Magna Britannia: Volume 6, Devonshire. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1822.
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LAMERTON, in the hundred of Lifton and in the deanery of Tavistock, lies about three miles from Tavistock. North Brent-Tor, Ottery, and Hilltown, are villages in this parish.
The manor of Lamerton, at the time of the Domesday survey, was part of the possessions of Ruald Adobed: it afterwards belonged to the Giffards, of Weare-Giffard, and has passed with that estate to Earl Fortescue.
The manor of Willestrew, which belonged to the Tremaynes, is now, by purchase, the property of John Carpenter, Esq., of Mount Tavy: that of Waterfall belongs to a minor of the name of Cundy, in whose family it has been for a considerable time.
Collacombe, in this parish, belonged, in the year 1242, to Ralph de Esse; in 1295, to Michael Trenchard: the heiress of Trenchard, brought it to the Tremaynes. It is now the property of Sir William Pratt Call, Bart., having been purchased a few years ago of Richard Eales, Esq., to whom it was sold by the late Mr. Tremayne. Collacombe was, for many generations, the chief seat of the Tremaynes. It is an ancient mansion of the Elizabethan age; the windows, and the fitting up of the rooms, are of the style then prevalent; and on one of the chimney pieces is the date of 1574. In a large irregular room, twenty feet in height, is a large and lofty transom window, divided into eighteen compartments, and containing above 3200 panes of glass. This old mansion is now occupied as a farm-house.
The great tithes of this parish were appropriated to the abbot and convent of Tavistock. They are now vested in Mr. Tremayne, who is patron of the vicarage.
Earl Fortescue has lately granted to the parishioners a spot of ground, for the purpose of building a school-house, by subscription.
Nicholas Rowe, the poet, was the representative of an old family which had long been settled at Lamerton; but he had, personally, no connection with this parish; his father having quitted it, and resided in London. He himself was born in Bedfordshire.
Landcross, or Lancras
LANDCROSS, or LANCRAS, in the hundred of Shebbear and in the deanery of Hertland, lies about two miles and a half from Bideford.
The manor belonged, anciently, to the family of Beaumont, from whom it passed to Basset, and from Basset, by marriage, to Pomeroy. It was afterwards in Giffard; Sir John Rolle died seised of it in 1706; it is now the property of Lord Rolle, who is patron of the rectory.
In the parish-church is the monument of Anthony Giffard, lord of the manor, who died in 1649. General Monk appears to have been a native of this village: he was baptized at Lancras, December 11. 1608.
LANDKEY, in the hundred of South Molton and in the deanery of Barnstaple, lies about three miles from Barnstaple, on the South Molton road. Newland is a village in this parish.
The manor of Landkey belonged to the family of Beauple, or Beaple, who had their original seat there. After several generations, their heiress brought this estate to Sir Nigel Loring, K.G., in the reign of Edward III. One of Sir Nigel's co-heiresses brought it to Peyvre, whose heiress married Broughton. The widow of the last of the Broughtons gave it to her second husband, the Earl of Bedford; from whom it descended to the Duke of Bedford, who is the present proprietor. Sir John Rolle, who died in 1706, was seised of a manor in Landkey, now the property of Lord Rolle.
Acland, in this parish, anciently written Accelana, was the original seat of the family of Acland, to whom it belonged nearly as early as the time of the Conquest. It is now a farm, belonging to Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, Bart.
In the parish-church is the monument of Sir Arthur Acland, who died in 1610, with the effigies of himself and his lady, (a co-heiress of Malet, and afterwards married to Sir Francis Vincent, Bart.) There are memorials also for John Acland, Esq., (who married the co-heiress of Ratcliffe,) ob. 1553; and John Acland, Esq., 1649. There were formerly some effigies of crusaders in this church, supposed to have been intended for some of the Beaple family. The dean of Exeter is appropriator of the tithes and patron of the perpetual curacy.
There was formerly a chapel of St. Mary, at Herford, in this parish, to which Foulk Bourchier, Lord Fitzwarren, gave some land, in the reign of Edward IV. (fn. n3)
LANGTREE, in the hundred of Shebbear and in the deanery of Torrington, lies about three miles and a half from Torrington. Stowford and Week are villages in this parish.
The manor, which had been royal demesne, and part of Queen Matilda's dower, belonged, at an early period, to the earls of Gloucester, and descended by successive female heirs to the Spencers, and to the Beauchamps, earls of Warwick. The manors of Langtree and Stowford now belong to Lord Rolle, whose ancestor, Sir John Rolle, died seised of them in 1706. The lords of the manor of Langtree had formerly the power of capital punishment. (fn. n4) The manor of Week belongs to the very Reverend Joseph Palmer, Dean of Cashel.
Risdon speaks of Riveton as having descended from the Hankfords, through the Botelers, to the St. Legers, of whom it was purchased by Browne. Prince tells us, that Sir Thomas Browne built a house, and inclosed a park, at a place called Browne's Marsh, now in severalties: the family has been long extinct.
In the parish-church is the monument of Abraham Barnfield, of Manbury, in East Putford, 1688; and a memorial of Major John Fraine, who was killed in battle, at Great Torrington, fighting under Sir Thomas Fairfax, February 18. 1646. Lord Rolle is patron of the rectory.
There was formerly a chapel at Crosshill, in this parish, built in 1528. (fn. n5)
LAPFORD, in the hundred of North Tawton and in the deanery of Chulmleigh, lies about five miles from Chulmleigh. The villages of Filleigh and Eastington are in this parish.
The manor, as parcel of the honour of Torrington, descended to the Umphravilles, and passed, by successive female heirs, to St. John, Arundell of Trerice, and Bagot. It was afterwards in the Radfords, and has since been dismembered. The court barton is now the property of Mr. Philip Kelland, yeoman.
Bury, in this parish, was the original seat of the ancient family of Bury. It is now the property of R. Incledon Bury, Esq., Vice-admiral of the White. Irishcombe, in a detached part of the parish, and adjoining to that of East Worlington, (seven miles from the parish-church,) was, for a a considerable time, the property and residence of the Notts, by whom it was sold, in 1770, to Mr. Philip Lane. It is now the property of Sir Richard Godwin Keats, G. C. B., who purchased it in 1801 of the daughter and heir of Mr. Lane, then the widow of Henry Kitson, Esq., of Exeter. The Rev. William Radford is patron of the rectory.
ST. LEONARD, in the suburbs of Exeter, is situated in the hundred of Wonford and in the deanery of Exeter.
Mount Radford, in this parish, is the name of a mansion built in the sixteenth century by Matthew Radford, Esq., whose son Arthur sold it to Edward Hancock, Esq. The widow of Mr. Hancock having married Judge Doderidge, it became, in the latter part of his life, the residence of that eminent lawyer. Mount Radford was made a garrison in 1643, having three pieces of ordnance planted in it by the parliamentary governor of Exeter, when that city was besieged by the King's forces. It was afterwards a royal garrison, and was surrendered to Sir Thomas Fairfax on the 9th of April, 1646, previously to the treaty for the surrender of Exeter. (fn. n6) Of late years Mount Radford has been in the family of Baring; it is now the property of Sir Thomas Baring, Bart., and in the occupation of Henry Porter, Esq.
Larkbear, an ancient mansion in this parish, which was for many descents the seat of the Hulls, was sold by that family to Sir Nicholas Smith. This also has been of late years in the Barings: it is now the property of Sir Thomas Baring, Bart., and in the occupation of Algernon Langton, Esq.
In the church-yard of St. Leonard's was formerly a hermitage, in which several women, in succession, led an anchoretical life. (fn. n7) In this churchyard is the monument of William Musgrave, M. D., an eminent antiquary, who died in 1721. He published some dissertations on the gout, and several antiquarian tracts, which were collected together in four volumes the year before his death. There are monuments also for the Baring family. (fn. n8) Sir Thomas Baring, Bart., is patron of the rectory, which is exempt from the archdeacon's jurisdiction.
NORTH LEW, in the hundred of Black Torrington and in the deanery of Oakhampton, lies about five miles from Hatherleigh, and about nine from Oakhampton.
The manor, which had belonged to the baronial family of Torrington, was divided among co-heiresses in the reign of Henry III. I find a grant of it in the reign of Edward III. to John, Duke of Lancaster. It was afterwards, for many generations, in the family of Cary. Having been sold, not many years ago, to Mr. Bound of Shipwash, it is now, under his will, the property of two farmers of the name of Vowler and Kingdon, who possess also the barton of Holloway, which belonged to the Carys.
The manor of Harper's Hill, which belonged formerly to the Arscotts, is now the property of Mr. John and Mr. Samuel Honeychurch. The manor of Whiddon, which belonged to the Morices, has been dismembered: the barton is now the property of John Bickle, yeoman. A manor, which belonged to the Arundells, was purchased of their representative, Lord Viscount Galway, by Mr. Carpenter; and is now, by a subsequent purchase, the property of John Morth Woollcombe, Esq.
The barton of Redcliffe, Ritliff, or Rutleigh, on which are the remains of a chapel, belonged formerly to the Prideaux family, afterwards to Sir Thomas Lethbridge, Bart., and now to J. Morth Woollcombe, Esq. On this barton is a quarry of remarkably fine freestone. The King is patron of the rectory.
LEW TRENCHARD, in the hundred of Lifton and in the deanery of Tavistock, lies about eight miles from Tavistock, and about the same distance from Launceston in Cornwall.
The manor belonged, in the reign of William the Conqueror, to the family of Mules, who held Lew and Wadlescot under Baldwin the sheriff. About the latter end of Henry the Third's reign, Sir John Mules conveyed it to the Trenchards. Before the close of the seventeenth century, Lew Trenchard became the property of the Goulds. The widow of the late William Drake Gould, Esq., bequeathed it to her husband's nephew, William Baring, Esq., who has taken the name of Gould, and is the present proprietor. Mr. Gould possesses also the bartons of Lew and Wood, and an estate called Orchard, which was successively in the families of Arundell, Trelask, Poding, and Wood. In the parish-church is the monument of William Drake Gould, Esq., 1766. Mr. Gould is patron of the rectory.
LIDFORD, in the hundred of Lifton and in the deanery of Tavistock, lies about eight miles from Tavistock. The villages of Downtown, Hexworthy, Huckaby, and Dinnabridge, are in this parish: the three last are on Dartmoor, the whole of which extensive district, with the modern vill of Princetown, &c. is within its limits.
Lidford is an ancient borough: in the reign of Edward the Confessor it had eight burgesses within the walls, and 41 without. The record of Domesday states that 40 houses in this borough had been laid in ruins before William the Conqueror came into England. It is probable that this was in 997, when the town of Lidford was burned by the Danes. It is evident, from the Domesday account, that Lidford was then a walled town. Lidford sent burgesses to parliament twice in the reign of Edward I. (fn. n9)
A market at Lidford was granted, in 1267, to Richard King of Almain, to be held on Wednesday, and a fair for three days at the festival of St. Patrick. (fn. n10) There is still a fair at Twobridges on Dartmoor, in this parish, now held on the first Wednesday after the 16th of August, for horses, sheep, cattle, &c.
Lidford Castle, in which were held the stannary courts, is now in ruins, the shell only remaining. Within this castle was the prison for offenders against the stannary laws, which, in an act of parliament of the year 1512, is described as "one of the most hanious, contagious, and detestable places in the realm." (fn. n11) That it had not much improved in its repute a century afterwards, appears from Browne's mention of it in one of his poems in the reign of King James:
"To lie therein one night 'tis guest,
'Twere better to be stoned and prest,
Or hang'd — now choose you whether."
Stannary courts were held in Lidford Castle till nearly the latter end of the last century, till about which period a separate coroner had, from time immemorial, been chosen for this parish; and it was the invariable and very extraordinary custom to elect the oldest man in the parish, whatever were his rank or situation in life. (fn. n12)
The immediate neighbourhood of Lidford presents some picturesque scenery, which has been much the object of attention to tourists, particularly two cascades, one of which is formed by the fall of the small river Lyd; and a bridge thrown over a narrow chasm between two rocks, nearly eighty feet in depth.
The manor of Lidford, which had been part of the ancient demesnes of the crown, became afterwards appendant to the earldom and duchy of Cornwall. In 1238, the castle of Lidford and Dartmoor chace or forest were granted by King Henry III. to his brother Richard, Earl of Cornwall. (fn. n13) King Edward II., in 1307, granted these premises to his favourite Peter de Gaveston. (fn. n14) In 1382 Sir Richard Abberbury was made keeper of Dartmoor forest, then in the hands of the crown. (fn. n15) It appears that the chace and castle of Dartmoor (by which must have been meant Lidford) were soon after this granted to Peter de Courtenay; for we find that in the year 1404 King Henry IV. revoked a grant which had been made to him of the said castle and chace, because they had been united to the duchy of Cornwall. (fn. n16)
The extensive district of Dartmoor, the whole of which, as before mentioned, is in this parish, contains about 130,000 acres. (fn. n17) It is a mountainous waste, abounding with craggy heights called tors, some of which are said to be from 1500 to 1800 feet above the level of the sea. Risdon has been quoted as authority for Dartmoor having been made a forest by King John. It appears, by a record which he quotes, that it was a forest in the time of William the Conqueror: he does not tell us where the record exists. The first part of it, relating to Lidford, corresponds with the survey of Domesday; but Dartmoor is not mentioned in that survey. It is called a forest in the record of 1238, and its boundaries were laid out by perambulation in the following year. (fn. n18) It has been a general opinion that, because Dartmoor was a forest, it must have been formerly overgrown with woods; but there is no reason to suppose that this bleak exposed district was ever more favourable to the growth of trees than it now is, nor is it likely that, in those early periods, so much pains were taken as of late have been to rear them. The truth is, that a forest did not necessarily abound with trees; it was an open, uninclosed, outlying district (as its name imported), for the keeping of the King's wild beasts. (fn. n19) This immense tract of land, which, from its unfavourable situation, has hitherto been but little cultivated, affords pasture to great quantities of cattle and an immense number of sheep. The wool of Dartmoor formed a considerable article of exportation in the reign of Edward I. (fn. n20) The hills or tors on Dartmoor abound with immense masses of granite, and some of them afford magnificent views, particularly High Tor.
Crokern-tor is celebrated as having been the place where the stannary parliaments were anciently held; till within the memory of man the commission was opened and the jurors sworn on this spot; after which, the court was adjourned to one of the stannary towns. The table and seats of moorstone, mentioned by Risdon, were destroyed by the workmen of the late Sir Francis Buller, unknown to him, and the fragments used for some buildings then erecting. Sir Francis, then Mr. Justice Buller, had purchased of Mr. Gullet an estate on Dartmoor, held under the duchy, called Prince Hall. Mr. Gullet, and the late Mr. Bray of Tavistock, who were the first improvers of Dartmoor, had made plantations, and brought part of the moor into cultivation. Sir Francis Buller made further improvements at Prince Hall, which was his occasional residence. The greatest improver of Dartmoor has been Sir Thomas Tyrwhit, some time Lord Warden of the Stannaries, now Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod, who, soon after the year 1797, built a mansion for his own residence at Tor Royal, where he made extensive plantations. In the year 1808, at the suggestion of Sir Thomas Tyrwhit, a prison was begun to be built on Dartmoor, near Tor Royal, and finished in 1809, for the residence of the numerous prisoners of war, who had till then crowded the prison-ships at Plymouth. The prison, which was erected after a plan of Mr. Daniel Alexander, consists of five rectangular buildings, each capable of containing more than 1500 prisoners, besides two other spacious buildings, one of which was used as an hospital, and the other appropriated to the petty officers. Adjoining to the prison was the governor's house, and other buildings necessary for the civil establishment. At the distance of a quarter of a mile are barracks, in which the troops who guarded the prisoners were stationed. The space between the walls of the prison formed a military road round the whole: on this the guard paraded: the sentinels were posted on platforms commanding a complete view of the prison. The number of prisoners who have been lodged here has been from five to seven thousand, and the troops necessary to guard them from three to five hundred only. During the war, there were two inns near the prison; and a considerable number of tradesmen of different descriptions, necessary to supply the wants of so large a population, established themselves in the immediate vicinity, besides the proprietors of the public bake-houses, slaughter-houses, and the brewery. After the termination of the war, the public buildings were left vacant, and many of the private dwelling-houses became in consequence unoccupied: several of these have been again tenanted since the commencement of the rail-way, hereafter mentioned. In 1818, it was reported by a committee of the House of Commons, that if the buildings on Dartmoor continued to be untenanted they would fall into decay, and that it would be a considerable benefit to the country if they could be kept up without expense, by the establishment of schools of industry. In consequence of this suggestion, a meeting for the purpose of forming such an establishment was held at the Mansion House, in the month of May, 1820. At this meeting, Henry Brougham, Esq. M. P., announced that his Majesty had given his sanction to such an appropriation of these buildings, had granted a portion of the waste for the purposes of the establishment, had made a princely donation of 1000l. towards its support, and named himself the patron of the institution. The object of the benevolent promoters of this plan was, to remove a considerable number of poor children from their profligate associates in the metropolis to Dartmoor, where they are to be religiously educated in the vacant buildings, and to be employed in the culture and dressing of flax. In the first instance, the children selected for this purpose were to be of the description of orphans only. Some unforeseen difficulties having occurred, the resolutions adopted at the meeting above mentioned have not as yet been put in execution.
An act of parliament passed in the year 1819 for making a rail-way, or tram-road, from Crabtree, in the parish of Egg Buckland, to the Prison of War, on Dartmoor forest, for the conveyance of stone, (granite,) lime, limestone, coal, culm, manure, goods, wares, merchandize, &c.; and to be called the Plymouth and Dartmoor Rail-way. A second act was passed in 1820, to extend this rail-way to the lime-works at Catdown, and also to Sutton Pool, at Plymouth. A third act was passed in 1821, for the purpose of amending the former acts, and giving power to the commissioners to vary the line.
This rail-way is expected to be most highly beneficial to the land-owners of Dartmoor, by increasing, in a very great degree, the sale of granite; and affording, by the conveyance of lime and other manure, at a moderate expense, the means of bringing their lands, with greater facility, into a state of cultivation.
Dartmoor was fixed on as the subject of the first prize-poem by the Royal Literary Society, established in 1821; and the prize for the poem on this subject has been recently adjudged to Mrs. Hemans.
In the parish-church of Lidford is the monument of Mrs. Elizabeth Farington, wife of Mr. Thomas Farington, son of Mr. Henry Farington, of Wyzold, in the county of Northampton, who died in 1738, aged 94 years, as it was supposed. The King is patron of the rectory in right of the duchy of Cornwall. The tithes of Dartmoor were granted to the chantry of St. Petrock at Lidford in 1236. (fn. n21) Three pounds per annum are paid as a composition for this grant. In the year 1260 the Bishop of Exeter, on account of the great distance of Balbury and Pashill, two villages on Dartmoor in this parish, gave license to the inhabitants that they should resort to the parish-church of Widdecomb in the Moor, paying their tithelambs and three parts of their offerings to the parson of Widdecomb, and the remainder to the parson of Lidford. A chapel was begun to be built at Princetown, soon after the erection of the prison, but it was not completed for several years: the troops assembled in it, to attend Divine service, as soon as the roof was put on, in 1813. Divine service is still performed in this chapel.
LIFTON, in the hundred of that name and in the deanery of Tavistock, lies about four miles from Launceston, on the borders of Cornwall. Tinney, High Cookworthy, and Beara, are villages in this parish.
There are cattle fairs at Lifton on February 2. Holy Thursday, and October 28.
King Charles was with his army at Lifton, on the 31st of July, 1644, on his route towards Cornwall. (fn. n22)
The manor of Lifton, which had been parcel of the royal demesne, was given by King John, in 1199, to Agatha, who had been nurse to Eleanor, the King's mother. (fn. n23) It seems, that this Agatha married William de Gattesdon; for the reversion of the manor of Lifton, after the death of the said William, and Agatha his wife, was granted, in 1204, to Queen Isabel. (fn. n24) It seems, nevertheless, that they were afterwards possessed of the fee, which they sold to Andrew de Cancellis, or Chanceaux. (fn. n25) John de Chanceaux surrendered it to the crown, in the reign of Edward I. That monarch gave the manor, hundred, and advowson, to his son, Thomas de Woodstock, from whom this estate descended through the Hollands to the Nevilles, Earls of Westmorland; and having been purchased of that family by John Harris, sergeant-at-law, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, continued in his descendants till the death of Christopher Harris, Esq., in 1775. By his bequest, it then passed to the Arundells of Kynegie, in Cornwall: it is now the property of William Arundell Harris, Esq., of Kynegie and of Castle Park, in this parish, who possesses also the manor of Stone, in Lifton; the barton of Gatherleigh, by exchange with the Harrises of Hayne, and that of Whitleigh.
The manor of Ashleigh belonged to the family of Ashleigh from the reign of Henry III. to that of Edward III., when it is supposed to have passed, with its heiress, to Tirell. It was afterwards in the Speccot family, from whom it passed, by successive female heirs, to Hals and Trelawney. It was sold, by the last-mentioned family, in 1730, to the Bullers; and by them, in 1768, to John Trehawke, Esq., of Liskeard. This manor is now the property of Samuel Kekewich, Esq., of Peamore, devisee and heir-atlaw of the late Mr. Trehawke. The barton of Wortham, in this parish, gave name to a family whose heiress brought it to a younger branch of the baronial family of Dynham, or Dinham. Mary Hicks, one of the cousins and heirs of John Dinham, Esq., who died in 1641, brought it in marriage to John Harris, Esq. The late Miss Honor Harris of Pickwell devised it to Mrs. Middleditch. After an intermediate sale to Cook, it was purchased by William Rayer, Esq., the present proprietor. The old mansion is now a farm-house.
A charity-school, in which about eighty children are instructed, on Sundays and Wednesdays, is supported by subscription. Another school, in which twenty-five girls are clothed and educated, is supported by Miss Harris of Hayne.
There is a chalybeate spring near Lifton Bridge.
Limpstone, or Lympstone
LIMPSTONE, or LYMPSTONE, in the hundred of East Budleigh and in the deanery of Aylesbeare, lies about eight miles from Exeter, on the Exe. The village of Sowden is in this parish.
King Henry I. gave this manor, anciently called Leningston, to William his steward, whom Sir William Pole supposes to have been William Hastings. The grandson of this William left an only daughter, married to Robert de Bicklegh, and, having no children, gave Limpstone, in her widowhood, to her half-brother, Robert de Albemarle, or Damarell. From this period, the history of the manor is variously stated: Sir William Pole says, that a co-heiress of Damarell brought it to the Bonvilles; and that, after the attainder of the Duke of Suffolk, it was purchased by Sergeant Prideaux; whilst Risdon tells us, that, after the Damarells, it was in the Dinhams, and purchased of the coheirs of that family by Prideaux. It afterwards passed to the Putts of Combe. Most of the lands were dismembered about 1722; but the manor continued several years later in the Putts, under whom it was, for some time, held on lease by Sir Francis Drake, Bart. In 1802, it was sold by Reymundo Putt, Esq. to the late Lord Heathfield, and is now the property of his nephew, Thomas Trayton Fuller Elliot Drake, Esq. This manor was held of the King, by the service of presenting to his Majesty two arrows and an oaten loaf, when he should hunt in Dartmoor. (fn. n29) Sir William Pole speaks of a small manor in this parish which had belonged to the Kirkes of Exeter; and in his time to the Floyers. I cannot find that it is now known.
In the parish-church are monuments of Nicholas Lee, Esq., three times mayor of Exeter, 1759; William Joseph Thomas, Esq., of Coel Helen, Carnarvonshire, 1806; Egerton Filmore, Esq., (no date,) put up in 1799; Joseph Smith, Esq., of Bath, 1793; Mary, relict of John Lewis Gidoin, Esq., Vice-Admiral of the White, 1803. Thomas Porter, Esq., is patron of the rectory, to which a manor is annexed.
In 1715, there was a congregation of Presbyterians at Limpstone: this meeting still exists.
Henry Metherell, in 1727, gave the sum of 100l. three per cents., for teaching poor children of this parish. John Egerton, who died in 1728, gave 20l., now producing 20s. per annum, for the same purpose. There are Sunday schools, to the support of which William Welch, Esq., in 1818, gave 300l. three per cents.
Linton, or Lynthon
LINTON, or LYNTON, on the north coast, in the hundred and deanery of Sherwell, is about fifteen miles from Ilfracombe. At Lynmouth, near the confluence of the East and West Lyn, a small fishing village, in a singularly romantic situation, are a few lodging-houses, for the accommodation of such families as resort thither, in the summer season, for the benefit of bathing and sea air. The rivers here produce trout and salmon. The herringfishery at Lynmouth has, of late years, much declined. There is a quay, at which small vessels lie in fine weather, carrying on a coasting trade, and importing coals, culm, and limestone, and exporting oak-bark, and oats.
It appears, that, in the reign of Edward I., Henry Lovet and Reginald de Lyn were lords of this parish, and, as such, had the power of inflicting capital punishment. (fn. n30)
The manor of Lyn and Linton, with Woolanger or Wolhanger, belonged afterwards to the family of Pyne, who continued to possess it in 1620. They were succeeded by Wichalse, from whom it passed by sale to Short. It is now the property of John Lock, Esq. of Lynmouth, by purchase from Short.
In the parish was, some time since, the monument of Hugh Wichalse, Esq., 1653: there are memorials for the family of Knight, 1730—1769.
The benefice is united to Countesbury. The Archdeacon of Barnstaple is appropriator of the tithes and patron of the curacy.
John Groves, about the year 1770, gave an endowment to the charityschool; but it became void, as being contrary to the mortmain act.
LITTLEHAM, in the hundred of East Budleigh and in the deanery of Aylesbeare, lies near the southern coast, and forms an united parish with Exmouth, a well-known bathing place, ten miles from Exeter.
The manor of Littleham was given by Ordgar, Earl of Devonshire, to the monastery of Horton, in Dorsetshire, and was afterwards, in 1122, with other lands of that house, bestowed on the abbot and convent of Sherbourn. (fn. n31) Sir Thomas Dennis procured a grant of this manor after the dissolution; and it is now the property of his descendant, the Right Hon. Lord Rolle.
Most of the monuments in the parish-church, and in the church-yard, are in memory of persons (some from remote parts of the kingdom) who have died whilst resident at Exmouth for their health. (fn. n32)
The dean and chapter of Exeter are appropriators of the great tithes and patrons of the vicarage, which is in their peculiar jurisdiction. The Liber Regis mentions a dilapidated chapel of St. Saviour, at Chickstow, in this parish.
Exmouth appears to have been one of the principal ports of Devonshire in the reign of King John. (fn. n33) In 1347, it furnished ten ships and 193 mariners, for the expedition against Calais. (fn. n34) The Earl of March sailed from Exmouth in 1459. Exmouth fort, then a garrison of the King's, was blockaded by Colonel Shapcote, in the month of February, 1646. (fn. n35) It was taken on the 15th of March, with nineteen pieces of ordnance, and a great quantity of arms, ammunition, &c. (fn. n36) Exmouth is a populous town, which has, for many years, been much frequented, for the purpose of sea-bathing. There are warm and cold sea-baths, and every accommodation for invalids.
Sir William Pole mentions, that the family of Drake had large possessions at or near Exmouth, and that a branch of the family resided here.
Bishop Stafford's Register mentions a chapel of the Holy Trinity, in the town of Exmouth, as existing in the year 1412. (fn. n37) Lord Rolle is about to build a chapel in this town, at his own expense, for the accommodation of its numerous inhabitants. Robert Drake, Esq., in 1628, charged a moiety of the manor of Hullam, in Withecomb Ralegh, with 7l. per annum, towards the maintenance of a lecturer, or preaching minister, and schoolmaster, in Littleham and Exmouth. Sir John Elwill, Bart., in 1724, gave 100l., four per cents., for teaching poor children of this parish. Henry Peardon, in the same year, gave 80l. (fn. n38), which now produces only 2l. per annum. Lord Rolle has built a school-room at Exmouth, for the education of 150 children, on Dr. Bell's plan; and the late Lady Rolle, in 1816, gave the sum of 200l., navy five per cents, towards the endowment of the school, which is aided by the interest of about 85l., accumulated out of savings.
LITTLEHAM, in the hundred of Shebbear and in the deanery of Hartland, lies about three miles from Bideford.
The manor, which had been a royal demesne, and part of the dower of Matilda, the Conqueror's consort, belonged at an early period to the Stapledons, and passed by heirs female through the Botelers, earls of Ormond, to St. Leger, who sold it to Boteler of Parkham. One of the co-heiresses of the last-mentioned family brought this manor to the Leighs, who possessed it in Risdon's time. It is now the property of George Anthony, Esq., whose father purchased it of the Bassets. Mr. Anthony is patron of the rectory.
Loddiswell, or Loddeswill
LODDISWELL, or LODDESWILL, in the hundred of Stanborough and in the deanery of Woodleigh, lies about three miles from Kingsbridge. The village, of Staunton is in this parish.
The manor of Loddiswell was, at the taking of the Domesday survey, part of the demesne of Joel de Totneis: King Henry II. granted it to William Bruis. Eva, the great grand-daughter of this William, was mother of Milicent de Montalt, under whom this manor was held by the Knovill family in the reign of Edward I. After this I find nothing of it, except that Sir John Elyot possessed it in 1620 (fn. n39), and that it is now in moieties, one of which belongs to George Furlong Wise, Esq., and the other to Mr. Thomas Harris, by purchase from Morshead. The lord of this manor had formerly the power of inflicting capital punishment. (fn. n40)
The manor of Webbiton belongs to Sir Henry Carew, Bart.; that of Staunton to Sir Henry Carew and G. F. Wise, Esq., whose seat is at Woolston in this parish.
The barton of Hach Arundell belonged anciently to the Arundells of Somersetshire, and afterwards, in the reign of Edward I., to that of Hach. In the reign of Henry IV. it belonged to the family of Carswell, who resided at Hach for many generations. The heiress of Carswell brought it to Langworthy. It is now the property of Walter Prideaux, Esq.
About the year 1463 Thomas Gyll, junior, had the royal license for castellating his mansion at Hach Arundell and enclosing a park. (fn. n41)
In the parish-church are memorials of the families of Langworthy, &c. (fn. n42) Francis Freke Gunston, Esq., is impropriator of the great tithes, and patron of the vicarage.
Richard Phillips, in 1728, gave the profits of a messuage and tenement to be distributed yearly on his tomb to the poor not receiving parish relief.
LOXBEAR, in the hundred and deanery of Tiverton, lies about four miles from Tiverton.
The manor belonged, in the reign of Henry II., to the ancient family of Avenell, whose co-heiresses brought it (temp. Hen. VI.) to Trobridge and Richards. It seems to have been vested eventually in the former, of whose descendants it was purchased, about the year 1600, by Daniel Cudmore, Esq. His descendant and namesake (the last of the family) died in 1723. After this the manor of Loxbear came into the Acland family (most probably by purchase). It is now the property of Sir Thomas Dyke Acland, Bart., who is patron of the rectory.
In the parish-church are memorials of Daniel Cudmore, 1637; Zachary Cudmore, 1657; and Richard Abraham, æt. 87, 1802: he was rector 52 years. There was formerly a chapel at Leigh, in this parish, which, in 1777, was a blacksmith's shop.
Loxhore, or Loxore
LOXHORE, or LOXORE, in the hundred and deanery of Sherwell, lies about six miles from Barnstaple. Lower Loxhore and Cott are villages in this parish.
The manor belonged at an early period (fn. n43) to the Beaumonts, whose heiress brought it to Chichester. It is now the property of John Palmer Chichester, Esq., who is patron of the rectory.
Luffincott, or Luffingcot
LUFFINCOTT, or LUFFINGCOT, in the hundred of Black Torrington and in the deanery of Holsworthy, lies about seven miles from Holsworthy, and about eight miles and a half from Launceston. The village of Shop is in this parish.
The manor belonged to the ancient family of Luffincot, since spelt Lippincot, from a very early period till the reign of Henry V., when it was sold to John Wise, Esq., of Sydenham. It continued in the family of Wise when Sir William Pole made his collections. At a later period, it was in the Morices of Werrington. Humphrey Morice, Esq., the last of that family, bequeathed it to the late Mrs. Luther, who, about the year 1805, sold it to Mr. John Venner and Mr. Joseph Spettigue, to whom it still belongs, together with the advowson of the rectory. Mr. Spettigue resides at the barton near the church.
In the parish-church is a memorial for Elizabeth Slade, daughter of Baldwin Malet, Esq., 1587.
Luppit, or Luppitt
LUPPIT, or LUPPITT, in the hundred of Axminster and in the deanery of Dunkeswell, lies between four and five miles from Honiton. Beacon and Shaugh are small villages in this parish.
The manor of Luppit, together with that of Mohuns Ottery, anciently called Ottery Fleming, belonged in the twelfth century to the Flemings. The heiress of Fleming married Reginald de Moun or Mohun, and Eleanor, the elder co-heiress of Sir William Mohun, who died in 1280, married John, Baron Carew. The baronial family of Carew, in consequence of this match, possessed and resided at Mohun's Ottery for several generations. John, Baron Carew, who died in 1363, was Lord Deputy of Ireland: his grandson, Thomas, Baron Carew, who lived in the reign of Henry V., was a distinguished military character. Edmund, Baron Carew, who was killed in France in 1513, left three sons, who all met with an untimely end. Sir Peter Carew, the last survivor, settled Mohun's Ottery, &c. on Thomas Southcote, Esq., who had married his niece, Thomasine Kirkham. Mr. Southcote was in possession in 1589. Sir Popham Southcote, who died in or about 1665, left two daughters, co-heiresses, married to Brian and Southcote. Most of the lands were dismembered from the manor by the Southcotes about 1670: the manor was purchased (probably of the co-heiresses of Sir Popham) by Sir Walter Yonge, Bart. On the sale of the estates of the late Sir George Yonge, Bart. and K. B., about the year 1793, the manors of Luppit and Mohun's Ottery were purchased by William Hawker, Esq., of Poundesford Lodge, in Somersetshire, whose daughter and co-heir, the wife of the Rev. James Bernard, is the present proprietor. Some part of the ancient mansion of the barons Carew is still remaining, and occupied as a farm-house. The park has been long ago converted into tillage.
The manor of Sobbcomb, or Shapcomb, was given to Dunkeswell Abbey by Ivo Fitzalan. (fn. n46) After the dissolution, it was in the family of Duke, and is now the property of John Worth Esq., of Worth.
Daldich, or Dalditch, now called Dawlish, in this parish, belonged to the family of Daldich, afterwards, successively, to Meldon and Matesford: from the latter it passed, by successive marriages, to Ferrers and Ashford. It is now the property of the Rev. James Bernard. Shaugh, which had been for some time in the family of Hawker, is now the property and residence of Mr. Bernard.
In the parish-church are some ancient monuments of the Carew family without inscriptions. (fn. n47)
The tithes of this parish were appropriated to Newenham Abbey, the church having been purchased by that monastery of the Mohun family in the thirteenth century (fn. n48) : they are now vested (with the exception of such lands as belong to their sister, Mrs. Bernard,) in Mrs. Helyar, of Coker Court, Somersetshire, and Miss Hawker, two of the co-heiresses of the late William Hawker, Esq. Mrs. Bernard is patron of the vicarage.
There was formerly a free chapel at Mohun's Ottery adjoining the manor-house, founded by the Carews, and endowed with 3l. 6s. 8d. per annum.
At Shaugh, in this parish, was, some time since, a meeting-house of the Presbyterians, which has been taken down.
Lustleigh, or Listleigh
LUSTLEIGH, or LISTLEIGH, in the hundred of Teignbridge and in the deanery of Moreton, lies about four miles from Moreton Hampstead.
The manor belonged, at an early period, to the family of Widworthy, afterwards (in the reign of Edward II.) to that of Prous. In the succeeding reign the heiress of Prous, then widow of Roger Mules, conveyed it to John Damarell and Alice his wife, her daughter. The co-heiresses of this Alice married Berry and Durnford. In the reign of Henry V. William Burleston conveyed this manor to Sir John Wadham. It was divided between the co-heiresses of Wadham, and is now wholly dismembered. Two thirds were long ago disposed of in lots to the several lessees, and the remaining third was sold in like manner under the powers of the land-tax redemption act, by the Honourable Percy Wyndham. The lord of this manor had formerly the power of inflicting capital punishment. (fn. n49)
Risdon speaks of Barnhouse Bank as the ancient possession of the Barnhouse family. This is now called the manor, or reputed manor, of Barne-Court, and is the property of the Rev. S. Pidsley.
In the parish-church are two ancient monuments, one of which had, in Risdon's time, the arms of Prous, the other he says tradition had assigned (though it should seem without any reason) to Lord Dinham.
Mr. Wyndham retains a moiety of the advowson of the rectory; the Rev. S. Pidsley has the other moiety, as belonging to his manor of BarneCourt.