Magna Britannia: Volume 5, Derbyshire. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1817.
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DALBURY, in the hundred of Appletree and deanery of Castillar, lies about six miles West from Derby. Dalbury is described in the Survey of Domesday, as a hamlet of Mickle-Over, belonging to the abbot of Burton. Robert de Dun was Lord of Dalbury in the reign of Henry II. (fn. n1) The manor of Dalbury and Dalbury-Lees were, in the reign of Edward II., the property of Sir Robert Holand or Holland. (fn. n2) After the death of the Duchess of Exeter, (relict of Henry Holland,) they appear to have escheated to the crown. Sir Samuel Sleigh, who died in 1679, was possessed of these manors, which passed with his daughter and coheiress to Samuel Chetham, Esq., and on his death, without issue, to Rowland Cotton, Esq., of Bellaport in Shropshire, who married the other coheiress, and was grandfather of William Cotton, Esq., the present proprietor. Mr. Cotton is patron of the rectory.
Dale-Abbey, an extra-parochial township in the hundred of Morlestoa and Litchurch, lies about six miles and a half nearly east from Derby. At this place was an abbeyof Premonstratension canons. The site of Dale-abbey is said to have been originally occupied by a hermitage, constructed by a baker of Derby, who, according to the legend, had a supernatural call from the Virgin Mary to spend the remainder of his life in solitude and religious exercises at this place, then called Depedale. The history of Dale-abbey relates, that Ralph Fitz-Germund, Lord of Ockbrook, in whose woods this hermitage was built, discovered it accidentally whilst hunting, and being moved with compassion at the hermit's appearance, gave him the site of the hermitage, and the tilhe of his mill at Burgh (Burrowash) for his support. Serlo de Grendon, who married Fitz-Germund's daughter, gave Depedale to his godmother: he afterwards, with her consent, invited canons from Calke and gave them Depedale. These canons having been removed for their misconduct, some white canons of the Premonstratension order repaired thither, and to them the park of Stanley was given, when the monastery acquired the name of " De Parco Stanley," by which it was, at that early period, generally known. There is a legend, that the King gave the canons as much land as they could encircle in a day, with a plough drawn by deer, and this story is represented on the windows in Morley church, which are supposed to have been removed from Dale-abbey. These canons, nevertheless, not having sufficient means for their support, returned to Tupholm, whence they came. William de Grendon, Lord of Ockbrook, supplied their place with canons from Welbeck, but they also soon deserted the new monastery for want of sufficient sustenance. Geoffrey de Salicosa Mare, or Saucemere, and his wife Maud, grand-daughter of William de Germund, with the assistance of his nephew, William de Grendon, having procured an establishment of nine canons from Newhouse in Lincoln shire, they were admitted into the Premonstratension order, and settled at the new monastery in Stanley-park, and being more fortunate than their predecessors, met with liberal benefactors, who bestowed on them lands of considerable value, and the advowsons of Heanor, Ilkeston, and KirkHallam. This last foundation of Dale-abbey took place about the year 1204. The abbey was surrendered to the crown in 1539, when their revenues were estimated at 144l. 4s. Per annum. Willis says, that it was surrendered by John Staunton, the last abbot, and sixteen monks; but it appears by the commissioners accounts (fn. n3) of that date, that John Bede, the last abbot, had a pension of 26l. 13s. 4d., and fifteen monks various smaller pensions. Francis Pole, Esq., who then took possession of the site and demesnes, as lessee, probably, under the crown, purchased the altar, crucifix, organ, grave-stones, &c. and all the live and dead stock. In 1544, he had a grant of the abbey estate in fee, and the same year conveyed it to Sir John Port, one of the justices of the King's-Bench. Dorothy, one of his son's coheiresses, brought it to her husband Sir George Hastings. Sir Henry Willoughby, of Risley, purchased this estate early in the seven teenth century, of the Representative of Sir George Hastings, who was afterwards Earl of Huntingdon, and died in 1605. Sir Henry Willoughby, having left three daughters coheiresses, one of whom left no issue, the manor of Dale and the abbey demesnes were held in moieties by the noble family of Grey and that of Dewes, into which the other coheiresses mar ried. One moiety of this estate was purchased, in 1716, by the trustees of Philip, then late Earl of Chesterfield, of Sir Symmonds Dewes, for his son Alexander, father of the first Earl Stanhope. The other moiety was purchased, in 1778, of the Earl of Stamford, and the whole is now the property of the present Earl Stanhope. There are scarcely any remains of the conventual buildings.
There is a small chapel here for the use of the district, and what is very remarkable, under the same roof and having a communication with a public house. In the chapel-yard, is the tomb of Ralph Taylor, who died in 1790, aged 84, and Elizabeth his wife, aged 96. Earl Stanhope appoints the minister of the chapel.
DARLEY, in the hundred and deanery of High-Peak, lies five miles south from Bakewell. The parish contains the township of Darley, and the hamlets or villages of Farley, Hackney-Lane, Over-Hackney, Little-Rowsley (fn. n4), Toad hole, &c. in the hundred of High-Peak; the townships of Wensley and Snitterton, and the hamlets of Oaker-side and Oaker-end, in the wapentake of Wirksworth, and the village of Bridgetown on the Derwent, partly in both.
There are two annual fairs held on the moors, at a placed called Darley Flash, in this parish, on the 13th of May and the 27th of October, for cattle and sheep.
The manor of Barley (the Derelei of Domesday) was parcel of the ancient demesne of the crown. In the reign of Edward I., it was in moieties between the families of Kendall and Derby, who held under the crown. William Kendall, who died in 1309, left a daughter and heir married to Laurence Cotterell. (fn. n5) It is probable that Cotterell died without issue, and that his widow married Herberjour; for it appears, that in the year 1392, William Roper conveyed to Nicholas Attewelle, Rector of Darley, (probably a trustee) a moiety of the manor of Darley, which had been the inheritance of Margaret his mother, daughter and coheir of Sir William Le Herberjour, of Chaddesden, by Alice, daughter and heir of William Kendall. (fn. n6) After this, it was in the Foljambes; Sir Thomas Foljambe, father of Sir Godfrey, who died in 1379, is described in the pedigree of the family, as having been of Darley; but it is certain that they were not possessed of any interest in the manor at so early a period, nor can we learn how or when they acquired it. (fn. n7) The heiress of another Sir Godfrey Foljambe brought a moiety of the manor of Darley, which moiety was then called the manor of Oldhall, to Sir Robert Plumpton, of Plumpton in Yorkshire. The coheiresses of William Plumpton, his grandson, mar ried Sotehill and Rocliff: Sotehill's moiety of this manor descended to two grand-daughters, married to Sir John Constable and Sir William Drury. It is supposed that the latter purchased Constable's share of this moiety; in 1547, he sold the whole of the moiety to William Needham, Gent.: it soon afterwards passed by sale to Senior of Bridgetown. This moiety is now vested in the Duke of Rutland (fn. n8) and Sir Henry Hunloke, a minor. On this moiety of the estate, stood the ancient manor-house of Oldhall, a little to the north of Darley-church, which upon the inclosure of parley commons, was allotted to the then Duke of Rutland. Some consider able remains of the old mansion were taken down in the year 1771.
Rocliff's moiety of the Oldhall manor passed with the great grand dauther of that marriage to Sir Ingram Clifford, who having no issue, it became vested, pursuant to a settlement, in Sir Ingram and his heirs, and was sold, in or about 1587, to Roger Columbell, Esq., of Netherhall: it is now vested in the devisees of the late Herbert Greensmith, Esq. (fn. n9)
Upon the death of Ralph de Darley, in 1370, the other moiety of Darley manor, called the manor of Netherhall or Whitwell-hall passed to his sister Agnes, the wife of Thomas Columbell, Esq., of Sandiacre. This place, in consequence, became the chief seat of the Columbell family, till the death of John Columbell, Esq., in 1673. His sister and sole heiress married William Marbury, Esq., of Marbury in Cheshire, who dying without issue, in 1697, bequeathed her estates in Darley to Gilbert Thacker, Esq., who had married her late husband's sister. In 1701, Mr. Thacker sold this manor to Messrs. Andrew and Robert Greensmith, of Wirksworth. Herbert Green-smith, Esq., grandson of Robert, died seised of this manor in 1789, and bequeathed it to Mr. Herbert Greensmith Beard, of Lincoln, and his brothers and sisters, by whom the whole of their landed property has been sold off in parcels; but they retain the manerial rights. The site of the old mansion, called Nether-hall or Whitwell-hall, with an adjoining farm, was purchased in or about the year 1790, by Richard Arkwright, Esq. M.P., the present owner. In the year 1796, Mr. Arkwright took down the old mansion, of late years called Darley-hall, which by an agreement (still existing (fn. n10) ) between John de Derlegh and his mason, appears to have been erected about the year 1321, and built a new house for his own residence at a short distance.
Stancliff-hall, which appears to have belonged to a younger branch of the Columbell family, and to have been held under the manor of Old-hall, passed by successive female heirs to the families of Newsam and Pott. It afterwards belonged to Sir John Digby of Mansfield Woodhouse, who, in 1655, sold it to Robert Steere of Bridgetown, Gent. Sir Paul Jenkinson, of Walton, being possessed of this estate in 1715, gave it to his daughter Lettice, by whom the hall and estates were sold, in 1718, to Robert Greensmith, Esq., for the sum of 1750l.; in the year 1799, the devisees of Herbert Greensmith, Esq., sold the Stancliff-hall estate for 10,500l. to William Heathcote, Esq., of Batavia in the colony of Demarara. It is now the property, and the hall is the residence, of his brother and devisee, Mr. John Heathcote.
The manor of Little-Rowsley belonged to the ancient family of Rollesley or Rowsley, who took their name from this place as early as the reign of Richard I. The heiress of Rollesley brought this manor to Sir William Kniveton, of Mercaston, who was created a baronet in 1611. His son, Sir Gilbert, sold it to Sir John Manners, ancestor of his Grace the Duke of Rutland, who is the present proprietor.
In the parish church of Darley, are monuments of the families of (fn. n11) Milward, of Snitterton; of the Greensmiths (fn. n12); and that of Thomas Garratt, citizen of London, " who having acquired an ample fortune, purchased estates in his native county; he patronised many from this neighbourhood, gave the communion plate to Darley, 200l. to the poor of Darley, and 40l. to the Sunday schools." Bassano's volume of Church Notes describes two altar tombs for the family of Rollesley (fn. n13); and others for the families of Columbell (fn. n14) and Wensley (fn. n15); memorials also for the families of Senior (fn. n16) and Pott. (fn. n17)
The rectory is in the patronage of the Dean of Lincoln. There were formerly two medieties, which were united in 1744.
Mr. Anthony Taylor, about the year 1750, gave the sum of 6ol., and Mrs. Ann Finney, about the same time, 6ol., towards the endowment of a free-school at Darley; some smaller benefactions have made it up 140l., the interest of which, 7l. 10s. is given to a schoolmaster.
The manor of Snitterton, in this parish, and in the wapentake of Wirksworth, is described in the Domesday Survey as a hamlet of Mestesforde. It belonged, at a very early period, to a younger branch of the ancient family of Shirley, which took the name of Snitterton. The heiress of Snitterton brought it to the Sacheverells, who possessed it for several generations. This manor, or a moiety of it, was afterwards in the Milwards: Felicia, the elder coheiress of John Milward, Esq., brought a moiety of Snitterton, with the manor-house, to Charles Adderley, Esq. In 1695, Mr. Adderley sold it to Henry Feme, Esq., Receiver-General of the Customs; and it is now the property of Edmund Turner, Esq., whose grandfather married the daughter and eventually sole heir, of Mr. Feme. The other moiety of this manor was purchased by Mr. Isaac Smith, of the Sacheverells; or of the Shores, of Snitterton, to whom it had been sold by them. Mr. Smith died in 1638: his descendant, Thomas Smith, Esq., then of Farlington, in Hampshire, sold this estate, in 1713, to WilliamHodgkinson, Esq. (fn. n18), of Overton, maternal great-grandfather of Sir Joseph Banks, G.C.B., who is the present proprietor. The old mansion, which was a seat of the Sacheverells, and afterwards of the Milwards, is now occupied as a farm-house.
In the year 1397, Roger Wormhill had the Bishop's licence for celebrating divine service in his oratory at Snitterton.
The manor of Wendesley, or Wensley, is described in the Survey of Domesday as a hamlet of the King's manor of Mestesforde. Before the reign of King John, it was in the ancient family of De Wendesley, or Wensley; whose heiress, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, married Ralph Blackwall, Esq. In the year 1591, Lettice Wensley, widow, and Ralph Blackwall, sold a moiety of this manor to John Harpur, Esq. (fn. n19) This moiety is now the property of his descendant, Sir Henry Crewe, Bart.; but the landed property has been sold off. One-half of the other moiety, with the old manor-house, was sold, in 1603, to Richard Senior, of Bridgetown: one fourth of the said moiety to Sir John Manners, of Haddon; and the remaining fourth to Roger Columbell, Esq., of Darley-hall.
The manor of Cowley (Collei), in this parish, and in the wapentake of Wirksworth, was held by Swan, under Henry de Ferrars, at the time of the Domesday Survey. In the early part of Henry the Third's reign, it belonged to Gilbert de Collegh. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, it was in the family of Cadman, whose heiress brought it to Needham. In 1613, George Needham, and Henry his son, sold this estate to Richard Senior, of Bridgetown. One of the coheiresses of Anthony, son of Richard, married Lionel Fanshaw, whose son Henry, in 1718, sold the manor of Cowley to Thomas Bagshaw, Esq.: the heiress of Bagshaw married Fitzherbert. In 1749, William Fitzherbert, Esq., sold Cowley to George Wall; and in 1791, Mr. and Mrs. Busby, the latter of whom was widow and devisee of John Wall (brother of George), sold it to Richard Arkwright, Esq., M.P., the present proprietor.
DERBY, the county-town, lies on the great road from London to Manchester, being 126 miles from the former, and 60 from the latter place.
We are informed by Ethelwerd, a noble Saxon of the blood royal, in his Chronicle, that the Saxon name of this town was Northworthige, and that the Danes gave it the name of Deoraby. (fn. n20) The Saxon Chronicle speaks of it by the latter name only. In the time of Edward the Confessor, Derby was a royal borough; the number of its burgesses being then 243, exclusively, as it appears, of 41 burgesses who occupied lands adjoining to the town. At the time of the Norman survey, the number of burgesses was reduced to 140; forty of whom are described as of inferior degree. At this time, there were 103 dwellings waste and empty which had formerly paid taxes. Two parts of all taxes, tolls, and customs, then belonged to the King, and the remaining third part to the Earl. King Henry I., when Duke of Normandy, granted the town of Derby to Ralph, Earl of Chester. The burgesses held the town in fee-farm before the year 1204, when King John granted them the same privileges, which the burgesses of Nottingham enjoyed; and confirmed their mercatorial gild, on condition of which they were to pay the old rent, together with an increase of rol. per (fn. n21) annum.
The borough was then governed by a Provost, whom the charter gives them power to elect and to remove at pleasure. King Henry III. granted, as a privilege to the burgesses, in 1261, that no Jew should reside in Derby. (fn. n22) It appears that among the privileges which the burgesses of Derby claimed and were allowed in 1330, were four weekly markets, to be held on Sunday, Monday, Wednesday, and from Thursday-eve to Friday-eve; a fair on Thursday and Friday in Whitsun-eve, and another for seventeen days, commencing eight days before the festival of St. James. (fn. n23) King Richard III. granted the burgesses power to choose a bailiff, to have a gaol, &c. Queen Mary, in 1553, granted them several houses, lands, and tithes, which had belonged to the Abbey of Darley; to the College of All-Saints; the Gild of the Holy Trinity; the chantry of St. Mary, in the college above-mentioned; the free chapel of St. James, with all its lands; the church of St. Michael, and the advowson of the church of Lowne, otherwise Heath; then valued altogether at 77l. 2s. 7d. per annum; the bailiffs paying a rent to the crown of 41l. 15s. 10d. per annum. Queen Elizabeth first granted the burgesses the privilege of having two bailiffs. King James I., in 1611, granted them a charter, by which their corporation was made to consist of two bailiffs and 24 burgesses, with a recorder, chamberlain, and other officers. Among the privileges granted by King James's charter was, that no stranger should carry on trade in the town, except at the markets and fairs. King Charles I., in 1629, granted the burgesses a new charter, under which the body corporate consists of a mayor, nine aldermen, 14 brethren, and 14 capital burgesses. The chief officers are a high-steward, recorder, and town-clerk. Henry Mellor was appointed the first Mayor. The four senior aldermen are perpetual magistrates; the Mayor is vested with the same powers during his mayoralty and the year following. The present Guildhall at Derby was built about the year 1731; the old hall was pulled down the preceding year.
Derby has sent members to parliament ever since the year 1294. The right of election is in the freemen and sworn burgesses, the number of which, in 1712, was about 700; we have not been able to ascertain the present number, but are informed that it has greatly increased. The Mayor is the returning officer. The first Earl of Macclesfield, before he was raised to the peerage, twice sat in parliament for this town. One of its representatives has been of the Cavendish family for more than a century.
The county assizes have been held from time immemorial at Derby. The buildings of the County-hall, which was erected in 1659, were much improved a few years ago. The county gaol was erected in 1756; the Duke of Devonshire gave 400l. towards the building. The Epiphany, Easter, and Michaelmas quarter sessions are held at Derby; the Midsummer sessions being held at Chesterfield.
Other public buildings in Derby are, a theatre, built in 1773, and an assembly-room, completed in 1774.
An agricultural society was established at Derby about the year 1791; there is also a philosophical society, instituted by the late Dr. Darwin, and Robert French, Esq.
There is a great market at Derby, for corn and all sorts of provisions, on Friday, and a smaller market, for butter, eggs, &c., on Wednesday. (fn. n24) The fairs which were either granted or confirmed by King James's charter were, Friday in Easter-week, May 4, Thursday before Midsummer, and September 26; each fair being for two days. King Charles's charter grants or confirms seven fairs: Friday after the Epiphany; Friday in Easter-week; Friday after St. Philip and St. James; Friday in Whitsun-week; Friday before the Nativity of St. John the Baptist; St. James's-day, and Friday before Sept. 29. Most of these were for two days.
In the year 1732, the corporation had a grant of two new fairs; one for three days, beginning September 16th; the other for two days, beginning on the festival of St. Paul. In the year 1734, the corporation appointed an annual meeting for the sale of the latter-making cheese, to last three days, beginning on the 12th of March, altered, in 1738, to the 21 st.
There are now nine fairs; the Monday after Jan. 6th; Jan. 25th; March 21, for three days; Friday in Easter week; Friday after May 1; Friday in Whitsun-week; July 25; September 27, for three days; and Friday before Oct. nth. Most of these fairs are for cattle, &c.; those of March and October are great cheese fairs.
In the year 1377, there were 1046 lay persons in Derby, upwards of 14 years of age, exclusive of paupers. (fn. n25) In 1712, the number of inhabitants was supposed to be. about 4000. (fn. n26) In 1789, the number of houses in the town and borough of Derby was found to be 1637; that of inhabitants, 8563 (fn. n27); m 1801, the houses were in number 2144. the inhabitants 10,832; in 1811, the houses 2644, the inhabitants 13,043, according to the returns made to parliament at the two periods last mentioned. In consequence, probably, of this town being a great thoroughfare from London to the North; it was, at several times, a prey to the ravages of the plague, in 1586; in 1592; and 1593 (fn. n28); in 1625; in 1637, when it broke out at the Whitsuntide fair; in 1645, when the assizes were held on that account in the Friers' close; and in 1665. At the last mentioned period, the markets were forsaken, and the town is said to have been in danger of famine.
It appears, that in former times, this town was famous for dyeing cloth, and that one of the privileges granted by King John's Charter to the burgesses, was, that no one should dye cloth within ten leagues of Derby, except at Nottingham. It is said also to have been a great mart for wool. Queen Mary's Charter to the burgesses of Derby, mentions three fulling mills in Derby; and it may be observed, that this was one of the towns to which Sir Thomas White, founder of St. John's College in Oxford, bequeathed the sum of 100l., to be lent from time to time in sums of 25l., with a preference to clothiers. The chief trade of Derby, about a century ago, consisted in malting and brewing ale, which was in great request, and sent in considerable quantities to London; in corn dealing also, and baking of bread for the supply of the northern parts of the county. (fn. n29) Camden speaks of the Derby ale as being very celebrated, a century earlier; and Fuller, alluding to it, says, " that never was the wine of Falernum better known to the Romans, than the canary of Derby to the English thereabout." The malting business is not carried on to so great an extent as formerly. There are two public breweries for ale.
About the beginning of the eighteenth century, the first silk-mill that had been established in England, was constructed at Derby by Mr. Cotchett: it is spoken of as a singular curiosity in Mr. Wolley's manuscript account of Derbyshire, written in 1712. The machinery of this mill having been found inadequate to its intended purposes, the projector soon failed, and the works were abandoned. A few years afterwards, Mr. John Lombe, an excellent mechanic and designer, went to Italy, and having, by bribery, procured the assistance of two artists from the silk-mills there, made drawings and models of the machinery, and having with difficulty made his escape, returned to England with the two Italians (fn. n30), about the year 1717. The next year he procured a patent, but before he could enjoy the fruit of his labours, fell a sacrifice, as was suspected, to the revenge of the Italian manufacturers, and died by poison. (fn. n31) After the death of a brother, the concern fell into the hands of his cousin, Sir Thomas Lombe, who died in 1738. These silk-mills, which are still worked, are the property of the corporation, and have long been occupied by Messrs. Swift and Co.
Messrs. Strutt have also a silk-mill and a cotton-mill, in which have been introduced several excellent mechanical improvements, for facilitating and expediting the several processes.
The manufacture of stockings was introduced into Derby about the same time as the silk-mill. About the year 1756, Messrs. Strutt and Woollatt introduced their ingenious invention of making ribbed stockings, for which they had obtained a patent. Mr. Pilkington supposed, that in 1789, there were about 170 stocking frames in the town, and that the hosiers of Derby employed nearly six times as many in the neighbourhood, The stocking manufacture has been considerably increased since that time.
The slitting mills at the Holmes, which prepare iron for various purposes, were erected in the year 1734, and three years afterwards, other works for smelting, rolling, and preparing copper. (fn. n32)
The porcelain manufacture was established at Derby, about the year 1750, by Mr. Duesbury. The Derby porcelain has long been held in esteem, and has of late years been much improved in its composition and ornaments. The clay and granite used in this manufacture, are brought from Cornwall. This manufactory now belongs to Mr. Bloore, who lately employed about 200 workmen.
Messrs. Brown and Mawe have a large manufactory for making vases and various other ornamental articles of the fluor spar called blue-John. Besides the manufactures already mentioned, there are at Derby, a bleaching mill on Nun's-green, worked by steam; a calicoe factory; two worsted mills; a mill for making tin plates; a red lead mill; white lead works; and a shot-mill, erected in 1809, by Messrs. Cox and Co. (fn. n33)
The principal trade of Derby, at an early period, was that of wool. Camden, writing in the reign of James I., tells us, that the wealth of the town arose then entirely from buying up corn, and retailing it to the people in the uplands, and that almost all the inhabitants were forestalled of that sort. Blome speaks of its trade, in 1673, as being chiefly in barley, which was made into malt, and sold northward; he observes, that the trade of the town would be much advanced if the river Derwent was made navigable, which might easily be done. This was accomplished in the year 1719. (fn. n34) After the making of the Derby canal, the act for which passed 33 Geo. III. the Derwent Navigation was discontinued (in 1794). The town of Derby is supplied by this canal with coals, building stone, gypsum, and various other articles, Coals are also again exported, as well as manufactured goods, cheese, &c. There is a large wharf at Derby, and several of the manufactories already mentioned are on the sides of the canal.
The earliest event relating to the town of Derby, recorded in history, is its capture by the Danes about the year 918, and its recapture by Alfred's daughter, Ethelfleda Countess of Mercia, who boldly attacked the castle and took it by storm, after a severe struggle. (fn. n35) After this it fell again into the hands of the Danes, from whom King Edmund recovered it with four other towns in 942. (fn. n36) It is probable, that the castle at Derby was suffered to go to ruin after the Norman conquest. Its site is denoted by the names of the Castlehill and the Castle-field in the parish of St. Peter, near the London road. A house was built on or near the site about the year 1711, by its owner, Mr. John Borrow, which is now the property of his descendant, Thomas Borrow, Esq., and in the occupation of Lady Grey de Ruthin.
After the. conquest, we find no event of much note relating to this town for several centuries. King Edward II. appears to have been at Derby with his army just before the battle of Borough-bridge, and it was there that Sir Robert de Holand surrendered himself to his mercy, and was sent prisoner to Dover castle. (fn. n37) On the 13th of January, 1585, the unfortunate captive, Mary Queen of Scots, was lodged one night in Derby, on her road from Winfield Manor-house to Tutbury-castle. " This day," says Sir Ralph Sadler, in whose custody she then was, " we remove this Queen to Derbie, and tomorrowe to Tutbury, the wayes beinge so foule and depe, and she so lame, though in good health of bodie, that we cannot go thoroughe in a daye." Again, " I have given strait order to the bailiffs and others of Derby, to provyde that there be none assemblie of gasing people in the stretes, and for all quietness as much as may be done. I have written letters to Sir John Zouch, Sir John Byron, Sir Thomas Cokayne, Mr. John Manners, and Mr. Curzon, to be ready to attend this Quene to Derbie, with but a small trayne." So jealous was Elizabeth of any opportunity being afforded to her royal prisoner of gaining popularity, and so active were her spies in reporting the most minute occurrences, which might be supposed to have that tendency; that we find, notwithstanding all his precautions, Sir Ralph gave great offence, by granting his prisoner the accommodation of sleeping at Derby; and thus he defends himself in a letter to the Lord Treasurer Burleigh. " Now, as touching the Queen's Majesties myslyking that I lodgid this Queen in Darby towne, coming hitherwarde, I assure her Majestie and your Lordship, that it was full sore against my will, if it might have ben holpen. And to avoyd that towne, if it might have ben, I sent dyvers tymes of my servants of good judgment, and ones Mr. Somer, ryding to Tutbury, to see if ther wer any way passable with coche and caryage, and convenyent places to lodge her and the company in some village or some gentleman's house, for the journey was to far in one day; and after they had hardly well sought, they reported that there was no other passable way for coche but by the common way, and scant that at that tyme of the yere, by reason of hills, rocks, and woods; and I myself making a tryal two or three myles, fynding it true, caused landes to be made through closes to avoyde many evyl passages; and as for gentlemen's houses in that way or any other, in dyvers miles, there was but Mr. Knyveton's house at Marraston (fn. n38), a small house for such a purpose, and very little meanes in that village, and standyng in the worst way, which maketh me humbly to beseech her majestie, to think that if ther had been any other meanes, I wolde not have come by Derby, for I did fore consider of that, and therefore, I wrote long before what we must needs take. And tochinge the information of a great personage, delyvered to him by some officious officer, that this Queen offered to salute and to kysse a multitude of the townes women, and of other speeches that (is sayde) she used to them.
I do lykewise assure, and thereto Mr.—— will be sworne, if need be, I going next before her, and he next behynd her, yea, before all the gentlemen, of purpose, savyng one that carryed up her gowne, that her interteynment to those women was this. In the litle hall was the good wife, being. an ancient widow, named Mrs. Beaumont, with four other women, her neighbours. So soon as she knew who was her hostess, after she had made a beck to the rest of the women, standing next to the dore, she went to her and kissed her, and none other, sayinge that she was come thither to trouble her, and that she was also a widow, and therefore trusted that they should agree well enough together, having no husbands to trouble them, and so went into the parlour upon the same loe floure, and no stranger with her, but the good wife and her sister. And there Mr. Somer stayde untill the Queen putt off her upper garment and toke other things about her. And further, so sone as she was within her lodging, the gentleman porter stood still at the doore to suffer none to go into the house but her owne people from their lodgings next adjoyning. And then I appointed the bailiffs to cause a good watche of honest householders to be at all the corners of the towne, and in the market-place, and eight to walk all night yn that strete wher she lodgid, as myself, lyeing over against that lodging, can well testify, by the noise they made all night."
" This your Lordship may boldly affirme, if it please you, upon any occasion, which I will confirme, when God shall sende me to answer it, if it shall happen to come in question. So as he might have ben better advised, that gave the nobleman suche information as was reported to your Lordship." (fn. n39)
The house where the Queen of Scots was lodged has been taken down: it stood in Babington-lane, had belonged to the Babington family, and had been purchased of them by Mrs. Beaumont's husband, Henry Beaumont, Esq., a few years before. Mr. Beaumont died in 1584. This mansion was afterwards the residence of Sir Simon Degge (fn. n40), author of the Parson's Counsellor, and editor of Erdswick's Staffordshire.
In the year 1635, King Charles I. visited Derby, accompanied by the Elector Palatine. (fn. n41) In the month of August 1642, he marched through Derby with his army, soon after he had erected his standard at (fn. n42) Nottingham. In the same year, Sir John Gell came with his forces to Derby, and garrisoned the town for the Parliament. (fn. n43) Sir Thomas Fairfax was at Derby in the Spring of 1643. (fn. n44) Sir John Gell continued to be the governor in August, 1645 (fn. n45); and it appears that not long afterwards the town was disgarrisoned, and the soldiers disbanded. " In 1659 there was an insurrection at Derby against the usurped powers." (fn. n46)
On the 21st of November, 1688, the Earl of Devonshire, who was one of the most zealous promoters of the Revolution, came to Derby with a retinue of 500 men, and read the declaration of the Prince of Orange. (fn. n47)
On the 4th of December, 1745, Charles Edward Stuart, commonly called the young Pretender, having in the prosecution of his rash enterprise, penetrated into the heart of the kingdom, entered Derby: his army, consisting of about 7000 men, commanded by the Dukes of Athol and Perth, Lord Balmerino, and other officers, had preceded him, and previously to his arrival, had obliged the common cryer to proclaim him Regent. He was lodged at a house, then belonging to the Earl of Exeter, in Full-street, now occupied by Mr. Edwards. The inhabitants were in great dismay at the arrival of the rebel army, who plundered the town to a considerable amount, and committed various outrages. They were soon relieved, however, from their troublesome visitors: for on the second evening of their stay, a council of the rebel chiefs was held, in which, after very warm debates, it was resolved to abandon their enterprize; in consequence of this determination, early on the morning of the 6th, they made a precipitate retreat by way of Ashborne, and returned to Scotland. (fn. n48)
On the 3d of September, 1768, Christian VII., King of Denmark, accompanied by his Grand Chamberlain, Count Bernsdorff, passed through Derby, and slept at the George Inn.
One of the entries among the annals from whence some of the preceding historical facts are taken, shows that Scripture-plays, similar to those described in our account of Chester, were performed at Derby also, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth: " 1572 — In this year, Holofernes was played by the townsmen."
We have no intimation of any person of great celebrity born at Derby. It has been said, indeed, to have been the birth-place of Flamsteed, the celebrated astronomer. We have been able to ascertain (fn. n49) that he was born in 1646, at Denby, in this county, whither his father and mother, who resided at Derby, had retired on account of the plague. They returned to Derby when he was very young, and he was placed at the free grammar-school.
The only literary characters whom we find recorded by biographical writers as natives of Derby, are, Dr. Thomas Linacre, (of the family of Linacre in Brampton), physician to King Henry VII. and Henry VIII., founder of the College of Physicians, and author of some works on Latin Grammar, and a Translation of Galen (fn. n50); Benjamin Robinson, a Presbyterian divine of some note, born in 1666, who wrote on the subject of liturgies, and in defence of the Trinity; and Thomas Bott, a clergyman of the Church of England, born in 1688, who wrote against Wollaston and Warburton, Remarks on Butler's Analogy, &c. Mr. Hutton, in his History of Derby, mentions also Robert Bage, author of some well-received (fn. n51) novels. To these we may add, the veteran antiquary just mentioned, William Hutton, F.A.S.S.; who, at the age of 78, traversed the extent of the Roman wall, taking a journey of 600 miles on foot for that purpose. He published a History of the Wall, with its appearance in 1801; a History of Birmingham, of Derby, his native place, and other works; and left behind him, in manuscript, some interesting and amusing memoirs of his own life, published since his decease by his daughter. (fn. n52)
Joseph Wright, an eminent artist, whose paintings, especially those which represent the effects of moon-light, and fire, and candle-light, are much esteemed, was born at Derby in the year 1734, and died at his native place in the month of August, 1797.
Among persons of eminence who have made Derby their residence may be mentioned Thomas Parker, the first Earl of Macclesfield. This nobleman, who was Lord High Chancellor from 1718 to 1725, practised many years as an attorney in this town, which as before-mentioned he represented in parliament; and after he was called to the bar continued to reside here occasionally till he became Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench. John Whitehurst, author of An Enquiry into the Original State and Formation of the Earth, followed his occupation of a clock and watch-maker in Derby for 40 years. Anthony Blackwell, author of " The Sacred Classics," was master of the Grammar-school here. Dr. William Butler, author of a Treatise on Puerperal Fevers, and the late Dr. Erasmus Darwin, the well known author of " The Botanic Garden," and other works, both practised as physicians at Derby for many years. Hutton, in his History of Derby, mentions also, among eminent residents, Benjamin Parker, a stockingmaker, author of Philosophical Meditations, a Treatise on the Longitude, &c. (fn. n53)
Derby gave the title of Earl to the ancient family of De Ferrars; afterwards to the Plantagenets, of the royal blood. It has been enjoyed by the Stanley family ever since the year 1485.
There were in ancient times four religious houses in Derby: the abbey of St. Helen's, afterwards removed to Derley or Darley; a priory of Benedictine nuns; a small priory of Cluniac monks, dedicated to St. James; and a convent of Dominican friers.
The abbey of St. Helen's was founded in the reign of King Stephen, by Robert Earl Ferrars. (fn. n54) In the succeeding reign, Hugh, Dean of Derby, gave, with the consent of his son Henry, all his lands at Little-Derley (fn. n55), near Derby, to the canons of St. Helen's, for the purpose of building thereon a church and a monastery: he gave them moreover the church of St. Peter, in Derby, with its appurtenances. (fn. n56) In consequence of this grant, the monks of St. Helen's removed to Derley, and an oratory was left at St. Helen's; where, before the year 1261, Nicholas, the official of Derby, founded an hospital, consisting of certain poor brethren and sisters (fn. n57), governed by a master or warden. We learn nothing farther of this hospital, which does not appear to have continued till the reformation. William Berners died seised of a messuage in Derby called St. Helen's, in 1544; Sir Godfrey Foljambe in 1585. (fn. n58) The site of St. Helen's was in the parish of St. Alkmund, and is now the property of Mr. Brown, who carries on there his marble manufactory, already mentioned. After their removal, the canons of Derley were enriched with many valuable benefactions of manors, churches (fn. n59), &c.
The Abbot was by Walter Durdant, Bishop of Coventry, made Dean of all the churches in Derbyshire belonging to his convent, particularly of those in the town of Derby, with power to hold a chapter of the secular clergy. (fn. n60) At the time of its dissolution, the revenues of this abbey were estimated at 258l. 15s. 3d. clear yearly income. Thomas Rage, the last Abbot, had a pension of 50l. per annum.
The priory of Benedictine nuns, at Derby was founded by the Abbot of Derley, in the reign of Henry II.; and it was placed under the Abbot's superintendence by Walter Durdant, Bishop of Coventry. (fn. n61) This priory was dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and was called Prioratus de Pratis de Derby, or the Priory of King's-Mead. (fn. n62) Among the proceedings of the Court of Chancery in the Record-Office at the Tower, is a bill filed against Isabella de Stanley, Prioress of St. Mary in Derby, in the reign of Henry VI., by the Abbot of Burton; in which the Abbot complains that the Prioress had for 21 years past refused to pay some rent due to him; and that when his bailiff went to distrain she said with great malice, "Wenes these churles to overlede me, or sue the lawe agayne me, they shall not be so hardy but they shall avye upon their bodies, and be nailed with arrows; for I am a gentlewoman, comen of the greatest of Lancashire and Cheshire, and that they shall know right well." The revenues of this small priory were valued at the time of the dissolution at 18l. 6s. 8d. clear yearly income. The site, which was on the west side of Nuns'-Green, in the parish of All-Saints, was granted, in 1541, to Francis Earl of Shrewsbury, who the next year sold it to Thomas Sutton. (fn. n63) Alan Cotton died seised of it in 1571. (fn. n64) The site is now the property of Francis Mundy, Esq., of Markeaton.
The small priory of St. James was originally a cell of Cluniac monks, belonging to Bermondsey Abbey, to which monastery the church of St. James in Derby was given, before the year 1140, by Waltheof, son of Swein. (fn. n65) The Cluniac monks, being all connected with the Abbey of Clugny in France, this priory was returned as alien, in the reign of Edward I.; it was then called Prioratus Sti Jacobi de Derby, de Aldenna. (fn. n66) It continued nevertheless till the dissolution, when its revenues were estimated at 11l. 15s. 11d., per annum. Before the Reformation, the chamberlains of Derby rendered annually to the monks of this house, two pounds of wax, for the right of passage over St. James's bridge. (fn. n67) This priory was situated at the end of St. James's-lane. We do not know what became of it after the Reformation, unless it were the same which was granted to the corporation, by the name of the free chapel of St. James, with all the lands, &c. thereto belonging.
The convent of Dominican or Black friers, was founded in or before the year 1292. (fn. n68) In 1316, they had a grant often acres of land, for enlarging the site of their convent. (fn. n69) The revenues of this house were estimated, at the time of its suppression, at 18l. 6s. 2d. clear yearly income. The site, which is in the parish of St Werburgh, and which gave name to Frier-street, was granted, in 1543, to John Hinde, and in the course of a few years, passed in succession to the families of Sharpe, Statham, and Bainbrigge. William Bainbrigge, Esq., was possessed of it in 1562. Speed's map represents the site of the Friery, as detached from other buildings at the skirts of the town, surrounded by an enclosure. Pilkington says, that about sixty years before the time of his writing, which brings it nearly to the year 1730, the site of this priory was purchased by the Crompton family. The Reverend Mr. Cantrell, minister of St. Alkmund, writing in the month of August, 1760, says, " The Friery is lately taken down, and a new house and outward houses are now erected by Mr. Crompton, who purchased the situation." (fn. n70) The Friery belonged afterwards to the family of Dalton, and is now the property and residence of Mrs. Henley, widow of the late Mr. Michael Henley.
The Survey of Domesday enumerates six parish churches in Derby; two of which belonged to the King; one of them having seven, the other six clerks; the remaining four belonged to Godfrey Alselin, Ralph Fitzhubert, Norman de Lincoln, and Edric, who had inherited from his father Cole. There was formerly a church of St. Mary in Derby, which was granted by William the Conqueror to Burton-Abbey, together with Heanor (fn. n71), which appears to have been a chapel of ease. (fn. n72) In Pope Nicholas's Valor, the church of St. Mary is not mentioned, and Heanor is described as a parish church. There are the remains of a chapel of St. Mary, on St. Mary'sbridge, in St, Alkmund's parish, now forming part of the dwelling-house of Mr. Thomas Eaton.
There are now five parish churches in Derby, All-Saints, St. Alkmund's, St. Michael's, St. Peter's, and St. Werburgh's.
The Parish of All-Saints is wholly within the borough. The present fabnc of All-Samts church was built after the designs of Gibbs, in the years 1723, 1724, and 1725. The money required for the purpose, was raised principally by subscription, through the exertions of Dr. Hutchinson, the curate, who himself subscribed the sum of 40l. The fine old gothic tower, which still remains, has been already spoken of. (fn. n73) The chancel, which is of the same height and width as the body of the church, is separated from it by a lofty open screen of iron work: and it has, like the nave, two aisles; in its north aisle, the corporation meetings for the purpose of choosing the mayor are held, as well as parish meetings for various purposes: the south aisle is the burial place of the noble family of Cavendish, for whom there are several monuments. Against the south wall, is that of Elizabeth Countess of Shrewsbury, (fn. n74) with her effigies in a recumbent attitude. The epitaph after recording her birth and four marriages, with her issue by her second husband, William Cavendish, as stated in all the peerages, adds, "hæc inclitissima Elizabetha Salopiæ comitissa, Ædium. de Chatsworth, Hardwick & Oldcotes, magnificentiâ clarissimarum fabricatrix, vitam hanc transitoriam XIII die mensis Februarii, anno ab incarn. Domini 1607-8, ac circa annum ætatis suæ 87, finivit." If Collins be correct in his statement, that she was fourteen when married to Robert Barley, who died in 1533, her age must be here somewhat under-rated, and she must have been in her ninetieth year, even if her first marriage, had not been of twelve months continuance.
The monument of William, second Earl of Devonshire, who died in 1628, and Christian his Countess, daughter of Edward Lord Bruce, stands nearly in the middle of the aisle, towards the east end. It has an open canopy twelve feet in height, under which are upright figures of the Earl and Countess in white marble. This Countess was much celebrated by the wits of her day, to whom she was a great patroness (fn. n75); she was buried with great funeral solemnity on the 18th of February 1674-5; and at the same time were deposited in the vault, pursuant to her express desire, the bones of her beloved son, the brave Colonel Charles Cavendish, a most distinguished officer in the royal army, who was slain at Gainsborough in the month of July, 1643 ; and had been interred at Newark. On the south wall is a monument, by Rysbrack, for Caroline Countess of Besborough, (daughter of William Duke of Devonshire,) who died in 1760; and that of William Earl of Besborough, her husband, who died in 1763, with a medallion, by Nollekins. All the Earls and Dukes of Devonshire, of the Cavendish family, lie buried in the vault at Derby, except the first Earl, (who was interred at Edensor,) with their ladies, besides many of the younger branches of this noble family, among whom it would be unpardonable to omit the mention of the great ornament of his family, Henry Cavendish, grandson of the third Duke of Devonshire, one of the most eminent chemists and natural philosophers of the age, of whom it has been said (fn. n76), " that since the death of Sir Isaac Newton, England has sustained no scientific loss so great as that of Cavendish." He was interred in the family vault, in the month of March, 1810.
In this vault also lie the remains of the brave Earl of Northampton, who was killed at the battle of Hopton-heath, near Stafford, the 19th of March, 1643. The young Earl requested that he might have the dead body of his father, but it was refused. Sir John Gell's account of the transaction is as follows; " Within three days there came a trumpeter to Colonel (fn. n77) Gell, from my young Lord of Northampton, for his father's dead body, whereupon he answered, if he would send him the drakes which they had gotten from their dragoons, and pay the chirurgeons for embalming him, he should have it; but he returned him an answer, that he would doe neither th'one or th'other; and soe Colonel Gell caused him to be carried in his company to Derby, and buried him in the Earl of Devonshire's sepulchre, in Allhallows church. (fn. n78) " It appears by the register, that he was not buried till the 4th of June, 1643; nearly three months after the battle. (fn. n79)
In the north aisle of the chancel is a cenotaph in memory of Richard Croshawe,a native of Derby, master of the Goldsmiths'-company, who died in 1631, " in the great plague (1625), neglecting his own safety, he abode in the city, to provide for the relief of the sick poor; and left by will for lectures and charitable uses, the sum of 4000l., to which his executors added 900l." In this aisle also, is the monument of Thomas (fn. n80) Chamber, merchant, who died in 1726, by Roubiliac, with busts of the deceased and his wife Margaret, daughter of John Bagnold of Derby, M. P.
In the north aisle of the nave, is the monument of Sir William Wheler, Bart, with busts of himself and his lady (fn. n81), " flying from London to avoid the plague;" he died of that dreadful disease, at Derby, in 1666. There are monuments also for several of the Bateman family (fn. n82); William Allestrey, Esq. (fn. n83), recorder of Derby, 1655; and Sarah, daughter of Sir Thomas Gresley, Bart, and wife of Paul Balidon, Esq., 1736. In the nave are memorials for the families of Turner (fn. n84) and Wyvil (fn. n85), and in the chancel for those of Parker, Coke, and Bainbrigge. (fn. n86) In the south aisle is the monument of Dr. Michael Hutchinson, curate of All Saints, who died in 1730, with an inscription, commemorating his exertions, in procuring subscriptions for rebuilding the church, which are stated to have amounted to the sum of 3,249l. and upwards. (fn. n87) On a pillar between the nave and the north aisle are memorials of John Chambers, Gent., 1751, and William Chambers, D. D., 1771: on a pillar between the nave and south aisle, is a tablet for the Reverend Charles Hope, who died in 1798. The tomb of John Lawe, a canon of All-Saints, who died in 1400, was discovered when the church was rebuilt, and is now placed in the north aisle.
Bassano's volume of Church Notes, taken in 1710, before the old church was pulled down, describes the monuments of Edward Berkeley, Esq., son and heir of Sir Henry Berkeley, of Yarlington in the county of Somerset, 1655; Barbara, daughter of Anthony Faunt, married first to Sir Henry Beaumont, afterwards to Sir Henry Harpur, Bart., 1649; Sir John Shore, M.D. (fn. n88), 1680; Patience daughter of the " loyal Captain John Meynell," and widow of John Grace, of Kilbourn, Derbyshire, Gent., 1701; Mary, sister of Francis Arundel, Esq., of Stoke-park in Northamptonshire, 1676; several of the Osborne family (fn. n89), Elizabeth, wife of Mr. Abraham Crompton, 1690; John Bagnold, Gent., M.P., 1698; John Walton Archdeacon of Derby, 1603, and his wife Jane, 1605, (both great benefactors to the poor;) and a monument (without inscription) for one of the Suttons of the Nunnery as appeared by the Arms.
The church of All-Saints was formerly collegiate, having seven, and at one time eight prebendaries. It is probable that Hugh, Dean of Derby, who gave Derley to the canons of St. Helen's, was Dean of this church; before the year 1268, it appears to have been annexed to the deanery of Lincoln. (fn. n90) Although the name of All-Saints is not mentioned in the Survey of Domesday, it is evident that it must have been the church there spoken of as having seven clerks. The church described as having six clerks, was probably that of St. Helen's, which then had its canons. The canons of the free chapel of All-Saints are spoken of in the record of 1268, before quoted. King Edward I. calls it our free chapel (fn. n91); yet in the Chantry Roll of 1547 it is stated, that it was made of royal foundation in 1432, which is explained as having had a special service then established for praying for the souls of the King and his progenitors. There was also in this church the chantry of Our Lady, and the gild of the Holy Trinity, the service of which was at five in the morning. The revenues of the college were estimated, in 1547, at 38l. 14s. clear yearly income; those of Our Lady's chantry at 2l. 13s. 4d. It appears by Queen Mary's charter to the Burgesses, that certain woods, &c. in Heath, belonged to this college, of which it seems that Sir Thomas Smith was the last master. (fn. n92) The college-house, which had been the habitation of the canons, passed into lay hands after the Reformation: it was some time in the possession of the Allestrey family, who sold to the Goodwins. It is now, by descent from the latter, the property of its present inhabitant, Daniel Parker Coke, Esq.
Queen Mary, in the first year of her reign, granted one of the prebends of All-Saints, called " The Stone-house prebend," and the two small prebends, with several lands, tithes, &c. which had belonged to the college, and certain premises belonging to St. Mary's chantry and Trinity gild, to the corporation; directing at the same time, that the Bailiff and Burgesses should pay 13l. 6s. 8d. to two priests, celebrating divine service, and having the cure of souls of the parish church of All-Saints; and that two vicarages should be instituted in the said church, and endowed with an annuity of 7l. 6s. 8d. each, in rents, tithes, &c., and a mansion-house for each. There is now only one vicarage, in the gift of the corporation, who pay the vicar a stipend of 80l. per annum. Archdeacon Walton, who died in 1603, gave 6l. per annum towards augmenting the vicar's stipend.
Among other benefactions to this town, Richard Croshawe before-mentioned founded a Friday's lecture at All-Saints church, to be supplied by two lecturers, to each of whom he gave 10l. per annum. The lecturers are the head-master and under-master of the grammar-school.
Elizabeth Countess of Shrewsbury, in the year 1599, a few years before her death, built an alms-house for eight poor men, and four poor (fn. n93) women, and endowed it with a rent charge of 100l. per annum, issuing out of the manor of Little-Longsdon: the alms-people to receive 1l. 13s. 4d. each quarterly, and 20s. per annum for a gown; the warden to have 20s. per annum over and above, for keeping clean the monument of the foundress. This almshouse was rebuilt by the late Duke of Devonshire, about the year 1777: before his death, he gave an additional endowment of 50l. per annum. The additional payment took place at Lady.day 1811. The minister of All-Saints is visitor of the hospital.
A school for boys, on Joseph Lancaster's plan, was established in this parish in the year 1812. There are at present about 145 boys in this school.
The parish of St. Alkmund extends some way into the country, comprising the townships of Darley and Little-Chester, and the parochial chapelries of Little-Eaton and Quarndon. The parish church of St. Alkmund is supposed to have existed in the time of the Saxons. It is dedicated to St. Alkmund, son of Alured, King of Northumberland, whose body, after having been first interred at Littleshull, in Shropshire, is said to have been removed to this church. Many miracles were reported to have been wrought at his tomb to which there was a great resort of devotees. In this church is the monument of John Bullock, Esq. (fn. n94), of Derley-Abbey, with his effigies, in a gown, with ruff, &c.; Rebecca, coheiress of Westbrook, married first to William Wilson, Esq., afterwards to William Wolley, Esq., ob. 1716; John Hope, M.D., 1710; Samuel Burton, Esq., 1751; and some memorials of the family of Gisborne. (fn. n95)
The church of St. Alkmund belonged to the college of All-Saints: after the reformation, it was given to the Bailiffs and Burgesses of Derby. Queen Mary's grant to the corporation provides for the payment of 61. 13s. per annum to a priest at the church of St. Alkmund, and directs that a vicarage should be instituted in that church, and endowed with an annuity of 7l. 6s. 8d. arising out of tithes, rents, &c., granted by her to the cor poration. In or about the year 1712, Mr. Samuel Goodwin endowed it with an estate at Plumley, in the parish of Eckington, then 40l. per annum, now 210l., and a house in the parish of St. Werburgh, which now lets for 32l. per annum. The Mayor and Aldermen are patrons.
Henry Cantrell, who was presented to this benefice as the first vicar, in 1712, published a Treatise to prove that King Charles I. was baptized according to the rites of the church of England, with an account of the solemnity from the Heralds' Office at Edinburgh. Mr. Cantrell, in 1760, communicated to Dr. Pegge several particulars relating to his parish. His letters are among the Doctor's Collections, at the Heralds' College.
In the parish register is an entry of the burial of Thomas Ball, aged 110, Nov. 17, 1592.
In this parish, upon the bridge to which it gave name, stood an ancient chapel, dedicated to St. Mary, of which there are still some remains, forming part of a dwelling-house, now in the occupation of Mr. Thomas Eaton. In the reign of Charles II. it was licensed as a place of worship for the Pres byterian dissenters. The Roman Catholics have a chapel in this parish; and there are meeting-houses for the Quakers, General Baptists, and Wes leyan Methodists. The Quakers' meeting was one of the earliest esta blishments of that sect. Indeed we find, from the Journal of George Fox, their founder, who was imprisoned at Derby for nearly a year, that the Quakers first obtained the appellation by which they are now generally known, at Derby: "Justice Bennet, of Darby," says he, " was the first that called us Quakers, because I bid him Tremble at the 'word of the Lord; and this was in the year 1650." (fn. n99) The present meeting-house was built in 1808.
In Bridge-gate, within this parish, is the Black Alms-house; so called from the circumstance of black gowns being worn by the pensioners. It was founded in 1638, by Robert Wilmot, Esq., of Chaddesden, for six poor men and four poor women, and endowed with 40l. per annum, issuing out of the tithes of Denby. The pensioners receive 1s. 6d. a week, each. This alms-house was rebuilt in 1814, at the expence of Sir Robert Wilmot, Bart.
A school for boys and girls on Dr. Bell's system was established in this parish in the year 1812. There are now (November, 1816) about 285 boys, and about 185 girls, in this school. (fn. n100)
Derley, called, and of late years generally written, Darley, lies about a mile north of Derby; in some ancient records it is called Little-Derby. The foundation and revenues of the abbey at this place have been already spoken of. There are scarcely any remains of the monastic buildings, which appear to have been sold piece-meal, for the purpose of demolition, immediately after the surrender. Robert Sacheverell, Esq., who took pos session of the site as keeper of the abbey estate for the crown, purchased the materials. The church with its aisles, the Lady's chapel, St. Sythe's chapel, and the altars, candlesticks, organs, paving, timbers, grave-stones, with the metal on them, the roofs, &c. were valued to him at 26l. (fn. n101) The site was granted, in 1541, to Sir William West, who altered some of the conventual buildings, or built a new house thereon for his own residence: Darley-abbey is mentioned as one of his seats in the Heralds' Visitation of 1569. His son sold it in 1574, to John Bullock, Esq. The Bullocks re built the abbey-house, and continued to possess the abbey estate about four score years. Thomas Goodbehere, who acquired it by two several pur chases, made in 1654 and 1656, left three daughters, coheiresses. The Alestreys purchased the greater part of the manor and the hall in 1672 and 1675, and resided some time at Darley. William Wolley, Esq., of Derby, purchased the hall in 1709, and afterwards the manor; he rebuilt the hall in 1727. After being some time in the family of Wolley, this estate became the property of Mr. Heath, a banker in Derby, on the sale of whose estates it was purchased by the late Robert Holden, Esq., and is now under his will the property of his relation of the same name, who resides at Darley abbey.
At Darley, which is become a populous village, are a cotton-mill, paper mill and red-lead-mill, belonging to Messrs. Evans and Co. Darley-hall, a modern mansion, is the residence of Walter Evans, Esq.
Little-Chester, supposed to have been a Roman station, lies about half a mile from Derby. The manor is described in the Survey of Domesday as parcel of the ancient demesne of the crown. In the reign of Edward I. it belonged, as it now does, to the Dean of Lincoln. The family of Degge for some time held a moiety of this manor under the Dean. The present lessee of the manor of Little-Chester, cum membris, is the Duke of Devonshire.
Little-Eaton lies about three miles and a half nearly north from Derby: the township is within the manor of Little-Chester. The chapel was rebuilt about the year 1788: the minister is appointed by the vicar of St. Alkmund, to whom fees' for burials, &c. at the chapel, are payable. Philip de Wilughby inclosed a park at Little-Eaton in the reign of Richard I. (fn. n102)
Quarndon, commonly called Quarn, lies about three miles nearly north from Derby. It is one of the members of the manor of Little-Chester. The Mundy family had a seat at Quarndon, which passed, by a female heir, to Musters, of Nottinghamshire. This house and estate now belongs to Lord Scarsdale, who has most of the landed property in the township. The lands in this township have been inclosed by an act of parliament passed in 1808. Near Quarndon is a chalybeate water, which had considerable celebrity more than a century ago; and is still occasionally resorted to in the summer season.
The parish of St. Michael contains nothing remarkable. The church of St. Michael, which had belonged to the Abbey of Derley, was given by Queen Mary to the Bailiff and burgesses, with the church-yard, &c.; but the vicarage is still in the gift of the crown.
The parochial chapel of Alvaston lies about three miles from Derby, on the road to Ashby-de-la-Zouch. It was esteemed a chapel belonging to the church of St. Michael in the twelfth century (fn. n103); but it appears by the Chantry Roll of 1547, that it had then been long deemed a separate parish. The manor of Alvaston, then called Alewoldestune was held by Tochi at the time of the Domesday Survey, under Geoffry Alselin, or Azelin. (fn. n104) It belonged afterwards to Ralph Fitz-Germund, founder of Dale-Abbey, whose descendant, Matilda de Salicosa Mare, daughter of William Fitz-Ralph, Seneschal of Normandy, gave Alwoldestone to that monastery. (fn. n105) The Grange of Alvaston, which had belonged to Dale-Abbey, was granted, in 1547, to Henry Needham. (fn. n106) William Sacheverell, Esq. died seised of it in 1557: it afterwards passed to a branch of the Alestrey family, who had a seat here. The manor and hall passed by marriage to the Borrows, and was sold in 1812, by John Borrow, Esq., to John Elliot, Esq. The Earl of Harrington purchased the manor of Mr. Elliot; and Mr. Joseph Wheeldon, the hall and some of the demesne lands.
The tithes of Alvaston formerly belonged to the Abbot and Convent of Darley, as parcel of the rectory of St. Michael. In the reign of Henry VII., after a long litigation concerning their respective rights between the Abbot of Darley, the Vicar of St. Michael's, and the inhabitants of Alvaston, it was agreed that the Abbot and Convent should have the tithes of hay and corn; that the inhabitants should present a chaplain; that they should pay him 3l. per annum, and that he should have the small tithes and oblations. St. Michael appears to have been then acknowledged as the mother-church, by their having agreed to attend divine service there one Sunday in every year. The impropriation belonged formerly to the corporation of Derby, under Queen Mary's grant; but had been alienated to the Alestreys, and passed, with the manor, &c., to the Borrows. An allotment was given, in lieu of tithes, to John Borrow, Esq., at the time of the inclosure in 1802. The inhabitants still nominate the perpetual Curate.
The parish of St. Peter is extensive; comprising a large part of the borough of Derby, the township of Litchurch, and the chapelries of Bolton, Normanton, and Osmaston.
There are no remarkable monuments in the church of St. Peter. Bassano's volume of Church Notes mentions memorials of Percival Willoughby, M.D., 1685 (fn. n107); æt. 89, Richard Carter, Gent., 1693; and George Jackson, M.D., 1699. The church of St. Peter was given to the monks of St. Helen's, at the time of their removing to Derley, by Hugh, Dean of Derby. (fn. n108) The impropriation has long been in the Dixie family. Sir Willoughby Dixie, Bart. is the present impropriator and patron of the vicarage, with the chapel of Normanton.
There was a chantry-chapel in St. Peter's church, founded by Walter Cruche, Priest, Robert Leversage, and others, the revenues of which, being then valued at 4l. per annum, were granted by Queen Mary to the corporation. There was another chantry, dedicated to St. Nicholas, founded by Adam Shardelow, which was valued at 40s. per annum in 1547. (fn. n109)
In this parish is the Free-school, one of the most ancient endowments of the kind in the kingdom. It is certain that it existed as early as the twelfth century, and it seems to have been founded in the reign of Henry II., soon after the removal of the canons of St. Helen's to Derley. Walter Durdant, Bishop of Lichfield, in his charter, speaks of the school at Derby as the gift of himself and William de Barbâ Aprilis. (fn. n110) Soon after this, whilst Richard Peche, who succeeded Walter Durdant in 1162, was Bishop of Lichfield, Walkelin de Derby and Goda his wife gave the mansion in which they dwelt, and which Walkelin had purchased of William Alsin, to the canons of Derley, on condition that the hall should be for ever used as a school-room, and the chambers for the dwelling of the master and clerks. (fn. n111) This ancient grammar-school was given to the corporation by Queen Mary; who were to pay to the master and under-master 13l. 6s. 8d. by four quarterly payments. This school is free to the sons of burgesses only. The masters are appointed by the corporation: the head-master has now a salary of 40l. per annum, the under-master of 20l. per annum; and they are joint lecturers, on Croshaw's foundation, at All-Saints, for which they receive 10l. each.
Mrs. Jane Walton, relict of Archdeacon Walton, who died in 1603, gave the sum of 100l. to the master and fellows of St. John's college, Cambridge, for the maintenance of such scholars as should come from Derby school, and be admitted of that house, and the sum of 40l., for the better relief of the master and usher.
Anthony Blackwall, author of the Sacred Classics, was master of this school: here Flamsteed the astronomer received the early part of his education.
Mr. Robert Liversage, before the Reformation, gave certain lands and houses to this parish for charitable uses. This estate was valued at 50l. per annum in 1710, in 1786 at 185l. is. 8d. per annum (fn. n112) : the present rental is about 550l. per annum.
In this parish, about a quarter of a mile from the town, adjoining to the London road, is the Derbyshire General Infirmary, which was built by subscription, and opened in the month of October 1810. The structure, which is of stone, was built after the designs of William Strutt, Esq., at the expence of 30,000l. It is of a quadrangular form and three stories high. This infirmary is constructed on an improved plan, contributing much to the comfort of the patients, as well as to their speedy recovery. Among the most striking advantages which it possesses, are two spacious day rooms for convalescents, in which they eat their meals and pass the greater part of the day; a fever house under the same roof, but completely separated from other parts of the building; a subdivision into small wards, by means of which the medical attendants are enabled to separate the diseased from each other, and to give to those whose cases may require it, the benefit of quiet and darkness; and an excellent method of communicating warmth when necessary, and of ventilating all parts of the building. The infirmary is capable of accommodating 80 patients, besides those in the fever house. The average number is about thirty. The medical board consists of three physicians and four surgeons, besides a house apothecary.
In this parish also, not far from the Infirmary, is the Ordnance-Depôt, which was completed in the year 1805, from a design of the late Surveyor general of the Works, James Wyatt, Esq. The armoury on the ground floor, 75 feet by 25, is capable of containing 15,000 stand of arms. A room above of the same dimensions, is for the reception of army accoutrements. On the north and south sides of the armoury are two magazines, capable of containing 1200 barrels of gunpowder, and constructed so as to prevent accidents. There are barracks for a detachment of artillery, and buildings for the residence of the civil officers. This establishment is under the superintendance of a store-keeper, appointed by the Board of Ordnance.
Litchurch, (which with Morleston, gives name to the hundred) lies about a mile from Derby, on the Ashby road. Henry Earl of Lancaster, had a moiety of the manor in 1330. (fn. n113) During the fifteenth century, this manor was in the Babingtons, who held under the Earl of Warwick in (fn. n114) 1466. Francis and George Babington conveyed this manor, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, to Sir Francis Beaumont, one of the justices of the Common-Pleas. (fn. n115) From them it passed probably to George Earl of Shrewsbury, who was seised of it in 1590. It passed not long afterwards, by sale, to the Cavendish family. The Earl of Newcastle continued to possess it in 1641. This manor is now in the crown.
Bolton or Boulton lies about three miles, nearly south, from Derby. The manor belonged, at the time of taking the Domesday Survey, to Ralph Fitzhubert. It seems to have been in the Sacheverells at an early period, and to have continued some time in that family. The Agards acquired a moiety of this manor, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by purchase from Shelley. The manor now belongs to Sir Henry Crewe, Bart.
In the year 1271, an agreement was made between the Abbot of Derley and Robert de Sacheverell, who claimed the patronage of Bolton as a parish church. By this agreement, in consideration of 20 marks paid by the Abbot, the said Robert gave up his claim, and admitted Bolton to be a chapel of St. Peter in Derby, the Abbot agreeing to present a fit minister, nominated by him; and it was agreed, that the minister should have three bovates of land, nine sellions, and twelve shillings, rent, besides the small tithes. (fn. n116) The minister is now appointed by the inhabitants.
Normanton is situated about two miles nearly south of Derby, in the hundred of Repton and Gresley. The manor, which was granted to the monks of Derley, iu the year 1234 (fn. n117), was granted by King Henry VIII., in 1544, to Rowland Babington, Esq. It was purchased of the Babingtons, in 1582 or 1583, by Henry Beaumont, Esq., from whose family it passed to the Dixies, and is now the property of Mrs. Pochin, sister of the late Sir Wolstan Dixie, Bart. The Babingtons, and afterwards the Beaumonts and Dixies, had a seat at Normanton. It was in ruins in 1712. (fn. n118) In the chapel is the monument of Charlotte Jane, wife of John Dalby, Esq., who died in 1812.
Osmaston is situated about three miles from Derby, near the road to Ashby-de-la-Zouch. In the Domesday Survey, it is written Osmundestune, and no doubt it took its name from Osmund, the Saxon possessor, in the reign of Edward the Confessor. The manor was granted to Robert Holland, in 1307 (fn. n119), as an appendage of Melbourn, with which manor it has passed ever since, and is now the property of the Marquis of Hastings. The principal estate here, belongs to Sir Robert Wilmot, Bart., descended from a younger branch of the Wilmots of Chaddesden. Sir Nicholas Wilmot of Osmaston, Serjeant at law, in the reign of Charles II., was fourth son of Robert Wilmot, Esq., of Chaddesden, by the heiress of Shrigley. The late Sir Robert Wilmot, of Osmaston, was created a Baronet in 1772. Sir John Eardly Wilmot, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, who died in 1792, was of this branch of the family, being a younger son of Sir Nicholas Wilmot. Osmastoh-hall, the seat of Sir Robert Wilmot, has been for a few years past unoccupied, during the present baronet's residence at Bath and on the continent.
In the chapel at Osmaston, is the monument of Sir Nicholas Wilmot, Knt., who died in 1682, and that of Sir Robert Wilmot, the first baronet, who died in November 1772. Robert de Dun, Lord of Breadsall, in the reign of Henry II., gave up all his right in the patronage of Osmaston chapel to the Abbot of Derley. (fn. n120) Sir Robert Wilmot is the present patron. Robert Foucher or Folger founded a chantry in this chapel, in 1357, the endowment of which was, in 1547, valued at 6os. 8d. per annum. (fn. n121)
The parish of St. Werburgh does not extend beyond the town of Derby. In the year 1602, the spire of St. Werburgh's church was blown down by a storm, which destroyed also the chancel and part of the church. On the north wall of the chancel is the monument of Gervase Sleigh, Esq., of Ash, who married Elizabeth, daughter of John Cholmley, and died in 1626; and memorials for John Gisborne, Gent., 1704, and John Gisborne, Esq., 1762. Bassano's volume of Church Notes describes also memorials for John Gisborne, Gent, 1689; and for the families of Milward, Cheshire, and Brookhouse. (fn. n122)
The church of St. Werburgh belonged to Derley Abbey. The impropriation is now vested in Lord Scarsdale. The vicarage is in the gift of the crown. Mr. Francis Ashe, in 1652, gave 10l. per annum, to the vicar of St. Werburgh, payable by the Goldsmiths' Company. Mrs. Dorothy Cundy, in 1697, gave nine acres of land, in the fields of Derby and Normanton, to the Vicar of St. Werburgh, on condition of his preaching Sermons on the 23d of November and the 13th of March. The Reverend J. Walker, vicar of St. Werburgh, who died in 1710, bequeathed a portion of tithes, valued at 25l. per annum, in augmentation of this vicarage, but no benefit is now received from the donation.
In this parish is a meeting-house for the particular Baptists. Near the site of the friery, is the Unitarian meeting-house. It belonged formerly to the old Presbyterian congregation, which had existed some time at Derby, before they obtained a licence from King Charles II., to hold their meetings in St. Mary's chapel. In the reign of James II., they removed to a large room in the market-place. The meeting-house in Friers-gate was erected in the reign of King William. Ferdinando Shawe, son of an ejected minister of that name, who published a work called "Emmanuel," held in much esteem among the dissenters of his time, was minister of the Presbyterian congregation forty-six years: he published a brief memoir of the Life and character of his wife, who was of the family of Gell of Hopton. James Pilkington, author of the History of Derbyshire, in two volumes octavo, was minister of the Unitarian congregation from 1778 to 1797, when he removed to Ipswich, and continued there till his death, which happened in 1804. In this parish also, near the Brookside, is a meeting-house of the Independents, established in 1785, by seceders from the congregation in Friersgate.
Mrs. Rebecca Fowler, in 1711, gave the sum of 116l, with which land in Alvaston and Boulton, (now let at 10l. per annum,) was purchased, for the purpose of buying books for poor children of this parish, and teaching them to read distinctly the Holy Bible.
There is a Sunday-school, consisting of 150 boys and girls, who are instructed by gratuitous teachers, Dr. Bell's system having been partially adopted.
On Nun's-Green, in this parish, is an hospital founded, in 1716, by Edward Large, of Derby, Gent., for five widows of parsons or vicars; not restricted to any county or diocese, and endowed with lands which produce an income of 26l. per annum to each widow. The Reverend Charles Holden, of Aston-upon-Trent, is patron of this hospital.