Magna Britannia: Volume 3, Cornwall. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1814.
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TALLAND, in the hundred and deanery of West, lies about one mile east-northeast from Polperro, and about two miles nearly west-south-west from Looe-bridge. There are post-offices at Polperro and East-Looe; but Liskeard is the principal post-office town of the district. The decayed market-town of West-Looe, and part of the small fishing-town of Polperro, are in this parish.
On the barton of Portlooe, in the parish of Talland, just opposite Looe-island, was a cell of Benedictine monks, called Lammana, subject to the abbey of Glastonbury, to which the site appears to have been given by the ancestors of Hastulus de Solenny: there are some small remains of the chapel. In Hearne's appendix to Adam de Domerham, is a grant of Hastulus de Solenny, confirming the island of St. Michael de Lammana (most probably that of St. George, opposite Looe,) to the monks of Glastonbury; a grant of Roger Fitz-William, quitting claim to the lands of Lammana, which he held for life under the church of Glastonbury (reserving the house which Mabil his sister occupied); and one of Richard Earl of Cornwall, granting the monks a licence to farm out the church, and the island of Lammana. It appears that Abbot Michael, about the middle of the thirteenth century, leased it to the sacristary of the convent.
The manor of Talland belonged, for many generations, to the family of Morth or Murth, who possessed and resided on the barton in Carew's time. That author relates the following anecdote relating to this family: — "One of their auncestours, within the memorie of a next neighbour to the house, called Prake (burdened with 110 yeeres age), entertained a British miller, as that people, for such idle occupations, prove more handie then our owne. But this fellowes service befell commodious in the worst sense: for when, not long after his acceptance, warres grew betweene us and France, he stealeth over into his countrey, returneth privily backe againe with a French crew, surprizeth suddenly his master and his ghests at a Christmas supper, carrieth them speedily into Lantreghey, and forceth the gent. to redeeme his enlargement, with the sale of a great part of his revenewes." The manor of Talland is now the property of John Morth Woolcombe, Esq. of Ashbury, in Devon, by inheritance from the family of Morth. What remains of the old mansion is occupied as a farm-house.
The manor of Killigarth was, at an early period, the property and seat of a family of that name. John de Kylgat was one of those who had estates of 20l. per annum or upwards in the reign of Edward I. (fn. n1) The heiress of Killigarth brought this estate to the Beres in the reign of Henry VI. (fn. n2), and the heiress of Bere to the grandfather of Sir William Beville, who was Carew's contemporary (fn. n3), and the last heir-male of an ancient and respectable family. A coheiress of the Bevilles brought Killigarth to Sir Bernard Grenville, who sold it to the Halletts. Thomas Kendall, Esq., who married a coheiress of the last-mentioned family, left an only daughter, Mrs. Mary Kendall, who dying unmarried in the year 1710, was buried in Westminster-Abbey by her own desire, near the monument of the Countess of Ranelagh, mother of her intimate friend, Lady Catherine Jones, as appears by the inscription on her own monument: this lady bequeathed Killigarth to the Rev. Nicholas Kendall, archdeacon of Totness, grandfather of the Rev. Nicholas Kendall, the present proprietor.
The manor of Kilmenawth or Kilmenorth was parcel of the possessions of Sir Robert Tresilian, Chief Justice of the King's Bench, on whose attainder (fn. n4) it was granted to John Hawley (fn. n5), who married Emma, his daughter and heir: Hawley's only daughter and heir brought it to the Coplestones. This estate, which is not now esteemed a manor, is the property of the Rev. Sir Harry Trelawny, Bart., by purchase from Mr. Cosserat. The barton-house is occupied by a farmer.
A survey of the hundred of West, made by the King's order, about the year 1512, and deposited in the Augmentation Office, describes the manor of Portalla, valued at 5l. per annum, as then belonging to Henry Stafford, Earl of Wiltshire; and the manor of Kylhack, belonging to Richard Coode, Esq., as valued at 6l. per annum: neither of these manors are now known. There are several tenements of the name of Porthalla, all parcel of the manor of Trelawny: the name of Kylhack is not known.
The barton of Hendarsicke or Hendresick, said to have been a seat of the Morths (fn. n6), is now a farm of Sir Harry Trelawny's. Polvethan, the seat of the late John Lemon, Esq. M. P., a Gothic cottage, with beautifully ornamented grounds, commanding a view of the Looe river, was built since 1786, and the grounds formed out of the wastes: it is now, by Mr. Lemon's bequest, the property of John Buller, Esq., of Morval.
The advowson of the rectory, which belonged formerly to the priory of Launceston, came to the Kendall family by the match with Hallett before-mentioned, and is now vested in the Rev. Nicholas Kendall of Pelyn.
The town of West-Looe, separated from East-Looe by a narrow-bridge as before mentioned (fn. n7), had formerly a market on Wednesdays, long ago discontinued, and a fair for three days, which fair is now kept on the 6th of May, for cattle, &c. This town was incorporated by Queen Elizabeth in 1573: the corporation consists of 12 burgesses, including the mayor. West-Looe first sent members to parliament in the reign of Edward VI.: the right of election is vested in the corporation and freemen; the number of electors being at present between fifty and sixty. Among the representatives of this borough, we find the names of the Earl of Ranelagh, Sidney Godolphin, Sir Charles Hedges, and Sir Charles Wager, a distinguished naval character, who is said to have been a native of West-Looe: we are informed that he resided some time at Kilmenawth in this parish. The town of West-Looe, in 1801, contained 82 houses, and 376 inhabitants; in 1811, 93 houses, and 433 inhabitants, according to the returns made to parliament at those periods.
The manor of Port-Looe alias Port-Pigham, including the town of West-Looe, belonged, in the reign of Henry III., to the Treverbin family, who granted various privileges to the burgesses: it was afterwards in the baronial family of Dawney, from whom it passed by marriage to the Courtenays. After the attainder of Henry Courtenay, Marquis of Exeter, it was given to the duchy of Cornwall with other manors, in lieu of the honor of Wallingford.
There was formerly a chapel at West-Looe dedicated to St. Nicholas (fn. n8), which has been converted into a Guildhall. There is a meeting-house of the Calvinistic methodists at West-Looe, and of the Wesleyan methodists at Polperro.
At Polperro is a boys charity-school, endowed with the interest of 200l. given by Captain Charles Kendall; and a girls' school endowed with the interest of 100l. given by Mrs. Mary Kendall.
TAMERTON, in the hundred of Stratton and in the deanery of Trigg-Major, called North-Tamerton, to distinguish it from Tamerton in Devonshire, lies about eight miles and a half north from Launceston, which is the post-office town, and about six south-west from Holsworthy in Devonshire. The principal villages in this parish (all of them small) are, Alvacot, Headon, and Venton.
The manor of North-Tamerton was given by Roger de Valletort to Richard Earl of Cornwall (fn. n9). Roger Earl of Cornwall gave it Gervase de Horningcote (fn. n10) : it was afterwards in the Carminows (fn. n11). In 1620 it belonged to Tristram Arscott, Esq. (fn. n12), and afterwards to the Rolles, of whom it was purchased by Sir John Call, father of Sir William Pratt Call, Bart., the present proprietor. The manor of Hornacot or Horningcote belonged, at an early period, to a family of that name: in 1620, it was possessed by Sir Charles Howard in right of his wife, the daughter of Sir John Fitz, Knt.: it was afterwards in the Courtenay family, of whom it was purchased by the grandfather of G. F. Collins Browne, Esq., the present proprietor.
Ogbeere, called by Norden, Ugbere, was, in his time, the seat of William Lovice; it had before belonged to Leonard Jones, Esq., receiver-general of the duchy, who died in 1576, as appears by his monument in Tamerton church: it is now a farm-house, the property of G. W. Owen, Esq., of Tiverton. Vacye, some time the seat of a family of that name, for whom there are some memorials in the church, is now the property and residence of George Call, Esq., who has lately purchased it of Hugh Cann, Esq.
The great tithes of this parish were formerly appropriated to the abbey of Tavistock. The perpetual curacy was endowed, and made a rectory in consequence of the exertions of the incumbent in the early part of the last century; the great tithes having been then re-united to the cure, subject to the payment of a fee-farm rent of 6l. 13s. 4d. to the crown. Wrey J'Ans, Esq., and the Rev. John Pyne Coffin, are alternate patrons of this benefice. There is a dilapidated chapel at Hornacot.
ST. TEATH, in the hundred of Trigg and in the deanery of Trigg-Minor, lies about eleven miles north of Bodmin, and nearly three south-west of Camelford, which is the post-office town. The principal villages in this parish, exclusively of the church-town, are, Delemere or Dellymere, Meadrose or Medrose, Pengelly, and Treligoe.
The manor of Tregardock was formerly in the Mohuns; and, having passed with Boconnoc, is now possessed by Lord Grenville, who has also the manor of Danondozzle, in this parish. The manor of Newhall, held under Polrode in St. Tudy, belongs to the Honourable Mrs. Agar, as representative of the Robartes family. The manor of Delionuth belongs to Sir A. O. Molesworth, Bart., and that of Treroosel to the Rev. William Sandys of St. Minver: the latter, having belonged to the priory of Bodmin, and afterwards, for several generations, to the Netherton branch of the Prideaux family, was purchased (under a decree of the court of Chancery) in the year 1783.
The barton of Dellabole, adjoining the great slate-quarry of that name, belongs to J. P. T. Bettesworth Trevanion, Esq. Bodwen, an ancient seat of the Nicolls family, which passed by purchase to the Cheneys, has been pulled down. Trewindle, some time a seat of the Beales, is now a farm-house, the property of George Sydenham Fursdon, Esq. Suffenton, which belonged to the Bennets, is now the property of the Rev. Dr. Lyne of Mevagissey. Trehanick, in this parish, was the seat of a younger branch of the Carminows, the last which remained in the county; the male line of that ancient family having become extinct by the death of William Carminow of this place, who died in 1646. (fn. n13) Trehanick afterwards became the property of Sir James Smith, who died in 1681: it was sold under a decree in Chancery, about the year 1700, and was afterwards in the Cheneys, whose coheiresses married Beale and Fursdon: a daughter of the latter brought it to Mr. Lyon, by whom it has lately been sold to Mr. Nicholas Male.
The church of St. Teath had formerly two prebendaries or portionists, to whom the great tithes were appropriated: they have since been annexed to the Trehanick estate, and passed with it till that barton was lately sold; the tithes being still vested in Mr. Lyon. The Bishop of Exeter is patron of the vicarage.
The depopulated parish of Temple, which contains only three cottages, with some small remains of its dilapidated church, lies on the downs, six miles from Bodmin, on the road to Launceston. The manor and church belonged to the Knights-Hospitallers, and having passed with their preceptory of Trebigh, are now the property of Sir Bourchier Wrey, Bart., who is patron of the sinecure benefice: it has twice been augmented by Queen Anne's bounty. Many aged persons, now living, remember the church standing, and divine service performed in it. The surplice duty is now performed by the rector of Blisland, and the baptisms and burials are entered in the registers of that parish.
Mr. Carew observes that Temple is a place exempted from the Bishop's jurisdiction, "as one appertaining to the Templars, but not so from disorder; for if common report communicate with truth, many a bad marriage bargaine is there yerely slubber'd up." Tonkin adds, "grass widows go thither, sent to lye in and be nursed." Hals says, "that by ancient right or prescription, the vicar or curate, or parish-clerk of Temple, for the time being, legally married all persons applying to them, according to the canons of the church of England, without banns or licence, and registered their names as married couples, which was good and valid in law to all intents and purposes whatsoever." The extensive moors (fn. n14), which lie between Bodmin and Launceston, take their name from this parish, in which they are partly situated.
TINTAGELL, in the hundred of Lesnewth and deanery of Trigg-Minor, lies three miles west-south-west from Boscastle, and five north-west from Camelford, which is the post-office town. In this parish is the small borough-town of Bossiney, and the villages of Trebarwith, Tregatta, Trenow, Trevenna, and Trewarmet. There is an annual fair at Trevenna for horned cattle, on the first Monday after October 19.
The manor of Tintagell was parcel of the ancient demesnes of the Earls and Dukes of Cornwall. Its castle, which is of great antiquity, is said to have been the birth-place of King Arthur; with respect to whom, it was the opinion of Lord Chancellor Bacon, that there was truth enough in his story to make him famous, besides that which was fabulous. His history, nevertheless, has been so blended with the marvellous by the monkish historians, that some authors have been disposed even to doubt his existence, and the circumstances connected with his birth at Tintagel are certainly not among those parts of his story which are most entitled to credit.
We find no mention of this castle again in history till the year 1245, when Richard Earl of Cornwall was accused of having afforded an asylum at his castle of Tintagel, to his nephew, David Prince of Wales, being in rebellion against his uncle! (fn. n15) Thomas de la Hyde was governor or constable of the castle in 1307, (fn. n16) Thomas le Arcedekne in 1313, (fn. n17) and William de Bottreaux in 1325. (fn. n18) In 1337 it appears that there was no governor; the priest who officiated at the chapel having the custody of the castle, for which he received no fee. It appears by a survey of that date (fn. n19), that the castle was then in a very ruinous state, and had only one chamber and a kitchen, belonging to the constable, in good repair. The great hall had been taken down by John of Eltham, then late Earl of Cornwall. In the reign of Richard II. Tintagel-castle was made a state-prison, and a more desolate spot could not have been fixed upon for such a purpose; about this time the custody of the castle was again given to persons of rank and consequence: John Holland, Earl of Huntingdon, was made constable in 1388. The only state-prisoners whose names have come to our knowledge are, John Northampton (fn. n20), lord mayor of London, who in 1385 was, as Carew observes, "for his unruly maioralty condemned thither as a perpetual penitenciary;" and Thomas Earl of Warwick, who was for a while a prisoner there in 1397. (fn. n21)
Leland, speaking of Tintagell, says, — "This castelle hath bene a marvelus strong and notable forteres, and almost situ loci inexpugnabile, especially for the dungeon, that is on a great high terrible cragge, environed with the se, but having a draw-bridge from the residew of the castelle unto it. There is yet a chapel standing withyn this dungeon of S. Ulette alias Ulianne. Shepe now fede within the dungeon. The residew of the buildinges of the castel be sore wetherbeten and yn ruine, but it hath beene a large thinge." In another place he says,— "The castel had be lykhod three wardes, wherof two be woren away with gulfying yn of the se: withowte the isle renneth alonly a gate howse, a walle, and a fals braye dyged and walled. In the isle remayne old walles, and yn the est parte of the same, the grownd beyng lower, remayneth a walle embatteled, and men alyve saw ther yn a postern, a dore of yren. There is in the isle a prety chapel, with a tumbe on the left syde." The accounts of Tintagel-castle by Carew and Norden are nearly similar; the latter, indeed, appears to have been taken from the former. "Half the buildings," says Carew, "were raised on the continent, and the other halfe on an iland, continued together (within men's remembrance) by a drawebridge, but now divorced by the downefaln steepe cliffes, on the farther side, which, though it shut out the sea from his wonted recourse, hath yet more strengthened the iland; for in passing thither you must first descend with a dangerous declyning, and then make a worse ascent, by a path, through his stickleness occasioning, and through his steepnesse threatning, the ruine of your life, with the falling of your foote. At the top, two or three terrifying steps give you entrance to the hill, which supplieth pasture for sheepe and conyes: upon the same I saw a decayed chappell. Under the iland runs a cave, throw which you may rowe at ful sea, but not without a kinde of horrour at the uncouthnesse of the place." Norden is rather more particular in his description of the ascent to the island, "by a very narrow rockye and wyndinge waye up the steepe sea-clyffe, under which the sea-waves wallow, and so assayle the foundation of the ile, as may astonish an unstable brayne to consider the perill, for the least slipp of the foote sendes the whole bodye into the devouringe sea; and the worste of all is higheste of all, nere the gate of entraunce into the hill, where the offensive stones so exposed hang over the head, as while a man respecteth his footinge, he indaungers his head; and lookinge to save the head, indaungers the footinge, accordinge to the old proverbe, Incidit in Scyllam qui vult vitare Charybdim. He must have his eyes that will scale Tyntagell.— Most of the iland buyldings are ruyned." It appears by the view of Tintagell annexed to Norden's description, that a great part of the building on the main land was in his time standing. The present state of this castle has been already spoken of. The castle and manor of Tintagell were annexed to the duchy of Cornwall in the reign of Edward III.: it is now on lease to the Honourable Stuart Wortley. Carew says, that a fee of ancienty belonging to this castle, was cancelled by Lord Burleigh, as unnecessary.
Tintagell was made a free borough by Richard Earl of Cornwall: this place, as well as Trevenna, forms a part of the borough of Bossiney, which, by the name, sometimes of Bossiney or Trevanna separately, and sometimes Bossiney alias Trevenna, has sent two members to parliament ever since the reign of Edward VI. The borough, though not incorporated, is governed by a mayor, in whom and the freemen the right of election is vested. Whoever has free land within the borough, and lives in the parish, is entitled to vote: the present number of electors is 15. In the list of representatives we find the names of Sir Francis Drake, the circumnavigator; Sir Francis Cottington, secretary of state to King Charles I.; and Sir Richard Weston, afterwards Earl of Portland, and lordtreasurer in the same reign. Leland speaks of Bossiney as having been formerly a town of more consequence: "Bossenney," says he, "hath beene a bygge thing for a fischar town, and hath great privileges graunted onto it. A man may se there the ruines of a greate number of houses."
The manor of Menedeglos (now Menedews), and Tregatta, belonged at an early period to the family of De la Hyde: the former is now the property of John Bray, Esq., of Tre-bray, in this parish; Tregatta, of Mr. Nicholas Marshall and Mr. William Cock. The manor of Trenewith, which belonged formerly to the baronial family of Bottreaux, is now the property of Charles Rashleigh, Esq. The manor of Trethevy has been long in the Trefusis family, and is now the property of Lord Clinton. The manor of Trecarne is the property of the Honourable Colonel James Stuart. Trevillet, formerly a seat of the family of Wood, is now a farm-house.
The church of Tintagell was formerly appropriated to the abbess and convent of Fontevralt in Normandy, and having passed in the same manner as LeightonBusard in Bedfordshire, was given by King Edward IV. to the collegiate church of Windsor; the Dean and Chapter of which church have now the great tithes, and are patrons of the vicarage. There were chapels in this parish dedicated to St. Piran and St. Dennis (fn. n22), besides that in the castle of Tintagell.
At Tintagell is a charity-school, supported by the mayor and free burgesses, who pay a salary of 10l. per annum to the master.
TOWEDNACK, in the deanery and in the west division of the hundred of Penwith, lies about two miles and a half nearly south-west from St. Ives. The principal villages in this parish are, Amalibria or Amalibry, Amalvear, Amalwidden, Bossow, Breja, Nancledry, Skilly-waddon, and Trevidgia.
The manor of Amalibria was conveyed by Humphry Noy to his son-in-law, Davies, and is now the property of his descendant Davies Giddy, Esq., M.P.
The church is a daughter-church to Lelant; it is called in old records, the chapel of St. Ewin: the church-yard was consecrated in 1541, since which time it has been esteemed a separate parish: as a benefice it is still united to Lelant. William Praed, Esq. is impropriator of the great tithes of both, which belonged to the college of Crediton.
Tremaine or Tremean
TREMAINE or TREMEAN, in the north division of the hundred of East, and in the deanery of Trigg-Major, lies seven miles north-west from Launceston, which is the post-office town. The only village in this parish, except the church-town, is Trusel. The manor of Tremaine belonged to the family of Treise, whose heiress brought it to the father of the late Sir John Morshead, Bart. Castle-Milford, the ancient seat of the Treises, is now a farm-house, the property of Mr. John Jolliffe, who purchased it of Sir John Morshead. The greater part of this parish is within the manor of Penhele in Egloskerry.
The church of Tremaine, now a daughter-church to Egloskerry, was consecrated, in 1481, by the name of the chapel of Winwolaus of Tremene (fn. n23), with a cemetery adjoining, since which time it has probably been esteemed a separate parish. The benefice, which is united to Egloskerry, is in the gift of the crown. G. W. Owen, Esq. is impropriator of the great tithes, which belonged formerly to the priory of Launceston.
TRENEGLOSS, in the hundred of Lesnewth and in the deanery of Trigg-Major, lies about eight miles west-north-west from Launceston, which is the post-office town, and about the same distance east-north-east from Camelford. The principal villages in this parish are, Cayse and Treglitha or Treglith.
The greater part of the manor of Downeckney, anciently Donnegny, which formerly belonged to the Dinhams (fn. n24) and Cardinhams, by descent from Richard, steward of the household at the time of the Domesday survey, is now vested in fee in William Braddon, Esq., of Treglith, in this parish, who is lessee of the remainder: a moiety of this remainder belongs to Lord Clinton, by inheritance from the Rolles; the other moiety is vested in the committee of Miss Amy, daughter of the late Cotton Amy, Esq., who inherited from the Gilberts. Mr. Braddon inherited the Downeckney estate from his father-in-law, John Spettigue, Esq.: Mr. Spettigue purchased of the representatives of the Symons family, in whom it had been long vested, and who had their seat at Treglith. Roose, formerly a seat of the Morths, is now a farm-house, the property of John Morth Woolcombe, Esq., of Ashbury-house, Devon.
The church of Trenegloss was given by Richard above-mentioned, to the prior and convent of Tywardreth (fn. n25). The great tithes (with the exception of those of Roose, Cayse, and a field on Trebrake, which belong to the vicar,) are now vested in the Honourable William Eliot, M.P. The vicarage is in the gift of the crown.
TRESMERE, in the north division of the hundred of East and in the deanery of Trigg-Major, lies six miles west-north-west from Launceston, which is the postoffice town, and ten miles nearly east-north-east from Camelford. The only village in the parish, besides the church-town, is Treburtle. This parish is within the Duke of Northumberland's manor of Werrington, in Devonshire, which was purchased of the Morice family. The great tithes, which were appropriated to the priory of Launceston, and since the Reformation have belonged to the families of Molesworth and Manaton, are now vested in Edward Coode, Esq. The curacy is in the gift of the crown.
TREVALGA, in the hundred of Lesnewth and in the deanery of Trigg-Minor, lies about five miles north from Camelford, which is the post-office town. There is no village in the parish except the church-town. The manor belonged, in the reign of James I., to James Welsh, Esq.: it is now, by descent from the family of Bolitho, the property of Richard Stephens, Esq., of Culverhouse, near Exeter. The Dean and Chapter of Exeter are patrons of the rectory.
TREWEN, in the north division of the hundred of East, and in the deanery of Trigg-Major, lies five miles and a half west from Launceston, which is the postoffice town, on the road to Camelford, from which it is nine miles distant. The principal village in the parish, besides the church-town, is Trenalt. There are two annual fairs at Trewen, chiefly for colts, sheep, and lambs, held on May 1 and October 10.
The manor of Trewen belongs to the Bishop of Exeter.
The barton of Menwenick belonged to a family of that name as early as the reign of Henry IV. There is a memorial in the church for one of the Menwenicks, who died in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and is supposed to have been the last of the family. This barton is now the property and residence of Mr. Digory Rithow. The great tithes of this parish, which is united to SouthPetherwin, were appropriated to the priory of St. Germans, and are now vested, together with the patronage of the vicarage, in the University of Oxford.
TRURO, in the deanery and in the west division of the hundred of Powder, is a large market and borough town, situate 22 miles from Bodmin, 43 from Launceston, and 255 from London. It is called in old records Treveru, Trieureu, and Truru-burgh. The market at Truro is held by prescription; the claim to it having been certified and allowed in the reign of Edward I. There are now two market-days, Wednesday and Saturday, both well supplied with butchers'-meat, fish, and other provisions; on Wednesday there is also a corn-market. There are four cattle-fairs; the Wednesday after Midlent and Whitsunday, November 19, and December 8.
Under Queen Elizabeth's charter, bearing date 1589, the corporation of Truro consists of a mayor, four aldermen, and 20 capital burgesses, in whom alone the right of electing two members of parliament (enjoyed by the borough ever since the reign of Edward I.) is vested. The burgesses of Truro enjoy sundry privileges, by grant of their ancient lords; and the mayor's jurisdiction extended over Falmouth harbour. This last-mentioned privilege, said to have been granted by King John, and recorded in the Heralds' visitation of 1620, was lost in the early part of the last century, it having been then successfully contested by the inhabitants of Falmouth.
In the year 1410, the inhabitants of Truro petitioned parliament, that the rent payable to the crown, which had been lowered from 12l. 1s. 10d. to 2l. 10s. for a term of years, by the late King (Richard II.), in consideration of their losses by pestilence and invasion, might be thus reduced in perpetuity; it is stated that Truro might be considered as the key and defence of that part of the county from the approach of the enemy; and that the inhabitants, so far from having been encouraged to rebuild their houses, were meditating to quit the town, and establish themselves elsewhere. (fn. n26)
Truro was one of the decayed market-towns, to encourage the repairs of which an act of parliament was passed in 1540. (fn. n27) Norden, who visited Cornwall in 1574, speaking of Truro, says,—"There is not a towne in the west part of the shyre more comendable for neatness of buyldinges, nor more discomendable for the pride of the people." Carew calls Truro "the principal town of the haven: I hold it," says he, "to have got the start in wealth of any other Cornish towne, and to come behind none in buildings, Launceston only excepted, where there is more use and profit of faire lodgings through the countie assizes. I wish that they would likewise deserve praise for getting and employing their riches in some industrious trade, to the good of their countrey, as the harbours opportunitie inviteth them." Carew's wish has long ago been amply fulfilled, Truro having become a place of considerable trade (fn. n28); and its centrical situation has long ago more than counterbalanced the advantages he speaks of, and which are now divided between Launceston and Bodmin. Truro, which has of late years very much increased in buildings, is now the handsomest, and, including its suburbs, by far the largest town in Cornwall, except Falmouth. It is inhabited by many of the gentry of the county, and has all the advantages of a provincial metropolis, as an assemblyroom, theatre, county-library, infirmary (fn. n29), &c. In 1801, there were 369 houses, and 2,358 inhabitants; in 1811, 400 houses, and 2,482 inhabitants in the town of Truro; but it must be observed, that the suburbs, which apparently form part of the town, are more populous than the town itself, comprizing a considerable part of the population of the two parishes of St. Clement and Kenwyn, which two parishes altogether contain nearly 8,000 souls.
The Easter quarter-sessions are held here. Truro is one of the coinage towns; of late years, indeed, the coinages (with few exceptions) have been only here and at Penzance. The vice-warden's court is held at Truro.
In the town of Truro was a nunnery of poor Clares, of which we know nothing but its existence. It was situated where the late King's-head inn stood, which was pulled down when Lemon-street was built: it occupied what is now the entrance of that street from Boscawen-street. In Kenwyn-street (being in the parish from which it takes its name) was a house of Dominican friers; the site of which is now occupied by tan-pits.
Truro was the head-quarters of Sir Ralph Hopton, soon after his first arrival in Cornwall with the King's forces in 1642; and again, just before his surrender to Sir Thomas Fairfax, in 1646. Sir Thomas had established his head-quarters there before the conclusion of the treaty (fn. n30). Prince Charles, afterwards King Charles II., was at Truro for some time in the winter of 1645, and again for a few weeks in the month of February 1647.
The manor of Truro, or as it was called in old records, Truru-burgh, belonged to Richard de Lucy, Chief Justice of England, in the year 1161. It is probable that he built the castle of Truro, which is spoken of by William of Worcester as being in ruins in the reign of Edward IV., and by Leland, as "clene down in that of Henry VIII." Hals says, that he had seen a deed, belonging to Mr. Carlyon of Kea, bearing date 6 Hen. V., in which this castle was called "Castellum de Guelon." The site of this castle, still discernible by some remains of the mount, was at the top of what was Pancras, now Pyder street. In the reign of Henry I. Reginald Fitz-Henry, Earl of Cornwall, as lord paramount, confirmed to the burgesses the privileges which had been granted by Richard de Lucy. The manor passed in moieties to the coheiresses of Lucy: one moiety was given by Rohesia, one of the coheiresses to William de Briewere, a powerful baron in the reign of King John (fn. n32); this moiety of the manor and church of Truro, or Truru-burgh, came afterwards to the family of Hiwis; and having passed, by successive female heirs, to the Coleshills and Arundells (fn. n33), became subdivided among the coheirs of the latter (fn. n34) : this estate was held of the honor of Launceston, by the annual render of an ivory bow. The other moiety passed by marriage from the family of Lucy to that of De Ripariis (fn. n35), and was conveyed by the latter at an early period, together with the castle, to Thomas, son of Reginald de Prideaux (fn. n36). In the reign of Edward I., Sir Thomas de Pridias or Prideaux held this estate and the bailiwick of the hundred of Powder, in fee, subject to a rent of 40s. (fn. n37) The Prideaux family conveyed this estate to the Bodrugans, in or about the year 1366 (fn. n38) : on the attainder of Sir Henry Bodrugan, it was granted by King Henry VII. to Sir Richard Edgcumbe. This manor is at present thus divided:— Lord Mount-Edgcumbe has a moiety by inheritance; Sir John St. Aubyn oneeighth, by inheritance from the Arundells through the Whittingtons; the Honourable Mrs. Agar a fourth, by inheritance from the Robartes family, who possessed it in 1620 (fn. n39); and the Marquis of Buckingham one-eighth, which belonged to the Vincents (by purchase from some of the representatives of Coleshill), and passed to the Nugent family with their other Cornish estates.
The November fair belongs to the proprietors of this manor, as high lords of the town. A glove is hung out at this fair, as at Chester. The lords claim a tax called Smoke-money, from most of the houses in the borough; there was another, now grown obsolete, called Coveridge-money.
The Robartes family had a capital mansion at Truro, which is still standing, at the north-west corner of Boscawen or Powder street; but its front has been altered. Sir Richard Robartes, Bart. was in 1624 created Baron Robartes of Truro.
The manor of Truro, and Treyew in Truro, and Kenwyn, which had belonged to the Tregians, is now the property of Lord Viscount Falmouth. The manor of Truro-Vean in Truro, and the parishes of Kenwyn and St. Clement, belongs to Mr. Joseph Edwards of Truro, by purchase from Lord Arundell.
The parish-church of St. Mary is a handsome Gothic structure, built in the reign of Henry VIII., with a spire of modern date (fn. n40). In the chancel is a monument in memory of John Robartes, Esq., who died in 1614, with figures of himself, his lady, and others of the family; there is a tablet also, with the following inscription:—
[Doxa en ffisois theo]
"To the pious and weldeserved memory of Owen Fitz-Pen alias Phippen, who travelled over many parts of the world, and on the 24 of Mar. 1620, was taken by the Turkes, and made a captive in Argier. He projected sundry plots for his libertie, and on ye 17 of June 1627, with 10 other Christian captives, Dutch and French, (perswaded by his counsel and courage,) he began a cruel fight with 65 Turkes, in their owne ship, which lasted three howers, in which 5 of his company were slaine; yet God made him captaine, and so he brought the ship into Cartagene, being of 400 tons, and 22 ord. The King sent for him to Madrid, to see him; he was profered a captaines place, and the King's favour, if he would turne Papist, wc. he refused. He sold all for 6000l., returned into England, and died at Lamorran 17 March 1636.
"Melcombe in Dorset was his place of birth,
Age 54, and here lies earth in earth.
"George Fitz-Pen alias Phippen, ipsius frater et hujus ecclesiæ rector, H.M.P."
The Earl of Mount-Edgcumbe, as before-mentioned, is patron of the rectory. There are seven meeting-houses at Truro, for the independents, baptists, Wesleyan methodists, &c.
Sir John Arundell, the vice-admiral of Cornwall, who took Duncan Campbell, the Scottish pirate, is said to have been a native of Truro (fn. n41). Samuel Foote, the celebrated dramatic writer and actor, was born there, January 27, 1721, (fn. n42) at a house now the Red Lion inn, which was the town-residence of his father's family, the Footes of Lambesso.
Mr. Henry Williams, draper, who died in the year 1631, founded an hospital in the parish of St. Mary's, for 10 poor housekeepers of this parish: the hospital was built the following year, at the expence of 225l. 19s. 7d. The founder endowed it with lands, now producing about 120l. per annum. The corporation make widows the exclusive objects of this charity, and allow them pensions of 4s. a week each, and clothes.
It is not known by whom the grammar-school at Truro was founded, nor what its endowment consists of. The salary was formerly 15l. per annum, and a house for the master: upon the house being given up by the masters about the middle of the last century, the corporation increased the salary to 25l. per annum: the same sum is allowed to an usher. There are two exhibitions of 30l. per annum at Exeter college, for scholars of Truro school, founded by the trustees of the charitable bequests of the Rev. St. John Eliot, who died in 1760. One of the charityschools, with an endowment of 5l. per annum, established out of the same funds, was fixed at Truro. A central school, on Dr. Bell's plan, for boys and girls, in separate rooms, was established at Truro in the year 1812: there are now 130 boys, and about 70 girls in this school.
ST. TUDY, in the hundred of Trigg and in the deanery of Trigg-Minor, lies about eight miles nearly north from Bodmin, which is the post-office town, and about six south-south-west from Camelford. The principal villages in this parish, exclusively of the church-town, are, Kellygreen, Penhale, Polshea, and Tamsquite. There are two fairs held at the church-town, for sheep and cattle, (May 20, and September 14,) under a charter granted, in the reign of Queen Anne, to Anthony Nicoll, Esq., and Edward Trelawny, clerk.
The manor of St. Tudy and Trelil belonged to the family of Nicoll: Anthony Nicoll, Esq., who died in 1678, sold it, together with Penvose, the seat of his ancestors, (now a farm-house,) to John Trehawke, Esq.: the late Mr. Trehawke bequeathed it to Samuel Kekewich, Esq., the present proprietor. The manor of Tinten was, at an early period, the property and seat of a family of that name, whose heiress, in the fourteenth century, married Sir Walter Carminow of Boconnoc: having passed with that estate to the Courtenays, it fell to the crown on the attainder of the Marquis of Exeter, and was one of the manors annexed to the duchy of Cornwall in 1540, in lieu of the honor of Wallingford. The manor of Kellygreen belonged formerly to the ancient family of Barrett, who had their seat at the barton: it was afterwards in the Wollocombes w of Coombe, in the parish of Roborough, Devon. In 1763, John Wollocombe, Esq. conveyed the barton and the manerial rights to William Pennington, Esq., of the Priory, Bodmin. These are now the property of Walter Ralegh Gilbert, Esq., in right of his wife, who was Mr. Pennington's niece.
The manor of Polrode belonged at an early period to the family of Bloyow, from which it passed, by successive female heirs, to the Tintens, Carminows, and Courtenays. This manor has passed with Boconnoc, and is now the property of Lord Grenville.
Tremeer, in this parish, was a seat of the Lowers, and the birth-place of Sir William Lower, the dramatic writer, and Dr. Richard Lower (fn. n43), an eminent physician in the reign of Charles II., author of "A Treatise on the Heart (fn. n44)," and the discoverer of the waters of Astrop-wells. Tremeer is now the property and residence of Mrs. Reed. Hengar, parcel of the manor of Penrose-Burden, was the seat of the family of Billinge alias Trelawder, whose heiress married John Trelawny, Esq. of Coldrinnick, and to her second husband, Dr. Lower above-mentioned, by whom she had three daughters. After Dr. Lower's death, Hengar became the property of his elder daughter, who married the elder son of Sir William Morice, the secretary of state, and after his death, Major-General Trelawny: Hengar became afterwards the property of the second daughter, who married the father of the late Colonel Michell, and afterwards Major-General Wheeler. Colonel Michell became possessed of this estate, and left it to its present proprietor, Mathew Michell, Esq., son of Captain Mathew Michell, M.P. for Westbury, who, as captain of the unfortunate Gloucester, accompanied Lord Anson in his voyage round the world, and afterwards distinguished himself as captain of the Worcester, on the coast of Flanders, in 1746. Hengar is the occasional residence of Mr. Michell.
In the parish-church are monuments of the Nicoll family (1542, 1658, and 1678), and that of Samuel Michell, Esq., formerly Colonel in the Coldstream regiment of Guards, who died in 1786. There are remains of ancient chapels at Tinten and Kellygreen. The Dean and Chapter of Christ-church college in Oxford are patrons of the rectory.
Tywardreth or Tywardreath
TYWARDRETH or TYWARDREATH, in the deanery and in the east division of the hundred of Powder, lies about three miles and a half north-west from Fowey, which is the post-office town, and about the same distance south-south-west from Lostwithiel. The principal villages in this parish, besides the church-town, are, High-way, Parr, and Polkerris. At the latter place is a fishery, which supplies Bodmin and other markets; it is also frequented as a bathing-place.
The foundation of the Benedictine priory at Tywardreth has been attributed to the Fitz-Williams, the Cardinhams, the Champernownes, and the Arundells. There is good reason to suppose that it was founded by Ricardus Dapiser, (Richard, steward of the household,) a man of great wealth, who held that high office either under the King or the Earl of Cornwall. This Richard, who was the immediate ancestor, in the male line, of the Fitz-Richards and Fitz-Williams, and, in the female line, of the Cardinhams also, held the manor of Tywardreth (fn. n45) and twentyeight others under the Earl of Cornwall, at the time of the Domesday survey; and he is spoken of as the earliest benefactor of the monastery in a charter of Henry III. (fn. n46) Robert de Cardinham, who married the heiress of FitzWilliam, confirmed to the convent the tithes of all the provision of his household, except wine, honey, wax, pepper and cummin, which tithes had been given by his great-grandfather, William Fitz-Richard. This William we suppose to have been son of Ricardus Dapifer. Among other donations made by Robert de Cardinham to the priory, were all the lands and possessions of Edwy, provost of Hereford, Edwy himself, and all his children. The priory of Tywardreth was a cell to the monastery of St. Sergius and St. Bacchus in Normandy: it was suppressed as an alien priory by the parliament at Leicester, in 1414, but appears to have been restored, and to have continued till the general dissolution of the smaller convents, when its possessions were valued at 123l. 9s. 3d. clear yearly income. The site of the priory, with the manor, grange, &c. was granted in 1542 to Edward Earl of Hertford. This manor was in moieties in the year 1620, between the families of St. Aubyn and Pendarves: it is now the property of the Right Honourable Lord de Dunstanville; one moiety by inheritance from the family of Pendarves; the other, by a late purchase from Sir John St. Aubyn, Bart. There are no remains of Tywardreth priory: the site is occupied by a farm-house.
A lay manor of Tywardreth passed by inheritance from Ricardus Dapifer to the Cardinhams. Towards the latter part of the thirteenth century (fn. n47), it was sold by Isolda de Cardinham, for the sum of 100l., to the Champernownes: as lords of this manor they became patrons of the monastery, which gave occasion to the idea of their having been its founders. From the Champernownes this manor passed, with Trelawny in Pelynt, to the Herles and Bonvilles (fn. n48); and it is probable that it came to the crown as Trelawny did, by the attainder of the Duke of Suffolk, who inherited Lord Bonville's estate. It was in the Rashleighs as early as the year 1620, (fn. n49) and is now the property of William Rashleigh, Esq., M.P., of Menabilly in this parish. Lord Grenville has another manor of Tywardreth, which belonged to the Mohuns. Menabilly was much improved by the late Philip Rashleigh, Esq., who formed there the valuable collection of minerals already spoken of. Kilmarth, in this parish, another seat of Mr. Rashleigh's, was his chief residence before he succeeded to the Menabilly estate.
Partly in this parish is the manor of Polhorman, which, having been forfeited by the attainder of Sir Robert Tresilian, Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench, was granted, in 1388, to Sir Humphrey Stafford (fn. n50) : this manor has been long in the Kendall family, and is now the property of the Rev. Nicholas Kendall. The manor of Lanestock, partly in this parish, and partly in St. Blazey, belonged, in 1620, (fn. n51) to the Arundells: it is now the property of Joseph Sawle Graves, Esq. Treveryan, formerly the residence of a family of the name of Thompson, is still the property of their representative, Captain Thomson, of the Cornwall militia.
In the parish-church is a slab with a cross flory, in memory of Thomas Colyns, prior of Tywardreth, who died in 1532: there are the monuments also of Robert Harris, Esq., major-general of His Majesty's forces before Plymouth, who died in 1635; and Jane, wife of the late Philip Rashleigh, Esq. (1795.) The tithes of Tywardreth were appropriated to the priory: after the dissolution, the great tithes were granted to the Kendalls; the small tithes to Curson: the latter passed, by purchase, to Beville, and by inheritance to Grenville: the whole are the property of William Rashleigh, Esq., who is patron of the perpetual curacy. A chapel is now building, by Mr. Rashleigh, on a tenement called Tregaminion, about half a mile from Menabilly-house.
An alms-house was founded at Tywardreth by one of the Rashleighs, for four poor widows, who had no settled pension, but were relieved from time to time by the Rashleigh family, till the late Mr. Rashleigh made over so much stock in trust for the pensioners, as would suffice to pay 20s. per annum to each of them, clear of all deductions.