Magna Britannia: Volume 6, Devonshire. Originally published by T Cadell and W Davies, London, 1822.
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In this section
BRIDESTOWE, in the hundred of Lifton and in the deanery of Tavistock, lies about six miles from Oakhampton.
There are cattle-fairs at Bridestowe on the second Wednesday in June, and on the 29th of July, unless it happens on a Saturday or Sunday, in which cases it is held on the Monday following.
At the time of the Domesday survey the manor of Bridestowe was held by Ralph de Pomerai under Baldwin the Sheriff. It belonged, in the reign of Henry III., to the family of Bolhay, from whom it passed by inheritance to Cobham. The heiress of Cobham married Charlton, and the co-heiresses of the latter brought it to Hill and Bampfylde. This manor, by the name of Cobham Wick, has lately been purchased of William Arundel Harris, Esq. by Albany Saville, Esq. M. P. Leawood, an old mansion, the inheritance of the Calmady family, is now the property and residence of Calmady Pollexfen Hamlyn, Esq. Milliton, formerly belonging to the Millitons, is now the property of John Newton, Esq. The family of Bidlake had an estate here for many generations, till the death of Miss Phillippa Bidlake in 1792.
In the parish church are monuments of John Wrey, Esq., 1576; and Lady Honor Calmady, 1663: in the church-yard, that of Lieut.-Col. Thomas Wollocombe, 1814.
The manor of Bridestowe Sanctuary is annexed to the rectory, the advowson of which belongs to the Rev. Coryndon-Luxmoore, the present incumbent.
BRIDGERULE, in the hundred of Black Torrington and in the deanery of Holsworthy, lies five miles and a half from Holsworthy on the borders of Cornwall, in which county two-thirds of the parish are situated. The Tamar divides the counties, and has a bridge over it, on the road from Holsworthy to Stratton. The church and church town, and two small villages, Tines and Dux, are in Devonshire.
Risdon says that this place was anciently called Bridge-Reginald or Rennell, from Reginald Adobed, who possessed it in the time of William the Conqueror. (fn. n1) In the reign of Henry III. it belonged to the family of Donne, whose co-heiresses, after several descents, brought it to Ledred and Holcombe. It long continued in moieties: the late Mr. Kingdon, in his answer to Mr. Chapple's Queries in 1772, speaks of it as having been then (some time since) in moieties between Sir John Rolle and Sir John Prideaux. John Arscott, Esq. died seised of a moiety of this manor in 1621. (fn. n2) The whole is now the property of his descendant Sir Arscott Ourry Molesworth, Bart.
The manor of Tatson in this parish and county having been some time in the family of Pyper, was purchased in 1760 of William Troyte, Esq. by Roger Kingdon, Esq. It is now the property of the Rev. John Kingdon. The rectory of Bridgerule is in severalties. The Rev. Thomas Hockin Kingdon, the present incumbent, is patron of the vicarage.
BRIXHAM, in the hundred of Haytor and in the deanery of Ipplepen, lies at the southern extremity of Torbay, 25 miles from Exeter, 8 from Totnes, 13 from Newton Abbot, and about 200 from London. A market is held at this place on Saturday under an Act of Parliament passed in the year 1799; and there is a fair for three days, commencing on Whit Tuesday. The pier was constructed under the powers of this Act in the years 1803 and 1804. An extensive fishery is carried on at Brixham for turbots, soles, whiting, mackerel, &c. &c. The Bath and Exeter markets are supplied from this place, and great quantities sent to London, being conveyed by water to Portsmouth, and thence forwarded by land-carriage. About 100 trawlers are employed in the Brixham fishery, 60 of which are usually occupied on the southern coast; the others go out into the Bristol and Irish channels. About 40 smaller boats are employed also in the fishery during the summer season. There is a considerable coasting trade at Brixham for coals and culm.
The manor of Brixham belonged at an early period to the Novants, from whom it passed by conveyance to the Valletorts (fn. n3); the co-heiresses of the lastmentioned family brought it to Pomeroy and Corbet. The Bonvilles afterwards became possessed of it; from them it descended to Grey Duke of Suffolk, and by his attainder became vested in the crown. It is now divided into quarters, one of which belongs to the heirs of the late Duke of Bolton; another to Charles Hayne, Esq. and John Seale, Esq.; a third to Charles Hayne, Esq. and the family of Gillard; the fourth, which formerly belonged to Pomeroy Gilbert, Esq., of Sandridge, was purchased by twelve fishermen of Brixham Quay. Some of these shares have been much subdivided; but all the proprietors, be their shares ever so small, call themselves Quay lords. Nethway or Nithway, in Brixham, belonged to the Coles, whose heiress brought it to Sir John Hody, chief justice of the King's Bench: his descendant John Hody, Esq., about the year 1696, sold it to John Fownes, Esq., ancestor of John Fownes Luttrell, Esq., the present proprietor. The house is at present uninhabited. Luckton or Lupton belonged to the ancient family of Peniles; the heiress of Peniles, in the reign of Henry VI., brought it to Upton, in whose family it continued for several generations. The house was rebuilt by Charles Hayne, Esq., who was sheriff in 1772. (fn. n4) About the year 1788 Mr. Hayne sold it to Sir Francis Buller, late one of the justices of the King's-Bench, who made it his country seat. It is now the property and residence of his grandson John Buller Yarde Halliday Buller, Esq.
The manor of Upton, the property and residence of George Cutler, Esq., was purchased about 1768 of — Fortye by Montague Booth, Esq., by whom the house was in great part built. (fn. n5)
In the parish church is a cenotaph for the late Mr. Justice Buller (fn. n6); and monuments of the families of Yarde (fn. n7), Upton (fn. n8), and Fownes. (fn. n9)
The King is patron of the vicarage. There were formerly chapels at Nethway and Upton, of which there are no remains. A chapel of ease at Brixham (the town being a mile distant from the parish church) was begun about the year 1815. The subscription for the building was set on foot by the present vicar, Mr. Holdsworth; and the sum of 1050l. was collected. Applications are now making to the Commissioners acting under the 58th of George III. for building additional churches and chapels in populous parishes, for a grant of money to complete the chapel, and to get it endowed and consecrated.
Richard Kelly, Esq., in 1634, gave a rent-charge of 15l. per annum for a charity-school at Brixham. John Kelland, Esq., in 1692, further endowed it with an estate called Combe, in the parish of Ashburton, now let at 40l. per annum. The master of the school receives also 15l. per annum from the trustees, being the interest of money arising from the sale of timber cut down some years ago on the estate. A new school-room has been lately built by subscription, aided by two grants from the National Society, capable of containing 400 children, to be educated on Dr. Bell's system. There is also a good house for the master.
There is a meeting-house of the Particular Baptists at Brixham; and another of the Wesleyan Methodists.
Brixton, anciently Britricheston
BRIXTON, anciently BRITRICHESTON, in the hundred and deanery of Plympton, lies about two miles from Plympton, and four from Plymouth.
The manor belonged anciently to a family which took its name from the place. The husband of the elder co-heiress of William de Britricheston, who died in the reign of Henry III., took the name of Britricheston; and his posterity continued to possess this manor for seven generations. Vincent Calmady, Esq., purchased it of the representatives of this family about the middle of the sixteenth century, and fixed his residence here; his descendant, Sir Shilston Calmady, was succeeded in the possession of this estate, in the reign of Charles I., by George Keinsham. It was sold by the latter, in 1652, to Sampson Sandys, of whose descendant it was purchased in 1747 by Thomas Veale, Esq. of Coffleet in this parish. It is now, together with Coffleet, the property of the Rev. Richard Lane, whose father was nephew of Mr. Veale.
Brixton English belonged anciently to the family of English, and afterwards successively to the Blomvilles and Coplestons of Bowdon. It was purchased, after the decease of Thomas Copleston, Esq., in 1753, by Mr. Veale, and is now the property of the Rev. Richard Lane.
Brixton Reigny belonged to the family of Reigny, whose co-heiresses married Crabb, Prous, and Horcy. It was afterwards in the Heles of Wollaton, and was bequeathed, in 1635, by Elizæus Hele, to charitable uses.
Spridleston belonged, in the reign of Henry III., to William Spriddle, whose family possessed it for six generations; it was afterwards in the Fortescues; and became, in the reign of Henry VI., the seat of John, third son of John Fortescue, Esq., of Wimpston; with the heiress of this branch it passed to the Fortescues of Buckland Filleigh. The late Richard Inglett, Esq., (who inherited Spridlestone, and took the name of Fortescue,) sold this estate, in 1785, to Mr. Lane, of Coffleet, and it is now the property of his son. The old mansion of the Fortescues is inhabited by a farmer.
Harston, at an early period, was successively in the families of Reynald, Harston, and Silverlock; afterwards in the Carslakes, whose heiress brought it to Wood. The Woods resided here for several generations; it is now the property of their representative, John Wood Winter, Esq., who resides at Lower Harston; the old mansion of the Woods, built in the reign of Henry VII., was in part destroyed by an accidental fire, in the beginning of the last century; the remaining part, including the hall and chapel, is inhabited by a farmer.
Sherford was the ancient inheritance of the Maynards: it belonged afterwards to the Drakes of Buckland Monachorum, and having passed with that estate, is now the property of Thomas Trayton Fuller Elliott Drake, Esq.
Wollaton was a seat of the Heles, and so continued till the death of Elizæus Hele in 1635: it passed afterwards to the Pollexfens, and is now the property of their descendant, Edmund Pollexfen Bastard, Esq. M. P. Mr. Bastard possesses also the manor of Halwell in this parish, which belonged, at an early period, for eight generations, to the family of Britt. The heiress of Britt brought it to the Wises. In 1667 it was sold by Sir Edward Wise to Sir William Morice; one of the co-heiresses of Sir Nicholas Morice brought it to Sir John Molesworth, Bart., of whose descendant, Sir William Molesworth, Bart., it was purchased about 1789 by the late Mr. Bastard.
In the parish church, (which is a daughter-church to Plympton (fn. n10),) are memorials of the families of Wood (fn. n11) and Lane (fn. n12), and the tomb of Walter Hele, father of Elizæus Hele, the inscription on which is obliterated: he died about the year 1613.
The tithes of Brixton were appropriated to the monastery of Plympton, afterwards to the dean and chapter of Windsor: in 1800 they were sold under the powers of the land-tax redemption act to Thomas Splatt, Esq., the present proprietor. The dean and chapter are still patrons of the perpetual curacy. Elizæus Hele, before mentioned, bequeathed the sum of 415l. for a preaching minister at Brixton; this sum was laid out in the purchase of lands in the parish of Modbury, which now produce 33l. 11s. 8d. per annum. The benefice has been augmented by a parliamentary grant, and the perpetual curate has 20l. per annum out of the tithes. John Quick, an eminent non-conformist divine, author of a History of the Reformation in France, and other works, was ejected from the living of Brixton in 1662.
Near the church-yard is a fine grove of elms planted in the year 1677 by Mr. Fortescue, of Spridlestone, and other parishioners, for the expressed purpose of being sold, when at a proper growth, to raise a fund for the benefit of the poor, as appears by an inscribed stone (fn. n13) : a singular instance of prudent foresight, and well worthy of imitation, there being many parishes in which small wastes might most beneficially be thus planted. Several of these trees have from time to time been blown down by the wind and sold; sixteen of them were cut down pursuant to the intention of the benevolent planters during the winter of 1819. They produced the sum of 92l. 2s., which is funded for the poor, as land cannot legally be purchased: it is intended to supply their places with young trees.
There is no endowed school in this parish, but a Sunday school has lately been established by subscription.
BROADWOOD KELLY, in the hundred of Black Torrington and in the deanery of Okehampton, lies about 5½ miles from Hatherleigh. The village of Splats is in this parish.
The manor appears to have been part of the demesne of Joel de Totneis; when the survey of Domesday was taken, in the reign of King John, it belonged to the family of Kelly; afterwards successively to the Belstons and Gilberts. In the reign of Charles I. it was the property of Francis Weeks: in the early part of the last century it was in the Northmores, and is now the property of Benjamin Cleave, Esq., by whose father, John Cleave, Esq., it was purchased about 1785.
The manor of Brixton is the property of Sir John Davie, Bart., in whose family it has been a considerable time.
The Rev. John Hole is patron and incumbent of the rectory. In the parish church are monuments of the Webber family, patrons and incumbents of the rectory, (1652–1754.)
BROADWOOD WIGER, in the hundred of Lifton and in the deanery of Tavistock, lies about 13 miles from Oakhampton, and about 6 from Launceston in Cornwall.
The manor belonged, at an early period, to the ancient family of Wiger, afterwards to the priory of Frithelstock. It was granted, after the dissolution, to Arthur Plantagenet, a natural son of King Edward IV. The manor now belongs to William Arundel Harris, Esq., of Castle Park in Lifton. The principal estate is the property of Charles Luxmoore, Esq., who is impropriator of the great tithes under the dean and chapter of Bristol.
The manor of More Malherbe was given by the Fitz Stephen family to the hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, and by the prior of that house conveyed to the abbey of Buckland in Somersetshire. After the reformation it was in the Rolles, from whom it passed, by successive sales, to the families of Kingdon and Luxmoore: it is now the property of the Rev. Charles Thomas Coryndon Luxmoore.
The manor of Norden Bason in this parish belongs to the Right Hon. Lord Clinton; the manor of Deanacary, which belonged to the family of Morice, has lately been sold to the several tenants.
The barton of Upcott belonged to the late Mrs. Mackenzie as devisee of Miss Harris of Pickwell, heiress of a branch of the Hayne family; More is is the property of Sir Arscott Ourry Molesworth, Bart.; and Witherdon of the Rev. C. T. C. Luxmoore: the latter was purchased in 1689, by Mr. Luxmoore's ancestor, of Thomas Hiern, Esq.
In the parish church are memorials for John Moore, Gent., 1602; and John Dynham, Esq., of Wortham, 1624.
The dean and chapter of Bristol are patrons of the vicarage.
BRUSHFORD, in the hundred of North Tawton and in the deanery of Chulmleigh, lies about five miles from Chulmleigh.
The manor of Abbotsham with the tithes, which had been given to the abbey of Hartland by Robert D'Espek and Margaret his wife (fn. n14), belong to the Rev. John Luxton, in whose family they have been ever since the reign of Queen Elizabeth. (fn. n15) Mr. Luxton is patron and incumbent of the curacy.
BUCKERELL, in the hundred of Hemiock and deanery of Plymtree, lies about three miles from Honiton.
The manor belonged, at an early period, to the Pomeroys, afterwards to the Beauchamps of Rime, whose heiress brought it to Bonville, and the coheiresses of Bonville to Fulford and Gwynn. It was held by these families in moieties. Fulford's moiety was sold to Richard Cross, Esq.; but both of them have been long ago divided into parcels.
Warrinston or Werringston was, in the reign of Edward I., the seat of Sir Robert Toliro. This manor belonged afterwards to the abbey of Dunkeswell: after the dissolution it was granted, in 1544, to the Drakes; and was afterwards successively in the families of Raymond, May, and Henley. Henry Henley, Esq., the descendant of the latter, dismembered the manor, and conveyed the royalty to Thomas Courtenay, Gent., from whom it passed to Robert Gidley, Gent., grandfather of Courtenay Gidley, Esq., now of Honiton.
Cockenhayes belonged to the Prodhams, from whom it passed, by successive female heirs, to Whiting and Ashford. This estate was purchased by the late Admiral Graves, who resided at a mansion called, from its having been built near the site of an ancient fortress, Hembury Fort. It is now the property of Rear-Admiral Richard Graves: the house is at present occupied only by a servant.
Deer Park, in this parish, was the seat of a branch of the ancient family of Fry. After the death of the widow of Henry Fry, Esq. the last heir male, (which Henry died in 1772,) it was purchased by Mr. Hunt, who built the present house. It is now the seat of A. L. Shuldham, Esq. who bought the estate of Mr. Hunt.
In the parish church are the monuments of Samuel Graves, Esq. admiral of the white, who died in 1787, and that of Elizabeth his wife, daughter of John Sedgwick, Esq. of Staindrop in the county of Durham, 1767.
The dean and chapter of Exeter have the great tithes of this parish, and are patrons of the vicarage.
BUCKFASTLEIGH, in the hundred of Stanborough and in the deanery of Totton, lies about three miles from Ashburton on the road to Plymouth.
A market on Tuesday was granted to the abbot of Buckfastleigh about the year 1352. (fn. n16) The market, which has been long discontinued, was attempted to be revived, but without success, in 1801; the market-house, which is standing, has been converted to other purposes. There are now two fairs for cattle, &c., held on the third Thursday in June and the second Thursday in September.
The principal villages in this parish, besides Buckfastleigh, are Buckfast, Scorraton, and the Combe. The number of inhabitants in the parish was in 1801, 1525; and in 1811, 1836, according to the returns made to Parliament at those periods.
The abbey of Buckfastleigh was founded in 1137, for monks of the Cistercian order, by Ethelwerd, son of William de Pomeroy. The revenues were estimated, at the time of its dissolution, at 466l. 11s. 2¾d. clear yearly income. The site was granted to Sir Thomas Dennis. It appears that the manor of Buckfast belonged to Sir Richard Baker about the year 1629 (fn. n17); it afterwards became the property of the Doyleys, and was sold off in parcels. There is another manor of Buckfast, the property of which has been some time in litigation. The immediate site of the abbey belongs to William Searle Bentall, Esq., and others. Most of the ruins were taken down about the year 1806; one tower is, or was lately, still remaining. A modern house, in the Gothic style, was built over the vaults of the abbey. The abbots of Buckfastleigh had formerly the power of inflicting capital punishment in their manor. (fn. n18)
The manor of Brooke Mainbow, with Buckfastleigh and Button, belongs to the Earl of Macclesfield. This estate was in the Labells, from whom it passed by a female heir to Fownes, of Dorsetshire. It was purchased of the last-mentioned family, in 1758, by Sir Thomas Clarke, Master of the Rolls, and by him given to the late Earl of Macclesfield. It is now, by purchase from his brother, who inherited it under his father's will, the property of the present Earl.
The manor of Kilbenland belonged to the late Walter Palk, Esq., and is now, in right of his wife, (Mr. Palk's sole heiress,) the property of Sir Henry Carew, Bart. Rill was, for some time, the property and residence of the Ilbert family; it now belongs to Jeffery Edwards, a minor.
The parish church, which contains no monuments of note, stands detached from the village on a high rock commanding a view of Buckfast Abbey, woods, &c. At the east end are the ruins of a more ancient building with narrow windows.
The Earl of Macclesfield is impropriator of the great tithes which belonged to Buckfast Abbey. The Rev. Matthew Lowndes is patron and incumbent of the vicarage.
Buckland In The Moor
BUCKLAND IN THE MOOR, in the hundred of Teignbridge and in the deanery of Moreton, is a daughter-church to Ashburton, from which town it is about four miles distant.
The manor belonged anciently to the family of Buckland, afterwards to that of Archdekne. Of late years it has been in the Bastards. The late John Pollexfen Bastard, Esq. M. P. had a seat here, situated among the most beautiful and picturesque scenery in the county. It is now for life the property of his widow.
BUCKLAND BREWER, in the hundred of Shebbear and in the deanery of Hartland, lies about five miles from Bideford, and about the same distance from Torrington. Tithacot or Tithecot, Bilsford, and Galsworthy, are the principal villages in this parish. A weekly market at Buckland Brewer on Wednesday, and a fair for three days at the festival of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, were granted to the abbot of Dunkeswell in or about 1290. (fn. n19) The market has been long disused; there are now two annual fairs, Whit Monday and November 2.
The manor belonged to the baronial family of Briwere or Brewer. William Lord Brewer appears to have given a part of it to Tor Abbey, and part to the abbey of Dunkeswell, since both those monasteries had manors in Buckland Brewer. The manor of Buckland Brewer is now the property of Lord Rolle.
Orleigh was the property and residence of the Dennis family (originally Dacus) from a very early period, till the extinction of the elder branch about the year 1700. After this it was, for some descents, in the Davies. The late Edward Lee, Esq. purchased it of Joseph Davie Basset, Esq., and has bequeathed it to his nephew John Hanning, a minor.
The manor of Vielston, which belonged to a branch of the Risdons, was afterwards in the Clevlands, and is now, under the will of John Clevland, Esq. M. P. who died in 1817, the property of Thomas Stevens, Esq. of Cross, near Great Torrington.
In the parish church are memorials of the families of Dennis and Davie. (fn. n20)
Mr. Stevens is impropriator of the great tithes, which had been given by Lord Brewer to Tor Abbey. The vicarage is in the gift of the crown. It appears by the chantry roll at the Augmentation Office, that there was a fraternity in this church dedicated to St. Michael, the lands of which were valued in 1547 at 8l. 7s. 4d. per annum. Buckland Brewer is in that record called a borough town.
EAST-BUCKLAND, in the hundred and deanery of Shirwell, lies about five miles from South Molton.
The manor has passed with that of Filleigh to Earl Fortescue, and the rectory is annexed to that of Filleigh in his lordship's patronage.
EGG-BUCKLAND, in the hundred of Roborough and in the deanery of Tamerton, lies about three miles from Plymouth.
The villages of Knocker's Knowle, commonly called Nacker's Hole, Crabtree, and Thornbury, are in this parish. There is a cattle-fair at Egg-Buckland on the second Wednesday in June.
Egg-Buckland was one of the quarters of Prince Maurice's army when he besieged Plymouth, from the beginning of October till Christmas 1643. The Prince was at Widey. (fn. n21)
The manor of Egg-Buckland was, at an early period, in the Giffards, who were succeeded by the Beaudins. The heiress of Beaudin married Whitlegh, of Efford, in this parish, by which match the estates became united. Efford had been the original seat of the ancient family of Bastard. Robert Bastard possessed it in the reign of William the Conqueror. The family continued here for several generations, certainly as late as the year 1315. How it passed to the Whitleghs does not appear; but they were possessed of it in 1346, and continued to possess it for seven generations. The co-heiresses of Richard Whitlegh, the last of the family, married Grenville and Hals. This estate fell to the share of the latter, and Efford continued to be the seat of the family of Hals till the reign of Charles II. One of the co-heiresses of Matthew Hals brought Efford to Harry Trelawney, great grandfather of the Rev. Sir Harry Trelawney, Bart., by whom it was sold to the late William Clarke, Esq. of Plymouth. The manor of Egg-Buckland is now the property of Henry Tolcher, Esq. of Colwell, in this parish. The manor of Efford is in the possession of Irwin Clarke, Esq. The manor-house of Great Efford is occupied by a farmer; an adjoining cottage has occasionally been inhabited by Mr. Clarke's family. Little Efford is the property of Mrs. Culme, and in the occupation of Edward Williams, Esq.
The manor, or reputed manor, of Leigham is the property, and the manor-house the residence of Addis Archer, Esq. It was some years ago the property and residence of the brave Admiral Macbride, who died in 1800.
Widey, now the property and seat of Henry Anderson Morshead, Esq., was the head-quarters of Prince Maurice as before mentioned, and for a short time of King Charles I. whilst his army lay before Plymouth, from the 9th to the 14th of September, 1644. (fn. n22)
Derriford was in 1682 the property of Thomas Pyne, of Dunsbeare, M. D. The heiress of Pyne married John Bidlake Herring, Esq., by whose family Derriford was sold in 1795 to Philip Langmead, Esq. of Plymouth, together with the barton of Looseleigh or Buckland-down. Derriford-house, which has been built within a few years, is now the seat of John C. Langmead, Esq.
In the parish church are the monuments of Edmund Hals (fn. n23), second son of Matthew Hals, Esq., of Efford, 1679; and Georgina, wife of Humphrey Julian, vicar, 1788. In the church-yard are tombs of the Culmes of Little Efford, (1729—1775;) Richard Collins, Esq., captain, R. N., (son of Admiral Collins;) Louisa Anne, wife of John Clarke Langmead, Esq., 1809; and Elizabeth, wife of George Byng, Esq., a captain in the Royal Navy, and daughter of Philip Langmead, Esq., 1810.
Mrs. Julian, widow of the late vicar, is impropriator of the great tithes, which belonged to the priory of Plympton. The King is patron of the vicarage.
Mr. Peter Culme, in 1778, gave 3l. per annum to the charity-school. In 1806, Vincent Warren, minister of Plymstock, father of Georgina Julian, gave 800l. 3 per cent. Bank Stock, to clothe 5 poor boys and 5 girls; he directed a sermon to be preached on the anniversary of her death; the clerk, with the children, to sing the hundreth Psalm, on or near the vault in which she was interred. The funds of the charity-school being very inadequate for its support, are aided by a voluntary subscription.
BUCKLAND-FILLEIGH, in the hundred of Shebbear and in the deanery of Torrington, lies about six miles from Hatherleigh.
The manor, having been part of the ancient inheritance of the Filleighs, was settled, by their representative, the heiress of Denzell, on William Fortescue, the second son of her first husband. Buckland-Filleigh continued to be the property and residence of this branch of the family till the death of John Fortescue, Esq., in 1777, when it passed to his sister Rebecca, the wife of Caleb Inglett, Esq.; her son, Richard Inglett, Esq., took the name of Fortescue, and was father of John Inglett Fortescue, Esq., of Buckland-Filleigh, the present proprietor.
The manor and barton of Hartleigh, in this parish, belong to the Right Hon. Lord Clinton, by inheritance from the Rolles; it includes part of Heanton deer-park.
In the parish church, which stands close to Mr. Fortescue's seat, are monuments of the Fortescue family (fn. n24); and that of Henry Hearn, Esq., of Awshead, 1813.
The Bishop of Exeter is patron of the rectory.
BUCKLAND-MONACHORUM, sometimes called Buckland-Drake, in the hundred of Roborough and in the deanery of Tamerton, lies about four miles from Tavistock. A market at this place on Tuesday, and a fair for three days at the festival of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, were granted, in 1317, to Buckland Abbey. (fn. n25) This market has been long discontinued, but there is now a cattle-market lately established, held at irregular periods. The ancient fair is still held on Trinity Monday, for cattle, &c. The village of Milton, in this parish, is situated amongst singular and very romantic scenery.
An abbey of the Cistercian order was founded at this place, in 1278, by Amicia, relict of Baldwin Earl of Devonshire. Its yearly revenues were estimated, in the reign of Henry VIII., at 241l. 17s. 9½d. The site was granted to Richard Grenville, who built on it, as Risdon says, a fair new house, which afterwards became, by purchase, the seat of the celebrated circumnavigator, Sir Francis Drake. Having no issue, Sir Francis bequeathed it to his nephew of the same name, who was created a baronet in 1622. The late baronet, Sir Francis Henry Drake, left it to his sister's son, the late Lord Heathfield. Upon his death, in 1813, it passed, pursuant to an entail, to a younger son of his sister, Mrs. Fuller, of Sussex, Thomas Trayton Fuller Elliott Drake, Esq., who is the present proprietor. Buckland Abbey was rented, some time since, by Vice-Admiral Stopford; now by Sir John Gordon Sinclair, Bart., a captain in the Royal Navy. Sir Francis Drake, then possessor of Buckland, having been engaged on the side of the Parliament in the civil war, his estates were sequestrated, and Buckland given to Sir Richard Grenville, who made Buckland his occasional residence during the blockade of Plymouth. (fn. n26) The house, which had been garrisoned by Sir Richard, was quitted after the capture of Dartmouth. (fn. n27) The abbey appears to have been a castellated building (fn. n28); some remains of the church have been incorporated into the present mansion. (fn. n29) In the drawing-room is a fine portrait of Sir Francis Drake, by Cornelius Jansen, inscribed, ætat. suæ 53, anno 1594.
The manor of Buckland, which had belonged to the abbey, was granted, after its dissolution, to the family of Crymes (fn. n30); a great part of the estate was sold by this family in 1620; and in 1660 they sold the manor to Slanning. It has since passed with Maristow to Sir Manasseh Masseh Lopes, Bart., who is the present proprietor.
Crapstone, the residence of the Crymes family, was sold by the late Rev. Amos Crymes to John Elford, Esq., the present proprietor. It is now a farm-house.
Bickham, in this parish, has been, for several generations, in the Elford family. It is now the seat of Sir William Elford, who was created a baronet in 1800.
Pound, in this parish, lately rebuilt, is the property and residence of Sir Herbert Sawyer, K.C.B. It was some time ago the property of John Lloyd, Esq., Lady Sawyer's father.
In the parish church is the monument of the gallant Sir Gilbert Elliott, created Lord Heathfield, in 1787, for his brave defence of the important garrison of Gibraltar. It is executed, by Bacon, of statuary marble, with his medallion, and a bas relief, representing the memorable destruction of the gun-boats. The monument has the following inscription:
"Sacred to the memory of George Augustus Elliott, Baron Heathfield of Gibraltar, K. B. general of his Majesty's forces, and governor of Gibraltar. He was the seventh son of Sir Gilbert Elliott, Bart., of Stobbs, in the county of Roxburgh, in Scotland. The university of Leyden enriched his mind with science, and formed his taste for literature and the polite arts. The bias of his genius soon inclined him to the profession of arms, in which he rose, by regular gradations, to the highest eminence, and at length closed a brilliant career with immortal glory. Germany beheld him, in the war of seven years, discharging all the duties of a gallant officer. The British cavalry owed to him a system of discipline that made them the pride of their country. The Havannah, the metropolis of the Isle of Cuba, saw him among the officers who levelled her boasted fortifications, and conquered by their valour. Gibraltar was reserved to crown him with unfading laurels. Though closely pressed during a siege that lasted three years without intermission, he remained invincible. The spectacle which he there exhibited to the eye of France and Spain, and to an amphitheatre of princes who beheld the glorious scene, will be an eternal memorial of British courage and British humanity. General Elliott derived no hereditary honours from his ancestors; his titles were earned by services to his country. He married Anne Pollexfen, daughter of Sir Francis Drake, Bart., who lies interred near this spot; and by her left a daughter, who was married to John Trayton Fuller, Esq., and one only son, now Lord Heathfield, who has erected this monument to the virtue which he admired. History will tell the rest. He died July 6th, 1790, aged 72 years."
There is a monument also for Sir Francis Henry Drake, Bart., clerk comptroller of the Board of Green Cloth for more than 20 years, and afterwards master of the Household; ob. 1794. There are some tombs of the family of Crymes; (Elizæus Crymes, 1584, &c.)
A part of the great tithes, which belonged to Buckland Abbey, remain in the Crymes family, and are now vested in Amos Crymes, Esq., who is patron of the vicarage.
Lady Modyford, in 1724, gave 7l. 10s. per annum to a school-master, and 2l. 10s. per annum for clothing four poor scholars. The Elford family have, at sundry times, given about 170l., now producing 5l. 3s. per annum, for the same purpose.
BUCKLAND-TOUTSAINTS, in the hundred of Coleridge and in the deanery of Woodleigh, lies about 2½ miles from Kingsbridge.
The manor belonged as early as the reign of Richard I., to the family of Toutsaints, who possessed it for six descents. It was afterwards in the Hills, from whom it passed by successive female heirs to Cole and Southcote. Buckland-Toutsaints, which was for several generations the seat of a principal and the only surviving branch of this ancient family, was sold by John Henry Southcote, Esq., in 1793, to the late William Clarke, Esq., of Plymouth, and is now the property of his grandson, of the same name.
The barton of Bearscombe alias Woodmason, belongs to Edward Torr, Esq.
Francis Freke Gunston, Esq. is impropriator of the great tithes which belong to the college of Slapton in this county, and patron of the benefice which is annexed to Loddiswell.
The parish church or chapel was rebuilt at the sole expence of Henry Southcote, Esq., and consecrated by Bishop Ross. (fn. n31)
WEST-BUCKLAND, in the hundred of Braunton and in the deanery of Shirwell, lies about six miles from South Molton, and about the same distance from Barnstaple.
Robert de Hokesham conveyed this manor to Sir William Punchardon, whose heiress brought it to the Raleghs. Some time since this manor belonged to the family of Butterfield, by descent from Pratt. It is now the property of George Thorne, Esq., of Clifton, near Bristol.
In the parish church are memorials for William Butterfield, Esq., 1777, and Jane his wife, daughter of Pratt (1771).
Lord de Dunstanville is patron of the rectory.
EAST-BUDLEIGH, in the hundred of that name and in the deanery of Aylesbeare, lies about five miles from Sidmouth. Sir William Pole calls East-Budleigh a small market-town; and says, that the market, which had been anciently held on Sunday (fn. n32), was in his time on Monday. There has been no market in the memory of any person living. There is a holiday fair on Easter Tuesday, which was formerly held on Good Friday. Leland says, that a hundred years before his time (in the fifteenth century) Budleigh haven was "used by ships; but now, (says he,) it is clene barred."
Budleigh-Salterton, in this parish, on the sea-coast, is a bathing-place, which of late years has greatly increased in buildings, and is now much frequented in the summer season, having hot and cold baths, and other conveniences of a modern watering-place.
The manor of Budleigh Sion, which had belonged to the monastery of St. Michael, in Normandy, was given, upon the suppression of alien priories, to Sion Abbey. After the reformation it belonged to the Dukes of Otterton.
The priory of Polsloe had a manor in East-Budleigh (now called Budleigh-Polstow) which after the dissolution was granted to St. Clere, and passed by successive sales to Ford and Popham. Both these manors are the property of the Right Honourable Lord Rolle.
Sir William Pole speaks of a small manor in this parish, which belonged to the Courtenays; perhaps this is the manor of Dalditch, now the property of — Hurder, of Newton-Bushell, who inherited from his uncle, the late Mr. Sleep.
Tidwell, in this parish, sometimes written Todwell and Tudwell, passed by marriage from Tidwell to St. Clere, and was the seat of that family. The last male heir of the St. Cleres is said to have pulled down the old mansion, which was rebuilt by a younger son of the Arscott family, who married his heiress. In Sir William Pole's time it was the residence of their son. About the year 1730, the Arscotts sold Tidwell to Mr. Walrond, a barrister, who built a new house on the estate. Tidwell is now the property of Mrs. Edye, widow of the late John Edye, Esq.
Poer-Hayes, in this parish, since called Duke's-Hayes, was the property and residence of the ancient family of Poer, whose heiress brought it to Duke. The old mansion at this place is celebrated as having been the birth-place of Sir Walter Ralegh, whose father had a long lease of it under the Dukes: he was born in 1552. Sir Walter Ralegh, in a letter dated from the court, July 26. 1584, addressed to one of the Duke family, expresses his wish to purchase this place, observing, that for the natural disposition he had to it, having been born in that house, he would rather seat himself there than any where else. His offer it appears was refused. The letter is said to have been preserved in the Duke family, pasted on board. (fn. n33) Poer-Hayes is now the property of Lord Rolle, having been purchased with other estates of the Dukes.
The great tithes of East-Budleigh, formerly appropriated to the priory of Polsloe, are now vested in Mrs. Hobbs and others. Lord Rolle is patron of the vicarage.
The vicar of East-Budleigh has 10l. per annum, payable out of the estates given by the Drakes to pious and charitable uses. There is a chapel of ease at Budleigh-Salterton, built by Lord Rolle. There was formerly a chapel at Poer-Hayes, dedicated to St. James. (fn. n34)
At Budleigh, is a meeting-house of the Independents, built in 1719, and at Salterton, a meeting-house of the Wesleyan Methodists, built by James Lackington, the bookseller.
St. Budock or Budeaux
ST. BUDOCK or BUDEAUX, in the hundred of Roborough and in the deanery of Plympton, lies about four miles from Plymouth, on the banks of the Tamar. Honieknowle, Kings-Tamerton, West-Whitlegh, and part of Knackers-Hole, are in this parish.
Sir Richard Grenville, who was at that time blockading the garrison of Plymouth, was defeated in the month of April 1644, at St. Budeaux, by Colonel Martin, governor of the garrison, and two companies, who had been driven into the church, were there taken prisoners. (fn. n35) St. Budeaux church and church-yard, having been strongly fortified by the royalists blockading Plymouth, were taken by the garrison of that fort in the month of January 1646; when Major Stucley, with twenty other officers and above 100 soldiers, were taken prisoners in the church. (fn. n36)
The manor of Bucheside, afterwards called Budockshed and Budockside, was held in demesne by Alured Brito at the time of the Domesday survey; an ancient family called from this the place of their residence, De Budockshed or Budockside, usually written and called Butshed or Budshed, afterwards possessed this manor, and continued here from the reign of King John, for fourteen generations. A co-heiress of this family brought it to Gorges, about the middle of the sixteenth century. In the reign of Charles I., it was sold by Sir Arthur Gorges to the Trevilles. A co-heiress of Treville married Brigadier General Harry Trelawney, who possessed and resided at this place; as did his son Sir Harry Trelawney, Bart. aidde-camp to the great Duke of Marlborough. The last-mentioned Sir Harry, led for many years a retired life at Budshed, where he amused himself with planting and gardening; having been the first person who brought ornamental gardening to any perfection in the West of England. His gardens, which abounded with American and other exotic plants and shrubs, were much resorted to by the curious. (fn. n37) The sole heiress of Sir Harry Trelawney, married her first cousin Sir William Trelawney, the excellent and much respected Governor of Jamaica, who died in that island in 1772. The present Sir Harry Trelawney, Bart., son of Sir William, sold the manor of Agaton, and part of the barton of Butshed, to Alcock, by whom this estate was conveyed to the late Lord Graves: it now belongs to his son the present lord. The remainder of the barton, on which was the manor-house, was sold to George Leach, Esq., by whom it was conveyed to Richard Hall Clarke, Esq., of Bridwell, the present proprietor. An ivyed tower is now all that remains of the spacious old mansion, which was taken down a few years ago.
Whitlegh (fn. n38), in this parish, which belonged to the Doctons, is now the property and residence of Edward Henn Gennys, Esq.
Barne was some time the property and residence of the Beeles, the co-heiresses of which family sold it to their uncle, Edward Trelawney, dean of Exeter. It is now the property of Charles Trelawney, of Coldrinneck, in Cornwall.
Kinterbury, which had for several generations been in the Corham family, was sold a few years ago by Francis Corham, Esq., to —Andrews, yeoman. It now belongs to — Elliot.
Mount Tamar, in this parish, was the seat of Sir Thomas Byard, now of Captain H. F. Senhouse, R. N. Woodland, formerly in the family of Fownes, and lately the property and residence of the Rev. F. Luce, now belongs to George Collins, Esq., of Ham.
In the parish church, which in 1563 was removed from the sea-side to its present site, is a monument of Tristram Gorges, Esq., about the time of Elizabeth or James I.; the inscription nearly obliterated; some memorials of the Trevilles (fn. n39), and the monument of Sir Thomas Byard, with the following inscription: — "To perpetuate the memory of Sir Thomas Byard, Knight, late of Mount-Tamar, in this parish, who in the service of his king and country devoted the greatest part of his life, this marble is erected by the grateful affection of his surviving family. It is not for them to record those actions which gained their beloved friend so much honour; they are chronicled in the naval annals of his time (fn. n40), and engraven in the hearts of all those who had the good fortune to serve under his auspicious command. He died at sea, captain of his Majesty's ship Foudroyant, on the 30th day of October, 1798, aged 55 years; and his mortal remains lie interred in this church." There is a monument also for Cordelia, wife of Captain John Chambers, R. N., and daughter of Robert Fanshaw; ob. 1809.
The church is a chapel or daughter-church to St. Andrew, Plymouth, but the parishes are separate.
The Rev. Thomas Alcock, more than sixty years the resident minister of this parish, and said to have been a very eccentric character, published the life of his brother Dr. Nathan Alcock, an eminent physician, who died at Runcorn in Cheshire in 1779.
I have not been able to learn the particulars of the foundation of the charity school at this place, but am informed that it was founded by the Doctons of Whitlegh. Mrs. Joanna Knighton in 1771 gave lands to this school: its endowment now consists of lands let at 71l. per annum, and 375l. 3 per cent. consols. Twelve boys and the same number of girls are clothed and educated by this charity. A Sunday school for about 50 children has been lately established.
BULKWORTHY, in the hundred of Shebbear and in the deanery of Hertland, lies nearly eight miles from Great Torrington. The village of Heytown is in this parish. The barton of Hankford gave name to an ancient family, of which was Sir William Hankford, chief justice of the King's Bench, who died in 1422. This barton is now the property of Thomas Stevens, Esq., of Cross, by bequest from the late J. Clevland, Esq. Chief Justice Hankford built the chapel, as appears by an inscription in the window. Bulkworthy is a chapel or daughter-church to Buckland Brewer.
Bundleigh or Bundley
BUNDLEIGH or BUNDLEY, in the hundred of North Tawton and in the deanery of Chulmleigh, lies about seven miles from Chulmleigh. The manor was given by William the Conqueror to William Poilgi, and was afterwards in the family of Campbell. It has been more than two centuries in the Wyndhams, (by inheritance probably from Wadham,) and is now the property of the Honourable Percy Wyndham, who is patron of the rectory.
Burlescombe or Burliscombe
BURLESCOMBE or BURLISCOMBE, in the hundred of Bampton and in the deanery of Tiverton, lies on the borders of Somersetshire, five miles from Wellington. The parish is divided into four tithings; Town tithing, South-Appledore, Ayshford, and Westleigh. Ayshford and Westleigh are the principal villages.
The manor belonged to the family of Claville or Clavell, from the Conquest till the extinction of the elder branch about the year 1370; the inheritance having been for some time litigated, it was in 1398 allotted to Richard Warre, as one of the heirs of Sir Henry Percehay, baron of the Exchequer. (fn. n41) About the year 1600 it was sold by Richard Warre, Esq., of Hestercombe, to Henry Ayshford, Esq., from whom it has descended to William Ayshford Sandford, Esq., the present proprietor. The lords of this manor had in ancient times the power of inflicting capital punishment. (fn. n42)
At Canonleigh in this parish was a monastery founded in the reign of Henry II., by Walter Claville, for a prior and Austin canons, who were changed in the reign of Edward I., by Maud de Clare Countess of Gloucester, for an abbess and nuns or canonesses of the same order. Its revenues were estimated at the time of the dissolution at 197l. 3s. 1d. clear yearly income. The site was granted in exchange for other lands to Sir George St. Leger (fn. n43), whose son sold it to Hugh Columb, Esq. It continued to be the seat of that family till 1658, since which time the abbey estate has passed by successive purchasers (fn. n44) to the families of Smith, Breton, and Browne. The late Mr. Browne much improved the house and grounds. It is now the property of his son Thomas Browne, Esq. There are some small remains of the abbey in Mr. Browne's pleasure grounds.
A market at Canonleigh was granted to the abbess and convent in 1286, to be held on Wednesdays. (fn. n45)
Ashford or Ayshford in this parish is situated in the hundred of Halberton. The manor was in the family of Esseford or Ashford, of late years written Ayshford, as early as the reign of Henry II. The heiress of Ayshford brought it in the seventeenth century to the ancestors of William Ayshford Sandford, Esq., of Ninehead, in Somersetshire, the present proprietor. The manor-house, said to have been one of the best in the west of England, is now inhabited as a farm-house. The manor of Westleigh has passed with Ayshford.
In the parish church of Burlescombe are several ancient monuments of the Ayshfords. In the chapel at Ayshford, in which divine service is performed only nine times in the year, is that of John Ayshford, Esq., the last heir male of the family, who died in 1688. William Ayshford Sandford, Esq., is impropriator of the great tithes which belonged formerly to the abbey of Canonleigh, and patron of the vicarage.
BURRINGTON in the hundred of North-Tawton, and in the deanery of Chulmleigh, lies about four miles from Chulmleigh, on the road to Barnstaple.
The manor (fn. n46) belonged to Tavistock Abbey, and was granted, with the rest of its possessions, to John Lord Russell. It was many years in the family of Melhuish, and is now, by marriage with one of the co-heiresses, the property of the Rev. Mr. Thomas of Wellington.
The manor of Halsbury was in the family of Hidon, whose heiress brought it to Thomas. It is no longer considered to be a manor; the barton is now the property of Mr. John Blagdon, of Poughill, yeoman.
The Marwoods had a manor in this parish, which passed to the Chichesters, and is now the property of the Hon. Newton Fellowes.
Callard was the ancient property and residence of a family of that name, which continued to possess it till the time of Queen Elizabeth: it is now the property of Mr. George Webber of Chulmleigh. Northcote, which passed by marriage from the Hankfords to Pollard, is now the property of Mr. Richard Babbage.
Mr. Thomas is impropriator of the great tithes which belonged to the abbey of Tavistock. The Rev. James Buckingham is patron of the vicarage.
BUTTERLEIGH, in the hundred of Cliston, and in the deanery of Plymptree, lies about three miles from Tiverton.
The manor belonged, in the reign of Henry III., to the family of Pulleyn, in which it continued for several descents: it was afterwards in the Courtenay family. Sir William Courtenay, who died in 1535, settled it upon his third son James, in whose family it continued four descents; having reverted to the Powderham family, it was sold about the year 1600, by Sir William Courtenay, to Sir Simon Leach. It seems to have been since dismembered; I do not find that any manerial rights are now exercised or claimed.
Not long before the sale of the manor, the parish church had been enlarged by Dr. Peter Muden, a Hollander, who married one of the Courtenays. She died in 1624, and has a monument in the church. The rectory is in the gift of the crown.