Folios 181 - 192: Nov 1482 -

Pages 199-210

Calendar of Letter-Books of the City of London: L, Edward IV-Henry VII. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1912.

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Folio 181.

Custod' pueror' Will'i Seyger.

23 Nov., 22 Edward IV. [A.D. 1482], came Philip Payn, Robert Darlyngton, Robert Coldham, and William Copynger, fishmongers, and entered into bond in the sum of 79 6s. 2d. for the delivery into the Chamber by the said Philip of the sum of 75 and a silver-gilt cup and covercle to the use of Thomas, Henry, and Elizabeth, children of William Seyger, late fishmonger, when they come of age or marry. (fn. 1)

Folio 181 b.

Commissio Regis sup' caristiam frumenti et al' blador'.

Writ to the Sherift of Sussex to make proclamation that, in view of the prevailing scarcity, wheat, malt, rye, beans, peas, oats, and other grain might freely be brought to the City of London (without interception by the King's Purveyors) out of the county of Sussex, provided it be shipped from the ports of Wynchelsee and Chechestre, and surety be given to the King's Customers that the grain would be carried to the City of London and not elsewhere. Witness the King at Westminster, 21 Nov., 22 Edward IV. [A.D. 1482].

A note of similar writs having been sent to the Sheriff of Cornwall for the ports of Plymouth and Fowey; the Sheriff of Devonshire for the ports of Dartmouth and Exmouth; the Sheriff of Southampton for the port of Southampton; the Sheriffs of Somerset and Dorset for the ports of "Pole" and Weymouth; the Sheriff of Kent for the port of Sandwich and its "creeks"; and the Sheriffs of Norfolk, Suffolk, and Lincoln for the port of Boston.

Similar writ to the Sheriff of Surrey set out.

Folio 182.

A note of similar writs having been sent to the Sheriffs of Cambridgeshire, Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Berkshire, and Essex.

Folios 182-185b.

Ordinacio Pandoxatorum.

5 Dec., 22 Edward IV. [A.D. 1482], came the Wardens and good men of the Craft of Bruers into the Court of the lord the King in the Chamber of the Guildhall, before Edmund Shaa, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, and prayed that certain articles for the regulation of the Craft might be approved to the following effect :

First, that every person occupying the "craft or feet" of brewing within the franchise make, or cause to be made, good and "hable" ale, according in strength and fineness to the price of malt for the time being, that no ale after it be "clensed and sett on jeyst" (fn. 2) be put to sale or carried to customers until it have fully "spourged" (fn. 3) and been tasted and viewed by the Wardens of the Craft or their Deputy, according to the ordinances and customs of the City, and that the taster allow no ale that is not "holesome for mannys body," under penalty of imprisonment and a fine.

That ale be not sent out in other men's vessels without leave of the owners of the vessels.

That no brewer maintain a "foreyn" to retail his ale within the franchise of the City.

That no brewer entice customers of another occupying the same craft.

That no brewer engage a "Typler" (fn. 4) or "Huxster" to retail his ale until he be sure that the said "Typler" or "Huxster" is clearly out of debt and danger (fn. 5) for ale to any other person occupying the craft of brewing within the franchise.

That no "Tipler" or Huckster lend, sell, break, or "kutte" any barrel, kilderkin, or ferkin belonging to any other brewer without leave of the owner.

That every person keeping a house and being a Brother of Bruers and occupying the craft of brewing pay quarterage towards the great charges and cost of the Craft and Fraternity.

That no one of the Craft, whether he be in the livery of the same or not, presume to go and dine at the feasts of the Mayor or Sheriffs when they are presented at Westminster; unless appointed by the Wardens to take the place of one unable to attend.

That every freeman of the Craft obey the summons of the Wardens on all occasions, under penalty of a fine, except for reasonable cause.

That at every third year, on the election of new Wardens of the Craft and Fraternity, the men of the livery shall attend in a new gown and hood and hear Mass at the church of St. Mary in Aldermanbury, or such other place as may be assigned, and also attend the dinner in the Common Hall of the Fraternity; that every such person keep the said livery for the space of 6 years next ensuing for divers assemblies of the Fellowship; that if he fail to attend in his livery on any occasion, without reasonable excuse, he be fined; that if he receive from the Wardens an "example" or "patron" (sample or pattern) of the livery, and so be licensed to provide and buy his cloth for the said livery where he pleases, and the colour of the cloth so bought and provided be not according to the colour of the said "example" or "patron," he be also fined.

That once every quarter all members of the Fellowship attend, on summons, at the Common Hall of the said Craft or Fellowship, to hear read the statutes and ordinances approved and enacted by the Mayor and Aldermen for the good rule of the Craft, in order that no one incur penalties through ignorance of them.

That no brewer take any servant that has not served his time as an apprentice to the craft, and been made a freeman of the City; nor keep in his house at one time more than two or three apprentices at the most; that all such apprentices be first presented to the Wardens in the Common Hall of the Craft, and by them be publicly examined as to their birth, "clenesse of their bodies, and other certeyn poyntes".

That apprentices be presented to the Wardens by their master before admission to the freedom of the City, so that it may be ascertained whether they have duly served their term, and that no apprentice who has served his term shall become a Chief brewer or Under brewer, and therefore take wages, until certified as able by the said Wardens under penalty prescribed.

That no one buy malt brought to the City by land or water until carried to the "key" or other market places therefor ordained, and there openly overseen and searched by the Wardens of the Craft or their deputy; that the said mall be "clene, swete, drye, and wele made, and not capped in the Sakkes (fn. 6) nor Rawdried malte, dank or wete malte, or made of mowe (fn. 7) brent barly, belyed (fn. 8) malte, Edgrove malte, (fn. 9) acrespired (fn. 10) malte, wyvell eten malt or medled" to the deceit of the people, upon pain of forfeiture.

That no one buy corn in the market and leave it in the seller's hands with the view of enhancing its price.

That every one bringing malt or "other cornes" to the City for sale bring it to the market places of old time used, and not sell it by "ensample" upon pain of forfeiture.

That no one sell malt, &c., at the markets of Graschirche or Greyfriars before 9 o'clock until the market bells be rung, nor after the hour of 12.0; that immediately after 12.0 the malt, &c., left unsold, be conveyed by the owners to the houses therefor ordained, so that it be clean out of the market by 1.0 P.M., upon pain of forfeiture; that no man sell any malt, &c., in the said markets to any "foreyn" before 11.0 A.M., and that between 11.0 A.M. and 12.0 P.M. every one may buy at his liberty.

Petition granted.

Folio 185 b.

Ordinacio Cirothecarior'.

12 Dec., 22 Edward IV. [A.D. 1482], petition by all the persons enfranchised in the Craft or Mistery of Glovers of the City to the Mayor and Aldermen, setting forth that they had become so impoverished by the number of "foreyns" coming and working at their craft in the City that they were unable to bear the charges of the City as they had hitherto done, and praying that certain articles for the regulation of their craft might be approved.

The articles are to the following effect :

First, no freeman of the Craft or Mistery nor other person occupying the said craft shall employ any "foreyn" until such "foreyn" has been admitted by the Wardens and paid 6s. 8d. for being set on work; that the said "foreyn" be subject to the Wardens, and be sworn to obey the rules and ordinances of the Craft.

That no freeman teach another the craft, except he be bound apprentice to the Craft, or else be free of the same, under penalty of 13s. 4d.

That no freeman take more than 2 or 3 apprentices, nor entice any apprentice or servant out of the service of another.

That those taking wages for their work pay quarterage.

That no freeman buy any gloves made in the country, to sell again, until such gloves have been approved by the Wardens.

Petition granted.

Folio 186.

Custod' pueror' Thome Warenger.

20 Dec., 22 Edward IV. [A.D. 1482], came William Redy, Richard Lakyn, Edmund Worsley, mercers, and entered into bond in the sum of 36 for the payment into the Chamber by the said William Redy of a like sum to the use of Elizabeth and Johanna, daughters of Thomas Warenger, when they come of age or marry. (fn. 11)

Folio 186 b.

Custod' Ric i Wode fil' Ric'i Wode m'cer'.

27 Feb., 22 Edward IV. [A.D. 1482-3], came William Johnson, Nicholas Kirkeby, innholders, and Stephen Gybson, mercer, and entered into bond in the sum of 20 for the payment into the Chamber by the said William Johnson of a like sum to the use of Richard, son of Richard Wode, late mercer, on his coming of age.

Folio 187.

Custod' pueror' Joh'is Worth talough chaundler.

7 March, 23 Edward IV. [A.D. 1482-3], came Henry Fronte, John Benyngton, grocers, William Prime, "talough chaundler," and John Duklyng, fishmonger, and entered into bond in the sum of 40 for payment into the Chamber by the said Henry Fronte of a like sum to the use of Johanna and Alice, daughters of John Worth, late "talough chaundler," when they come of age or marry. (fn. 12)

Folio 187 b.

Custod' pueror' Nich'i Okerford vynter.

18 March, 23 Edward IV. [A.D. 1482-3], came Thomas Abraham, grocer, John Palmer, fishmonger, and Richard Brent, grocer, and entered into bond in the sum of 52 12s. 1d. for the delivery into the Chamber by the said Thomas Abraham of a sum of 40 and a certain mass (mass') called "plate," valued at 12 12s. 1d., to the use of John and Thomas, sons of Nicholas Okerford, late "vynter," when they come of age. (fn. 13)

Anno primo Edwardi V. (fn. 14)

Folios 188-9 b.

Ordinacio Tonsor'.

22 April, 1 Edward V. [A.D. 1483], came the Wardens and good folks of the Craft of Shermen of the City and prayed that certain articles for the regulation of the Craft might be approved The articles are to the following effect :

First, that householders of the Craft having more than two apprentices shall take no others until the terms of such apprentices have expired, and afterwards shall have no more than two apprentices, under penalty of a fine.

That a new apprentice may be taken a year before the expiration of the term of one of the two apprentices, and a third apprentice may be taken who has lost his master by death, and been "sett over" to another by the Chamberlain.

That no apprentice after the expiration of his term presume to work "in journey" with any of the Craft until he has satisfied the Wardens and twelve others of the Craft of his ability, and if he fail in this, he shall be put to "such a connyng place of the said craft" as the Wardens and the twelve may assign, there to perfect himself in his work, receiving wages, meat and drink at the discretion of the said Wardens.

That presentation of apprentices to be made freemen in the Chamber be done in the presence of the three Wardens, or at least two of them, under penalty of a fine.

That no one of the Craft employ more journey men or covenant men than four at once, besides his apprentices, without special licence.

That no one of the Craft henceforth shall "flok powder ne stop' deceivably wt oile or grese" any cloth after shearing thereof, under penalty of the pillory and a fine.

That no man of the Craft, being in the livery or otherwise, leave the Craft for any other Fellowship without licence of the Mayor and Aldermen, (fn. 15) under penalty of forfeiting 40.

Petition granted..

Folio 189 b.

Proclamac' contra mere trices vagant' circa Civita tem.

"For to eschewe the stynkyng and horrible Synne of Lechery the whiche daily groweth and is used more than it hath been in dates past by the meanes of Strumpettes mysguyded and idil women daily vagraunt and walkyng aboute by the stretes and lanes of this Citee of London and Suburbes of the same and also repairyng to Taverns and oere private places of the said Citee provokyng many oere persones unto the said Synne of lechery Whereby moche people aswell men as women being of theym self weldisposed daily fall to the said myschevous and horrible Synne To the grete displeasur of Almyghty God and distourbaunce and brekyng of the Kyng our soveraign lordes peas and of the politique guydyng of the Citee aforesaid My lord the Mair and my Maisters the Aldremen streitly chargen and commaunden uppon the King our soveraign lordes behalf that all suche Strumpettes and mysguyded and idill women aswell dwellyng as Resortyng to the said Citee of London or Suburbes of the same departe and wtdrawe theym self and in no wise be so hardy to come ayen Resorte or abide wtin the said Citee or libertie uppon payn erefore ordeigned and that no persone wtin the same Citee and libertie eide comfort nor receive any suche mysguided and ill disposed women uppon e payne therefore lymyted and ordeigned, straitly chargyng constables and all oere officers of the said Citee to arrest all suche mysguyded and idill women as been aforerehersed where so ever ther shalbe founde wtin the same Citee and to brynge theym to one of the Countours there to abide the punysshment and correccioun of the lawe for suche mysdoers ordeigned." [No date.]

Custod' pueror' Ric'i Baret hab'dassher.

4 May, 1 Edward V. [A.D. 1483], came William Boket, haberdasher, William Purchace, Roger Bowcer, and Thomas Hore, mercers, and entered into bond in the sum of 280 for payment into the Chamber by the said William Boket of a like sum to the use of Bartholomew, Johanna, Agnes, Elizabeth, Juliana, Alice, and Anne, children of Richard Baret, late haberdasher, when they come of age or marry. (fn. 16)

Folio 190.

Exon'acio Thome Diker ab assis' etc.

27 May, 1 Edward V. [A.D. 1483], Thomas Diker, tailor, discharged by Edmund Shaa, the Mayor, and the Aldermen from serving on juries, &c., owing to his infirmities.

Folio 190 b.

Concessio fc'a Inhabitant' de p'och' Sc'i Egidii extra Crepulgate etc pro conductu ib'm h'end' etc.

Tuesday, 3 June, 1 Edward V. [A.D. 1483], petition to the Common Council by the inhabitants of the parish of St. Giles without Cripplegate setting forth that John Middelton, executor of William Estfeld, late Knight and Alderman, had conveyed water from Hybery to the said parish on condition that the inhabitants should make a sufficient cistern and conduit to receive the said water, and that the inhabitants had accordingly made such a cistern at great cost. (fn. 17) They therefore prayed the Common Council to ordain that the said cistern and water might become vested in them for evermore, subject to the right of every inhabitant of the City to take water from the said cistern at will, and that the repair of the cistern, pipes, &c., should be made at the cost of the City, as in the case of other cisterns and conduits.

Their prayer granted.

Folio 191.

Petitions by the Mayor and citizens to the Duke of Norfolk, Steward of England, praying that they may be allowed to execute the customary services at the Coronation of Richard III. and Anne his consort. (fn. 18)

Here follows a record to the effect that the lord Richard III., King of England, and Dame Anne his consort, were crowned at Westminster, 6 July, in the first year of their reign, and on the day of the coronation of the said King and Queen, after the banquet was finished, at which Edmund Shaa, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, and certain citizens chosen by the Common Council to attend upon the Chief Butler of England according to custom were honourably and graciously treated, the said Mayor, after the banquet as aforesaid, offered the King wine in a gold cup with gold ewer (fiola) full of water to temper the wine, and after the King had taken the wine the said Mayor retained the cup and ewer for his own use (fn. 19) Likewise the said Mayor, after the said banquet, offered wine to the Queen in a gold cup with gold ewer of water, and after receiving the wine she gave the cup and ewer to the Mayor pursuant to the privileges, liberties, and customs of the City of London on such occasions. (fn. 20)

Folio 191 b.

The names of the citizens elected by the Common Council to attend the Chief Butler of England, viz., Henry Cote, goldsmith, John Tate, mercer, William Sandes, grorer, William Spark, draper, John Swan, tailor, Thomas Ostriche, haberdasher, William Maryner, salter, Richard Knyght, fishmonger, John Pasmer, skinner, Thomas Breteyn, "irmonger," Roger Forde, vintner.

Exon'acio Joh'is Fissher Aldr'i ab officio suo etc.

John Fissher, Alderman, discharged by the Mayor and Aldermen from serving as Alderman or any other office, he consenting to give the sum of 400 marks towards the repan of the Cross in Chepe and other City works. Dated 31 July, 1 Richard III. [A.D. 1483].

Folio 191b-192b

Ordinacio ae Inholders.

31 July, 1 Richard III. [A.D. 1483], came good men of the Mistery of 'Inholders" into the Court of the lord the King in the Chamber of the Guildhall, before Edmund Shaa, Knight and Mayor, and the Aldermen, and presented a petition praying that certain ordinances for the better regulation of the Mistery might be approved.

The ordinances are to the following effect :

That people resorting to the City, with their horses or without, be lodged in open inns, having signs hanging out, in open streets, and not in private and "pety hostryes," under penalty prescribed.

That a "botell" of hay weigh 5 lb. of troy weight as of old.

That the Wardens of the Craft have the right of search for horsebread "deceivably medled,"baked, or made, being accompanied by an officer of the Mayor when searching without their Fellowship.

That oats and beans brought to the City for sale be brought to the open markets, and not harboured in houses or inns.

That no brown-bread baker, baking horsebread or any other bread, keep any inn or horse to livery, on pain of forfeiting 40s.

That no innkeeper suffer any foreign horsebread to be brought into his house or "colour" it by any of his guests.

Their petition granted.

Folio 192 b.

Eleccio vicecomit'.

Sunday the Feast of St. Matthew [21 Sept.], 1 Richard III. [A.D. 1483], in the presence of Edmund Shaa, Knight and Mayor, the Prior of Christchurch, Thomas Fitz William the Recorder, (fn. 21) Robert Drope, Robert Basset, Richard Gardyner, John Broun, William "Haryot," Thomas Stalbroke, Thomas Hille, Robert Billesdone, Hugh Brice, Richard Rawson, Henry Colet, John Stokker, John Warde, Robert Tate, William Horn, Richard Chawry, Thomas "Northlond," William White, and John Mathewe, Aldermen, and very many Commoners summoned to the Guildhall for the election of SheriffsThomas "Norlond," grocer, was elected one of the Sheriffs for the City of London and Middlesex by the Mayor, and William Martyn, skinner, was elected the other Sheriff by the Commonalty.

The same day Milo Adys, goldsmith, was elected Chamberlain of the City for the year ensuing; William Gall, tailor, and Henry Bumpstede, mercer, were elected Wardens of the City Bridge; Richard Rawson, Henry Colet, Aldermen, John Materdale, tailor, Nicholas Alwyn, mercer, William Capell, draper, and William Purchas, mercer, Commoners, were elected Auditors of the accounts of the Chamberlain and Wardens in arrear.

Afterwards, viz., on the eve of St. Michael [29 Sept.], the said Sheriffs were sworn at the Guildhall, and on the morrow of the said Feast were presented, admitted, &c., before the Barons of the Exchequer.


  • 1. Margin. 9 May, 2 Henry VII. [A.D. 1487], came Gerard Danyell, who married the above Elizabeth, and acknowledged satisfaction for his wife's property.
  • 2. "Gyyste," a balk of timber for resting a thing on. (Way's 'Prompt. Parv'.)
  • 3. Fermented. Cf. "Et qe chescun vesselle qest apporte ou amove a ascun bracyne pur emplire, estoise illoeqes un jour et un noet, pleyn de cervoyse pur espurger" ('Liber Albus,' i. 359) Cf. Lat. spumare= to spurge.
  • 4. A tippler was one who drank in small quantities, just as a huckster or pedlar dealt in small quantities.
  • 5. In the preamble to the petition of the Leathersellers in 1481 for ordinances to be approved by the Mayor and Aldermen, objection is made to members of the fraternity taking more apprentices than they were able to keep or teach, and thus leading them to "endaunger themselves" (i.e., become debtors) to other men. Black's 'Hist. of the Leathersellers,' p. 39.
  • 6. Possibly meaning deceitfully packed in sacks, so as to display good malt at the top.
  • 7. "Inowe" (?) = enough, suffi ciently.
  • 8. Swollen in the middle of the grain.
  • 9. Or "edgroue" = germinating (Way's 'Prompt.')
  • 10. When grain, exposed to wet weather, sprouts at both ends, it is said to acrospire (Halliwell). In the treatise of Walter de Biblesworth or Bibbesworth (xiiith century) we find (in connexion with brewing) the following lines : E la cochet vostre ble Taunke seyt ben germe (wel atome or spired). De cele houre appelleras Bres (malt) ke ble avant nomas.
  • 11. Margin. 14 May, 8 Henry VII. [A.D. 1493], came Nicholas Hatfeld, parish clerk, who married the above Elizabeth and acknowledged satis faction for his wife's property; and on the 6th March, 13 Henry VII. [A.D. 1497-8], came Henry Radclif, gentleman, who married the above Johanna, and similarly acknowledged satisfaction.
  • 12. Margin. 21 March, 8 Henry VII. [A.D. 1492-3], came John Awstorp, who married the above Johanna, and acknowledged satisfaction for his wife's patrimony, and for money accruing to her by the decease of Alice her sister.
  • 13. Marginal note to the effect that on the 10th March, 9 Henry VII. [A.D. 1493-4], the above bond be came void, inasmuch as Robert Shirborne, Keeper of the Preroga tive of the Bishop [sic] of Canterbury, signified to the Court of Mayor ind Aldermen under his official seal, that as administsator of the above goods he had discharged the above John Palmer.
  • 14. Edward IV. had died in West minster Palace on the 9th April, at the age of 40, the end being ac celerated by his riotous mode of living His corpse lay for some hours exposed in order that the Peers then in London, and the Mayor of London and his brethren, might view it 'Archologia,' Vol. lx. Part II., p. 538 (where the date of his death is given as 5 April).
  • 15. See ordinance, infra, fo. 199.
  • 16. Margin. Acquittances by John Bolley, haberdasher, who married the above Johanna, for his wife's patrimony, and also for money ac cruing by the decease of Agnes, Elizabeth, and Anne, her sisters.
  • 17. "Some small distance from the east end of this church [St. Giles, Cripplegate] is a water Conduit, brought in pypes of leade from High bery by John Middleton, one of the Executors to Sir William Eastfield, and of his goodes; the inhabitants adioyning castelated it of their owne costes and charges, about the yeare 1483" Stow, 'Survey' (ed. Kingsford), i. 300.
  • 18. The petition is practically in the same form as that made on the occasion of the Coronation of Edward IV., and recorded supra, pp. 5-6. Edward V. had been de posed on the 25th June, 1483, and died (murdered in the Tower) in the following August.
  • 19. This cup has inadvertently been mistaken in 'London and the King dom' (i. 323) for another cup, set with pearls and other precious stones, which the King, sitting crowned in "le Whitehawle" at dinner, gave to the Mayor and Alder men on the Feast of Epiphany [6 Jan., 1483-4] for the use of the Commonalty in the Chamber of the Guildhall. Journal 9, fo. 43.
  • 20. Set out in printed report to the Common Council on Coronations, 18 Aug., 1831. It is also printed in Nicholl's 'Account of the I onmongers' Company,' pp. 42-3.
  • 21. Elected 19 June, 1483. Journal 9, fo. 26 b.