Parishes: Addingham - Aspatria

Magna Britannia: Volume 4, Cumberland. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1816.

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'Parishes: Addingham - Aspatria', in Magna Britannia: Volume 4, Cumberland, (London, 1816) pp. 4-18. British History Online [accessed 20 April 2024]

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The parish of Addingham, or Addenham, in Leathward, is divided into four townships; Gamblesby, which formerly gave name to the parish; Glassonby; Hunsonby and Winskill, or Winscale; and Little-Salkeld. There is no village of Addingham: the church is in the township of Glassonby; the vicarage-house in the township of Little-Salkeld, which is a mile and three quarters from the church. The whole parish, in 1811, contained 118 inhabited houses, and 550 inhabitants.

The lordship of Glassonby and Gamelsby was given by King Henry I. to Hildred, to be holden by the annual payment of 2s. cornage. The heiress of Odard, great-grand-daughter of the said Hildred, brought it to William de Ireby, from whom it passed, by successive female heirs, to Lascelles and Seaton. Christopher Seaton having attached himself to the party of Robert Bruce, his estates were forfeited, and the lordship of Glassonby, with other estates in Cumberland and elsewhere, given by King Edward I. to William Latimer. From the Latimers it passed by a female heir to the Nevilles. From the coheiresses of Neville it appears to have passed to the Dacres of Kirkoswald. It is now the property of Sir Philip Musgrave, Bart., having been purchased by his ancestor, Sir Christopher, of the two daughters of Thomas Lennard, Earl of Sussex, representative of the Dacres. Mr. Denton says, that Gamblesby manor, with the hamlet of Unthank annexed, continued in the Crown in 1688. They now belong to the Duke of Devonshire, having been included in the grant to the Earl of Portland. (fn. n1)

The manor of Little-Salkeld was confirmed by King Edward I., about the year 1292, to the prior and convent of Carlisle, having been long before given to that monastery by Walter the Norman (fn. n2). Upon the reformation it was given, with other estates, to the dean and chapter, who are impropriators of the great tithes, and patrons of the vicarage. In this township is the site of an ancient castle, of the possessors of which, we find no record or memorial. Mr. Denton says that this place gave name to the ancient family of Salkeld, and that Mr. George Salkeld was obliged to part with the seat of his ancestors here for a trifling consideration, in the time of the civil war, to Colonel Cholmley, who built a large new house on the site. This house, after several alienations, became, (before the year 1688,) the property of Mr. Charles Smallwood; it was purchased of his descendant Timothy Smallwood, Esq., by Lieutenant-Colonel Lacy, the present proprietor. Colonel Lacy rebuilt the house about the year 1790, and has much improved the estate with plantations, &c.

The church of Addingham is in the diocese of Carlisle, and deanery of Allerdale. There was, in antient times, a chapel at Little-Salkeld. Dr. Paley, the celebrated theologian, was vicar of this parish from 1792 to 1795. At Maughanby in this parish is a free school, founded in 1634, by the Rev. Edward Mayplett, prebendary of Carlisle and vicar of Addingham. It was endowed with a house and 68 acres of land, now let at 80l. per annum. This estate is customary land, holden under the manor of Melmerby, and subject to a fine on the death of the lord or tenant. The schoolmaster has been for many years appointed by the bishop, the trust not having been renewed. This school is free for the whole parish. About the year 1726, Joseph Hutchinson devised the reversion of an estate at Gawtree for the support of a school for the benefit of the township of Hunsonby and Winscale. It is now let for 52l. per annum. The same Joseph Hutchinson gave an estate at Winscale, now let at 66l. per annum, for the benefit of the poor of that township.


AIKTON, in Cumberland ward, lies five miles from Wigton and nine from Carlisle. It has four townships — Aikton; Biglands and Gamelsby; Wathinpool, or Wampool; and Wiggonby. The whole parish, in 1811, contained 129 inhabited houses, and 614 inhabitants.

The manor of Aikton having been anciently parcel of the barony of Burgh, was brought in marriage by one of the coheiresses of Sir Hugh Morville, lord of that barony, to Sir Richard Gernon, who had his seat within this manor, at a place called Downhall. Having passed by female heirs to the families of Baliol, Colvill, Daniel, and Ratcliffe, it was purchased by the Dacres, in the reign of Henry VI. and again united to the barony of Burgh. It is now the property of the Earl of Lonsdale. Downhall, near which is a moated site, is now the property of Mr. Joseph Hodgson, whose family have possessed it many years.

The manor of Biglands and Gamelsby was in ancient times held under the barony of Burgh by William Brewer, and afterwards by the Crookdakes; the coheiresses of the latter married Raughton and Boyvill. Raughton's moiety having passed successively by marriage or purchase to the families of Aspilon, Warcop, Crakenthorp, and Denton, was sold by the latter to the several tenants. Boyvill's moiety having passed by marriage to Highmore, and by sale to Dacre, became again parcel of the barony of Burgh, now vested in the Earl of Lonsdale.

The manor of Wathinpool belonged to a family of that name, afterwards to the Warwicks, by whom it was sold to the several tenants. The hamlet of Leathes gave name to a family who possessed the manor till the reign of King James I., when Adam de Leathes sold it to the tenants. This family of Leathes have been long settled at Dalehead, near Keswick.

The church of Aikton is a rectory in the diocese and deanery of Carlisle. The rectory was formerly in moieties, occasioned, as is supposed, by the division of the Morville estate between the coheiresses of Sir Hugh. These moieties were afterwards united, and the advowson having continued attached to the barony of Burgh, is now vested in the Earl of Lonsdale.

There is a school at Aikton endowed with the interest of 30l. bequeathed by Joseph Watson, of the parish of St. Andrew, Holborn, in 1764; and another at Wiggonby, built and endowed with 40l. per annum, by Margaret Hodgson, about the year 1794. This school is free for all children of the name of Hodgson, and for the children of the parishes of Aikton, Burgh on Sands, and Beaumont, whose parents are not possessed of property to the amount of 20l. per annum. There is a fund also for providing books, and for clothing some of the more indigent.


AINSTABLE, in Leath ward, lies twelve miles from Penrith. The manor of Ainstaple was given by Hubert de Vallibus, or Vaux, lord of the barony of Gilsland, to his kinsman, Eustace de Vaux: the heiress of this branch brought it to the Burdons, and the heiress of Burdon to the Dentons, who sold it to William Lord Dacre (fn. n3). Having since descended with the barony of Gilsland, it is now the property of Frederick Earl of Carlisle.

In this parish, at a place formerly called Armathwaite, now Nunnery, was a convent of Benedictine nuns, founded by King William Rufus, in the second year of his reign. King Edward III. remitted to the prioress and nuns their yearly rent of 10l. in consideration of the losses they had suffered by the war with Scotland. In the reign of Edward IV. the monastery was almost destroyed by Scottish invaders, who took away their jewels, reliques, books, evidences, &c.; the King, in consequence, granted them a confirmation of all their possessions (fn. n4).

At the time of the dissolution, there were only three nuns in this house, besides the prioress. King Edward VI. granted the priory of Armathwaite, with the manor and various lands thereto belonging, to William Greyme, alias Carleil, Gentleman. This was William Greyme, or Graham, of Rosetrees and Netherby, in the parish of Arthuret, who settled the priory estate on his younger son, Fergus. The site of the priory having acquired the name of Nunnery, continued to be the seat of this branch of the Grahams till about the year 1690, when George Graham, Esq. sold it to Sir John Lowther, Bart.; Sir John exchanged it with John Aglionby, Esq. for Drumburgh castle: it is now the property and residence of Mrs. Eliz. Bamber, widow, elder sister of the late Christopher Aglionby, Esq. the last heir male of that ancient family, who died in 1785. The pleasure grounds, which are laid out on the banks of the little river Croglin, exhibit a great variety of picturesque scenery. Nunnery is much resorted to by strangers, but the grounds are allowed to be shewn only on Fridays.

Crossfield house, built by Henry Aglionby, Esq. who died in 1759, is at present untenanted.

The church, which lies in the diocese of Carlisle, and deanery of Allerdale, was appropriated to the nunnery. The rectory and advowson of the vicarage, were granted by King Edward VI. to Sir John Peryent and Thomas Reve, Gentleman. In 1688 the advowson of the vicarage was in the coheirs of Mr. Leonard Barrow. Mr. George Lowthian of Staffold, who had married one of the coheiresses, became by purchase possessed of the whole of the tithes (fn. n5), which now, together with the advowson, belong to his representative, Richard Lowthian Ross, Esq.

There is a small school at Ainstable, endowed with land (fn. n6) now let at 7l. 10s. and the interest of 15l.

This parish was the birth-place of Dr. John Leake, a physician of considerable reputation, author of several practical treatises on midwifery, &c. and founder of the Westminster Lying-in-hospital. Dr. Leake was born the 8th of June 1729, being son of the Rev. William Leake, who was then curate of Ainstable; he died in 1792.

Aldstone or Alston

ALDSTONE or ALSTON, commonly called Alston-moor, is a small market town in Leath ward, on the confines of Northumberland, 20 miles from Penrith, and 304 from London. The market, which is held on Saturdays, chiefly for butchers meat, oatmeal, and potatoes, is by prescription.

There are three fairs; on the last Thursday in May, the Friday preceding the 27th of September, and the first Thursday in November. The first mentioned is for black cattle, horses, and pigs; the second for black cattle, horses, and sheep; the third for black cattle and horses only.

The manor of Aldstone, then called Aldeneston, was restored in 1281 to Nicholas de Veteriponte or Vipont: it seems to have been originally granted to this family in the reign of King John. (fn. n7)

The only daughter and heir of another Nicholas, brought the lordship of Aldstone to Walter Stapleton, who died in 1457, leaving two daughters, the elder of whom married Sir William Hilton, and afterwards Richard Musgrave. The posterity of her first husband inherited this manor, which they possessed till the reign of James I. when it was conveyed to the Radcliffes. Upon the attainder of Francis Radcliffe, Earl of Derwentwater, in 1715, it fell to the crown, and was soon afterwards settled by act of parliament on Greenwich Hospital.

The valuable lead-mines in this parish have been elsewhere spoken of. The number of workmen employed in the mines, occasions the parish to be very populous. The returns under the population act in 1811, state the number of houses at 461, occupied by 1013 families, and containing 5079 inhabitants.

The church of Aldstone was appropriated to the monastery of Hexham, to whom it had been given by the Vipont family. It had been claimed in the reign of Edward I. by that monastery, as given to them by Ivo de Veteriponte, and confirmed by King Henry III. but the claim was disallowed, and the church said to be in the crown (fn. n8). It is probable that they soon afterwards obtained a grant or confirmation of it. After the reformation, the rectory and advowson, as having been parcel of the possessions of that monastery, were granted to Sir John Peryent and Thomas Reve, Gentleman. There appears to have been a subsequent grant to Arthur Lee and Thomas Archer; who having conveyed a third portion to Sir Thomas Hilton, the estate was for a long time thus divided. The trustees of Greenwich Hospital are now possessed of the whole of the impropriation and patronage, having purchased a third of the advowson of the present vicar, on condition and consideration that they would build him a good new vicarage-house, which condition they have performed.

The parish of Aldstone is in the diocese of Durham and deanery of Corbridge.

There is a chapel of ease at Garragill, called in old records Gerardegill, at which service is performed every third Sunday.

The original endowment of the charity school at Aldstone, was the sum of 106l. 5s. which having been laid out in the purchase of land, now produces about 27l. per annum: nothing further is known relative to the foundation. The sum above mentioned was probably raised by a contribution of the inhabitants. The commons in this parish, and the hamlet of Garragill, (except those in Priorsdale and Gildersdale,) have been inclosed under an act of parliament, passed in 1803, by which allotments of land were given in lieu of tithes to the impropriators.


ALLHALLOWS, in the ward of Allerdale, below Derwent, lies five miles from Wigton, which is the post-office town.

The manor of Whitehall appears to have been restored in the reign of Henry IV. to Sir Henry Percy. It was afterwards the property and seat of a younger branch of the Salkelds of Corby, After the death of Henry Salkeld, the last heir male, this estate became the subject of a long suit in chancery, by which it was at length adjudged to the Charltons of Northumberland, descended from Margaret, daughter of Sir Francis Salkeld, and is now the property of William John Charlton, Esq.; the mansion has been long in ruins.

The manor of Ukmanby or Upmanby, was given by Alan, second Lord of Allerdale, to Ranulph de Lyndsey, from whose family it passed by marriage to the Tilliols. A moiety of this manor was sold by the representative of one of the co-heiresses of the last mentioned family to the Salkelds, the other passed to the Highmores. The Blencows purchased of the latter, and Mr. T. Denton describes the manor of Upmanby as being in 1688, the jointure of Mrs. Mary Blencow, mother of Christopher Blencow, Esq. Mr. John Thompson is the present proprietor of the Upmanby estate.

Harby, or Harby-brow, anciently called Leesgill, was for many generations the property and seat of the Highmore family. Nicholas Highmore sold it to the Blencows, who possessed it for several descents. This estate was purchased of the latter about the year 1745, by —— Steel. It is now the property of William John Charlton, Esq.

A square tower, which was part of the old mansion of the Highmores at Harby brow, still remains.

The parish of Allhallows, which was formerly a chapelry to Aspatria, and called Ukmanby, is in the diocese of Carlisle and deanery of Allerdale.

This parish has been inclosed under an act of parliament, passed in 1812, by which lands were given in lieu of tithes to the Bishop of Carlisle, as appropriator, or his lessee (fn. n9). The bishop is patron of the curacy, which is of small value, but has been twice augmented by Queen Anne's bounty.

Arlecden or Arlochden

ARLECDEN or ARLOCHDEN, in the ward of Allerdale above Derwent, lies about 6½ miles from Whitehaven. There are three cattle fairs at this place, April 24th, the first Friday in June, and September 17th. The first is the most considerable. The manor of Arlochden belongs to Sir Roger Fleming of Rydal, in the county of Westmorland, Bart. to whose ancestor it was given soon after the conquest, by William de Meschines, Lord of Egremont, together with Frisington, another manor in this parish. The latter was held under the Flemings at an early period, by a family who took their name from the place of their residence. The co-heiresses of Frisington, in the reign of Henry IV. married Sackfield, Lawson, and Atkinson. This manor was then sold, and passed by successive conveyances to the families of Leigh, Patrickson, and Williamson. It now belongs to the Earl of Lonsdale, having been purchased of the Williamsons by Sir James Lowther, father of the late earl. Lands in this manor were inclosed by an act of parliament, passed in 1805. The parks (parcel of the demesne of this manor) are the joint property of Edward Wolley Copley, Esq. and John Lamplugh Raper, Esq. as heirs of the Lamplugh family. This estate was some time since in the Fletchers of Hutton, one of whose ancestors purchased it of the Patricksons.

The church of Arlochden is in the diocese of Chester, the archdeaconry of Richmond, and the deanery of Copeland. It was given to Calder abbey by the Flemings, in the year 1241, but was not long afterwards appropriated to the archdeaconry of Richmond. The Bishop of Chester is now appropriator and patron. The present lessee of the tithes is John Bradshaw, Esq. of Brookes House, near Sodbury in Gloucestershire. The benefice, which is a perpetual curacy, was augmented by Lady Gower's benefaction, in conjunction with Queen Anne's bounty (600l. jointly) in or about 1764, and again in 1810, with the sum of 200l. being part of the parliamentary grant of that year.


ARTHURET, in the ward of Eskdale, lies about 3½ miles north of Carlisle. It includes the townships of Brackenhill, Lineside, Longtown, and Netherby.

The barony of Lyddal or Liddell, extending over this parish and KirkAndrews, was given in the reign of Henry I. by Ranulph de Meschines, to Turgent Brundey (fn. n10), or Turgis Brundas, a Fleming. In the reign of King John it was in the baronial family of Stuteville or Estoteville, whose daughter and eventually sole heiress, Joan, brought it to the baronial family of Wake. John, Lord Wake, died without issue in 1343, his only sister married Edmund Plantagenet, Earl of Kent, whose daughter Joan became the wife of Edward the Black Prince. The barony of Liddell, in consequence became vested in the crown, and appears to have continued to be crown and as parcel of the honor of Dustanburgh, (which honor was parcel of the Duchy of Lancaster,) till the year 1604, when King James granted the forest of Nichol, and the manors of Arthuret, Liddell, and Randilington, with Netherby Hall (fn. n11), &c. to George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland, subject to a fee farm rent of 100l. Francis, the succeeding earl, sold these estates to Richard Grahme or Graham, Esq. to whom, in 1629, King Charles remitted a moiety of the above mentioned rent. This Richard was master of the horse to the Duke of Buckingham, and accompanied Prince Charles into Spain: he was created a baronet in 1629. During the civil war he attached himself to the king's party, was in the battle of Edghill, and left for dead on the field; he recovered, however, from his wounds, and after the affairs of his royal master became desperate, led a retired life till his death, which happened in 1653. Richard, his grandson, the third baronet, was in 1680 created Viscount Preston of the kingdom of Scotland. He was several years ambassador at the court of France (fn. n12), and on his return was made master of the great wardrobe, and afterwards secretary of state to King James II.

Some time after the Revolution, this nobleman having been taken in a boat on the Thames as he was on the point of leaving the kingdom to join the abdicated monarch, he was tried for high treason and found guilty, but pardoned: his son and grandson succeeded to the title; the latter dying without issue in 1739, Catherine, one of the sisters of the first viscount, who had married William Lord Widdrington, became eventually possessed of the whole of the before mentioned estates, and died in 1757, having bequeathed them to the Rev. Robert Graham, second son of her uncle William Graham, dean of Carlisle, (which William was fourth son of Sir George Graham, the second baronet): the present baronet is Sir Robert Graham, resident in London. The present possessor of the Arthuret estates is James, son of the Rev. Robert Graham above mentioned, who succeeded to his father's estates in 1782, and was the same year created a baronet.

Netherby, the seat of Sir James Graham, Bart., is pleasantly situated a small distance from the banks of the Eske. The greater part of it was built by the late Dr. Graham, on the site of an ancient mansion, the tower of which remains, although it does not retain its original appearance. The grounds are extensive, and have beautiful walks and rides on the banks of the Eske and Liddell. Not far from the house was the Roman station already spoken of. Leland speaks of some of the ruins of the Roman buildings as still remaining in 1539 (fn. n13). The most remarkable of the antiquities there discovered, together with others collected by the late Dr. Graham, are carefully preserved by Sir James, in a room lately fitted up for that purpose.

About two miles from Netherby, in the parish of Kirk-Andrews, on the steep banks of the Lid or Liddell, is a moated site called Liddell's Strength, with a deep double ditch, most probably the site of a castle anciently belonging to the Stotevilles, and afterwards to the Lords Wake of Liddell. This castle was taken by William King of Scotland, in the year 1174 (fn. n14); David Bruce took it by assault in 1346, and is said to have beheaded its governor, Sir Walter Selby, without allowing him time for confession (fn. n15). Leland speaks of Liddell castle as having been at that time destroyed. Its site acquired afterwards the name of the Moat, and was occupied by a mansion, which in 1630 was the residence of Sir John Scot, and in 1657 was a seat of the Grahams. It is now the property of Sir James Graham, Bart. A tower which formed part of the old mansion, remained within the memory of man.

The manor of Breconhill or Brakenhill, in this parish, held under the manor of Arthuret, was in 1688 the property of Mr. Richard Graham, a distant relation of Lord Preston's. It now belongs to Edward Stephenson, Esq., whose relation, Rowland Stephenson, Esq., purchased it in 1752.

The present parish church of Arthuret was built in 1609. It contains some monuments of the Graham family, particularly that of Sir George Graham, Bart. 1607, (son of Sir Robert Graham, the first baronet), he married Lady Mary Johnston (daughter of James Earl of Hartfell); and that of the late Robert Graham, D.D., who died in 1782. In the churchyard is the tomb of Lieutenant William Graham, of the Moat, who died in 1657, aged 97. The advowson of the rectory, which in ancient times belonged to the abbot and convent of Jedburgh, in Scotland (fn. n16), has long been attached to the manor: it is in the deanery of Carlisle.

Archibald Armstrong, commonly known by the name of Archy, who was fool, or more properly jester, to King James and King Charles, is said to have been a native of this place, whither he retired after his disgrace at court, and where he died, at an advanced age, in 1672. The cause of his dismissal was the latitude of speech in which he indulged himself on occasion of the commotions in Scotland in 1638, which ensued on the attempt of introducing the English liturgy into that kingdom (fn. n17). Mr. Garrard, Lord Stratford's correspondent, after relating the story of Archy's disgrace, adds, "There is a new fool in his place, Muckle John, but he will ne'er be so rich, for he cannot abide money (fn. n18)." This Muckle John was the last person who filled the situation of fool or jester to the British court. That Archy had made his fortune before his disgrace is confirmed by the verses annexed to the engraved portrait which is prefixed to his book of jests.

"Archee, by kings and princes graced of late,
"Jested himself into a fair estate."

The following notices respecting this well known character appear in the parish register at Arthuret:—

"Francis, the base son of Archibald Armstrong, baptized Dec. 17, 1643."

"Archibald Armstrong and Sybella Bell married June 4, 1646."

"Archibald Armstrong buried April 1, 1672."

He was interred in the churchyard at Arthuret; but there is no memorial of him to be found there.

The population of the parish of Arthuret has considerably increased within the last sixty years (fn. n19) : in 1750, it contained 366 houses; in 1781, 406 houses, and 2,100 inhabitants. In the enumeration of late years there has been probably some difference as to deeming tenements under the same roof separate houses; the number of inhabitants being stated at 2,418 in 1801, and 2,693 in 1811; yet the houses are stated to have been only 371 in 1801, and 364 in 1811. The principal population is at Longtown, a considerable thoroughfare (fn. n20) on the great road from Carlisle to Edinburgh. There is a market at this town on Thursdays for butcher's meat, &c. &c. The right of holding a market within the manor or barony of Liddell is of great antiquity. John Lord Wake claimed in the reign of Edward I., under a charter of 51 Hen. III. (fn. n21), the right of holding such a market on Tuesday, and a fair for eight days at the festival of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (commonly called Holyrood day). There is now a horse-fair on the Thursday before Whitsunday, and a fair for hiring of servants on the Thursday after Whitsunday, and the Thursday after Martinmas. Cranberries are sold in the season in great quantities at Longtown market, to be sent to London and elsewhere.

The sum of 200l. given to the poor of Arthuret and Kirk-Andrews by Reginald Graham, Esq. in 1683, has been applied to the use of the charity schools to which Lady Widdrington, by deed in 1754, gave a rent-charge of 40l. per annum. This is divided among eight schools, four in the parish of Arthuret, and four in Kirk-Andrews.

The ancient parish of Eston, now no longer known, is merged in those of Arthuret and Kirk-Andrews; the last mention of it in ecclesiastical records is in 1384, when John de Morton was presented to the rectory by the bishop.

There are extensive salmon-fisheries belonging to the Netherby estate in the river Eske, which runs through the parish, and in front of NetherbyHouse. There is a bridge of five arches over it at Longtown. The fisheries were much damaged in the month of January 1809 by a flood which swept away the wear across the river near Netherby.


ASPATRIA, in the ward of Allerdale, below Derwent, lies about nine miles from Cockermouth, which is the post-office town. It contains three townships; viz. Aspatria and Brayton; Hayton and Melay; and Outerby or Outerside, and Allerby; containing altogether, in 1811, 195 inhabited houses and 919 inhabitants.

The manor of Aspatria, as parcel of the barony of Allerdale below Derwent, was given by Ranulph de Meschines to Waldieve, son of Gospatric Earl of Dunbar, and having passed with the barony, belongs now to the Earl of Egremont.

The manor of Brayton gave name to a family, who were succeeded in its possession by a younger branch of the Salkelds. It was purchased of the coheiresses of the latter, in the early part of the last century, by Sir Wilfred Lawson, great-great-grandfather of the late Sir Wilfred Lawson, Bart., who died without issue in 1806. The title in consequence became extinct; and this estate, since the death of his widow (which happened in 1811), has passed under his will to Thomas, and on his death, in 1812, to Wilfred, younger sons of Thomas Wybergh, Esq. of Clifton Hall, in Westmorland, who married a sister of Lady Lawson's; Wilfred, who is as yet under age, has taken the name of Lawson. Brayton-house was much improved by the late baronet, by whom also the grounds were laid out, and extensive plantations made. The library, collected at a great expence, was particularly rich in works on natural history. Among the pictures are many of the best works of living English masters, particularly Northcote and Reinagle. Until of late years Isel had been the chief residence of the Lawson family. It is now occupied by Thomas Wybergh, Esq. as guardian to his son Wilfred. The deer-park at Brayton was disparked in 1798.

The manor of Hayton was granted by Alan Lord of Allerdale to his huntsman Seliff, whose posterity took the name of De Hayton. From the Haytons this manor passed by a succession of female heirs to the families of Mulcaster, Tilliol, Colvill, and Musgrave. Nicholas Musgrave, who married the heiress of Colvill, was a younger son of Thomas Musgrave of Edenhall, and died in 1500. His descendant, Sir Edward Musgrave, was in 1638 made a baronet of Nova Scotia. Sir Richard, the fifth baronet, took the name of Hylton, pursuant to the will of his uncle, John Hylton, Esq. of Hilton Castle, and dying without issue, the title went to his brother, the late Sir William Musgrave, commissioner of the customs; after his death to his younger brother Thomas, a general in the army, who was succeeded by a distant cousin, James Musgrave, Esq. of Barnsley Park, in Gloucestershire. Sir James Musgrave died in 1814, and was succeeded by his son, now Sir James Musgrave, Bart. The manor of Hayton did not accompany the title, but is now the property of Mrs. Jolliffe (relict of William Jolliffe, Esq. M. P. for Petersfield, who died in 1802), the younger daughter, and eventually sole heiress of Sir Richard Musgrave Bart. The ancient mansion of Hayton Castle is now occupied by the Rev. Isaac Robinson. It is said to have stood a long siege by the Parliamentarians, and to have been rebuilt by Sir Richard Musgrave, after the restoration. (fn. n22)

It appears that the Mulcaster family had in ancient times a market at Hayton on Tuesdays, and a fair for three days at the festival of St. Mary Magdalen. (fn. n23)

The manor of Outerby or Ughthredby, took its name from Ughtred, to whom it was given by Alan, second Lord of Allerdale. It was for several generations in the family of Orfeur, by whom it was conveyed to Sir Wilfred Lawson, great-great-grandfather of the late baronet.

The manor of Allerby or Alwardby, so called from Alward, the first proprietor on record, gave name to the family of Allerby, whose heiress brought this manor to the Eglesfields (fn. n24). It was purchased of their descendant in the latter part of the 17th century, by Richard Lamplugh, Esq. of Dovenby, and is now the property of J. D. Ballantine Dykes, Esq. in right of his wife, the daughter of the late Frecheville Dykes, Esq. as representative of the Lamplughs.

In the parish church is a chapel belonging to the Hayton estate, in which are several monuments of the Musgrave family, particularly Sir Richard Musgrave, who accompanied Sir Joseph Williamson at the treaty of Ryswick, and was one of the knights of the shire (ob. 1710.) Sir Richard Musgrave Hylton; his grandson, (ob. 1755.) and the late Sir William Musgrave, for whom there is the following memorial.

"This monument was erected in memory of Sir William Musgrave, the sixth baronet of his family, and son of Sir Richard Musgrave, by Anne Hylton: the truest encomium of him will be found in the following synopsis of his well spent life. He was born at Hayton castle in this parish, 8th October 1735: after the usual time spent in scholastic education, chiefly at Houghton le Spring, in the county of Durham: he was entered of the Middle Temple 7th April 1753, succeeded to the title of baronet on the death of his elder brother Sir Richard Musgrave, June 1755, was called to be a barrister of the law 5th May 1758, was married to Isabella, daughter of William Lord Byron, and relict of Henry Earl of Carlisle, 10th December 1759; was appointed one of the commissioners for managing the revenue of customs, 15th March 1763; was elected one of the fellows of the R. S. of London, 14th March 1775; was elected one of the fellows of the society of A. of London, 12th November 1778; was appointed one of the V. P. of the R. S. of London 1780; was elected one of the trustees of the British Museum, to which he was also a benefactor, 1783; was appointed one of the commissioners for auditing the public accounts, July 1785; was appointed one of the V. P. of the S. of A. 1786; was called to be a bencher of the Middle Temple, 25th May 1789; was appointed reader of the Middle Temple 1795, and afterwards elected treasurer of the same. Having filled all the above mentioned employments with ability and integrity, he died without issue, 3d January 1800, ætatis sue 65, and is deposited in St. James's Church London."

Sir William Musgrave had made a very valuable collection of biographical tracts, which he bequeathed to the British Museum; his fine collection of engraved portraits was sold by auction.

A monument has been lately put up in memory of the late General Sir Thomas Musgrave, Baronet, who died in the month of December 1811. He left 10l. per annum for the purpose of keeping the chapel in repair, and the monuments of himself and his ancestors clean, the surplus to be given in some sort of food to the poor.

A monument for Sir Richard Musgrave, Baronet, who died in 1739, is fixed on the outside of the church. In the church and church-yard are memorials for Wilfred Lawson, 1710. Sir Gilfred Lawson, Baronet, 1794, and the late Sir Wilfred Lawson, Baronet, 1806. In the church yard also are memorials for the Rev. Francis Palmer, vicar, "A patron of loyalty to the martyr King Charles I. and of dutiful obedience to the church of England," who died in 1686, and Thomas Scott, " many years a favorite domestic of the great Duke of Somerset," who died in 1797, aged 90.

The church of Aspatria, which is in the diocese of Carlisle and deanery of Wigton, was given by Waldieve, Lord of Allerdale, to the priory of Carlisle. The advowson of the vicarage has always belonged to the Bishop of Carlisle, to whom the great tithes were appropriated till the year 1812, when under the inclosure act, allotments of land were given in lieu of them to the appropriator and to the vicar.

The total number of houses in this parish in 1811, was 195, that of inhabitants 919.


  • n1. See the account of Penrith.
  • n2. Nicolson and Burn.
  • n3. This is the account given by Mr. T. Denton in his MS. which seems more correct than that quoted from the other MS. by Nicolson and Burn.
  • n4. Dugdale's Monast. i. 324, 325.
  • n5. T. Denton's MS.
  • n6. Purchased with the sum of 40l. given by William Elan, a shoemaker, and sundry smaller sums subscribed by the inhabitants.
  • n7. The Quo Warranto Roll of the 20th of Edward I. states the advowson of the church to have been given to William de Veteriponte, by King John, and it is most probable the manor was given at the same time.
  • n8. Quo Warranto Roll, 20 Edward I.
  • n9. The lease, which was vested in the late Sir Wilfrid Lawson, Bart. has passed with his other estates, to Wilfrid, fifth son of Thomas Wybergh, Esq. who has taken the name of Lawson.
  • n10. Called in some records Turgis de Russedale. See Inq. ad q. d. 2 Edward III.
  • n11. This had belonged for several generations to the ancestors of Walter Grame, who was banished by King James I. in 1606.
  • n12. A large collection of this nobleman's letters, chiefly written whilst he was resident at Paris, are in the possession of Sir James Graham, Bart. at Netherby.
  • n13. Itin. vol. vii.
  • n14. See p. ix.
  • n15. See p. xviii.
  • n16. It was given in the reign of Henry I. by Turgis de Russedale, lord of the manor of Liddell. See Inq. ad q. d. 2 Edw. III.
  • n17. It so happened, says Rushworth, that on the 11th of the said March 1637-8, Archibald the King's fool said to his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, as he was going to the counciltable, "Wha's feule now? Doth not your Grace hear the news from Strivelin about the liturgy?" with other words of reflection. This was presently complained of to the Council, which produced this ensuing order: "At Whitehall, the 11th of March 1637, Present, The King's most Excellent Majesty, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury, Lord Keeper, &c. &c. "It is this day ordered by his Majesty, with the advice of the Board, that Archibald Armstrong, the King's fool, for certain scandalous words of a high nature spoken by him against the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury his Grace, and proved to be uttered by him by two witnesses, shall have his coat pulled over his head, and be discharged of the King's service, and banished the Court: for which the Lord Chamberlain of the King's household is prayed and required to give order to be executed, and immediately the same was put in execution."
  • n18. Strafford Letters, vol. ii. 154.
  • n19. In 1688 it contained only 600 inhabitants.
  • n20. In 1688 there were only twelve houses in Longtown, built of turf or mud. The townhall was of freestone. There was then a considerable market, being the only one, as Mr. T. Denton observes, in all that country.
  • n21. The grant was to John de Stuteville by Cart. 51 Hen. III.
  • n22. Kimber's Baronetage. It is very likely that it was besieged in 1648, when several of the Cumberland castles were garrisoned for the king; but we find no mention of this in any of the histories. Scaleby Castle, which belonged also to Sir Edward Musgrave in 1648, was then garrisoned and taken. The account of the Musgraves, and their early possession of Scaleby, given by Kimber, on the authority, as it appears, of family tradition, is very erroneous.
  • n23. See Cart. 6 Edw. I.
  • n24. T. Denton's MS.