Magna Britannia: Volume 3, Cornwall. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1814.
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MEVAGISSEY, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Powder, anciently called Lamorrack or Lavorack, lies on the western side of St. Austell bay, six miles east-south-east from Grampound, the same distance east from Tregony, and nearly south from St. Austell. It has, by prescription, a weekly market on Saturdays for provisions. Tonkin says, that Mevagissey, which had been lately a poor fishing-village, contained in his time 200 houses (fn. n1); that a pier had been constructed at the expence of the Trewolla family; that it was then the most convenient place on the coast for the pilchard-fishery; that, on an average, 12,000 hogsheads were taken and cured annually; and in 1724, 16,505 hogsheads. The fishery is not now so extensive as it then was: the season of 1812 was esteemed a successful one, yet not more than 10,000 hogsheads had been caught on the 1st of October. The present number of houses in the parish is above 370. Ships of 100 tons burden may ride securely in the pool or basin at Mevagissey. The fishing cove of Porth-Mellin is partly in this parish.
The manor of Trelevan, which includes a great part of the town of Mevagissey, belonged for several generations to the family of Trewolla of Trewolla in St. Gorran, and was by them sold, in or about the year 1667, to Walter Vincent, Esq. of Truro, who, in 1680, was appointed one of the barons of the Exchequer, but died on his journey to London, before he had been sworn in. His grandson Nicholas, who died in 1726, mortgaged this estate to John Knight, Esq., of Gosfield-hall in Essex: it is now the property of the Marquis of Buckingham, by inheritance from the late Marchioness, whose father, Earl Nugent, married the widow of Mr. Knight above-mentioned.
The barton of Trelevan was successively the seat of the families of Croome and Stevens, as lessees under the Trewollas: the Vincents, having bought in the lease, made it their residence. Mr. Tonkin, the Cornish antiquary, who was next heir to this estate, if it had not been mortgaged beyond the power of redemption, resided for some time at Trelevan, after the death of the last of the Vincents. The barton-house is now in the occupation of the Rev. Dr. Lyne, vicar of Mevagissey, as lessee for life under the Marquis of Buckingham. Tonkin speaks of a strong chalybeate spring on this estate, called, from its sulphureous scum, the Brasswell, and says that it resembled the Tunbridge waters, and had performed many cures: this well has been destroyed; it had not for many years been applied to any medicinal uses.
The manor of Pentuan was the property, and its barton the chief seat, of the Pentires, after they removed from Pentire in Endellion. The heiress of Pentire, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, married Roscarrock, from whom this estate passed, by marriage, to the Darts of Dart-Ralph, in the county of Devon. The manor was sold by the latter to Lord Robartes: the last Earl of Radnor, of that family, bequeathed it to Sir James Laroche, Bart.; on the sale of whose property, in 1792, it was purchased by the present proprietor, the Rev. H. H. Tremayne, of Heligan. The barton having been the seat of Charles Dart, Esq., who married the heiress of Roscarrock, was not sold with the manor to Lord Robartes: having passed by marriage to the Tremaynes, it descended to the Rev. Mr. Tremayne, now lord of the manor.
The manor of Penwarne belonged to an ancient family of that name. Vivian Penwarne, who died in the reign of Henry VII., left three daughters, coheirs, married to Coswarth, Penhallow, and Penwarne of Penwarne in Mawnan. The elder daughter inherited this manor, which passed, in marriage with the heiress of Coswarth, to Alan Hill, Esq. In the parish-church is a monument, with figures of himself and his wife, in memory of Otwell Hill, Esq. of Penwarne, (son of Alan,) who died in 1614, with the following epitaph:
"Stock Lancashire, birth London, Cornwall gave
To Otwell Hill inhabitance and grave:
Frank, frugal, pleasant, sober, stout and kind,
Of woorde true, just in deede men did him find.
Two raignes he served a justice of the peace,
Belov'd he lived, and godly did decease:
Mary his wife, to overlive him lothe,
This monument hath raised to them both."
Tonkin observes, that although his widow was so lothe to overlive him, she was more lothe to refuse a good offer; for within two months after the decease of her husband, who lost his life by a fall from his horse, she married Lord Chichester of Ireland (fn. n2). Penwarne, after Mr. Hill's death, passed to his nephew, John Carew, second son of Richard Carew of Anthony, the Cornish historian. This John Carew distinguished himself at the siege of Ostend in 1601, where he lost his right hand by a cannon-ball: Camden, in his annals of Queen Elizabeth, makes mention of his extraordinary fortitude on this occasion (fn. n3); his only son Richard died without issue in 1640, leaving five sisters, three of whom were married, one to Fortescue, another to Hoblyn of Antron, and the third to Hoblyn of Nanswhyden. The manor and barton of Penwarne passed afterwards by sale to Arthur Fortescue, Esq., of Filleigh in Devonshire: since the death of John Fortescue of Penwarne, in 1776, it has been sold in lots by his sons W. Fortescue, Esq. and W. J. Fortescue, Esq. The mansion is now occupied as a farm-house. The barton of Trewincy, some time a leasehold seat of the Sprys, is now a farm-house, the property of the Rev. H. H. Tremayne.
In the parish-church, besides the monument of Otwell Hill already mentioned, are those of Lewis Dart, of Pentuan, 1632, and Richard Carew of Penwarne, 1640. The great tithes of this parish were appropriated to the college of Glaseney. The vicar has the sheaf tithes of about one-third of the parish, including the Penwarne estates, and Higher and Lower Lavorick. The Marquis of Buckingham is impropriator of the remainder, and Lord Mount-Edgcumbe, patron of the vicarage.
ST. MEWAN, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Powder, lies one mile west-south-west from St. Austell, which is the post-office town, and five miles nearly north from Mevagissey: the principal villages in this parish are, Burngullo, Polgooth, and Trewoon.
The manor of Burngullo is the property of the Honourable Mrs. Agar, as heiress of the Robartes family.
A moiety of the manor of Trewoone, which belonged to the Kellys, is now the property of Sir Christopher Hawkins, Bart.; the other became divided between the families of Tremayne and Hoblyn, in consequence of matches with the coheiresses of Pye, and is now vested in the Rev. H. H. Tremayne, and the Rev. Robert Hoblyn. The advowson of the rectory is attached to this manor, and the presentation successive according to the respective shares of the proprietors. The reputed manor of Trelewith is chiefly the property of Joseph Sawle Graves Esq., of Penrice, under the will of Mrs. Mary Sawle, the last survivor of the ancient family of that name. The barton of Lesisicke or Nansisicke, some time the seat of the family of Edwards, is now a farm-house, the property of Mr. Graves.
At Polgooth, partly in this parish, is the celebrated tin-mine which, for many years, proved the source of such large profits to its proprietors.
ST. MICHAEL-CARHAYES, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Powder, lies about nine miles south-south-west of St. Austell, about four eastsouth-east from Tregony, and the same distance from Mevagissey, which is the post-office town.
The manor and barton of Carhayes belonged at an early period to the Arundells, and passed, with an heiress of that family, to the Trevanions, who had their original seat at Trevanion, in this parish: there is still a park at the last-mentioned place, although there are no remains of the ancient mansion. Richard Trevanion was one of the members for the county in the reign of Henry V. Sir Hugh Trevanion is said to have been knighted at Bosworth-field. Sir Charles Trevanion was a great sufferer for his loyalty in the civil war; his son John was slain, with Sir Nicholas Slanning, at the siege of Bristol. Lord Clarendon, speaking of the death of these brave officers, says, "they were the life and soul of the Cornish regiment; both young, neither of them above eight and twenty; of entire friendship to each other, and to Sir Beville Grenville, whose body was not yet buried." Richard Trevanion was a distinguished naval officer; he died in France, whither he had followed the fortunes of his master, King James II., after his abdication. Carhayes is now the property of John Trevanion Purnell Bettesworth Trevanion, Esq., son of the late John Bettesworth, Esq., by a sister of the late Rev. Nicholas Trevanion, in whom the male line of the elder branch of this ancient family became extinct about the year 1768: the old house at Carhayes has lately been pulled down, and a ćastellated mansion is now building on the site.
The barton of Treberricke, parcel of the manor of St. Stephen-Brannell, was sold nearly a century ago, by John Tanner, Esq., to Charles Trevanion: it was afterwards held on lease, under the Trevanions, by a branch of the Slades: it is now a farm-house, belonging to Mr. Trevanion. Herys, in this parish, is said by Hals to have been the seat of a family of that name, but we cannot find that there is now any barton or house so called.
In the parish-church are some memorials of the Trevanion family. St.MichaelCarhayes or Cherihayes, St. Dennis and St.Stephen-Brannell, form an united benefice; consisting of a sinecure rectory and a vicarage: Lord Grenville is patron. There are the ruins of a chapel at Carhayes.
ST. MICHAEL-PENKEVIL, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Powder, lies about five miles west-south-west from Tregony, and about three south-east from Truro, which is the post-office town: the church-town is the only village in this parish.
The manor and barton of Penkevil belonged, in the reign of Edward I., to the family of De Wen, from whom Hals supposes it passed, in marriage, to the Penkevils; it is, however, quite as probable, that it was the same family who had changed their name to Penkevil, from the place of their abode: this family, says Hals, flourished for several descents in a genteel degree, between the dignities of a justice of peace and a hundred-constable, till the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when Penkevil was given or sold to George Courtenay, Gent., whose great-grandson alienated it to Hender Molesworth, Esq. (afterwards a Baronet): by the latter it was conveyed to Hugh Boscawen, Esq., ancestor of Lord Viscount Falmouth, who is the present proprietor.
The manor of Fentongollan, which extends into the parish of Merther, is said to have belonged, at an early period, to a family of the same name, from whom it passed, by a succession of female heirs, to the families of Trejago and Trenoweth. John Trenoweth, who died in 1497, left four daughters, coheirs: Philippa, the elder, brought this manor to John Carminow of Resprin, (a younger branch of the Carminows of Carminow,) who became, in consequence of this match, as Hals says, "more famous for his wealth than any other of his name or house, or than any other family then in Cornwall." Thomas, son of John, was gentleman of the privy-chamber to King Henry VIII. Hals, speaking of the hospitality of John Carminow the grandson, says, that "he kept open house for all comers and goers, drinkers, minstrells, dancers, and what not, during the Christmas time, and that his usual allowance of provision for those twelve days, were 12 fat bullocks, 20 Cornish bushels of wheat (i.e. 50 Winchesters (fn. n5) ), 36 sheep, with hogs, lambs, and fowls of all sort, and drink made of wheat and oat malt proportionable; for at that time bariey-malt was little known or used in those parts." Oliver Carminow, son of John, is said to have squandered away the greater part of his very valuable estates: he left two daughters (fn. n6), married to Salter and Cole, by whom this manor was sold, in the year 1600, to the Holcombes. Sir Nicholas Hals purchased this estate in 1603, and made Fentongollan his residence: his son John sold it to Ezekiel Grosse, whose daughter and heiress brought this and several other estates to Francis Buller, Esq., of Shillingham: it was purchased of that family, about the year 1676, by Hugh Boscawen, Esq., ancestor of Lord Viscount Falmouth, the present proprietor. Mr. Boscawen, soon after his purchase of this estate, pulled down the fine old mansion of the Carminows, with its lofty towers and fine chapel: a farmhouse occupies the site.
Tregothnan, the seat of Lord Viscount Falmouth, came to the Boscawens in marriage with the heiress of Tregothnan, in the fourteenth century. The Boscawen family had, at an early period, been settled at Boscawen in Burian, whence, after this match, they removed to Tregothnan. Hugh Boscawen paid a fine of four marks, for not attending at the coronation of Philip and Mary, to receive the honor of knighthood: his descendant, Richard Boscawen, paid a fine of 5l. on a similar occasion, to be released from the order of the Bath at the creation of Prince Henry: their descendant, Hugh Boscawen, was in 1720 created Baron of Boscawen-Rose and Viscount Falmouth. The present possessor of these titles is Edward Boscawen, grandson of Admiral Boscawen, and great-grandson of the first Viscount: he succeeded to the title and estates on the death of his father George Evelyn, the late Viscount, in 1808. Tregothnan-house is now rebuilding, under the direction of Mr. Wilkins, jun., the architect. The parks and pleasuregrounds are well wooded, and being near the sea-coast, abound with beautiful views.
Treganyan or Tregonian, formerly the seat of a family of that name, passed, by successive female heirs, to the Haleps and Sayers; by bequest, from the latter to Trevelyan; and by a coheiress of Trevelyan to Rowe: it was purchased of the Rowes by Mr. George Simmons, who conveyed it to Lord Falmouth: the bartonhouse is occupied by a farmer. Nancarrow, in this parish, was the property of a family to whom it gave name.
In the parish-church are several monuments of the Boscawen family: the earliest is that of Hugh Boscawen, who married one of the coheiresses of Carminow, and died in 1559. The monument of Admiral Boscawen, which is ornamented with his bust, surrounded by naval trophies, was executed by Rysbrack, from a design of Adam's. The following inscription is said to have been from the pen of his accomplished widow:—
"Here lies the Right Honourable Edward Boscawen, Admiral of the Blue, General of Marines, Lord of the Admiralty, and one of His Majesty's most honourable Privy Council: his birth though noble, his titles though illustrious, were but incidental additions to his greatness. History, in more expressible and more indelible characters, will inform latest posterity with what ardent zeal, with what successful valor, he served his country; and taught her enemies to dread her naval power. In command he was equal to every emergency, superior to every difficulty; in his high departments masterly and upright: his example formed, while his patronage rewarded merit. With the highest exertions of military greatness, he united the gentlest offices of humanity; his concern for the interest, and unwearied attention to the health of all under his command, softened the necessary exactions of duty, and the rigours of discipline, by the care of a guardian and the tenderness of a father. Thus beloved and revered, amiable in private life as illustrious in public, this gallant and profitable servant of his country, when he was beginning to reap the harvest of his toils and dangers, in the full meridian of years and glory, after having been providentially preserved through every peril incident to his profession, died of a fever, on the 10th of January, in the year 1761, at Hatchland's park, in Surrey, a seat he had just finished, (at the expence of the enemies of his country,) and amidst the groans and tears of his beloved Cornishmen, was here deposited. His once happy wife inscribes this marble, an unequal testimony of his worth and her affection."
Admiral Boscawen was a very distinguished officer: he signalized himself in the year 1747, as Captain of the Namur, and the same year had the command of the naval and land forces in an expedition to the East-Indies, being the only commission of that kind which had then been given to any officer since the reign of Charles II. His most prominent services were the capture of Louisburgh and its dependencies in 1758, which led to the conquest of Canada, and the defeat of a detachment of the French fleet in 1759, off Cape Lagos. He was one of the lords of the Admiralty from 1751 till his death. The Honourable Mrs. Boscawen died February 26, 1805, and was buried near her husband at St. Michael-Penkevil. Edward Hugh, eldest son of the Admiral, died at the Spa, in 1744; William Glanville, his second son, a lieutenant in the navy, was drowned, whilst swimming, in 1769. (fn. n7)
In the chancel is the figure of a priest, on a brass plate, with the following inscription:—"Pray for the soule of Maister John Trembras, maister of artes, and late parson of this churche, which decessyd the 13 day of September, in the year of our Lord God 1515, on whose soule Jhu have mercy." In the south aisle is the figure of a man in armour, on a brass plate, in memory of John Trenowth, Esq., 1497.
Lord Falmouth is patron of the rectory: the advowson was purchased, together with some chantry-lands, of John Hals, by his ancestor, Hugh Boscawen, Esq.
There was formerly a chapel at Fentongollan, dedicated to the Virgin Mary.
There is a free-school in this parish, supported by Lord Falmouth.
MICHAELSTOW, in the hundred of Lesnewth and deanery of Trigg-Minor, lies about three miles south-south-west from Camelford, which is the post-office town, and about seven miles and a half north from Bodmin. The only village in the parish, besides the church-town, is Treveighan.
The duchy manor of Helston in Trigg extends over the greater part of the parish. Helsbury park, long since disparked (fn. n8), is held under the duchy by the Duke of Bedford. There was anciently a castle at Helsbury, spoken of by William of Worcester, in his Itinerary of Cornwall, (temp. Edw. IV.) At a place called the Beacon (fn. n9), just without the park, is a castle-mount, with considerable earth-works, which, it is probable, was its site. Tregone, formerly a seat of the Mayows, is now a farm-house, the property of Mr. Hocken. Trevenin, some time a seat of the Lowers, is now the property of Mathew Michell, Esq. The rectory of Michaelstow is in the patronage of the Duke of Cornwall.
Milor or Mylor
MILOR or MYLOR, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Kirrier, lies two miles and a half nearly east-north-east from Penryn. This parish forms the south-south-east side of Falmouth harbour; its principal villages are Flushing and Milor-bridge. Flushing, to which the Dutch are said to have given that name, increased much in population inconsequence of the improvements made, in the early part of the last century, by Samuel Trefusis, Esq., who levelled the ground, constructed quays, and erected numerous buildings at a great expence; he endeavoured also to establish the packets there, but failed in his attempt; in consequence of which, Mr. Tonkin, who wrote in 1736, observes, that the town did not flourish as was expected, and that several houses were then uninhabited. Flushing has of late years been much resorted to by invalids, on account of the mildness of the climate; it is only half a mile distant, by water, from Falmouth, which is the post-office town: a ferry-boat is constantly passing to and fro. Part of Perran-wharf or Perran-cove is in this parish, including a large iron-foundery belonging to Messrs. Fox.
The small manor of Milor, in which the church is situated, was held by the Killegrews under the St. Aubyns, as of their manor of Kymyell: it is now the property of Lord Wodehouse, who possesses the Killegrew estates in right of his lady. (fn. n10)
The manor of Restronguet, called in old records Restronges and Restrongeth, belonged at an early period to the Cardinhams, afterwards to the Bodrugans: on the attainder of Sir Henry Bodrugan, it was given by King Henry VII. to William Trevanion, Esq. (fn. n11), whose descendant possessed it considerably more than two centuries: it was purchased of them by the father of the late Lord Clinton; the latter sold it to Sir William Lemon, Bart., M.P. for the county, whose seat is at Carclew, in this parish. Carclew, in the reign of Henry II., belonged to an ancient family of the name of Daungers, and in some old records is called CargelewDangerus. The coheiresses of Daungers, in the reign of Henry IV., married Renaudin and Bonithon. The Renaudins soon became extinct: the Bonithons continued to possess Carclew till the year 1677, when the last heir male of the elder branch died: his only daughter married Samuel Kempe, Esq.; and surviving her husband, bequeathed Carclew to Mr. James Bonithon of Grampound, of whom it was purchased by Sir William Lemon's grandfather in 1749. Tonkin says, that Mr. Kempe built a noble house at Carclew; this house, which had never been inhabited when Mr. Lemon made the purchase, was by him altered, enlarged, and fitted up with colonnades, offices, &c. from the designs of Edwards, an architect at that time of day much employed in the west of England: there is a view of this house, which is faced with white moor-stone, in Borlase's Natural History.
Within the manor of Restronguet is Restronguet-passage, the nearest road from Truro to Falmouth.
The manors of Tregew and Trefusis have long been in the Trefusis family, and are now the property of the Right Honourable Lord Clinton. Trefusis, the seat from time immemorial of this ancient family, is not inhabited by the present Lord Clinton, who is a Lieutenant-Colonel in the army: he was Aid-de-Camp to Lord Wellington at the battle of Salamanca, and brought home the news of that victory: his father, George William Trefusis, Esq., established his claim to the barony of Clinton (fn. n12) in 1794. Nankerry, which was for several generations the leasehold seat of a younger branch of the Lytteltons, is now a farm-house, belonging to Lord Clinton.
In the parish-church are the monuments of Francis Trefusis, Esq., 1680; Edmund Bayntun Yescombe, Esq., captain of the King George Lisbon packet, who lost his life in defending his ship against the enemy in 1803; and some memorials of the family of Donythorn. The registers of the fee of Exeter speak of a chapel near Pentyre, in this parish, dedicated to St. Laud (fn. n13). The great tithes of Milor, which were appropriated to Glaseney college, are now vested in Lord Clinton: the Bishop of Exeter is patron of the vicarage, which is consolidated with Mabe.
MINSTER, in the hundred of Lesnewth and deanery of Trigg-Minor, lies nearly five miles north from Camelford, which is the post-office town; three miles eastnorth-east from the borough of Bossiney; and 18 from Padstow.
At this place was a priory of black monks, called Minster or Talcarne, founded by William de Bottreaux, as a cell to Tywardreth, which priory was subject to the abbey of St. Sergius and Bacchus at Angiers: there are some small remains of the ruins near Minster church.
The manor, honor, and borough of Bottreaux castle, now called Boscastle, and the manor of Worthyvale, were among the ancient possessions of the baronial family of Botterell or Bottreaux, who were settled here as early as the reign of Henry II. William Botterell, and his younger brother Reginald, were both among the rebel barons in arms against King Henry III.: with the exception of Reginald, who succeeded his elder brother in the possession of this honor, the ten successive owners were all Williams. William Lord Bottreaux, the last of the family, was killed at the battle of St. Albans, in 1462, leaving an only daughter, married to Sir Robert Hungerford: the principal residence of this ancient family was at the castle called after their name, of which the mount only now remains. Leland speaks of the manorplace as a thing of small reputation, "far unworthie the name of a castel; the people there," says he, "call it the court." Carew says, "the diversified rooms of a prison in the castle, for both sexes, better preserved by the inhabitants memorie than discernible by their own endurance, show the same heretofore to have exercised some large jurisdiction." It is probable that the castle had been taken down before Leland's time. The manor-house, now in a state of dilapidation, was occasionally inhabited by Sir John Cotton, then lord of the manor, who died in 1703. The manors of Boscastle and Worthyvale passed, with the heiress of Hungerford, to the noble family of Hastings. Henry Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, sold the manor and lordship of Bottreaux castle to John Hender, Esq. whose eldest daughter and coheiress brought it to Dr. Cotton, father of Dr. William Cotton, who was Bishop of Exeter in 1598: the Bishop's grandson, Sir John Cotton, gave this estate to his sister's son, Mr. Amy. The daughter of Cotton Amy, Esq., brought a moiety of this estate to Sir Jonathan Phillipps; after the death of Sir Jonathan and Lady Phillipps, it passed to Thomas Winslow, who took the name of Phillipps, and is now the property of his son; the other moiety is vested in the trustees of Miss Amy (Lady Phillipps's sister), who is a lunatic.
The barton of Worthyvale, having been separated from the manor, was purchased by Edward Boscawen, Esq., and was some time a hunting-seat of Lord Falmouth's: it is now a farm-house, belonging to the heirs of the late William Farnham, Esq.
In the year 1204, William de Botterell had a grant of a market on Wednesdays at Talkarne (fn. n14); this grant was renewed, in 1312, to Sir William Bottreaux, the market to be held at his manor of Chastell-Botterell, and a fair at the festival of St. James (fn. n15) : the grant was again confirmed in 1398. (fn. n16) There is still a small market (now held on Saturday) at Boscastle, for butchers'-meat and vegetables: there are two fairs, one for lambs, on the 5th of August; the other, which is much the largest, for ewes, on the 22d of November. There is a pier at Boscastle, whither small vessels come with coals, &c.
In the parish-church, which stands at a distance from any habitation, are several monuments, of the families of Hender, Cotton, and Phillipps (fn. n17). William of Worcester says, that St. Mather the virgin (fn. n18), or St. Maddern, patroness of the church near Penzance, which bears her name, was buried at Minster, and that extraordinary miracles were wrought at her grave. In the town of Boscastle, near the market-place, are the remains of an old church or chapel dedicated to St. James. A record, of the year 1374, has this expression, "Prior de Minster habet in proprios usus ecclesias de Minster et Boscastle:" it seems, therefore, as if they were formerly two parishes; and it appears, that the great tithes of both were appropriated to the priory: after the Reformation, they were annexed to the parishchurch of Minster, together with the manor of Pollifont in Lewannick, which had belonged to the priory. The advowson of the rectory is vested in the representatives of the Ameys, who possess the manors of Boscastle and Worthyvale, as before described.
ST. MINVER, in the hundred of Trigg and deanery of Trigg-Minor, lies about three miles east-north-east from Padstow (fn. n19), about ten miles north-west from Bodmin, and about four from Wadebridge, where there is a post-office. The principal villages in this parish, besides the church-town, are, Penmean, Trebetherick, Tredrisic, and Trevanger.
The manor of Penmean is parcel of the ancient possessions of the duchy of Cornwall: the Black Prince gave it to Sir William Woodland, usher of his chamber; but, on his death, without issue, it reverted to the duchy. The freewarren of this manor is held on lease by the Rev. William Sandys, who is the present incumbent and patron of the vicarage: Mr. Sandys is impropriator, also, of the great tithes, which he purchased, in 1783, of the Prideaux family, of Netherton in Devonshire.
The barton of Trevelver, successively the seat of the families of Stone, Silly, and Arundell (fn. n20), is now a farm-house, the property of Mrs. Yeo, of Clifton, a descendant of the last-mentioned family. The Stones had, in Norden's time, a leasehold seat at Trevigo, which he calls Traveygie, and describes as the lands of St. Michael-Stanhope: it is now a farm-house, the property of the Rev. Humphrey Julian. Trevernon, or Trewornan, belonged, in the reign of James I., to Thomas Clifford, D. D.: it was afterwards a seat of the Rowes, whose heiress brought it to the Darells, and is now the property and residence of their representative, the Rev. Darell Stephens (fn. n21). Roserrow (fn. n22), some time a seat of the Carews of Haccombe, in Devonshire, Baronets, is now a farm-house, the property of Sir William Lemon, Bart., by purchase from the Rashleighs. The barton of Cant, on which is now a farm-house, was formerly the residence of the ancient family of De Cant; and, at a latter period, of the Lynams. West-Cant was purchased of a distant relation of the late Mr. Lynam, resident in Ireland, by the Rev. William Sandys. East-Cant belonged to the Robartes family, of whom it purchased by the late Mr. Prideaux, of Place.
In St. Minver church, which stands in that division of the parish which is called the Highlands, are monuments of the families of Opie; Rowe and Darell of Trewornan; Stone and Silly of Trevelver; and that of the wife of the Rev. William Sandys, the present vicar, (daughter of H. Mackworth Praed, Esq.) A handsome window of painted glass was put up in the chancel by Mr. Sandys in 1810. John Randall, Esq., who died in 1733, left ten shillings per annum for a funeral sermon, to be preached on St. John's day, 27th of December, for 1000 years; and twenty shillings per annum, to be given to poor widows and fatherless children.
In that part of the parish which is called the Lowlands, and is subdivided into north and south, are two chapels of ease, dedicated to St. Michael and St. Enodoc, called in some records St. Gwinnodock: these chapelries are not esteemed parochial, although each has a separate church-warden; there is an overseer of the poor who serves for both. St. Enodoc, or the north chapel, is almost sunk in the sands: the chapel of St. Michael is on the banks of the Padstow river; it is commonly called Porthilly church: Norden speaks of Porthillie as, in his time, daily increasing in population; and observes, that if they "contynued paynful and religious, it would grow to be a prety town." The drifting of the sands has long ago depopulated this village. At Trevelver was a free chapel, of which some ruins still remain; there were chapels also at Roserrow and Trewornan, and another, with a spacious burying-ground, on the manor of Penmean. In consequence of a shifting of the sands in 1778, many coffins of slate were exposed to view, and a great quantity of human bones were found, with rings and other ornaments of dress and coins of various reigns from Henry I. to Queen Elizabeth, now in the possession of the Rev. William Sandys.
There is a meeting-house in this parish, with a cemetery belonging to the quakers, who were formerly numerous here; it has been some time disused. A small biographical tract was published in 1709, entitled "A Narrative of the Life and Sufferings of John Peters, a quaker," who was buried in the quakers' buryingground at St. Minver: this person was steward to the Carew family at Roserrow: there are now no quakers or other dissenters in the parish.
Trewornan-bridge, in this parish, was built about the year 1791, in the place of a dangerous ford, impassable at high tides, in the road leading from St. Minver to Egloshayle, by the exertions of Mr. Sandys, and has been made a county-bridge: it is over a rivulet which separates the parishes of St. Minver and Egloshayle; and which, by the flux of the tides, is rendered navigable for barges as high as Amble-bridge, in the parish of St. Kew.
MORVAH, in the deanery and in the west division of the hundred of Penwith, lies about seven miles west-south-west from St. Ives, and about six north-west from Penzance, which is the post-office town. The principal village in this parish is Tregaminian.
The manor of Carvolghe or Carvaghe, in the parishes of Morvah and St. Ives, was formerly in the family of Tregian: it was seized by the Crown on the attainder of Francis Tregian, granted to Cary Lord Hunsdon, repurchased by Tregian, and sold to Grosse: we cannot learn who is the proprietor of this estate. The barton of Tregaminian, which was, for several generations, in the Lanyons, and the seat of a younger branch of that family, was purchased, in the reign of Queen Anne, by John Borlase, Esq., of Pendeen: it is now a farmhouse, the property of the son of a descendant, of the same name.
Morvah, although a separate parish, is a daughter-church to Madron, and included in the same presentation. There are the remains of an ancient chapel at Tregaminian, and a well called the chapel-well.
MORVALL, in the hundred and deanery of West, lies about two miles and a half north from Looe, which is the post-office town, and about five and a half nearly south-south-east from Liskeard. There are two small villages in the parish, Penearth, and Sand-place.
The manor of Morvall was, for many generations, the property and residence of the family of Glynn. In the year 1471, John Glynn, Esq. was barbarously murdered (fn. n23) at Higher-Wringworthy, in this parish, by several ruffians, employed by Thomas Clemens, whom he had superceded in the office of under-steward of the duchy: in the preceding year, he had been assaulted and grievously wounded in the face by the retainers of Clemens, as he was holding the King's court at Liskeard, and thrown into Liskeard prison, where he signed a compulsory obligation not to prosecute; some months preceding the murder, the retainers of Clemens went to Morvall, and plundered the house and premises of goods and chattels to the value of 200l. and upwards, as then estimated (fn. n24) : all this appears from the petition of Jane Glynn, the widow, to parliament, which sets forth that she could have no redress for their horrible outrages in the county of Cornwall, by reason of the general dread of the malice of Clemens and his lawless gang: she prayed, therefore, that her appeal might be tried in London by a Cornish jury; and that, in default of Clemens appearing to take his trial, he might be dealt with as convicted and attainted: her petition was granted.
The manor of Morvall passed with one of the coheiresses of Glynn, in the reign of Henry VIII., to the Coodes, and with the heiress of Coode to a younger branch of the Bullers, who, on the death of James Buller, Esq. (one of the representatives of the county) in 1710, succeeded to the Shillingham estate. James Buller, Esq., of Shillingham and Morvall, who died in 1765, left Morvall to his second son, the father of John Buller, Esq., the present proprietor, who resides in the old mansion at Morvall. The late Sir Francis Buller, some time one of the justices of the King's Bench, and afterwards of the Common Pleas, distinguished by his abilities as a judge, was of this family, and born at Morvall.
The manor of Bray, then held under the Vyvyans, as of their manor of Treviderow, was, in the reign of Charles I., in the Heles, who were succeeded by the Mayows, of which family was Dr. John Mayow, an eminent physician in the reign of King Charles II., who contributed some papers on Respiration, and other subjects, to the Philosophical Transactions. Bray is now the property and occasional residence of Philip Wynhall Mayow, Esq. Polgaver, some time a seat of the Mayows, and Lydcott, of the family of Hill, are now farm-houses, belonging to Mr. Mayow and Mr. Braddon. The manor of Wringworthy is the property of Sir Joseph Copley, Bart.
In the parish-church are memorials for the families of Mayow, Kendall, and Coode. The monument of William Coode, who died in 1637, has kneeling figures, in bas-relief, on slate, of the deceased and his wife; behind each of the figures is a vine; on four of the branches of which are deaths' heads, to which the following couplet alludes:—
"A nobis genita, hæc non baptizata suere
Technia, scit solus quam numerosa, Deus."
The great tithes, which were appropriated to the priory of St. Germans, are now vested in John Buller, Esq. The vicarage is in the gift of the Crown.
John Buller, Esq., who died in 1716, gave the sum of 8l. per annum, charged on the rectory of Morvall, to endow a school for 200 years; and 6l. per annum to be laid out in wool for the poor of Morvall. In the year 1746, John Francis Buller, Esq., out of the profits of certain estates in Kent devised by Sir John Hayward to charitable uses, purchased a house at Morvall, now occupied by poor persons; and two closes, now let at 5l. per annum, for poor housekeepers of this parish.
Morwinstow or Moorwinstow
MORWINSTOW or MOORWINSTOW, in the hundred of Stratton and deanery of Trigg-Major, lies about seven miles north-west from Stratton, which is the postoffice town. The principal villages in this parish are, Coumbe, Cross-town, Eastcot, Gooseham, Hollabeer, Woodford, and Woolley. The Tamar rises in this parish.
The manor of Eastway, which belonged to the priory of Launceston, was one of those annexed to the duchy of Cornwall in lieu of the honor of Wallingford, in 1540. Eastway, the barton-house of this manor, is the seat of Miss C. Manning, devisee of the late James Martin, Esq., who was lessee under the duchy. The manor of Hame, in the reign of James I., belonged to Francis Glanville, Esq. (fn. n25) : it is now the property of Joseph Sawle Graves, Esq., as devisee of Mrs. M. Sawle; the greater part of the lands have been sold: the barton, on which is a farm-house, is the property of Mr. Bethuel Hutchings.
The manor of Stanbury, which belonged in ancient times to a family of that name, was the birth-place of Richard Stanbury, Bishop of Hereford, who died in 1471; the heiress of Stanbury brought it to the Mannings in the fifteenth century: after the death of John Manning in 1601, it became divided between his five aunts, or their representatives; one-tenth of the barton, and one-fifth of the other parts of this estate, belong to the Rev. John Phillipps, of Mambury in Devonshire, representative of one of those coheiresses through the families of Withese and Barnefield: the remainder of the estate passed to the Grenville family by various purchases, and from them, together with the manors of Lee and Woodford, in this parish, to Lord Carteret, the present proprietor. The manor of Cross is the property of Zachary Hammett Drake, Esq., who purchased it of the family of Saunders. Stanbury is now a farm-house. The barton of Wood is the property of Mr. John Skearm.
Tonacombe, formerly the seat of the family of Kempthorne alias Lea, passed with their heiress, about the latter end of the seventeenth century, to the Waddons, for whom there are some memorials in the parish-church. Tonacombe, now a farm-house, belongs to William Waddon Martyn, Esq., nephew of John Waddon, Esq., the last heir-male of that family, who died in 1768. Lea, on the site of which is now a mean farm-house, belonging to Lord Carteret, is described by Norden as a seat of the Copplestones: the last trace we find of the family, in this parish, is the burial of John Copplestone, Esq., in 1611. Chapel-House is now the property and residence of Mr. Thomas Trood; and Clease, of Mr. James Tinney, as lessee under the duchy.
The church of Morwinstow was appropriated to the hospital of Bridgewater in the year 1290. The fee of the great tithes is now vested in Lord Clinton, under whom the impropriation is held, on a lease for lives, by Mr. Thomas Trood: the Bishop of Exeter is patron of the vicarage. The vicar has the tithes of hay, and the great tithes of Stanbury, and some other lands. There was formerly a chapel at Milton in this parish, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. (fn. n26)
MULLION, in the deanery and in the west division of the hundred of Kirrier, lies about six miles nearly south of Helston, which is the post-office town: besides the church-town, it contains the small village of Pradannack-Wartha.
The manor of Pradannack, or, as it is called in old records, Predannek, belonged formerly to the family of Serjeaux, one of whose coheiresses brought it to the Veres, Earls of Oxford. In the reign of James I., Sir Richard Robartes was seised of the manors of Pradannack-Wartha and Pradannack-Wollas (fn. n27) : the former now belongs to the Honourable Mrs. Agar, as representative of the Robartes family; the latter to the Rev. Sir Carew Vyvyan, Bart. The manor of Clahar, in this parish, belongs to Lord Viscount Falmouth.
The great tithes of Mullion are appropriated to the college of vicars-choral at Exeter: the Bishop is patron of the vicarage. At Clahar is the site of an ancient chapel, belonging to the Honourable Mrs. Agar.