Parishes: Bewcastle - Brigham

Pages 26-40

Magna Britannia: Volume 4, Cumberland. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1816.

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BEWCASTLE, in Eskdale ward, lies nearly eleven miles from Brampton, and about twenty from Carlisle. It comprises the townships of Bailey, Belbank, Bewcastle, and Nixons, and in 1811, contained 215 houses and 1069 inhabitants. This parish, which in ancient records is written Bothcastre and Buethcastre, is supposed to have obtained that name from its ancient fortress. Bueth was Lord of the manor at the time of the Norman conquest, and is mentioned in one of the early charters of Lanercost priory.

In the reign of Henry II., the manor of Bewcastle being in the crown, was granted to Hubert de Vallibus. In the reign of Edward I., this manor was in the Swinburn family: John de Swinburn in 1278 had a grant of a market at Bothcastre on Mondays, and two fairs, one for five days at Lady-day, the other for the same time at the festival of St. Barnabas. Jacoba, heiress of the Swinburns, brought this estate in the reign of Edward III. to Sir John Strivelin. It does not appear when or how it came to the crown; King Edward IV. granted it to his brother Richard Duke of Gloucester; after this, it continued in the crown till the reign of Charles I., when it was granted to Sir Richard Graham: having since passed with the Netherby estate, it is now the property of Sir James Graham, Bart.

The castle at Bewcastle, from its situation near the borders, was an important post: Jack Musgrave, an active officer in the wars with the Scots, was the captain or governor in the reign of Henry VIII.; and in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Thomas Musgrave, a younger son of Sir Simon Musgrave, Knight. This Thomas Musgrave having been accused of treachery and malconduct in his office by Launcelot Carleton, challenged him to single combat (fn. n1); the event of the combat does not appear.

Bewcastle was garrisoned with a force of 100 men in 1639, on account of the unsettled state of affairs in Scotland (fn. n2). The garrison is said to have been removed to Carlisle during the ensuing civil war between King Charles and his parliament, and the castle to have been demolished (fn. n3). The walls of the keep are now the only remains; it occupied part of the site of the Roman station near the church. (fn. n4)

The manor of Nichol-forest belonging to Sir James Graham, extends into this parish. A large tract of land in this manor, and in the parish of Bewcastle, containing about 4000 acres, was inclosed by an act of parliament, passed in 1811. An act for inclosing Highstone moor or common in this parish, passed in 1814.

The church of Bewcastle or Buethcastre was given by Robert de Buethcastre, about the year 1200, to the Prior and convent of Carlisle: the advowson of the rectory is now vested in the Dean and Chapter. The celebrated obelisk in the church-yard has been elsewhere spoken of.

There is a Presbyterian meeting-house at Bewcastle.


BOLTON, anciently Bothilton, in the ward of Allerdale below Derwent, lies about six miles from Wigton, which is the post-office, town. It comprises the townships of Bolton and Bolton-gate, which in 1811, contained collectively 179 houses and 975 inhabitants.

The Manor of Bolton was given by Alan Lord of Allerdale, to his bastard brother Gospatric, whose posterity took the name of Bassenthwaite; from this family it passed by marriage to Lascells. Thomas de Lascells was Lord of Bolton in the reign of Henry III.; in the reigns of Edward I. (fn. n5) and II., it was in the Moubrays, and some years afterwards in the Nevills, from whom it descended through the Percy's to the Earl of Egremont, who is the present proprietor.

Weary Hall in this Parish, which was for many generations the seat of the Porter family, is now the property and residence of Mr. George Drewry, a quaker, whose great-grandfather purchased it of the Porters in the beginning of the last century. The close, in this parish, now the property and residence of Mr. Thomas Porter, has been at least two centuries in his family, supposed to have been a younger branch of the Porters of Weary Hall. Mr. Denton speaks of Newbiggin, in Bolton, as the seat of Mr. John Relfe, Deputy Clerk of the House of Lords. The manor of Newbigging which belonged to the prior and convent of Carlisle, is now vested in the dean and chapter. There was formerly a manor of Newland in this parish, belonging to the Mulcasters, conveyed by them to Hercla, and forfeited to the crown by the attainder of Andrew Hercla, Earl of Carlisle, in 1322. (fn. n6)

The church of Bolton is in the diocese of Carlisle, and in the deanery of Wigton. The Advowson of the Rectory was annexed to the manor till about the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when it came into the possession of the Porters, to whom it belonged many years: it was afterwards in the Thomsons of Kellam in Yorkshire, The Earl of Lonsdale is the present patron.


BOOTLE, in the ward of Allerdale above Derwent, is a small market-town, 22 miles from Whitehaven, and about 288 from London. In 1811 there were 113 houses and 602 inhabitants in the parish. The market was granted in the year 1347 to John de Hudleston, to be held on Wednesday, and a fair for four days at the festival of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (fn. n7). The market is still held on Wednesday, chiefly for butchers' meat; there are now two small fairs, April 5 and September 25, for cattle and hiring servants.

At Seton, formerly called Lekelay, in this parish, was a priory of Benedictine nuns, before the year 1354. In 1357, Henry Duke of Lancaster, on account of their poverty, gave them the Hospital of St. Leonard, at Lancaster, with its revenues; this priory, nevertheless, was valued at the time of its dissolution only at 12l. 12s. per annum. It was granted in 1542 to Sir Henry Askew, whose widow possessing it by her husband's gift, bestowed it on William Penington, her younger son by her second husband; it is now the property of Mr. Wakefield of Kendall, by purchase from the late Lord Muncaster. Seton-hall, formerly the seat of Sir Henry Askew, is occupied as a farm-house; there are some remains of the priory chapel, with lancet-shaped windows.

The parish of Bootle is within the seigniory of Millom, now belonging to the Earl of Lonsdale. At Bootle stood formerly an old mansion of the Copelands, an ancient family, who had an estate here, which, in the reign of Richard II. or Henry IV., was divided between three coheiresses, married to Hudleston, Penington, and Senhouse. (fn. n8)

In the parish church of Bootle is a brass plate with the effigies of Sir Hugh Askew, "late of the seller to Edward the VI. which Sr Hugh was made knight at Musselborough, A. D. 1547, ob. 1562." There are memorials also for Richard Hutton, "Rector doctissimus," ob. 1704; and Daniel Steel, 35 years rector, 1764.

The church is in the diocese of Chester, archdeaconrv of Richmond, and deanery of Copeland; the patronage belongs to the Earl of Lonsdale. The methodists have a meeting-house at Bootle. There is a charity-school at Bootle, endowed with 568l. 3 per cents; the sum of 200l. part of this endowment, was given by — Singleton, and 50l. by a rector of Bootle.


BOWNESS, in Cumberland ward, lies on the sea-coast, on the south side of Solway Frith, about fourteen miles from Carlisle, at the western extremity of the Picts' wall; it contains the townships of Anthorn, Bowness, Drumburgh or Drumbugh, and Fingland. In 1811 the whole number of houses in the parish was 176; that of inhabitants, 907.

Bowness was at a very early period parcel of the barony of Burgh; one of the first barons gave it to Gamel le Brun, or Broyne, as the family afterwards spelt their name; the Broynes continued to possess it for several generations, having their chief seat at Drumburgh, which was one of the Roman stations on the Wall (fn. n9). In the year 1307, Richard de Broyne had the King's licence to fortify his mansion of Drumbogh, in the Marches of Scotland; and a similar licence was granted to Thomas Dacre, Baron of Burgh, as Lord paramount. The Broynes became extinct in the male line (fn. n10) about the latter part of the fourteenth century, after which Bowness appears to have been re-united to the barony of Burgh, as it still continues, being now the property of the Earl of Lonsdale. There are considerable remains of the castle at Drumburgh, which appears to have been rebuilt in the reign of Henry VIII. by Thomas Lord Dacre (fn. n11). John Aglionby, Esq. purchased the demesne of Drumburgh, in the year 1678, of Henry Duke of Norfolk, and repaired the castle (fn. n12), then in ruins; some years afterwards he conveyed it to Sir John Lowther, in exchange for Nunnery. The habitable part of Drumburgh Castle is now occupied as a farm-house.

Lands in the hamlet of Glosson and manor of Drumburgh were inclosed by an act of parliament passed in 1810. Whitrig, in this parish, was anciently the property of a family to whom it gave name: one of the coheiresses married Skelton. (fn. n13)

The rectory, which is in the diocese and deanery of Carlisle, has always been appendant to the manor. Mr. Thomas Pattinson of Easton, in this parish, gave by will, in 1785, the interest of 160l. to a schoolmaster for teaching the children of the second poor in Drumbugh quarter, and 20l. per annum for fuel; the interest of 100l. to the masters of schools in the other quarters, and that of 20l. for instructing the poor children of Bowness parish in psalm-singing.


BRAMPTON, in Eskdale ward, is a small market-town between nine and ten miles from Carlisle, and 315 from London. The market at Brampton was granted in 1252, to the Multons, then lords of Gilsland, to be held on Tuesday, together with a fair for two days at Midsummer (fn. n14). The market, which is now held on Wednesdays, is largely supplied with corn, (which, by permission of the Earl of Carlisle, is sold toll-free,) potatoes, butter in the firkin, butchers' meat, &c. There are now four fairs, viz. the second Wednesday after Whitsuntide, the second Wednesday in September, the 15th of April, and the 23d of October; the two former are noted for the sale of young cattle and milch cows, sheep and lambs; the two latter, established of late years, are chiefly for the shew of cattle previously to their going to the great market of Penrith in the spring, and that of Newcastle in the autumn.

The parish of Brampton contains the townships of Brampton, Easeby, and Naward or Naworth Castle. The township of Brampton contained, in 1811, 265 houses and 2,043 inhabitants; the whole parish, 353 houses and 2,543 inhabitants.

The parish of Brampton is parcel of the barony of Gilsland, of which Naworth Castle is the seat. This barony was given in the reign of William the Conqueror by Ralph de Meschines to Hubert, who assumed the name of De Vallibus or Vaux; his immediate posterity were of much distinction among the baronial families of the North; Robert, his son, was sheriff of Cumberland, and defended the city of Carlisle during a long siege against William King of Scotland, but was obliged at length to surrender it for want of provisions; Robert, the grandson of this Robert, was one of the barons in arms against King John. The sole heiress of Hubert de Vaux, son of the last-mentioned Robert, brought the barony of Gilsland to Thomas de Multon, in the reign of Henry III. The grandson of this Thomas died in 1313, leaving an only daughter, Margaret, who being the King's ward, was forcibly carried away from Warwick Castle, in the year 1317, by Ralph Dacre, she being then under age and the King's ward; she was 13 years of age at the time of her father's death (fn. n15). This Ralph Lord Dacre had a licence, in the year 1335, to castellate his mansion of Naworth (fn. n16); his descendant, Ralph Lord Dacre of Gilsland, was slain at Towtonfield, fighting on the side of the House of Lancaster; Naworth and all his estates were seized by the victorious monarch, but restored to his son: Thomas Lord Dacre, grandson of Ralph, distinguished himself at Floddenfield. By the untimely death of George Lord Dacre (great-grandson of Thomas last mentioned), which happened in his minority in the year 1569, the great inheritance of this family was divided between his three sisters and coheiresses, and the barony of Gilsland fell to the lot of Elizabeth, who married Lord William Howard, third son of Thomas Duke of Norfolk. Leonard Dacre, the next heir male of the family, (second son of William Lord Dacre, who died in 1565), being discontented at the inheritance of his family going to females, and having no hopes of success in disputing it by law with his nieces, forcibly possessed himself of the castles of Naworth and Greystock, and fortified them, having collected together a force of 3,000 borderers and others; but having been defeated by Lord Hunsdon with the garrison from Berwick, near Gelt-bridge, he fled into Scotland, and was soon afterwards attainted. Lord William Howard's marriage took place in 1577; it appears to have been late in life that he settled at Naworth Castle, which Camden, who paid his last visit to Cumberland in company with Sir Robert Cotton in 1599, speaks of in his edition of 1607, as then repairing for his residence.

Figure 34:

The court of Naworth Castle

Naworth Castle, which stands on the brink of a precipice, being almost inaccessible on three sides, is said to have been garrisoned by Lord William Howard with 140 men. His own suite of private apartments in the eastern tower, barricadoed with iron doors, are still to be seen with their original furniture. They consist of a bed room, oratory, and library; many books belonging to the latter have the autograph of their original possessor, written in a very fair hand. There was formerly a valuable collection of MSS. in this library (fn. n17). The hall is 70 feet in length, 24 in width, and of proportionable height; on the ceiling are imaginary portraits of the Kings of England, down to the Union of the Houses of York and Lancaster (fn. n18). In the chapel window are kneeling figures of Thomas Lord Dacre, who died in 1525, and his lady, the heiress of Greystock. Opposite the pulpit are the arms and pedigree of the Howards, Dacres, &c. The dungeons of the castle still remain in their original state, consisting of four small apartments, three below and one above; in the latter is still a ring, to which criminals were chained. These no doubt were the ancient prisons of the barony, the court of which had the power of life and death: it appears on record, that beheading was the punishment of felons: there was formerly a prison at Brampton also for the barony of Gilsland. (fn. n19)

Sir Charles Howard, great grandson of Lord William, was in 1661 created Earl of Carlisle. Bishop Gibson tells us that Naworth Castle, which had been some time in a neglected state, was fitted up by Charles, the third Earl of Carlisle: this Castle is occasionally inhabited by the present Earl.

The site of the old church of Brampton, of which the chancel only remains, is a mile and a half from the town, on an eminence overlooking the river and vale of Irthing. The chapel at Brampton, in which divine service is now performed, was consecrated in 1789. The church of Brampton, which is in the diocese and deanery of Carlisle, was given to the priory of Lanercost, by Robert de Vallibus, and appropriated to that monastery. After the dissolution the rectory and advowson of the vicarage were granted to Sir Thomas Dacre, and are now vested in the Earl of Carlisle. The late Dr. Thomas, Bishop of Rochester, gave a dwelling house with a garden and close, to the vicar: the vicar has the tithe hay of the township of Talkin, in the adjoining parish of Hayton.

There is a meeting house at Brampton for the presbyterians, who have had a congregation here ever since the year 1672; the present meeting house was erected in 1722, by subscription.

Edward, Earl of Carlisle, who died in 1692, built an hospital at Brampton for six poor men and the same number of women, called Brethren and Sisters, to each of whom he assigned 6l. per annum, a gown and fuel. A salary of 12l. per annum was allowed for a person to officiate as minister of the chapel, and master of a school. The earl bequeathed the sum of 500l. to purchase lands of inheritance for the support of this hospital; the lands were not purchased, and the endowment appears to have been lost. There are now only eight apartments in this hospital, one of which is used as a school room; the Earl of Carlisle gives 5l. per annum to the schoolmaster.

The principal manufactory is that of cotton in looms, for the Carlisle manufacturers.

During the rebellion of 1715, Mr. Forster, who had a general's commission from the Pretender, having entered England from the Scottish borders, marched to Brampton, where he proclaimed James Stuart King of England. In the rebellion of 1745, Charles Stuart was with his army at Brampton for two days before he laid siege to Carlisle. (fn. n20)


BRIDE-KIRK, in the ward of Allerdale below Derwent, lies about two miles from Cockermouth, which is the post office town, and contains the townships of Bride-Kirk, Great-Broughton, Little-Broughton, Dovenby with Hameshill (fn. n21), Papcastle and the Goat, Ribton, and Tallantire. The total number of houses in this parish in 1811, was 333, that of inhabitants, 1552.

The manors of Bride-Kirk and Appleton, with the church of Bride-Kirk, were given by Waldeof, the first Lord of Allerdale, to Gisborne priory in Yorkshire; after the dissolution the manor was granted by King Henry VIII. to Henry Tolson. This manor has long ago been enfranchised. J. D. Ballantine Dykes, Esq. being proprietor of Bridekirk Hall, and a great part of the demesne lands, pays the fee farm rent of 1l. 6s. to the crown.

Woodhall, in this township, formerly the seat of the Tolsons, has been much improved by its present possessor John Sanderson Fisher, Esq. It stands in a beautiful situation, commanding a view of the windings of the Derwent, Cockermouth Castle, Isel Hall, and the mountains near Keswick. A handsome mansion in the village of Bride-Kirk, has lately been built by John Thompson, Esq. for his own residence.

King James, in 1605, granted the great tithes of Great and Little-Broughton, and Papcastle, late in the tenure of Thomas Lord Wharton, to Job Gillett and William Blake. The great tithes of Bride-Kirk township belong to John Sanderson Fisher, Esq. of Woodhall, those of Great and Little Broughton, to Sir Frederick Fletcher Vane, Baronet, those of Papcastle to J. D. B. Dykes, Esq. those of Ribton, Hameshill, and the Goat, to the Earl of Lonsdale, and those of Tallantire to William Browne, Esq.: the latter belonged to the monastery of Gisborne, and were granted by Queen Elizabeth to George Fletcher, Esq. of Tallantire.

The advowson of the vicarage, which was granted by Queen Mary to George Cotton and William Manne, passed soon afterwards to the Lamplughs of Dovenby, and is now vested in J. D. B. Dykes, Esq. The singularly curious font in Bride-Kirk church (fn. n22), has been already spoken of.

At Great-Broughton there is a Baptists meeting endowed with some land, in the township of Bothil, and there is a Quakers meeting house at LittleBroughton.

Sir Joseph Williamson, secretary of state in the reign of Charles II. and one of the plenipotentiaries at the treaties of Nimeguen and Ryswick, was a native of this place, being son of the Rev. Joseph Williamson, who was instituted to the vicarage in 1625: Sir Joseph was born in 1633. Thomas Tickell, the poet, the friend of Addison, and editor of his works, was also a native of Bride-Kirk, of which his father was vicar. He was baptized January 19th 1686-7. (fn. n23)

The manor of Broughton, including both the townships of that name, was given by Waldeof, Lord of Allerdale, in marriage with his sister, to Waldeof, son of Gilmin, whose posterity took the name of Broughton, and resided here for several generations. After this family became extinct, about the reign of Henry VI. Broughton seems to have reverted to the Earl of Northumberland as Lord of Allerdale. Henry, the sixth Earl of Northumberland, conveyed it to Sir Thomas Wharton. Charles, Duke of Somerset, purchased it of the trustees of the Duke of Wharton, and it is now vested in his representative the Earl of Egremont.

Joseph Ashley, Esq. in the year 1722, built a school house and an alms house for four poor persons at Great-Broughton, endowing the school with a close, now worth about 6l. per annum, and a rent charge of 8l. per annum. The poor of Great and Little-Broughton, and the donor's kindred, are to have the preference for the alms house, and persons of the name of Ashley to have the preference as trustees.

At Little-Broughton was born in 1714, Abraham Fletcher, the son of a tobacco-pipe maker, and brought up to his father's occupation, who by dint of his own self taught application, became a mathematician of no small eminence, and at the age of thirty set up as a school master; having studied also the medical properties of herbs, he united to his new profession that of a doctor, and practised both with such reputation and profit, that when he died, in the year 1793, he had bred up a large family and was possessed of 4000l. He was author of a work called the Universal Measurer.

The manor of Dovenby was given by Waldeof to Dolphin, son of Alward, whose posterity acquired the name of Dovenby, and became extinct in the reign of Henry III. when the heiress married Rawle or Rolle (fn. n24). Thomas Lucy was possessed of this manor in the reign of Edward I. it was afterwards in the Kirkbrides: the heiress of the latter, in the reign of Henry IV. married Lamplugh, in whose posterity this manor continued for several generations. It is now the property of William Browne, Esq. of Tallantire Hall, whose father purchased it together with part of the demesne, in 1777, of —— Mason, Esq. Dovenby Hall and part of the demesne, were purchased of the representatives of the Dovenby branch of the Lamplughs by Richard Lamplugh, Esq. of Ribton Hall (fn. n25). Dovenby Hall is now the property and seat of Joseph Dykes Ballantine Dykes, Esq. who married Miss Dykes, daughter of Frechville Dykes, Esq. by Mary, his wife, who was great grand-daughter in the female line (fn. n26) of Richard Lamplugh above mentioned. The grandson and namesake of this Richard, being the last of the name of Lamplugh, who possessed Dovenby Hall, died without issue in 1764.

In the year 1609 Sir Thomas Lamplugh built an hospital for four widows, and a school house, to the endowment of which his brother Richard gave the sum of 50l. It seems probable that the establishment was not completed till the year 1628, which date was on a stone at the west end of the hospital as the date of the foundation, together with 1609, the date of the building. Sir Thomas Lamplugh, by his deed of the year 1628, appoints the hospital to be for the perpetual residence of six poor religious people, men or women, of the parish of Bride-Kirk, and a master; who was also to be master of the free grammar school. Sir Thomas endowed it with all his tithes in the township of Redmain in Isel, and the tithe barn. A close in Dovenby, of about five acres, was purchased in 1715, with Richard Lamplugh's benefaction. In 1668 Sir Joseph Williamson, the secretary of state, gave 5l. per annum to this hospital; in 1665 it was endowed with a portion of tithes in Brough, a farther portion of tithes in Redmain, and received a donation of 60l.; the school house was rebuilt in 1678. The tithes of Redmain were given to the pensioners of the hospital, subject to the payment of 4l. per annum, to the master for reading prayers; the tithes of Brough are appropriated to the master: the tithes of Redmain, in the reign of Charles I. were let at 18l. per annum, and are said to be worth now about 30l.

The Rev. Thomas Hervey, born at Dovenby in 1740, published a treatise on short hand, in which he much excelled; a treatise on the 39 articles; an explanation of the church catechism, and other tracts. He left in MS. a treatise on the theory and practice of music on mathematical principles, and a new literal translation of the Old Testament with the Hebrew characters annexed. He was curate of Under-Barrow, near Kendall, for 40 years, to the time of his death, which happened in 1806.

Papcastle, which appears to have been a Roman station, was the seat of Waldeof, Lord of Allerdale, before he removed to Cockermouth. It was afterwards successively in the Lucies, Multons, and Dacres. Being vested in the crown by the attainder of Leonard Dacre, it was granted by Queen Elizabeth in 1595, to Lancelot Salkeld, Thomas Braithwaite, and Richard Tolson; soon afterwards this manor was the property of Sir Thomas Lamplugh, who settled it upon Agnes, his wife, daughter of the said Thomas Braithwaite for life (fn. n27). It was sold with the manor of Dovenby, by one of the Lamplughs, and has passed with that estate to William Browne, Esq. of Tallantire Hall, the present proprietor. Thomas Knight, Esq. is building a handsome mansion for his residence, on some ground lately purchased within or adjoining to the site of the Roman station; many antiquities have been discovered in sinking the foundations. The members for the county are always elected at a place called "the Goat," annexed to the township of Papcastle.

The manor of Ribton belonged to a family of that name, descended from a younger son of Waldeof, son of Gilmin before mentioned, the Ribtons continued to be possessed of it as late as the reign of Henry VIII.: it passed afterwards by purchase to the Lamplughs. Richard Lamplugh, Esq. sold it before the middle of the last century to Sir James Lowther, of Whitehaven, Baronet; it is now the property of the Earl of Lonsdale. The hall, which was a seat of the Lamplughs, and afterwards of the Lowthers, has been some time occupied as a farm house. Near Ribton Hall is the site of an ancient chapel, said to have been dedicated to St. Lawrence, with a cemetery adjoining; it went to decay during the civil war. (fn. n28)

The manor of Tallantire or Tallentire was granted by Waldeof, son of Gospatric, to Odard, son of Liulph, whose descendants took the name of Tallantire; at a later period (fn. n29) it came by purchase to the Fletchers of Cockermouth, from which family it passed by marriage to that of Partis of Newcastle. In the year 1776 it was purchased of Henry Hopper, devisee of Fletcher Partis, Esq. by William Browne, Esq. whose son of the same name, is the present proprietor, and resides at Tallantire Hall.

The parish of St. Bride or St. Bridgett, lies about ten miles from Whitehaven, and includes the township of Calder, where there is a post office at Calder Bridge. Calder Abbey, on the banks of the river Calder, nearly a mile above the bridge, was founded for Cistertian Monks in the year 1134, by Ranulph de Meschines, the second of that name. Its revenues at the time of the dissolution were valued at 50l. 9s. 3½d. per annum. The site, with the manor of Calder, &c. was granted in 1538, to Thomas Leigh, L.L. D. whose grandson Ferdinando sold this estate to Sir Richard Fletcher, Baronet; Barbara, daughter of Sir Richard, brought it in marriage to Mr. John Patrickson, whose son sold it to Mr. John Tiffin of Cockermouth. John Senhouse, Esq. grandson of Mr. Tiffin, became possessed of it by gift, and it is now the property and residence of Miss Mary Senhouse, his elder grand-daughter. There are considerable remains of the abbey adjoining the mansion, a modern brick edifice, pleasantly situated in the vale of the Calder, the banks of which are well skirted with wood.

Sella Park, said to have been formerly a cell belonging to Calder Abbey, where they had a deer park, was granted by the crown to the Curwen family. It was purchased of Mr. and Mrs. Curwen, by the late Mr. Stanley of Ponsonby Hall. This place is now the property of his son Edward Stanley, Esq. and in the occupation of the Rev. John Smith.

The manor of Great-Beckermot, in this parish, belongs to the Earl of Egremont, as parcel of the barony of Egremont.

The church of St. Brides, which is in the diocese of Chester, the archdeaconry of Richmond, and deanery of Copeland, was appropriated to Calder Abbey.

The impropriation, which, after the dissolution, was granted to the Flemings of Rydal, passed in marriage to Crossland, and by sale to Patrickson. It is now the property of the Rev. Henry John Todd, who is patron of the curacy.


BRIGHAM, in the ward of Allerdale below Derwent, is an extensive parish, containing ten townships, besides those of the parochial chapelry of Lorton, viz. Brigham, Blindbothel, Buttermere, Cockermouth, Eaglesfield, Embleton, Grey-Southern, Mosser, Setmurthy, and Whinfell. The whole parish, exclusively of Lorton, contained in 1811, 1008 houses, and 4918 inhabitants.

The manors of Brigham, Grey-Southern, and Eaglesfield, were given by William de Meschines to Waldeof, son of Gospatric: the latter gave Brigham (fn. n30) to Dolphin, son of Alward, in marriage with his sister; after a few descents it was divided into moieties between the coheirs of Brigham; one moiety after remaining for some time in the family of Twinham, and afterwards in that of Hercla, was forfeited by the attainder of Andrew de Hercla, Earl of Carlisle, and given to a chantry in the church of Brigham (fn. n31); this moiety, after the dissolution, was granted to the Fletchers of Moresby, and was sold to the tenants. The other moiety was successively in the families of Huthwaite and Swinburn; it was sold by the latter in 1699, to the Honourable Goodwin Wharton; in 1727 the trustees of the Duke of Wharton sold it to Mr. Wilfred Grisdale; after the death of his daughter, Mrs. Lucock, and her only daughter, it passed under his will to Mr. William Singleton, who died in 1767; on his death this and other estates became vested jointly in several persons under Mr. Grisdale's will, and having been divided by virtue of a commission of partition, issued out of the court of chancery, this moiety of the manor of Brigham was allotted to Joshua Lucock, Esq. and is now the property of his grandson Raisbeck Lucock Bragg, Esq. The Earl of Egremont is Lord Paramount.

In the parish church, which has the only ring of bells in the county, except the cathedral and Crosthwaite, are some monuments of the family of Langton of Cockermouth, (1777, 1790).

The church of Brigham lies in the diocese of Chester, the archdeaconry of Richmond, and the deanery of Copeland. The advowson was conveyed by Thomas de Huthwaite to Isabel, Countess of Albemarle, in the reign of Henry III. (fn. n32) : it was appropriated in 1439, to the collegiate church of Staindrop, in the county of Durham.

The townships of Eaglesfield and Blind-Bothel have been inclosed under an act of parliament passed in 1812; and those in the townships of Brigham, Embleton, Setmurthy, and the borough and township of Cockermouth, under three several acts passed in 1813. Allotments of lands were made in lieu of tithes to the Earl of Lonsdale, who was impropriator of the whole parish, in Eaglesfield, Blind-Bothel, and Brigham, and power given to make such in Cockermouth. Lord Lonsdale is patron of the vicarage of Brigham, and of all the chapels within the parish.

The township of Buttermere is situated in a deep valley, amidst the romantic scenery which surrounds the lake of that name, about 10 miles from Cockermouth. This township, with the lake, is holden of the Earl of Egremont, as parcel of his manor of Braithwaite and Coledale. The Duke of Norfolk has an estate here, which was granted by King Edward VI. to Lord Gray and Banister, and was afterwards successively in the families of Robinson, Stanley, Lamplugh, and Spedding.

There is a chapel at Buttermere.


  • n1. The curious indenture which was drawn up on this occasion, is here copied from Nicolson and Burn's History of Cumberland and Westmorland, vol. i. p. 595. "It is agreed between Thomas Musgrave and Lancelot Carleton, for the true trial of such controversies as are betwixt them, to have it openly tried by way of combat before God and the face of the world, to try it in Canonby-holme before England and Scotland, upon Thursday in Easter week, being the 8th day of April next ensuing, A. D. 1602, betwixt nine of the clock and one of the same day; to fight on foot; to be armed with jack, steel cap, plaite sleeves, plaite breeches, plaite sockes, two baslaerd swords, the blades to be one yard and half a quarter in length, two Scotch daggers or dorks at their girdles; and either of them to provide armour and weapons for themselves according to this indenture. Two gentlemen to be appointed on the field to view both the parties, to see that they both be equal in arms and weapons according to this indenture; and being so viewed by the gentlemen, the gentlemen to ride to the rest of the company, and to leave them but two boys viewed by the gentlemen to be under sixteen years of age, to hold their horses. In testimony of this our agreement, we have both set our hands to this indenture, of intent all matters shall be made so plain, as there shall be no question to stick upon that day. And for that it is convenient that the world should be privy to every particular of the grounds of the quarrel, we have agreed to set it down in this indenture betwixt us, that knowing the quarrel, their eyes may be witnesses of the trial. "The grounds of the quarrel: — "1. Lancelot Carleton did charge Thomas Musgrave before the Lords of her Majesty's Privy Council, that Lancelot Carleton was told by a gentleman, one of her Majesty's sworn servants, that Thomas Musgrave had offered to deliver her Majesty's castle of Bewcastle to the Scots, and to witness the same, Lancelot Carleton had a letter under the gentleman's own hand for his discharge. "2. He chargeth him, that whereas her Majesty doth yearly bestow a great fee upon him as captain of Bewcastle, to aid and defend her Majesty's subjects; therein Thomas Musgrave hath neglected his duty; for that her Majesty's castle of Bewcastle was by him made a den of thieves; and an harbour and receipt for murderers, felons, and all sorts of misdemeanours. The precedent was Quintin Whitehead and Runion Blackburne. "3. He chargeth him that his office of Bewcastle is open for the Scots to ride in and through, and small resistance made by him to the contrary. "Thomas Musgrave doth deny all this charge, and saith that he will prove that Lancelot Carleton doth falsly belye him, and will prove the same by way of combat, according to this indenture. Lancelot Carleton hath entertained the challenge, and so by God's permission, will prove it true as before, and hath set his hand to the same. "Thomas Musgrave." "Lancelot Carleton."
  • n2. Rushworth II. 929.
  • n3. Nicolson and Burn.
  • n4. See the account of Roman roads and stations.
  • n5. It was forfeited by Geoffrey de Moubray, who took part with the Scots, 28 Edw. I., and restored 31 Ed. I., to his son John, who had returned to his allegiance, and done fealty to the King. See Rot. Parl. I. 339.
  • n6. Rot. Parl. I. 426.
  • n7. Cart. 21 Ed. III. m. 17.
  • n8. T. Denton's MS.
  • n9. See the account of Roman stations.
  • n10. The coheiresses married Curwen, Harrington, and Bowett.
  • n11. Leland.
  • n12. T. Denton's MS.
  • n13. T. Denton's MS. p. 71, 72.
  • n14. See the Quo Warranto Roll.
  • n15. It is said, in the Chronicle of Lanercost, that this Margaret was married when she was seven years of age to Robert de Clifford, who was living when she married Ralph Dacre, but that her marriage with Dacre was lawful on account of a previous contract between Thomas de Multon and William de Dacre (father of Ralph) before the marriage with Clifford.
  • n16. Pat. 9 Edw. III. pt 2.
  • n17. In the Oxford Catalogue of English MSS. vol. ii. p. 14, 15, there is a list of the MSS. sixty-four in number, consisting of chronicles, chartularies, divinity, poetry, heraldry, &c. Most of the chronicles are now in the Heralds' College.
  • n18. These were originally at Kirk-Oswald. See the account of that parish.
  • n19. Sec p. xii.
  • n20. See the London Gazettes.
  • n21. The families of Senhouse and Hutton, had seats at Hameshill in 1687. T. Denton's MS.
  • n22. Sir Joseph Williamson, in a letter to Richard Lamplugh, Esq. of Ribton, dated August 1678, after mentioning a present of a cover and cushion for the altar, which he had sent, adds, "As a mark of my respect for the parish (of Bridekirk) and a small tribute, I return to Almighty God, for his service in that church, where it pleased Him to have me conformated to his Sonne and faith, I have a great mind to have some very fine cover for the font there, if you would help me to contrive what sort of a one. I would have it very handsome. I am thinking of a further present to the communion table if God blesse me." (Communicated by William Browne, Esq. of Tallantire Hall.)
  • n23. The register of this period is imperfect, but we were favoured with the date from the registry at Carlisle.
  • n24. T. Denton's MS.
  • n25. Nicolson and Burn.
  • n26. Daughter of John Brougham, Esq. of Cockermouth, by Frances his wife, daughter of John Woodhall, Esq. of Dovenby, and Frances his wife, daughter of Richard Lamplugh of Ribton, who purchased Dovenby, as above mentioned.
  • n27. She lived to the age of 100 years.
  • n28. T. Demon's MS.
  • n29. About the year 1578.
  • n30. Together with the manors of Dean and Clifton, these now form altogether a manor called the manor of Five-Towns, belonging to the Earl of Egremont.
  • n31. It appears by an Inquisition ad quod damp. (16 Edward II. 79.) that a moiety of the manor was then given by Thomas de Burgh, to a chantry in the chapel of St. Mary at Brigham.
  • n32. See Inquisition ad quod damp. 5 Edward II. 62.