Magna Britannia: Volume 6, Devonshire. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1822.
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In this section
DARTINGTON, in the hundred of Stanborough and in the deanery of Totton, lies about a mile and a half from Totnes. Wick, Brooking, and Staple, are villages in this parish.
Dartington was anciently the seat of a barony, which, at the time of the Domesday survey, belonged to William de Falesia. Shortly afterwards, Robert, son of Martin de Tours, Lord of Camois, in Wales, became possessed, probably by marriage, of the barony of Dartington, and all the lands which had belonged to the said William. This baronial family, by the name of Fitz Martin, or Martyn, continued to possess and reside at Dartington for six descents. (fn. n62) Upon the death of William Lord Martin, who was a parliamentary baron, this estate devolved to James Lord Audley (fn. n63), whose father had married one of his sisters and co-heiresses. Upon the death of Nicholas Lord Audley, it passed, pursuant to an entail, made in default of issue male, to the crown. In 1385, King Richard II. granted it with other manors to Robert de Vere, till he should have conquered Ireland and kept it in peace. (fn. n64) The king gave it afterwards to his half-brother, John Holland Duke of Exeter, who resided at Dartington, and is said to have built most of the present mansion with the great hall, which is evidently of that age. After the death of Henry Duke of Exeter, who married one of the sisters of King Edward IV., it again escheated to the crown. Margaret Countess of Richmond had a grant of it for life in 1487. Some time afterward it was purchased by Ailworth, and Sir William Pole says was, as he heard, exchanged with Sir Arthur Champernowne, a younger son of Sir Philip Champernowne, of Modbury, for the site of the abbey of Polesloe, near Exeter. It is certain that Sir Arthur Champernowne possessed and resided at Dartington, and that it continued to be the seat of this branch of the family till the death of Rawlin Champernowne, Esq., in 1774, when, pursuant to a remainder in the will of Arthur Champernowne, Esq., who died in 1766, it devolved to Arthur, only son of the Rev. Richard Harington (younger brother of Sir John Harington, Bart.) by Jane daughter and heir of the said Arthur Champernowne. In 1776, Arthur Harington took the name of Champernowne, and continued to be the proprietor of the manor or barony of Dartington till his death in 1819, when it devolved to his son Arthur, a minor. The lords of this manor had formerly the power of inflicting capital punishment. (fn. n65)
Dartington House, the seat of the late Arthur Champernowne, Esq., is pleasantly situated near the banks of the Dart; a part only of the ancient building remains with the great hall above mentioned. (fn. n66)
Fenton, now commonly called Venton, appears to have been granted by one of the ancient lords of Dartington, to a family which took its name from this the place of their residence. They were succeeded by Gibbes, who possessed it in the reign of Richard II. The co-heiresses of Gibbes sold Fenton, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, to John Glanville, one of the Justices of the Common Pleas. After passing through several hands during the last century, it is now, in consequence of a purchase made about the year 1808, the property and residence of Mr. Nicholas Moysey.
Allerton had been the property and residence of the family of Searle for more than three centuries: it was lately sold by their descendant to Mr. John Bagwell.
In the parish church are some monuments of the Champernowne family. (fn. n67)
Arthur Champernowne, before-mentioned, is patron of the rectory.
DARTMOUTH, an ancient sea-port, market, and borough town, is situated on the southern coast, between Berryhead and Start Point. It lies within the hundred of Coleridge and in the deanery of Totton; is about 30 miles from Exeter, and 203 from London.
In ancient records, this town is called Clifton-Dartmouth-Hardnesse, comprising, in fact, three adjoining towns, the more southern of which, Clifton, is an appendage of the parish of Stoke Fleming, the two others of the parish of Townstall.
The earliest account we have of a market at Dartmouth is a grant, in the year 1226, to Richard de Gloucester, son of William Fitzstephen, of a market on Wednesday, and a fair for three days at the festival of St. John the Baptist. (fn. n1) William de Cantilupe agreed with the burgesses of Dartmouth, in 1243, that a market should be held weekly on Wednesday; and on other days, for which a fine was then paid. (fn. n2) In the year 1301, King Edward I. granted to Gilbert de Fitzstephen, Lord of Townstall, a market at Clifton, super Dartmouth, on Thursday, and a fair for two days at the festival of St. Margaret. (fn. n3) The present market-day is Friday for butchers' meat and other provisions. There is now no fair.
Leland says, that King John granted the burgesses of Dartmouth the privilege of being governed by a mayor, but this seems to have been a mistake: the earliest charter which I can find is that of Edward III., who, in 1342, granted to the burgesses of Clifton, Dartmouth, and Hardnesse, the power of choosing a mayor, with other privileges, such as the holding pleas, &c. (fn. n4) These new powers seem to have excited the jealousy of Guy de Brien, then lord of the town; for, in 1344, we find an agreement, confirmed by the king, whereby it was settled, that the mayor should be sworn before the steward of the said Guy, and that they should hold pleas jointly. (fn. n5) The Corporation now consists of a Mayor, Recorder, and twelve Masters, or Magistrates.
Dartmouth sent members to parliament once in the reign of Edward I.; after this, they do not appear to have returned any till the 14th of Edw. III., since which time the returns have been regular. The right of voting is in the freemen, who are about 45 in number.
John Hawley, a rich merchant of much eminence (fn. n6), was one of its representatives during a great part of the reign of Henry IV., and his son of the same name in those of Henry IV., Henry V., and Henry VI. Leland says, that, in his time, the great ruins of Hawley's hall were remaining in the part of the town called Hardness. John Corpe, who was colleague of Hawley the younger, in the reigns of Henry IV. and Henry V., had a licence in the year 1402 to fortify his mansion at the entrance of the port of Dartmouth. (fn. n7)
It appears by the subsidy-roll of 1377, that there were then 506 persons in the town of Dartmouth above fourteen years of age, exclusively of clergy and mendicants, (who were not liable to the poll-tax.) (fn. n8) I have found no means of ascertaining the population at any subsequent period before the census of 1801; when the parishes of St. Saviour's and St. Petrock's jointly are stated to have contained 2398 inhabitants, and perhaps about 800 should be reckoned out of the returns for the parish of Townstall, which would make the whole number about 3200. In 1811, the number of inhabitants in St. Saviour's and St. Petrock's were 2608, to which the same number of 800 being added, would make the total about 3400.
Dartmouth has a most convenient haven, with a deep and ample basin, capable of receiving and safely harbouring 500 ships. Wool, wine, and iron, appear to have constituted the principal trade of Dartmouth in the reign of Edward I. (fn. n9) Some years ago, a considerable portion of the Newfoundland trade was carried on here, but it has been of late much on the decline. Cyder and barley are occasionally exported from hence, and port wine imported. There is a considerable coasting trade: the woollen goods from Ashburton are exported from Dartmouth. A few boats are employed in the summer season in the pilchard fishery. An act of parliament passed in the 14th of Richard II., by which it was enacted, that no tin should be exported out of the realm but from the port of Dartmouth; but this was annulled in the parliament of the next year.
Dartmouth is said to have been burnt by the French in the reign of Richard I., (fn. n10) but I can find no account of it in the chronicles of that reign. The fleet destined for the Holy Land assembled at this port in 1190. (fn. n11) The port of Dartmouth contributed 31 ships and 757 mariners to King Edward the Third's great fleet before Calais. (fn. n12) Walsingham speaks of a gallant exploit of the men of Portsmouth and Dartmouth in the year 1383, when they took five French ships, the whole of the enemy's crew, except nine persons, having been killed in the action. In the year 1404, the French having burnt Plymouth, sailed towards Dartmouth (fn. n13), where, immediately on their landing, they were attacked by the country people: it is said the women behaved with great courage, and did much service. (fn. n14) Monsieur de Castel, commander of the invading army, was killed; and three barons and twenty knights taken prisoners, and carried to the king by the countrymen, who returned well pleased with their purses full of gold; but it is observed by the historian, that the prisoners were reserved by the king for a richer ransom. It was not till towards the end of this century, that effective means were adopted for the protection of the town and harbour. King Edward IV., in 1481, covenanted with the men of Dartmouth to pay them 30l. per annum for ever, on condition of their building and maintaining a strong tower and bulwark of lime and stone, furnishing the same with artillery, and finding a chain of length and strength sufficient to secure the harbour. (fn. n15)
During the civil war, Dartmouth was first garrisoned by the Parliament. After the capture of Exeter on the 4th of September, 1643, Prince Maurice marched to Dartmouth, which he expected to find an easy conquest. It was not, however, till after a month's siege, during which he lost great numbers of his men by sickness, that the town was yielded. (fn. n16) It was surrendered on the 4th of October. (fn. n17) After it came into possession of the royalists, Dartmouth being esteemed an important garrison, the fortifications were considerably strengthened; the old castle, a fort called Gallant's Bower (fn. n18), which defended the mouth of the harbour, and Kingsweare Castle, on the opposite side of the river, were strongly garrisoned, as were two other forts, called Paradise Fort and Mount Flaggon; Townstall church, which overlooks the town, and Mount Boone, were well manned, and had about 30 guns mounted: the west gate was also fortified, and in the whole there were more than 60 pieces of ordnance. Sir Thomas Fairfax, during his victorious career in the west, sat down with his army before Dartmouth on the 12th of January, 1646; on the Sunday following, after the soldiers had been exhorted by the celebrated Hugh Peters, the town was stormed. Colonel Pride, a very distinguished officer in the parliamentry army, and afterwards one of Cromwell's lords, took Mount Boone; Colonel Fortescue possessed Townstall church; Colonel Hamond took the west gate, and all the other forts surrendered; Sir Hugh Pollard, the Governor, Sir Henry Cary, Governor of Kingsweare fort, the Earl of Newport, Colonel Seymour, many other officers, and the whole garrison, were taken prisoners. (fn. n19)
Dartmouth gave title of baron, in 1675, to Charles Fitzcharles, (created at the same time Viscount Totnes and Earl of Plymouth,) a natural son of the king, who died in 1680. In 1682, George Legge was created Baron Dartmouth; and in 1713, Viscount Lewisham and Earl of Dartmouth: his immediate descendant now enjoys that title.
The manor of Dartmouth passed as parcel of the barony of Totnes till the reign of Edward I., when it seems to have been conveyed by William de Zouch to Nicholas de Tewksbury, to whom that monarch confirmed it in the year 1305. (fn. n20) King Edward III., in or about the year 1341, granted to his servant, Guy de Brien, part of the manor of Dartmouth, which had belonged to Tewksbury. (fn. n21) This seems to have passed with one of the coheiresses of Brien to Lovell. King Edward IV. granted this manor to William Nevill Earl of Kent, and on his decease to George Duke of Clarence. (fn. n22) The manor and borough of Dartmouth were granted by Queen Elizabeth to Downing, Ashton, and Peter, by whom they were conveyed to the corporation.
The manor of South Town, including St. Petrock and the castle, was given at an early period by Fitzstephen to Fleming, and passed with Mohuns Ottery to the families of Mohun, Carew, and Southcote. It is now, by purchase from the last-mentioned family, the property of John Seale, Esq., of Mount Boone, who possesses also the manor of Townstall, which comprises the north part of Dartmouth. A mansion behind St. Petrock's church, of which the ruins are still to be seen, was some time a residence of the Southcote family.
St. Saviour's and St. Petrock's, in Dartmouth, are now considered as separate parishes: the former is held with Townstall, its mother-church; the latter was held with Stoke Fleming, but since it has been augmented by Queen Anne's bounty, has become a perpetual curacy in the gift of the rector of that parish.
The church of St. Saviour is an ancient and spacious structure. (fn. n23) It seems to have been originally built in the fourteenth century, having been dedicated as a chapel by Bishop Brantingham, in 1372. It appears to have belonged from that time to the corporation: it had then daily service; and for every omission of such service the sum of 100s. was to be forfeited to the mayor and corporation. (fn. n24) In the chancel is the tomb of John Hawley, the rich merchant before mentioned, with the effigies of himself and his two wives (fn. n25) on brass plates. The date of his death (1408) is gone (fn. n26), those of his wives, 1394 and 1403, remain. There are memorials also for Roger Vavasor, killed in fight, 1696; Sir Joseph Herne, Knight, 1698; and Walter Jago, Esq., 1733.
The church of St. Petrock, situated within the ruins of the old castle at Clifton, contains nothing remarkable. It had been called the chapel of the Virgin Mary, before the foundation of a chantry, dedicated to St. Petrock, in the reign of Edward III. Leland mentions a chapel of St. Clare at Hardness, which, according to Browne Willis, was taken down in the reign of Charles II.
There is an old Presbyterian meeting-house at Dartmouth; the congregation was originally established by the celebrated non-conformist divine John Flavel, author of some popular Calvinistic works, which have gone through several editions: he became, in 1656, minister of St. Saviour's, at Dartmouth, from which he was ejected in 1662. Mr. Flavel died in 1691: there is a monument to his memory in the meeting-house. There was a French church at Dartmouth in 1715. (fn. n27) There are now also meeting-houses of the Particular Baptists and of the Wesleyan Methodists.
Mr. John Lovering, in 1671, founded an almshouse for decayed seamen or their widows, and gave the sum of 200l. to be laid out in land, for repairs, and towards the support of the pensioners. His son, of the same name, gave a sum of money for the augmentation of its endowment. The almshouse was burnt down about 50 years ago: there were no funds for rebuilding it, and the charity is entirely lost. William Lea, in 1599, founded an almshouse for poor people in the South Town, in the parish of St. Petrock. Richard Kelly, in 1645, gave 20s. per annum to this almshouse: it has no other endowment. In the year 1679, Walter Jago, John Haynes, and Arthur Holdsworth, gave a rent-charge of 18l. per annum to the parish of St. Saviour; 3l. 12s. of which was to be given to a Latin master, and 3l. 12s. to a master for teaching arithmetic. The grammar-school has no further endowment.
Mr. William Wotton, in 1689, gave a rent-charge of 5l. per annum for the purpose of teaching poor children of the parish of St. Saviour, Dartmouth, to read the Bible. The payment of this rent-charge has been withheld by the present possessors of the estate (fn. n28), out of which it is payable, ever since the year 1805.
St. David's, in the suburbs of Exeter, and in the hundred of Wonford, is now esteemed a separate parish. It was formerly a chapelry to Heavitree.
The manor of Duryards, in this parish, belongs to the corporation of Exeter.
Great Duryards belonged, in the reign of James II., to Thomas Jefford, Esq. (fn. n29), who was made the new mayor, and knighted by that monarch, when he removed great part of the corporation, and supplied their places with others, about two months before the Revolution. It is now the property and residence of Francis Cross, Esq.; Middle Duryards, of George Cross, Esq.; Little Duryards, now called Belmont, of Thomas Snow, Esq. Duryard Lodge, or Mount Stamp, is the property and residence of John William Williams, Esq. Belle Vue, the property of Francis Cross, is unoccupied. Barton Place, in this parish, the property of John Merivale, Esq., is occupied by Rear Admiral S. Peard.
In the parish church, which has been lately rebuilt, is the monument of Sir Thomas Jefford, who died in 1703, and that of Thomas Maxwell Adams, member of the privy council of Barbadoes, who died in 1806. There was in ancient times a chapel of St. Clement in this parish, near the river.
The parish of St. David's extends over part of the city, including the grammar-school. There is no charity-school or almshouse belonging to this parish.
Dawlish or Daulish
DAWLISH or DAULISH, in the hundred of Exminster and in the deanery of Kenne, is a well-known bathing-place on the south coast, about three miles from Teignmouth, and 14½ from Exeter. Dr. Downman, who was a native of Exeter, concludes the fourth book of his poem of "Infancy" with an address to Dawlish, which had been a favourite place of resort for the benefit of his health.
The principal villages in this parish are Cockwood and Holcomb, Higher and Lower; it contains also the hamlets of East Town, Middlewood, Shattern, Westwood, and Lithwell. There is a holiday-fair at Dawlish on Easter Monday.
The manor of Dawlish belonged, at the time of the Domesday survey, to the Bishop of Exeter; afterwards to the dean and chapter. The manor and impropriation were held many years on lease by a branch of the Balles of Mamhead, afterwards by the Vernons, one of whose co-heiresses married General Acourt.
The dean and chapter's estate at Dawlish was sold, a few years ago, under the powers of the act for the redemption of the land-tax. The manor was purchased by Richard Eales, Esq., who is the present proprietor. A newly-built mansion, called the Manor-house, has lately been purchased by Robert Long, Esq. The barton of Dawlish, which had been the property of Stephen Weston, Bishop of Exeter, belonged some time since to Richard Inglett Fortescue, Esq., and is now the property and residence of John Schank, Esq., Vice Admiral of the Red.
Luscombe, in this parish, situated nearly two miles from the coast, in a beautiful retired valley, is the seat of Charles Hoare, Esq. On the strand is a Gothic cottage, the property and residence of Sir William Watson, F. R. S. At Cockwood is the seat of the Rev. Dr. Drury, some time master of Harrow-school. Eastdon is the property and residence of Richard Eales, Esq.
In the parish church are monuments, by Flaxman, for Elizabeth Lady Pennyman (fn. n30); and the wife of William Hunter, Esq., of Margaret Street, Cavendish Square (fn. n31) : those of Richard Inglett Fortescue, Esq., 1790; Margaret his wife, 1783; Elizabeth Inglett, relict of Richard Inglett Fortescue, Esq., 1816; the family of Tripe (fn. n32), and several others, chiefly persons who have died at Dawlish, whilst resident there for the benefit of their health. (fn. n33) In the church-yard are memorials of the family of Balle. (fn. n34) Mr. Incledon's Church Notes mention memorials in the church of Philip Skinner, vicar, 1481; the family of Mainwaring (fn. n35); and William Newcombe, Gent., 1738.
The great tithes are held on lease under the chapter of Exeter by the representatives of Prous. The dean and chapter are patrons of the vicarage, which is in their peculiar jurisdiction.
There was formerly a chapel at Lithwell in this parish, long ago dilapidated, called in the Liber Regis that of St. Mary Lithwyll. The ruins still remain.
At Cofton in this parish is an ancient chapel (fn. n36), now dilapidated, in which were, a few years ago, the monuments of Dr. George Kendall, 1663, and Mrs. Charity Cooke, 1646. Dr. Kendall, who was born at Dawlish, was a celebrated Calvinistic preacher: he was made canon of Exeter in 1645, and was rector of Kenton. He published several controversial pamphlets, and one political. In 1662 he was ejected from all his preferments, when he retired to Cofton, and established a congregation in the old chapel, which it is probable that he repaired and fitted up for the purpose: it continued to be occupied by the Presbyterian dissenters in 1715. (fn. n37) There is a meetinghouse at Dawlish of Independent Calvinists.
The Rev. Humphrey Harvey, in 1729, gave a rent-charge of 1l. 16s. for teaching poor children of this parish. There is no other endowment of the kind, but there is a charity-school on Dr. Bell's plan, supported by subscription.
DEAN PRIOR, in the hundred of Stanborough and in the deanery of Totton, lies about five miles from Ashburton, and about the same distance from Totnes. There are three villages in the parish, Church-town, Deantown, and Dean-Comb.
In the reign of Henry II. Sir William Fitzstephen gave the manor of Dean to the priory of Plympton. After the Reformation it was purchased by the family of Giles, whose heiress brought it to Yarde. Gilbert Yarde, Esq., the last of this branch, who died in 1775, bequeathed it to a female relation, who married the late Judge Buller: it is now, with the manor of Skirradon in this parish, the property of their grandson, who has the impropriation, and is patron of the vicarage.
The Court-house, some time a seat of the Giles' family, is occupied by the tenant of the farm. The lords of the manor of Dean had formerly the power of inflicting capital punishment. (fn. n38)
In the parish church is the monument of Sir Edward Giles, who died in 1637: the inscription has become illegible. (fn. n39) There are memorials also for the family of Furse: 1593, 1609, 1650, &c. John Furse, Esq., the last of this branch of the family, died in 1700: his heiress married John Worth, Esq.
Barnabas Potter, the Calvinistic Bishop of Carlisle, was vicar of this parish, having been presented by Sir Edward Giles, whose daughter he married: his successor, Robert Herrick the poet, who became vicar of Dean Prior in 1629, was deprived during the civil war, and reinstated at the Restoration. A selection from his poems, which originally made their appearance under the name of "Hesperides," and are now become very scarce, was published by Dr. Nott in 1810.
DENBURY, in the hundred of Haytor and in the deanery of Ipplepen, lies about three miles from Newton Abbot.
Denbury is described as a borough in ancient records. (fn. n40)
A market at this place, on Wednesday, and a yearly fair for three days, at the festival of the nativity of the Virgin Mary, were granted by King Edward I., in 1285, to the abbot of Tavistock. (fn. n41) This is stated in a record of the year 1318, but the days are not mentioned. (fn. n42) There is still a cattlefair on the 11th of September.
The manor, which in the reign of Edward the Confessor, belonged to Aldred Archbishop of York, was, at the time of taking the Domesday survey, parcel of the possessions of Tavistock Abbey, and was granted, with the other possessions of that monastery, to John Lord Russell. From the Russell family it passed by sale to the Reynells, and from them by marriage to the ancestor of P. J. Taylor, Esq., the present proprietor.
In the parish church is the monument of Joseph Taylor, Esq., a captain in Queen Anne's wars, who married a co-heiress of Reynell. The Duke of Bedford is patron of the rectory.
DIPTFORD, in the hundred of Stanborough and in the deanery of Totton, lies about five miles from Modbury, and about six from Totnes.
The manor of Dipford, or Diptford, which had been part of the demesnes of the crown, was granted by Henry II. to John Boteler, and by King John to Eustachius de Courtenay. (fn. n43) The last-mentioned monarch granted it afterwards to Henry Fitzcount. (fn. n44) By a subsequent grant of Henry III. it became the property of Nicholas Lord Moels or Mules (fn. n45), and descended from him through the families of Bottreaux and Hungerford to the Earls of Huntingdon. Tristram Sture, Esq., died seised of the manors of Diptford and Ashwill in 1616. (fn. n46) In 1699 it was purchased of his descendant, Edward Sture, Esq., of Maridge, in Ugborough, together with that barton, by Charles Taylor, Esq. Upon the death of his descendant, the late Edward Taylor, Esq. it devolved to the daughter of the late George Taylor, Esq., of Totnes, who is as yet a minor. The lords of the manor of Diptford had the power of inflicting capital punishment. (fn. n47)
The manor of Bendley, the barton of Stert, and other estates, are the property of Jacob Bickford Hele, Esq., whose ancestors have been settled in this parish for many generations.
The manor of Craberton was long in the family of Fowell, who have lately sold it to Hubert Cornish, Esq. The barton of Bradley in this parish, and North Huish, belonged to a family of that name. Risdon speaks of it as the property and residence of the family of Steer. (fn. n48) It now belongs to Miss Taylor, who is patron of the rectory.
In the parish church are some monuments of the Taylor family. (fn. n49)
DITTISHAM, in the hundred of Coleridge and in the deanery of Totton, lies on the banks of the Dart, among some of the most beautiful scenery of that river, seven miles from Totnes, and about three from Dartmouth.
The villages in this parish are Higher Dittisham, Lower Dittisham, or Dittisham Wales, and Capton.
The manor of Dittisham was held, at the time of the Domesday survey, by Baldwin de Brioniis, under the Bishop of Exeter. In the reign of Henry III. it was in the family of Halton, whose heiress brought it to Inkpen or Ingpen. William Huish, Esq., was lord of Dittisham in the fifteenth century. In Sir William Pole's time it had been for some descents in the family of Rouse. This manor seems to have been dismembered some years ago. (fn. n50) The barton of Court belongs to Henry Studdy, Esq.
The manor of Bosum's Hele, now called Bozon Zeale, was originally called Hele, and was the seat of the ancient family of Bozon or Bosum. The heiress of the elder branch married Fulford, whose descendants possessed this manor for several generations. It is now the property of John Burridge Cholwich, Esq., of Farringdon House, by purchase from the Seales of Mount Boone. The old mansion at the barton is now a farm-house. The barton of Downton is the property of Mr. Thomas Huxham.
In the parish church are memorials for "that venerable, valiant captain, Henry Strode of Dittisham," who died in 1664, and others of the family of Strode; and Langdon John Full, Esq., of Downton, 1804.
The Earl of Buckinghamshire is patron of the rectory, to which the manor of Dittisham Wales is annexed.
DODBROOKE, in the hundred of Coleridge and in the deanery of Woodleigh, adjoins the town of Kingsbridge, and was, till within a few years, itself a market-town. A market was granted in or about the year 1256 to Alan Fitz Roald, to be held on Wednesday, together with a fair for two days, at the festival of St. Mary Magdalen. (fn. n51) The market was, till of late years, held on Wednesday: it was celebrated for its supply of cattle and sheep, and there were four great markets held quarterly. In 1773 a great show of cattle was established, to be held on the third Wednesday in every month. After this time the weekly and quarterly markets began to decline, and are now wholly disused. There is a cattle fair on the Wednesday before Palm Sunday.
At the time of the Domesday survey the manor of Dodbrooke, which in the reign of Edward the Confessor had belonged to Bristric the sheriff, belonged to his widow Godeva. Under her it was held by the family of De Dodbrooke, whose heiress married Alan Fitz Roald, ancestor of the family of Fitz Alan, who were possessed of it for five descents. The heiress of this family brought it to Champernowne. Of late years this manor was in the family of Northleigh, from whom it passed by inheritance to H. H. Coxe, Esq. Mr. Coxe sold it to J. H. Southcote, Esq., of whom it was purchased by Edward Hodges, Esq., the present proprietor. The barton of High-House belongs to Mr. Hodges; that of Well to Mr. John Gillard, in whose family it has been for a considerable time.
A house in this parish, to which its present possessor, Mrs. Juliana Wells, has given the name of Pindar Lodge, was the property, and had been the birth-place, of Dr. John Wolcot, the late satirical poet, better known by his assumed appellation of Peter Pindar.
In the church is the monument of Elizabeth, wife of John Beare, Esq., of Bearescombe, 1666. The Rev. Simon Webber, the present incumbent, is patron of the rectory. The rector is entitled to the tithe of white ale, a liquor peculiar to this part of Devonshire, payable by the landlord of every public-house. There was, in ancient times, a hermitage at Dodbrooke. (fn. n52)
DODDESCOMBLEING, in the deanery of Dunsford and in the hundred of Exminster, lies about six miles from Exeter. The principal villages in this parish are Lowleigh and Leigh-Cross.
The manor was the ancient inheritance of the family of Doddescomb, among whose co-heiresses it was divided in the reign of Edward III. It afterwards passed by sale into other families. In Sir William Pole's time it had been three descents in the family of Dowdenhay. In 1792 it was the property of Ambrose Rhodes, Esq., now of James Rodd, Esq., who has the bartons of Sheppen and Lower Barton. No courts have been held for this manor within the memory of any person now living. (fn. n53) The barton was many years in the family of Duck who resided there. The manor, or reputed manor, of Sheldon, belonged formerly to the family of Bailey, and is now the property of Mr. Samuel Archer, who purchased it of John Browne, Esq., of Frampton, in Dorsetshire. The Rev. Robert Hole is patron of the rectory. There was a chapel at Sheldon, now dilapidated.
Two pounds per annum is payable out of Cranbrooke farm, for the education of five poor children of this parish, under the will of Nicholas Sperks.
Dolton or Dowlton, in the hundred of North Tawton and in the deanery of Torrington, lies six miles from Hatherleigh; seven from Torrington; and eight from Chulmleigh.
There are cattle-fairs at Dolton, on the Wednesday before the 25th of March, and on the 1st of October, if on a Thursday, otherwise on the first Thursday afterwards.
The manor, then called Dueltone, was held in demesne, at the time of the Domesday survey, by Baldwin de Brioniis, who gave it in marriage with one of his daughters to William Fitz Wimund. It descended afterwards to the Courtenays, Earls of Devon, and was, at a later period, successively in the families of Ameridith and Smith. Sir Thomas Monk acquired it in marriage with a daughter of the latter. From the Monks it passed to the Grenvilles, and was sold with Bideford by the representatives of the last Earl of Bath to John Clevland, Esq., by whose descendant this manor and that of Cherubeer were sold in parcels in 1804. The manerial rights were some years afterwards purchased by Thomas Owen, Esq.
The manor of Iddlecott, which in 1619 belonged to Sir Thomas Wise (fn. n54), is now the property of the Right Hon. Lord Clinton.
Stoford or Stafford belonged to a younger branch of the Kelloway family, whose descendants took the name of Stafford. This barton now belongs to Thomas Hole, Esq., in right of his mother, who was of this family. (fn. n55)
Halsdon is the property of the Rev. Peter Wellington Furse, of Torrington, whose family have resided there since about the year 1680, when it was acquired by marriage with a co-heiress of Bellew.
In the parish church are memorials of the family of Stafford (fn. n56), Barbara Lister (grand-daughter of Sir Martin), 1696; and Peter Furse, Esq., 1774.
The advowson of the rectory had passed with the manor till 1804, when it was purchased by the Rev. J. Tossell Johnson, in whom it is now vested.
DOWLAND, in the hundred of North Tawton and in the deanery of Torrington, lies at the distance of 5½ miles from Hatherleigh, 8½ from Torrington, and nine from Chulmleigh. The village of Upton is in this parish.
The manor belonged, at the time of the Domesday survey, to Walter Claville, in whose family it continued for some generations. James Lord Audley, being possessed of this manor, gave it to King Edward III. In the reign of Henry VIII., it appears to have been in the family of Crewse. (fn. n57) Walter Crewse of Chulmleigh died seised of it in 1525, leaving three daughters co-heiresses. (fn. n58) The manor of Dowland now belongs to Sir Stafford Northcote, Bart., by inheritance from the Staffords, a branch of which family was settled here for many generations.
In the parish church are monuments of the family of Stafford of this place, and of Pynes. (fn. n59) The church of Dowland was given to the abbey of Canon's Leigh by its founder, Walter Claville. Sir Stafford Northcote, Bart., is impropriator of the tithes and patron of the curacy, which has been twice augmented by Queen Anne's bounty.
East Downe, in the hundred of Braunton and in the deanery of Shirwell, lies about seven miles from Barnstaple. The villages of Churchill, Brockham, and Shortacombe, are in this parish.
The manor (fn. n60) belonged to the ancient family of Downe, till the reign of Edward III., when the heiress of the elder branch brought it to the ancestor of the present proprietor, the Rev. Charles Pine Coffin, who resides in the manor-house. Mr. Pine Coffin is patron and incumbent of the rectory.
The manor of Churchill was for several generations in the family of St. Aubin, who possessed it as early as the reign of Edward I. In 1622, it belonged to Richard Ley. (fn. n61) It is now the property of J. P. Chichester, Esq., of Arlington.
Northcote, the ancient seat of the Northcote family, was sold by them about the beginning of the last century; the old mansion having been about that time burnt down. The barton of Northcote is now the property of Mr. Richard Richards.
In the parish church is the monument of Edward Pyne, Esq., "Lieut. Colonel to Sir Hugh Pollard in the late unhappy wars," (ob. 1663,) and others of that ancient family. (fn. n62) In the church-yard is the tomb of Walter Ley, Gent., 1594.
West Downe, in the hundred of Braunton and in the deanery of Shirwell, lies about five miles from Ilfracombe, and about seven from Barnstaple. The villages of Willincott, Dean, and Trimstone, are in this parish.
The manor of West Downe belonged, at an early period, to the family of Columbers; afterwards successively to those of Moringe and Beaple. There is now no manor of this name. The manor of Bradwell belonged anciently to the Pynes, who were succeeded by Yeo. From the latter it passed by a female heir to Rolle, and is now by inheritance the property of the Right Honourable Lord Clinton.
Stowford, in this parish, called West Stowford, to distinguish it from East Stowford in Berry-Nerber, was, from an early period, the property and residence of the family of Stowford. This barton is now vested in George Acland Barbor, Esq., by inheritance from Acland.
In the parish church is the monument of Sir John de Stowford, who was appointed one of the Justices of the Common Pleas in 1343, and of his lady, who was one of the co-heiresses of Tracy. The effigies of the lady only remains. The prior of Wells founded a chantry in this church and endowed it with lands valued at 4l. 13s. 4d. per annum, for the maintenance of a priest to pray for the soul of Sir John Stowford, he having been a great benefactor to that priory. (fn. n63)
Downe St. Mary, in the hundred of North Tawton and in the hundred of Cadbury, lies about six miles from Crediton, and about fourteen from Exeter.
The manors of Downe and of Crooke Burnell, in this parish, belonged, in the reign of Henry III., to the family of Burnell, whose heiress, after four descents, brought it to Colles. The manor of Downe St. Mary now belongs to Henry Charles Sturt, Esq., of Critchill, in Dorsetshire, by inheritance from a co-heiress of Colles, who married Sir John Napier, Bart., and died in 1666; the manor of Chetscombe to Mr. James Mohun or Moon (fn. n64), a respectable yeoman. The barton of Bradeford, lately belonging to Mr. William Tucker, is now the property of Benjamin Radford, Esq.
The advowson of the rectory is vested in the representatives of the late Rev. Wyndham Sturt.
Dunchidiock, or Dunchideock
DUNCHIDIOCK, or DUNCHIDEOCK, in the hundred of Exminster, and in the deanery of Kenne, lies about four miles from Exeter.
The manor (fn. n65) belonged to the ancient family of Budockside, or Butshed, whose heiress brought it to Gorges. Some years ago it was in severalties, which have been reunited: it is now the property of Sir L. V. Palk, Bart. James Pitman, Esq., whose family have resided in the parish for several generations, is the most considerable landholder.
The parish church was partly rebuilt in 1669, at the expense of Mr. Aaron Baker, of Bowhay, who died in 1683; there is a monument to his memory. There is a magnificent monument also for General Stringer Lawrence, who died in 1775. General Lawrence was Commander-in-Chief in India, from 1747 to 1767, and concluded the peace in the Carnatic. There is a monument to his memory in Westminster Abbey, with an inscription denoting that it was put up by the East India Company in gratitude for his services; "for discipline established; fortresses protected; settlements extended; French and Indian armies defeated; and peace concluded in the Carnatic." On his monument at Dunchidiock is an epitaph with some lines from the pen of Mrs. H. More. (fn. n66)
Thomas Byrdall, who corrected Sir Isaac Newton's "Principia," was patron and rector of this parish. The advowson was purchased of his descendants by Sir Robert Palk, Bart., and is now vested in his grandson, the present baronet.
DUNKESWELL, in the deanery of that name, and in the hundred of Hemiock, is about six miles from Honiton on the Somersetshire side, and about eight from Wellington.
The manor of Dunkeswell belonged anciently to the family of Fitzwilliam. Henry Fitzwilliam having mortgaged it to Amadio, a Jew, it was redeemed by William Lord Briwere or Brewer (fn. n67), who in 1201, founded here an abbey of white monks of the Cistercian order, and endowed it with the manor and other lands. Its revenues were estimated at the time of the dissolution, at 294l. 18s. 6d. clear yearly income. There are no remains of the conventual buildings: the site and the manor were granted to John Lord Russell, and, (having reverted to the crown,) at a subsequent period, to Theophilus Marwood, and Hannibal Rowe. The lands having been previously sold off, the royalty was conveyed to Mr. John Bailey, of whose heir it was purchased by the late General Simcoe.
King John granted Wolford church, then called Wolfer church, and esteemed a separate parish, but now in the parish of Dunkeswell, to the abbey of Dunkeswell. Wolford church was some years ago the property and seat of Peter Genest, Esq., near whose house were the ruins of a church or chapel. This place, afterwards called Wolford Lodge, was the seat of the late General Simcoe, who purchased it of Mr. Genest about the year 1784. It is now the property and residence of his widow, who is possessed also of the manor of Dunkeswell. The reversion is vested in Henry Simcoe, Esq., her son. The Rev. Dr. Palmer has an estate in this parish called Hookedrise, which was parcel of the manor of Leigh in the adjoining parish of Uffculme. Bowerhayes, formerly belonging to the family of Vicary, was afterwards in the Elwills. It is now the property of Mrs. Selina Mary Freemantle, widow, daughter of Sir John Elwill, Bart., who died in 1778.
In the parish church are memorials of the family of Vicary (fn. n68); and of Edward Hill, of Priory, 1692.
The great tithes which belonged to the abbey of Dunkeswell (fn. n69), are now vested in Miss Graves, who is patron of the benefice. The impropriate rectory and advowson were purchased of Mr. Genest by the late Sir Thomas Graves.
DUNSFORD, in the deanery of that name, and in the hundred of Wonford, lies about seven miles from Exeter. There is a cattle fair at this place on the Monday in the next week after June 8.
The manor belonged, in the reign of Henry III., to Sir Robert Blakford. His son, Sir John, conveyed it to Peter, Bishop of Exeter, who, at the request of the Countess of Gloucester, bestowed it on the abbey of Canonleigh. After the dissolution it was purchased by Sir John Fulford, ancestor of Baldwin Fulford, Esq., the present proprietor, whose ancestors are known to have possessed Great Fulford in this parish, the present place of their residence, from the time of King Richard I.; and it is most probable, that they had been settled there at an earlier period. Several of the memoers of this ancient family have been eminent in their day. Sir William de Fulford, Sir Baldwin de Fulford, and Sir Amias de Fulford, distinguished themselves in the Holy Land. Sir William Fulford, or as some call him, Sir Henry, is said, but erroneously, to have been one of the Justices of the King's Bench in the reign of Richard II. (fn. n70) Sir Baldwin Fulford having fought on the side of Henry VI. at Towton Field, was beheaded at Hexham in 1461. We find his son Sir Thomas among the knights who were attainted of high treason in 1483, for espousing the cause of the Earl of Richmond, and among those who assisted the Earl of Devon in the relief of Exeter, when besieged by Perkin Warbeck, in 1497. (fn. n71) Colonel Francis Fulford, (afterwards Sir Francis,) garrisoned his house at Fulford for King Charles, and his son Thomas was killed in his service. Fulford House was taken by Sir Thomas Fairfax, in the month of December, 1645 (fn. n72), and the command given to Colonel Okey, who was afterwards one of the king's judges. (fn. n73) On the attainder of Sir Baldwin Fulford above mentioned, the Fulford estate was granted by King Edward IV. to John Staplehill (fn. n74), but two years afterwards was restored to Sir Baldwin's heir, then Thomas Fulford, Esq. (fn. n75), and has ever since continued in the family.
The lords of this manor had formerly the power of inflicting capital punishment. (fn. n76)
The old mansion of the Fulfords, which appears to have been of the Elizabethan age, contains some good family portraits, and a full length of Charles I., said to have been presented by that monarch to Colonel Fulford, above mentioned. There is a chapel at Fulford House, which is entire, but not in use. The park abounds with forest-trees, and exhibits some beautiful scenery.
The manor of Little Dunsford, alias Sowton, was, at an early period, for several descents, in the family of Cervynton. At a later period it passed by successive marriages from Sparke to Tothill and Northleigh, and was afterwards, by inheritance from the latter, the property of H. H. Coxe, Esq., of whom it was purchased by Sir Robert Palk, Bart., grandfather of Sir L. V. Palk, Bart., the present proprietor. The manor of Halstow, in this parish, belongs to the priests' vicars of Exeter cathedral; that of Cetley, mostly consisting of woods, to King's College in Cambridge. The barton of Clifford, which has been for a considerable time in the family of Southmead, belongs now to three maiden ladies of that name.
In the parish church are monuments and inscribed gravestones for the family of Fulford. (fn. n77) Mr. Fulford is patron of the rectory.
The church of Dunsford was appropriated to the nuns of Canonleigh. The vicarage was endowed, in 1314, with the tithes of hay, and with the great tithes of Fulford and Clifford. (fn. n78)
Agnes Harrison, in 1750, gave the sum of 100l. to this parish, partly for teaching poor children; with this and some benefactions of her sister-inlaw, Mrs. Florence Barrow, and her brother, Christopher Barrow, then vicar, two-thirds of an estate called Cranbrook, in Moreton Hampstead, was bought chiefly for the poor of Dunsford. In 1802, the present vicar, Mr. Gregory, raised a subscription of 150l. for the purchase of the remainder of this estate, the whole of which now lets for 22l. per annum. Four children are instructed out of the rents, pursuant to the direction of Mrs. Harrison,
DUNTERTON, in the hundred of Lifton and in the deanery of Tavistock, lies about eight miles from Tavistock, and about five from Launceston, in Cornwall. In this parish are the villages of Sherwell and Eastacott.
At the time of taking the Domesday survey, the manor of Dunterton was held under Baldwin, the sheriff, by Ralph de Bruer. In the reign of Henry III., it belonged to the family of Trelosk, afterwards to the lords Moels, or Mules. From the latter it passed by successive marriages to Courtenay and Dinham, and was divided among the co-heiresses of John Lord Dinham, who died in the reign of Henry VII. This manor is now the property of Arthur Kelly, Esq., in whose family it has been for a considerable time.
The Rev. William Royse, the present incumbent, is patron of the rectory. There are the remains of a chapel, now converted into a cowhouse, in a field called the Chapel-field.