The Environs of London: Volume 3, County of Middlesex. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1795.
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Name and etymology.
This place is called in old record Todynton, and Totyngton, the latter is the more ancient (fn. 1). The etymology, whatever it be, is the same, it is probable, as that of Tooting in Surrey. Ing, a meadow, is very fequently found in the names of places derived from the Saxon. The meaning of Tot, or Tote (fn. 2), which I suppose to have been descriptive, is no where, I think, satisfactorily defined. It occurs in the names of many places besides those above mentioned, as Toteham in Essex, Toteham or Totham, now Tottenham in Middlesex, Totehele or Totehall, now Tottenham Court, in the parish of Pancers, Totteridge, &c.
Situation, boundaries, and extent.
Teddington is situated in the hundred of Spelthorne, being nearly 12 miles distant from hyde-park-corner. The parish is bounded by Hampton and Twickenham, and by the river Thames. It contains about 500 acres of arable land, and 50 of pasture, besides common. The soil is for the most part light and sandy.
This parish pays the sum of 166 l. 6 s. 8 d. to the land-tax, which, in the year 1794, was at the rate of about 8½d. in the pound.
The manor of Teddington, formerly an appurtenance of Stanes, is supposed to have been given to Westminster Abbey, by the founder, Sebert the first Christian King of the East Saxons (fn. 3). In the year 1547, it was surrendered to Henry the VIIIth, by the abbot and convent of Westminster (fn. 4). King Edward, in 1551, granted a lease of it for 21 years, to George Gates, Esq. (fn. 5) In 1568, a lease was granted to Richard Brown, Esq. for 31 years, to commence after the expiration of Gates's term (fn. 6); and in 1582, another reversionary lease for 40 years, to Sir Amias Pawlet (fn. 7). The rent reserved to the crown was 8l. 6s. King James, in 1603, granted the reversion of the manor, subject to a fee-farm rent of 8l. to John Hill, Esq. and his heirs (fn. 8). At this time Sir Amias Pawlet's term of 40 years was just commencing. The manor continued in the family of Hill till the year 1736, when it was sold by Edward Hill, Esq. to Mr. Matthias Perkins, surgeon, of Twickenham (fn. 9). In the year 1786, John David, eldest son and tenant in tail after the decease of his father John Perkins, Esq. conveyed the reversion of this manor to George Peters, Esq. one of the directors of the Bank of England. Mr. Perkins, the father, died in the month of August 1794, when Mr. Peters, who is the present lord of the manor, came into possession.
State-bed and portraits of Sir George Rooke.
The present manor-house appears to have been built by the celebrated Lord Buckhurst, whose arms, with his crest and supporters, and the date 1602, were lately removed from the chimney-piece of one of the principal apartments. Perhaps he had the assignment of Sir Amias Pawlet's lease. The house is now in the occupation of Captain Smith and his lady, the Dowager Lady Dudley. In one of the bed-chambers is a state bed given by the Emperor Charles VI. to Sir George Rooke, and two portraits of that celebrated officer, the one taken when he was a young man, the other after he became an admiral. They were the property of the Hon. Frances Rooke, aunt to the late Lord Dudley, and wife of George Rooke, Esq. son and heir of the admiral.
The Earl of Leicester appears to have resided at Teddington in 1570 (fn. 10). William Penn, the celebrated Quaker, lived there in 1688. The letter, wherein he clears himself from the charge of being a Papist, is dated thence Oct. 24th, in that year (fn. 11). Francis Manning, author of a volume of poems, two comedies, a translation of the life of Theodosius the Great, from the French, &c. lived many years at Teddington (fn. 12).
Mr. Udney's collection of pictures.
At the seat of Robert Udney, Esq. in this parish, is a large and valuable collection of pictures, by the old masters, principally of the Italian school.
Sir Orlando Bridgman.
The parish church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a small brick structure, consisting of a chancel, nave, and two aisles. The south aisle appears to have been built, and the chancel repaired, in the early part of the 16th century. The east window is much more ancient. The north aisle was added in 1753, principally at the expence of Dr. Hales, who rebuilt the tower in 1754 (fn. 13). Near the communion-table is the monument of Sir Orlando Bridgman (fn. 14). On the floor are the tombs of Richard Parsons, Esq. of Taunton, 1613; and William Terreman, of Whimple, Devon, yeoman in ordinary to Queen Elizabeth, and usher to King James, 1618. On the east wall of the north aisle is the monument of Margaret Wossington (fn. 15), 1760; and on the north wall one to the memory of Thomas Fitch (fn. 16), Gent. 1701; Judith, relict of Mr. Richard Hawkes, and sister of Thomas Fitch (fn. 16), 1707; and Martha, daughter of——Hawkes, and wife of Needler Webb, 1703. In the nave are the tombs of John Michell, of Tewksbury, 1660; and Captain Robert Wells, 1710. In the south aisle those of John Goodyere, 1506, and Thomasyne, his wife (with small figures in brass of the deceased); Mrs. Mary Blanchard, 1711; Mr. Richard Hooper, 1717; Frances, his wife, daughter of Cranmer Herris, barrister-at-law, by his wife Catherine, daughter of Sir John Honeywood; Mrs. Mary, wife of Stephen Hales, D. D. coheiress of the ancient family of Newce, of Much-Hadham (fn. 17), 1721. At the west end lies a broken monument of Anne, wife of Paul Whitehead, Esq. of Twickenham, daughter of Sir Swinerton Dyer, Bart. and niece of William Belitha, Esq. of Teddington, 1768.
In the vestry is the tomb of Dr. Stephen Hales (fn. 18).
At the west end of the church, on the outside, is the monument of Henry Flitcroft, the architect (fn. 19); on the south wall that of Mr. Richard Bushnell, 1740; and on the north wall that of Benjamin Glentworth, Gent. 1763.
In the church-yard are the tombs of Henry Beckett, Gent. 1627; Mary, sole daughter of Thomas Powys, serjeant-at-law, 1633; John Bach, Gent. 1747; William Belitha, Esq. 1759; Mrs. Anna Jones, 1760; Mary, daughter of John Perkins, Esq. 1766; Thomas Thirkell, Gent. 1766; Isabella, Countess Dowager of Denbigh (fn. 20), 1769; John Twells, Esq. 1777; Robert Hudson, Esq. 1779; Mary, wife of Augustus Noverre, Esq. 1781; Capt. Charles Hamilton, 1784; Frances, relict of John Alexander, Esq. 1788; William Simpson, Esq. of Gray's Inn, 1789; and Anne, wife of Mr. James Wilson, 1790.
The church of Teddington was formerly a chapel to Stanes. In the instrument by which William Bishop of London (either Courtney or Gray) appropriates the church of Stanes to Westminster Abbey, it is directed, that the vicar of that parish shall appoint the curates of the other chapels within its precincts, but that the Abbot of Westminster shall nominate the chaplain at Totyngton, and provide him a sufficient maintenance (fn. 21). In the taxation of 1372, the great tithes of this place were rated at nine marks (fn. 22). A stipulation was made in all the leases of the manor and rectory of Teddington from the crown, that the lessee should allow the curate 61. per annum, and 4s. for sacramentals. By King James's grant, the same stipend is charged on the manor and rectory, to be paid at the four usual festivals, under a penalty of forfeiting, for every default, the sum of 5 l. to the curate. The patronage of the curacy was vested solely in the lord of the manor till the year 1671, when the alternate presentation was given to Sir Orlando Bridgman and his heirs, in consequence of his augmenting the curacy with fee-farm rents, to the amount of about 80 l. (fn. 23) This curacy is not within the Bishop of London's jurisdiction.
Vicars. Matthew Randall.
Matthew Rendall, or Randall, who was appointed to the curacy of Teddington in 1638, is said by Neale to have been suspended for preaching a sermon more than an hour long (fn. 24).
Thomas Traherne, curate of this place, was author of "Christian Ethics," and another work, entitled "Roman Forgeries, or the impostures and counterseit antiquities of the church of Rome." He died in Sir Orlando Bridgman's house on the 10th of October 1674 (fn. 25).
The celebrated Dr. Stephen Hales, who was appointed to the cure of Teddington in 1706, was grandson of Sir Robert, and brother of Sir Thomas Hales, Bart. of Beaksbourn, in Kent (fn. 26). He received his education at Bennet College in Cambridge, where, at an early age, he began to attach himself to the sciences of natural history, and experimental philosophy in its various branches, which continued to be his favourite studies during a long life. In 1718, he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society; and in 1733, was presented with a diploma degree, by the University of Oxford. Dr. Hales was much esteemed by Frederick Prince of Wales, who frequently visited him at Teddington. After his Royal Highness's death, he was appointed clerk of the closet to the Princess Dowager, and had a share in the education of his present Majesty. The late King offered him a canonry of Windsor, which he declined, preferring his retirement at Teddington, as more favourable to his philosophical pursuits (fn. 27). He died on the 4th of January 1761, after a long and useful life, and was buried on the 10th, under the tower which he had erected at his own expence. Dr. Hales is well known in the literary world, by his excellent treatises on statics, his book on ventilators, and some other valuable publications (fn. 28). In all his projects and experiments he displayed a truly benevolent mind, he had always something in view that might tend to the benefit of his fellow-creatures; devising means to stop the progress of infection, to render more wholesome gaols, hospitals, ships, and other crowded places; analysing mineral waters, and detecting the imposition of those who would have recommended common spring water to the public, as a specific for all disorders (fn. 29). These useful labours and experiments he continued, preserving his faculties unimpaired to a great age. In a letter to Dr. Swithin Adee, of Oxford (fn. 30), dated August 22, 1757, he expresses great pleasure, that by several pressing letters he had at length procured the same means to be used for securing the health of the English prisoners in France, which had been practised for nearly two years in England, to the great benefit of the French prisoners, namely ventilating the hospitals and gaols. In another letter, dated Dec. 15, 1760, about a fortnight before his death, being then in his 84th year, he speaks of an intention of publishing a new edition of his book on ventilators, mentions some experiments he had lately made on the different degree of saltness in the seawater brought from different latitudes, and a paper which he had communicated to the Royal Society, on the benefits to be derived from wetting the body with salt water (fn. 31). "If the trial," says he, were made in 20 tents to wet the soldiers' bodies with salt water in very cold weather, it would probably give some light into the matter; but I know by much experience, that the vis inertiæ of mankind is too great to attempt useful discoveries by proper trials, and without them useful discoveries cannot be made." A monument was erected to the memory of Dr. Hales, in Westminster Abbey, at the expence of the Princess Dowager of Wales (fn. 32). Dr. Hales was succeeded by John Cosens, D. D. author of a poem, called the Œconomy of Beauty, in a series of Fables addressed to the Ladies; the Tears of Twickenham, &c. He died in 1791. Since his death, two volumes of his sermons have been published.
The present incumbent is the Rev. Leonard Chapelow, M. A. appointed by Sir Henry Bridgman, Bart. (now Lord Bradford), in 1791.
The most ancient parish register which I have been able to find in this place, commences in 1695. In Dr. Hales's time, there was one extant which began in 1558. The averages of baptisms, previously to the present century, are taken from Dr. Hales's MSS. beforementioned.
Comparative state of population.
|Average of Baptisms.|
|Average of Baptisms.||Average of Burials.|
|1740–1759||13 3/10||18 3/10|
Number of inhabitants in 1740 and 1794.
In the year 1740 there were 119 families in Teddington, and 11 empty houses. The number of inhabitants was 471, of which 175 were under 16 years of age. The number of males in the parish was 212, of females 259. There were 82 married couples, nine widowers, and 35 widows (fn. 33). The present number of houses is 118, of inhabitants about 580.
Extracts from the parish Register.
"James Rushout, of Northwick in Worcestershire, Baronet, and Arabella Vernon (fn. 34), married Feb. 12, 1699–1700."
"Charles, second son (fn. 35) of Sir Roger Bradshaw, Bart. of the county of Lancaster, buried Sept. 13, 1703."
"Mary Duncombe, mother to Sir Charles Duncombe, and aged 97 years, was buried Nov. 7, 1716." Sir Charles Duncombe (uncle of Anthony Lord Feversham) was Lord Mayor of London in 1709. The house in which he lived at Teddington was, in 1755, in the occupation of the Earl of Thanet. It was built and sitted up at a great expence in the latter part of the last century; the cielings were painted by Verrio, and the carving executed by the celebrated Grinling Gibbons (fn. 36). Two rooms thus ornamented still remain. The house is now the residence of William Douglas, Esq.
"The Hon. Edward Windsor, buried July 8, 1741; Mrs. Ephraim Windsor, his widow, Sep. 29, 1741."
James Parsons, a great eater.
"James Parsons, who had often eat a shoulder of mutton, or a peck of hasty pudding, at a time, which caused his death, buried March 7, 1743–4, aged 36."
"John Wray, son of Sir John Wray, Bart. buried Oct. 15, 1748."
"Sarah Coster, widow, aged 90, buried June 13, 1751."
"Paul Whitehead, Esq. buried Jan. 4, 1775." Mr. Whitehead
was born in the parish of St. Andrew, Holbourn, in 1710. He was
originally apprenticed to a mercer, but afterwards became a member
of the Temple, and studied the law. His chief pursuits, nevertheless, appears to have been politics and poetry. He published a
pamphlet in vindication of Mr. Alexander Murray; and attaching
himself to the Prince of Wales's party, became a violent patriot, and
"the champion and bard of Leicester-house (fn. 41)." When his patron
Lord Le Despencer came into power, he accepted a lucrative place,
which subjected him to much censure and ridicule, from those with
whom he had formerly acted in opposition to the court. Mr. Whitehead was a member of the famous Mednam club, instituted by Lord
Le Despencer, of which Mr. Wilkes, I believe, is now the only
survivor. His principal poems were, the State Dunces, the Gymnasiad, or Boxing-match, and an Epistle to Dr. Thompson, which,
with some others, were collected into a quarto volume, and published by Captain Edward Thompson in 1777. He wrote also a
pamphlet on the conduct of the managers of Covent Garden theatre,
and is said to have planned the mock procession of the Freemasons, and to have designed the print which was engraved of it.
His principal residence was on Twickenham-heath. By his will, he
bequeathed the sum of 50l. to be expended on a marble urn, in
which he directed, that his heart should be inclosed and deposited
in the mausoleum of his patron at Wycomb. On the 13th of
August, in the year after his death, a mausoleum having been erected
for that purpose in Lord Le Despencer's garden at High Wycomb,
Whitehead's heart was deposited there with very singular ceremonies,
in imitation of the ancients. The urn was followed from the house
by a military procession, attended by a choir of vocal performers,
conducted by Atterbury and Mulso. Before the urn was deposited
in the mausoleum, the following incantation, written for the purpose, and composed by Dr. Arne, was sung:
"From earth to heav'n Whitehead's soul is fled,
Refulgent glories beam about his head!
His Muse concording with resounding strings
Gives angels words to praise the King of Kings."
The following inscription was placed on the urn. "Paul Whitehead, Esq. of Twickenham, ob. Dec. 30, 1774."
"Unhallow'd hands this urn forbear.
No gems or orient spoil lie here conceal'd:
—But what's more rare,
A heart that knew no guile."
The oratorio of Goliah, composed for the occasion, was performed
the same day in West Wycomb church, before a crowded audience,
all persons being admitted upon contributing something to the poor's
box (fn. 42). There is no memorial to Mr. Whitehead at Teddington.
The following epitaph, written by Mr. Garrick (fn. 43), if ever inscribed
on his tomb, does not now exist (fn. 44). "Near this place are deposited
the remains of Paul Whitehead, Esq. who was born Jan. 25, 1710,
and died Dec. 30, 1774, aged 65."
"Here lies a man misfortune could not bend;
Prais'd as a poet, honour'd as a friend:
Though his youth kindled with the love of same,
Within his bosom glow'd a brighter flame;
Whene'er his friends with sharp affliction bled,
And from the wounded deer the herd was fled,
Whitehead stood forth, the healing balm apply'd;
Nor quitted their distresses till he dyed."
"Richard Bentley, Esq. from London, buried Oct. 26, 1782." Son of Dr. Bentley, the celebrated critic. He was author of a poem called Patriotism, reprinted in Dilly's repository; Philodamus, a tragedy, and the Wishes, a comedy, which was acted in 1761. Mr. Bentley had a very happy talent in designing. His vignettes and frontispieces for Gray's poems are remarkably elegant and appropriate.
"The Hon. Mrs. Deborah Chetwynd (fn. 45), buried Oct. 11, 1788."
Lady Bridgman, who died in 1697, gave the sum of 40l. to the parish of Teddington, with which lands and tenements were purchased, now let at 50 s. per annum, appropriated to the teaching six poor girls to knit and read. Mrs. Becliffe, in 1780, gave the sum of 100l. short annuities, producing 8l. 6s. 8d. per annum, for the purpose of clothing and educating three girls; the surplus, if any, to be distributed in bread.
Alms-house and fuel.
Matthias Perkins, Esq. lord of the manor, in the year 1738, gave a piece of the common, containing nearly three acres, for the site of an alms-house, and for the purpose of providing fuel for the poor. The alms-house, consisting of five tenements, was built with the sum of 50l. given by Sir Francis Bridgman. The ground adjoining was inclosed, and now produces a rent of 40s. which is appropriated to the purchase of fuel.
Henry Becket, Gent. in 1627, gave a rent-charge of 1l. 6s. per annum, to buy bread for the poor.
Mrs. Anne Hyde, in 1687, gave a rent-charge of 20s. per annum to the poor.
Supply of fresh water.
In the year 1754, a channel of fresh water was brought through the town (from some springs on the common) at the expence of 45l. which was raised by subscription, the lord of the manor contributing 15 guineas. The supply of water produced by this means (viz. 30 tons in a day) being found not sufficient, the drains across the springs were lengthened in 1756, under the direction of Dr. Hales, and a double quantity was then procured. The particulars were inserted at length in the parish register by Dr. Hales, who observes, that a larger supply, if wanted at any future time, may be obtained by the same means.