Parishes: Jacobstow - St Just

Magna Britannia: Volume 3, Cornwall. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1814.

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'Parishes: Jacobstow - St Just', in Magna Britannia: Volume 3, Cornwall, (London, 1814) pp. 142-155. British History Online [accessed 19 April 2024]

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JACOBSTOW, In the hundred of Stratton and deanery of Trigg-Major, lies twelve miles north-west of Launceston, and ten nearly south of Stratton, which is the post-office town. The only village in this parish is Sowacott or Southcott. The manor of Penhallam was formerly in the Nowells of Somersetshire. Norden, who wrote in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, describes it as the seat of Sir John Stawell (ancestor of the Lords Stawell), then lately deceased. It was afterwards, for a considerable time, in the family of Phillipps of Hampton, in Stoke-Climsland, and sold by them, about the year 1767, to George Brown, Esq., of whom it was purchased, about the year 1802, by the Rev. Charles Dayman, the present proprietor. It is most probable that it came into Sir John Stawell's family by the match with the heiress of the Cornish family of Beaupré or Belloprato.

The barton of Plymswood, some time the property and residence of Mr. Henry French, is now a farm-house belonging to Mr. Braund, who purchased it of Mr. Nicholas Cory, Mr. French's grandson. The barton of Berry-Court, in this parish, within a moated site, appears to have been a place of some consequence, but we have not been able to learn any thing of its history.

Lord Eliot is patron of the rectory. Digory Wheare, born at Jacobstow in 1573, was appointed by Camden his first reader in history at Oxford. He published a treatise on reading history, a life of Camden, and other works.


ILLOGAN, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Penwith, lies about ten miles west of Truro, and about two miles north-west of Redruth, which is the post-office town. The principal villages in this parish are, Pool, and Portreath or Bassets-Cove, where is a small haven for the importation of coal and lime, and the exportation of copper-ore to the copper-works in Wales. The pier was begun in 1760, by a company who had taken a lease from the late Francis Basset, Esq. The haven has been much improved by the company who now hold it under Lord De Dunstanville: they have laid out 10,000l. on the pier, and a large sum on making a road to the Gwennap mines. The manor of Tehidy, called in ancient records Tydy, Tihidi, Tyhudy, Tehedie, &c. &c., belonged, at a very early period, to a branch of the baronial family of Dunstanville, from whom, about the year 1200, it passed in marriage to the Bassets of Ipsden in Oxfordshire, descended from a younger son of Ralph Basset, the justiciary in the reign of Henry I. The Basset family distinguished themselves for their loyalty during the civil war in the seventeenth century. Sir Francis, then the head of the family, was vice-admiral of Cornwall, and governor of the Mount; his brother, Sir Arthur, succeeded him in the latter situation; Sir Thomas, another brother, was general of the Ordnance to Prince Maurice: he was knighted in 1644. John Basset, son and heir of Sir Francis, although he had never been in arms himself, was imprisoned, by order of the parliament, for his father's delinquency, as it was termed, and his own disaffection; he was suffered to compound for his estates, and, in consequence of the losses which he had sustained on account of his loyalty, was obliged to sell St.Michael's Mount to the St.Aubyn family. Francis Basset, the present representative of this ancient family, was created a baronet in 1779: in 1796, he was advanced to the dignity of the peerage, as Baron de Dunstanville; and in 1797, was created also Baron Basset of Stratton, with remainder to his only daughter and her heirs-male.

The manor of Tehidy is of extensive jurisdiction, enjoys great privileges, and is rich in mines. Leland, speaking of this neighbourhood, says, "Combe Castle "ubi loci vestigia, and Pencombe a little foreland, Bassett hath a right goodly lordship caulled Treheddy by this Cumb." In the year 1330, William Basset, Esq. had the King's licence to fortify his mansion of Tehidy (fn. n1). The present Tehidy house was built, about the year 1734, by John Pendarves Basset, Esq. The east front is of freestone raised on Illogan down: there is a view of it in Borlase's Natural History. There are some good pictures at Tehidy: among the portraits are those of General Massey by Vandyke, and Chief Justice Keylinge and his lady by Lely.

On the summit of a steep hill, in this parish, 697 feet above the level of the sea (fn. n2), called Carn-Brê, supposed by Dr. Borlase and other writers to abound with various druidical remains (fn. n3), are the remains of a castle, which is mentioned by William of Worcester in his Itinerary, written in the reign of Edward IV., as then the property of Sir John Basset, Knt. Dr. Borlase says, that there was a park at Carn-Brê.

The manor of Nancekute or Nancekeage, now the property of Lord de Dunstanville, was purchased by his ancestor of the Rolle family, about the year 1756. Nance was the seat of a branch of the family of Trengove or Trengoff of Warleggon, which, on settling here, took the name of the barton. They became extinct about the year 1720; the barton, which is now the property of Lord de Dunstanville, has only a farm-house upon it.

Ralph Reskymer, who died in the year 1465, was seised of the manors of Treloweth-Redruth, and Treloweth-Heyle. The barton of Treloweth, in this parish, which is not possessed of any manerial rights, belongs to the Hon. Mrs.Agar, as representative of the family of Robartes. The manor of Treskillard, in this parish, is the property of Lord Grenville, in right of his lady, as heiress of the late Lord Camelford: it is probable that it was part of the Mohun estates purchased by her ancestor Governor Pitt. In the church and church-yard are several monuments of the family of Basset. Lord de Dunstanville is patron of the rectory. There were formerly chapels in this parish dedicated to St.John the Evangelist, St.John the Baptist, and St.Constantine (fn. n4). A new chapel has been lately erected at Trevenson near Pool, at the expence of Lord de Dunstanville, and endowed by His Lordship with some lands adjoining, now let at 42l. per annum: it was opened in 1809. There are some meeting-houses belonging to the Wesleyan Methodists.

The plague was very fatal at Illogan in 1591, when 100 persons died of that distemper, being ten times as many as the average of that period. (fn. n5)

An alms-house, for four widows or poor aged women, was founded about the year 1806 by the Hon. Miss Basset, who gives annual allowances to the pensioners. A school for poor children at Pool is supported by Lord de Dunstanville.

St. John's

ST. JOHN'S, in the deanery and in the south division of the hundred of East, lies about three miles and a half from Plymouth-dock, which is the post-office town. The principal villages in this parish are the church-town and Tregenhawke.

The manor or reputed manor of Tregenhawke, in this parish, and Rame (held under the manor of East-Antony), was formerly in the Eliot family, by whom, in 1635, it was alienated to Richard Treville, merchant; from the Trevilles it passed, by coheiresses, to the families of Cross and Trelawney. A moiety of this estate was purchased in 1791 by the late William Graves, Esq., uncle of the Right Hon. Lord Graves, by whom it is now possessed, and who has since purchased the remainder. Lord Graves has also the manor or reputed manor of Withnoe (now called Winnow), which was purchased by his uncle of Francis Wills, Esq., of Wivelscombe.

In the parish-church are some monuments of the family of Fisher. The rectory is in the patronage of the Right Hon. R.P. Carew, as appendant to his manor of East-Antony, which extends over a considerable part of this parish.

St. Issey

ST. ISSEY, in the hundred and deanery of Pyder, is situated on Padstow harbour, about two miles and a half nearly south of Padstow, which is the post-office town, and about five miles north of St.Columb. The principal villages in this parish, exclusively of the church-town, are, Tredinneck, Trenance, and Trevance.

The manor of Canalissey or Cannaligee belonged, for many years, to the family of Coleshill (fn. n6), by inheritance, no doubt, from that of Hiwis, whose coheiress they married, and who appear to have held a large estate in St.Issey 20 Edward III. (fn. n7) It afterwards passed, by a female heir, to the Arundells, in which family it continued till within these few years: it now belongs to Mr. Thomas Bidick. The barton, which was some time a seat of the Carthews, as lessees, is now a farmhouse.

Halwyn, in this parish, now called Old-town, was formerly a manor, on which was a magnificent seat of the Champernowns, acquired by a match with the heiress of Hamely (fn. n8). It passed to female heirs in Queen Elizabeth's reign. The site of the barton, where are still to be seen the ruins of the manor-house, and of a chapel, in which some of the Champernown family were buried, is now the joint property of Joseph Beauchamp, Esq., Thomas Rawlings, Esq., and William Stackhouse, Esq. The same gentlemen possess the manor of Tregenna, which belonged to the Arundells.

The manor of Trevorick belonged for several generations to the family of Cornish, who had their seat there; afterwards to that of Williams. It is now the property of the heirs of the late John Williams Hope, Esq. (fn. n9)

The extensive manor of St. Ide, partly in this parish, and partly in those of Little-Petherick, St. Ervan, Breock, Padstow, and Mawgan, belonged successively to the families of Hiwis, Coleshill, and Arundell (fn. n10); and, at a later period, to the Morices. It is now the property of Thomas Rawlings, Esq. Blayble, in St. Issey, a small farm, now belonging to its occupier, Mr. Richard Williams, is probably the Blaybol, which, at an early period, was the seat of a branch of the Arundells.

The church of this parish is called in ancient records Eglos-Crock. The great tithes are held under the church of Exeter by Mr. Hoiles of Dartmouth. The dean and chapter are patrons of the vicarage. Dr. Borlase speaks of four chapels as having existed in this parish; and adds, that the ruins of two of them, those at Halwyn and Zanzidgie, remained in his time.

St. Ive

ST. IVE, in the deanery, and in the middle division of the hundred of East, lies at the distance of four miles east-north-east from Liskeard, which is the post-office town, and the same distance west-south-west of Callington. The principal villages in this parish, exclusively of the church-town, are Cadson and Dinnerdake.

The manor of Trebicen, now Trebigh, which had been purchased by Abbot Suetricius for the abbey of Tavistock, was taken away from that monastery by Robert, Earl of Moreton and Cornwall, as we are informed by the Survey of Domesday. It was given either by King Stephen or Henry II. to the Knights Hospitallers, who had a preceptory here, of which there are now no traces. Henry de Pomeroy, and Reginald Marsh, are said to have been great benefactors to this preceptory, which, after its first dissolution, was restored by Queen Mary in 1557. In, 1573, it was granted to Henry Wilbye and George Blythe; it was afterwards in the Wreys, who are said by Kimber to have acquired this estate by marriage with an heiress of the Killigrew family. Trebigh appears to have been the chief seat of the Wreys in the reign of Charles I., Sir William Wrey having been described of this place when created a Baronet, in 1628. The old mansion at Trebigh is now a farm-house: the manor and estate belong to Sir Bourchier Wrey, Bart., whose family, ever since their match with the heiress of Bourchier, have resided at Tawstock, in Devonshire.

The manor of Denerdake, Dunerdake, or Dinnerdake, which had been forfeited by Sir William Vaux, was granted by King Edward IV. to Avery Cornburgh (fn. n11). It was afterwards in the family of Tregian, and having been seized by Queen Elizabeth, (when its owner, Francis Tregian, was convicted of harbouring a Popish priest,) was granted to the Hunsdon family, re-purchased by the Tregians, but soon afterwards again alienated. After this it was in the Coryton family, and having passed with Newton-park, is now the property of Weston Helyar, Esq. Bichetone, in this parish, which gave name to an ancient family, was afterwards a seat of the Wreys, by whom it was sold, in the seventeenth century, to the Eliots. Daniel Eliot, Esq. began building a new mansion on this estate, but it was never completed, and there is now only a farm-house on it: the estate belongs to the Hon. William Eliot. The barton of Appledore, formerly called Appledorford, and esteemed a manor, belonged to the Trevenor family, which became extinct in the male line in 1523. (fn. n12) : it is now a farm-house, the property of Mr. William Nottle, who purchased it of the Glanvilles of Catchfrench. Hay, in this parish, some time a seat of the Dodsons; Penharget, which belonged to the Morsheads; and Slade, which belonged to the Saltrons, are now all farm-houses.

The Duke of Cornwall is patron of the rectory.

Mr. William Morshead, of Penharget, by his will, bearing date 1739, gave all his lands called Keason, in this parish, for the education of poor children; but no benefit has ever been derived to the parish from this bequest.

St. Ives

ST. IVES, a market and borough-town in the hundred and deanery of Penwith, is situated on the shore of the Bristol Channel, eight miles north-north-east from Penzance; seven north from Marazion; thirteen north-west from Helston; fourteen west from Redruth; and 277 from London. This town, called in ancient records Porth-Ia, is said to have taken its name from St. Hya or Ia, an Irish saint, who came over into Cornwall in company with St. Breaca and others, and was buried in the church at this place (fn. n13).

The market of St. Ives was originally granted by King Edward I., in 1295, to William Bottreaux, to be held on Thursday, within his manor of La Nant (fn. n14). The same charter granted two fairs; one at the purification, the other at the assumption of the Virgin Mary. Hicks's manuscript makes mention of a market granted by King Henry VII. (fn. n15) The charter of Charles the First grants two weekly markets at this town, Wednesday and Saturday; but the Wednesday market has of late been supplied with scarcely any commodities except vegetables. The same charter grants four fairs, May 10, July 20, September 26, December 3d, and the following day to each. Of late years there has been only one fair (the last Saturday in November), and that chiefly for shoes, sweatmeats, &c. &c.

Leland, speaking of St. Ives, says, "most part of the houses in the peninsula be sore oppressid or over covered with sandes that the stormy windes and rages castith up there. This calamite hath continuid ther litle above 20 yeres." "The best part of the toun now standith in the south part of the Peninsula, toward another hille for defence from the sandes." (fn. n16) Norden describes the haven of St. Ives as much annoyed with sands, and insufficient to receive ships of any burden. "The town and port of St. Ives," says Carew, "are both of mean plight; yet with their best meanes (and often to good and necessarie purpose) succouring distressed shipping. Order hath been taken," he adds, "and attempts made for bettering the road with a peere; but eyther want or slacknesse, or impossibilitie, hitherto withhold the effect: the whiles plentie of fish is here taken and sold verie cheap." In Holinshed's Chronicle is the following mention of a light-house and block-house, near St. Ives. On "a little byland cape or peninsula, called Pendinas, the compas not above a mile, standeth a Pharos or light for ships that fail by those coasts in the night. There is also a block-house and a peer on the east side thereof, but the peer is fore choked with sand, as is the whole coast from St. Ies unto St. Carantokes." There is still a battery on the eastern side, and the old pharos, which still exists, is used for depositing government stores. A new and commodious pier was constructed, under the direction of Mr. Smeaton, between the years 1766 and 1770. (fn. n17) St. Ives is now a place of considerable trade, and has an extensive pilchard-fishery. The principal export, except fish, is copper-ore; the imports are coals, salt, timber, iron, leather, groceries, &c. The principal trade is carried on at Hayle, three miles from the town, which is within the port of St. Ives. In the year 1705, the town of St. Ives contained 240 houses; according to the last return to parliament, in 1811, it contained 712 houses, 3281 inhabitants.

Sir Francis Basset, of Tehidy, who was member for St. Ives, procured from King Charles, in the year 1639, a charter of incorporation for this town, under which the body-corporate consisted of a mayor, twelve capital burgesses, and twenty-four inferior burgesses: a subsequent charter was granted by King James II. in 1685, under which the body-corporate consists of a mayor, recorder, townclerk, ten aldermen, and twelve common-council-men. Four of these are justices of the peace, and hold a sessions. It appears that before the incorporation, the chief officer of this town was called the mayor or portreeve, and it is said that one Payne, who held that office in the reign of Edward VI., was executed by order of Sir Anthony Kingston, for being concerned in Arundell's rebellion (fn. n18). Sir Francis Basset abovementioned, gave to the corporation of St. Ives a drinkingcup, on which is the following inscription:—

If any discord 'twixt my friends arise,
Within the borough of beloved St. Ives,
It is desyred that this my cupp of love,
To everie one a peace-maker may prove;
Then am I blest, to have given a legacie
So like my harte unto posteritie.
Francis Basset, A°. 1640.

St. Ives has sent members to parliament ever since the reign of Philip and Mary. The borough extends over the whole parish, and all householders paying scot and lot, being about 340 in number, are entitled to vote.

The principal villages in the parish of St. Ives are Aire, Batavellan, Bovallan, Carrackdues, Corva, Hellesvean, Hellesveor, Penbeagle, Treloyhan, Trenwith, and Trowan.

The manor of Porth-Ia Prior, which belonged to the priory of Tywardreth, being situated partly in the parish of St. Ives and partly in St. Anthony in Meneage, and in other parishes, was one of those annexed to the duchy of Cornwall in lieu of the honor of Wallingford. Another manor of Porth-Ia was successively in the families of Hele, and of Robartes, Earl of Radnor, and was purchased, together with the manor of Dynas-Ia, and that of Lelant and Trevellow, of Vere Hunt, Esq., representative of the Robartes family, by the grandfather of Samuel Stephens, Esq., the present proprietor. On the manor of Lelant and Trevellow is Tregenna castle, the seat of Mr. Stephens, built by his father, on an elevated site which commands a fine sea-view. On the summit of a losty hill, about a mile from this house, is a pyramid, erected by the late John Knill, Esq., a bencher of Gray's Inn, some time collector of the port of St. Ives, and afterwards secretary to Lord Hobart, when Lord-lieutenant of Ireland. On one side of the pyramid, which he intended for the place of his burial (fn. n19), is inscribed "Johannes Knill;" on another, "Resurgam;" on a third, "I know that my Redeemer liveth." Mr. Knill, who died in 1811, directed that at the end of every five years, an old woman, and ten girls under fourteen years of age, dressed in white, should walk in procession, with music, from the market-house at St. Ives, to the pyramid, round which they should dance, singing the hundredth psalm; and for the purpose of keeping up this custom, he gave some freehold-lands, which are vested in the officiating minister, the mayor of St. Ives, and the collector of that port for the time being, who are allowed ten pounds for a dinner.

The manor of St. Ives, and Trelyan or Treloyhan, in St. Ives, which, from the circumstance of having the great tithes attached to it, we suppose to have belonged to the College of Crediton in Devonshire, was many years in the family of Praed, of whom it was purchased in or about the year 1807, by Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart. The manor of Ludgvan-Lees has an extensive jurisdiction in this parish: Leland, indeed, speaks of its Lords as Lords of St. Ives. "The Lord Brooke was Lord of St. Ives, now Blunt, Lord Montjoy, and Lord Pawlet (fn. n20)."

The manor and barton of Trenwith, which was anciently the name of a district including the whole parish of Lelant, belonged in the reign of Edward the Confessor to Abbot Sitricius; when the Survey of Domesday was taken, to the Earl of Cornwall: John de Beaufort, son of John of Gaunt, had a grant of it, and it continued in the noble family of Beaufort till the attainder of Edmund Beaufort, Earl of Somerset, in 1471. The manor appears to have been long ago annihilated: the barton became the property of a family who are said to have taken the name of Trenwith, in or about the reign of Henry VIII., and became extinct in the male line by the death of Mr. Thomas Trenwith, lieutenant in the navy, in the year 1796. The barton is now the property and residence of their representative Mr. William Lander.

The church of St. Ives was built as a chapel to Lelant, by virtue of a bull from pope Alexander I., bearing date 1410; it was consecrated by the Bishop of Exeter, on the 3d of February 1434. (fn. n21) St. Ives is a daughter-church to Lelant. The great tithes which belonged to the college of Crediton in Devonshire, are vested in Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart., by purchase from the Praeds (fn. n22). The Bishop of Exeter is patron of the vicarage. Within the memory of man were the remains of a chapel near the Quay (fn. n23). There were chapels also formerly at Brunian (fn. n24) and Higher-Tregenna: the foundations of the latter are still visible. In Holinshed's Chronicle is mention of a chapel of St. Nicholas, on the very point of a peninsula called Pendinas, which had belonged of late to Lord Brooke, and then to Lord Mountjoy. This chapel, of which there are still some remains, is mentioned in the Liber Regis. It must have been appurtenant to the manor of Ludgvan-Lees.

The Rev. Jonathan Toup, rector of St. Martin's, near Looe, the learned annotator on Suidas, and editor of Longinus, was born at St. Ives, where his father, of the same name, was lecturer. He was baptized January 5th, 1713-4. The plague was very fatal at St. Ives in the year 1647, in which year 535 persons are said to have died, between Easter and the middle of October (fn. n25). The following remarkable entries appear in the churchwardens accounts at this place.

1730 Paid for horses to carry the Prince of Mount-Lebanon and his retinue 1 10 0
1734 To the Greek Bishop, by order of the Mayor 1 11 6

Mrs. Cheston Hext, widow, in the year 1649 founded an alms-house for six poor people, and gave the sum of 50l., out of the interest of which, 20s. per annum was to be given to the priest of the parish, and the remainder to the poor (fn. n26). There is no trace of this alms-house.

A grammar-school, for the instruction of youth, by a master and usher, was founded in this town by King Charles's charter, in 1639; the Bishop of Exeter, with the mayor and capital burgesses of St. Ives, having been appointed governors. This school has not been kept up for many years past.

St. Juliott

ST. JULIOTT, commonly called St. Jilt, in the hundred of Lesnewth and deanery of Trigg-Major, lies about fourteen miles nearly west-north-west of Launceston; about thirteen south-south-west of Stratton; and about six nearly north of Camelford, which is the post-office town. The principal villages in this parish are Beeney and Tresparrett.

The manor of Tresparrett or Tresparvett, in this parish, belongs to William Rawle, Esq., in whose family it has been for many generations. Mr. Rawle has also the manor of Tremorill or Tremorvill, which belonged to the baronial family of Bottreaux (fn. n27). The barton-house of this estate is called Small-hill, and is the property of Charles Chichester, Esq., of Hall, near Barnstaple. Hennett, formerly a seat of the Rawles, is now a farm-house, the property of Edward Lillicrap.

The curacy of St. Juliott is in the alternate presentation of Sir Arscott Ourry Molesworth, Bart., and William Rawle, Esq., who are impropriators of the great tithes. The rectory was formerly appropriated to the abbey of Tavistock.

St. Just

ST. JUST, called St. Just in Roseland, to distinguish it from another parish of the same name, lies in the deanery and in the west division of the hundred of Powder, three miles from Falmouth, across the harbour; and eight miles nearly southsouth-west of Tregony. St. Mawes, which is in this parish, is the post-office town. The manor of Tolverne, in Filley, formerly belonging to the Arundells (now the property of Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart.) extends into this parish, as does that of Bohurra in St. Anthony, the property of Admiral Spry. The manor of Bogullos, alias St. Mawes, in St. Just, which formerly belonged to the Mohuns (fn. n28), is now the property of James Buller, Esq., M.P. The barton of Rosecassa, formerly the seat of the Rosecassa family, and afterwards of that of Hugo or Hewgo, both extinct, is now a farm-house, the property of Sir William Lemon, Bart. The coheiresses of Rosecassa married into the families of Trefry and Woollacombe. There are the remains of a chapel attached to this barton. On the barton of Treveres or Treverys (fn. n29), where was formerly the seat of the family of Jack, afterwards of their representatives (the Hookers), is now a farm-house, the property of Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart., who inherited this estate and the advowson of the rectory from the Tredenhams. It is said that there was formerly a chapel of ease at a village in this parish called Lane: human bones have been dug up on its supposed site, and the adjoining field is called the chapel-close.

In this parish is the borough-town of St. Mawes, adjoining to which are the villages of Bogullos and Bohurra, the manors of which have been already mentioned. Leland supposes that the patron Saint of this town was Mauduit or Machutus, a Welchman; others have been of opinion that Mawes is a corruption of St. Mary, and, indeed, the town in various ancient records is called St. Mawes alias St. Mary's, probably as having belonged to the priory of St. Mary at Plympton. Mr. Whitaker speaks of St. Mawes'-well in this town, and says, that there was a chapel close to it, turned into a dwelling-house, which, by its Gothic windows, exhibited some traces of its original use. This chapel was no doubt the same, which in the registers of the See of Exeter, is called the chapel of St. Mauduit: the inhabitants of St. Just had a licence to attend divine service in it (fn. n30).

St. Mawes has sent members to parliament ever since the year 1562: the right of election is vested in the freeholders and freemen of the borough, now about twenty in number. There is a weekly market on Fridays, now attended only by two or three butchers: there was formerly a fair on the Friday after the festival of St. Luke, but it has been some time disused.

The manor of St. Mawes, which belonged to the Nugent family, is now vested in the Marquis of Buckingham, in right of his mother the late Marchioness, who was heiress of Earl Nugent. It was determined in a suit at law with Admiral Spry, at the summer assizes in the year 1808, that the manor of St. Mawes extended over the whole creek and harbour, and that the Lord had a right to certain duties for anchorage, bushelage, &c., and was entitled to wrecks, &c. It was proved at the same time, that the fishery claimed by Admiral Spry, in right of his manor of Bohurra, was an open fishery; but that the Admiral had acquired by usage the right of fishery at St. Anthony mill-leat.

St. Mawes castle was built by King Henry the Eighth, for the protection of Falmouth harbour, in 1542, during the war with France. Mr. Trefry of Fowey, had the superintendance of the works, and at his request, Leland wrote some Latin inscriptions (fn. n31), to be placed on the building. Tonkin says, that after the dissolution of monasteries, the castle, with the lands which had belonged to the priory of Plympton, was given to Michael Vivian, Esq., who was the first governor. Hals says, that it was given, in the first instance, (as he had been informed,) to Sir Robert Le Grice, a Spaniard, whose son, in Queen Elizabeth's time, sold the inheritance to Hannibal Vyvyan, Esq., of Trelowarren. It continued for several generations in the Vyvyan family. Sir Richard Vyvyan, who was a royalist, is said to have been displaced by the parliamentary party during the civil war, Captain Rouse having been appointed in his stead. It is probable that this was after the month of March 1646, when we are told by Whitlocke (fn. n32), that the governor of St. Mawes sent to Sir Thomas Fairfax, offering to deliver up that fortress, and that Sir Thomas immediately sent some forces to take possession of it. Sir Viel Vyvyan is said to have sold the castle, and the annexed estates, in the reign of Charles II., to John Earl of Bath, who immediately made it over to Sir Joseph Tredenham. Sir Joseph was made governor of the castle by the King: after the revolution he was displaced, being succeeded by Hugh Boscawen, Esq., afterwards Lord Falmouth, who was removed in 1734, Major De Roen being then appointed by King George II. The present governor is General Nugent. The castle is not now fortified, but there is an open battery below, near the blockhouse. The castle estate is in moieties between the Marquis of Buckingham and James Buller, Esq., M.P. A chapel has been lately erected at St. Mawes, at the expence of the late Marquis of Buckingham; it was finished in July 1812: but has not been endowed or consecrated.

St. Just

ST. JUST, in the deanery and in the west division of the hundred of Penwith, is situated eleven miles nearly south-west of St. Ives, and about seven nearly west of Penzance, which is the post-office town. The principal villages in this parish, exclusively of the church-town, which is called St. Just, otherwise La Frowda, are Betallack, Bosavern, Brea, Kelinack, Pendeen, and Trewellard.

The manor of Kelinack, or Killenick, belonged successively to the families of Longeland (fn. n33) and Hankford; from the latter, it passed by a female heir to the Bourchiers, Lords Fitzwarren and Earls of Bath. This manor has been dismembered: it was sold piecemeal under a decree of the Court of Chancery about the year 1720.

Pendeen, a seat of the Borlases, and the birth-place of Dr. Borlase the Cornish historian, is now a farm-house, the property of his grandson John Borlase, Esq. Betallack, some time a seat of the Usticks, is now a farm-house, belonging to Lord Falmouth. Bosvargus, the seat of a family of that name, was inherited by the learned Jonathan Toup, rector of St. Martin's, near Looe: it is now a farmhouse, belonging to Mr. Nicholls of Looe, who married one of his nieces. Brea, supposed to have been the original seat of the family of Brea or Bray, is now a farm-house, belonging to William Ellis, Esq.

The great tythes of St. Just, which were appropriated to Glaseney-College, are now vested in John Borlase, Esq. The vicarage is in the gift of the crown. In this parish are the ruins of Chapel-Carne-Brê, built on a singularly large cairn. On the plain above Cape-Cornwall, which is in this parish, are the remains of an ancient chapel called Parken chapel, forty-five feet by twelve, with a chapel-yard (fn. n34). Dr. Borlase speaks of a third at Breh, which had been converted into a dwellinghouse.


  • n1. Rot. Pat. 4 Edw. III. m. 10.
  • n2. Dr. Berger's Paper in the Geological Transactions.
  • n3. See p. clxxxiv. of the General History.
  • n4. Dr. Borlase's Notes from the Registers of the See of Exeter.
  • n5. Polwhele's History of Cornwall, vol. iv. p. 68.
  • n6. Esch. 17 Ric. II. and 1 Ric. III.
  • n7. Carew's Survey, f. 43.
  • n8. Arthur Hamely, the last heir-male of the elder branch of this ancient family, died 6 Hen. VI. (Esch.)
  • n9. In Dr. Borlase's time, it belonged to John Williams, Esq. M. P.
  • n10. Sir John Arundell possessed it 17 Jac. 1.
  • n11. Rot. Parl. v. 586. and vi. 83.
  • n12. The estate was inherited by the coheiresses. (See p.clx.)
  • n13. William of Worcester's Itinerary.
  • n14. Rot. Cart. 24 Edw. I.
  • n15. Extracts taken by Dr. Cardew. The manuscript itself could not be procured. (See p. 5.)
  • n16. Itin. III. 21.
  • n17. Dr. Borlase.
  • n18. Dr. Borlase's MSS.
  • n19. He was buried in London, where he died.
  • n20. See the account of Ludgvan.
  • n21. Extract from Hicks's MS.
  • n22. They had before belonged to the Earls of Suffolk.
  • n23. Dr. Borlase says, that in the month of June 1770, a chapel called St. Leonard's, not far south of the pier, then turned into a smith's shop. This chapel, nevertheless, might have been that of St. Ante als Ansa, prope ripam maris, in which was a gild or fraternity, as appears by the registers of the See of Exeter, anno 1495. (Borlase's Collections.)
  • n24. Ibid.
  • n25. Extracts from Hicks's MS.
  • n26. Ibid.
  • n27. The last Lord Bottreaux died seised of it, 2 Edw. IV.
  • n28. Esch. Eliz.
  • n29. Lord Bottreaux died seised of a manor of this name, 2 Edward VI.
  • n30. Dr. Borlase's Collections.
  • n31. "Henricus Oct. Rex Angl. Franc. et Hiberniæ invictiss. me posuit præsidium reipubl. terrorem hostib." "Imperio Henrici naves submittite vela." "Semper honos, Henrice, tuus, laudesque manebunt." Edwardus fama referat factisque parentem. "Gaudeat Edwardo duce nunc Cornubia felix."—Itin. Vol. III. p. 77. The two former inscriptions are not now to be seen. There are two others not mentioned by Leland. Over the front-door, which faces the entrance of the harbour, "Semper vivat Âia Regis Henrici Octavi qui an°. 34 sui regni hoc fieri fecit." On the outside of the wall of the half-moon battery, in front of the castle, "Honora Henricum Octavum Angliæ, Franciæ et Hiberniæ Regem excellentissimum."
  • n32. Memorials, p. 203.
  • n33. John Longeland died 3 Ric. II., seised (jointly with Isabella his wife) of the manor of Keleynek, held of Robert Chambron. Esch.
  • n34. Dr. Borlase's MS Collections.