign, seized the manor of Crowham, among other lands, then the property of Walter Chiriton, for a debt of 3000l. due to the crown, and granted it to John de Wesenham. Richard II. restored it to William Chiriton, son of the former.
At Addiscombe in this parish, is a seat of the Right Honourable Lord Hawksbury.
Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, and Mary the French Queen.
It is probable that the capital mansion-house, called Suffolk
Place, (see p. 203.) belonged to Charles Brandon Duke of Suffolk,
and Mary the French Queen, who are known to have resided at
Kew. Leland says,
—"Chevam hospitio piæ Mariæ
Gallorum Dominæ celebriorem (fn. 68)."
Lord Harrington of Exton.
Kew was the residence also of the elder and younger Lord Harrington of Exton; the latter of whom, who is described as a most amiable and accomplished young nobleman, died there in 1614 (fn. 69).
The improvements made at Kew-house by Kent, (see p. 206.) must have taken place before the death of the Prince of Wales, as Kent himself died in 1748.
Mr. Bellamy (see p. 210.) published also some dramatic pieces.
Paine was the architect of Kew Bridge. It is 400 feet in length, exclusive of the abutments, and consists of seven arches, the central one of which is 66 feet wide and 22 high. The annual revenues of this bridge are about 2,500l. per annum.
KINGSTON UPON THAMES.
Manor of Combe.
John Hadresham, or, as he is called in the record here quoted, Hathersam, granted the manor of Combe to John Gaynesford and others, 5 Hen. V. (fn. 70) This manor was aliened in the year 1651, by Charles Cockayne, Lord Viscount Cullen, of the kingdom of Ireland, (and son of Sir William Cockayne, Knt.) to Eliab Harvey, Esq. (fn. 71) It was purchased of the Harveys about the year 1753, in trust, for the late Lord Spencer, then a minor.
Manor of Ham.
John Handelow and his wife Matilda granted the manor of Ham, near Kingston, (4 Edw. III.) to Eustachius de Eton, and Geoffrey de Shardeburgh, and the heirs of the former (fn. 72).
Sir Nicholas Burnell held 100 acres of land in Ham of the bailiffs of Kingston, 6 Ric. II. (fn. 73)
Duchess of Queensberry.
The celebrated Duchess of Queensberry resided at Ham, in the house which is now the residence of Lady Douglas.
Roger Wood died seized of the manor of Norbiton-hall, 10 Car. I. (fn. 74)
Manor of Faukes-hall.
There is a record in the Tower (fn. 75) which expressly says, that the manor of Faukes-hall, which had been granted to Richard Gereseye for life, and which was afterwards granted to Roger Damorie, was confirmed to Thomas Bardolf, heir of the said Roger, and his heirs for ever, by Hen. IV. This appears to be inconsistent with the account of the manor given, p. 321. from equal authority, unless we suppose that there were two manors at Faukes-hall, both of which belonged to Roger Damorie.
Mention is made in a record, 27 Edw. I. of a bridge made at the Abbot of Westminster's expence, between Vauxhall and Wandsworth (fn. 76).
Sir Richard Sackville died seized of the manor of Levehurst, 9 Eliz. (fn. 77)
Nicholas Molineux had a grant (36 Hen. VI.) of the manors of Stockwell, Lambeth, and Knolls, which seem to have been in this parish.
In Maitland's History of London, printed in 1739, it is said, that there were then 1625 houses at Lambeth.
Maitland mentions two Spring-gardens at Vauxhall.
A chapel of ease is now building at South Lambeth, by the subscriptions of the inhabitants of that place.
Surrender of Merton Priory.
In the Augmentation-office is the deed of surrender of the Priory of Merton. The seal of the convent, which is in very good preservation, is thereto annexed; it represents the Virgin Mary sitting under a gothic canopy, with the infant Jesus on her knee. The legend is Sigill. Ecclesie San. Marie de Meritona. The deed of surrender is dated April 26, 29 Hen. VIII. and is signed by Sir John Ramsay, the last prior, Joseph Debnam, sub-prior, Thomas Godmechester, sacrist, John Codynton, Richard Wyndesse, precentor, George Albyn, succentor, John Hayward, Richard Benese, Thomas Mychell, Edmund Dowman, Thomas Paynell, John Salyng, John Martyn, Robert Knyght, John Page, scholar of Oxford.
Manor of Ravensbury.
Sir John Burghershe died 15 Ric. II. seized of the manor of Ravensbury (fn. 78), which descended to John Arundell, who married Margaret his daughter and heir (fn. 79). It was held under Baldwin Frevylle, as of his manor of Ashted (fn. 80).
There is an ancient house at Mitcham, the property of Mrs. Sarah Chandler, widow of George Chandler, Esq. in which are the remains of a chapel. The proprietors of this house, which is held under the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, claim a right to the north aisle of the church, in support of which it appears that the family of Illyngworth, who were buried in that aisle in the sixteenth century, held a house and lands under the church of Canterbury, temp. Edw. IV. (fn. 81) It is probable that it was at an earlier period the property of Henry Strete, who had a licence for an oratory in his house at Mitcham, in the year 1348 (fn. 82).
Isaac Reed, Esq. is in possession of a very scarce book written by Doctor Dee, of which, only one hundred copies were printed. It is entitled "General and rare Memorials, pertayning to the perfect Art of Navigation; annexed to the Paradoxal Cumpas in Playne, now first published 24 yeres after the first invention thereof." Fol. 1577.
In Maitland's History of London, printed in 1739, it is said that there were then 751 houses in that parish, and only one person who kept a coach.
In the year 1777, Mr. Bellamy, the late minister of Petersham, published a memorial, addressed to the Bishop of Winchester, on the expediency of enlarging that church, and settling and ascertaining the rights of the future vicars, under the act of parliament passed in 1769.
Manor of Sheen.
Robert Burnell, Bishop of Bath and Wells, purchased the manor of Sheen (now Richmond) of Hugh de Wyndlesor, temp. Edw. I. (fn. 83) It was then valued at 10l. 2s. 4d.
Queen Caroline made Stephen Duck Keeper of the Hermitage in
Richmond Gardens, before he went into orders. Alluding to this
appointment, Mr. Pope, in his imitation of Horace, Epistle 2. Book 2.
"Lord! how we strut thro' Merlin's Cave, to see
No poets there, but Stephen, you, and me."
There was a theatre at Richmond before Penkethman opened his. "Injured Virtue, or the Virgin Martyr," by B. Griffin, was acted there by the Duke of Southampton and Cleveland's servants, in 1715 (fn. 84).
Ralph Bosseville held the rectory and advowson, 2 Eliz. (fn. 85)
In Maitland's History of London, printed in 1739, it is said that there were then 1320 houses in this parish, and only one person who kept a coach.
Lambarde says, that Henry the Fourth resided at Rotherhithe, whilst he was cured of his leprosy (fn. 86).
Edward Barker (see p. 507.) though stiled in his epitaph, one of the Barons of the Exchequer, appears to have held the office of Cursitor Baron only.
PRESENT STATE of POPULATION in the PARISHES treated of in this Volume.
TO ascertain as nearly as possible the present state of population in the several parishes near London, an accurate account of the number of houses and inhabitants has been procured in three pretty large villages; viz. Mortlake, Putney, and Wandsworth; the numbers are as follows:
|Number of Houses.||Number of Inhabitants.|
Upon making the calculation, the average number of inhabitants to a house in these three parishes jointly, will be found to be 6 28/1431, that is, about 6 1/50. The average of 6 to a house, therefore, will perhaps give a pretty fair view of the present state of population near London. Clapham, perhaps, is almost a single instance where the average is nearly 7. In most parishes, the houses have been actually numbered, and in all they have been calculated as nearly as possible. The following table gives the number of houses and inhabitants upon the foregoing calculation:
If to the number of houses, 1,431 be added for Mortlake, Putney, and Wandsworth, and 384 for Clapham, it will make in the whole 18,061 houses: adding 8,614 inhabitants for the three former parishes, and 2,700 for Clapham, the total number will be 108, 790.