Surnames beginning 'A'

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Surnames beginning 'A'

Abbot, Daniel Daniel Abbot
At some point before spring 1644, lieutenant in Captain Goddard’s company in the earl of Manchester’s regiment of dragoons in the Eastern Association Army. Almost certainly the same man who by 1647 was serving as a captain in Okey’s New Model Army dragoon regiment and who later commanded his own dragoon regiment in Ireland.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.59; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 50, 60, 71, 81, 92, 103.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Abell, Edward Edward Abell
Possibly the ‘Edmond’ Abell of Spitalfields who was admitted to the Company of the Artillery Garden (now the Honourable Artillery Company), 12 Apr. 1643.
By 22 Oct. 1646 Abell was major in the Green (Cripplegate) regiment, London auxiliaries (Colonel William Webb). He was put out of his command by the Presbyterian militia committee. By his own account, he was among several commanders of the City whom it summoned to a meeting. When they were asked whether ‘they would all stand as one man for the safety of the Parliament and the Citty against all tumults and such as should come against them in a hostile manner’, he was dismissed his command when he affirmed that ‘hee knewe of noe Army that would oppose the Parliament or Citty, notwithstanding hee could engage his life for the safetie of the Citty or the just privileges of Parliament’. No cause was shown for his dismissal, ‘except for his difference in judgment’ (Clarke Papers, 1.153).
References: Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 11; Clarke Papers, 1.153; Cardew-Rendle.
Armies: London
Abercrombie, George George Abercrombie
Lieutenant in Lieutenant-Colonel William Hamilton’s company in Lawrence Crawford’s regiment of foot, recorded there at its disbandment on 17 Apr. 1645. Given his surname, perhaps one of the officers who had joined the regiment by 15 Mar., having previously served in Ormonde’s army in Ireland.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.12; JHC, 3.429.
Armies: Eastern Association
Abercromby, Jeremiah Jeremiah Abercromby
Captain in James Wardlawe’s regiment of dragoons in the earl of Essex’s Army, later captain of a separate troop of dragoons in that army once the regiment had been broken up in 1644. He may also be the J. Abercromby who in early 1645 was captain in the earl of Essex’s own regiment of horse, commanded by Stapleton, and whose death occurred in Mar. 1645.
During the opening weeks of 1645 he was campaigning in the eastern Midlands and as such he features at the time in Sir Samuel Luke’s letter books, including several surviving letters written to and by him.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 150; Luke Letter Books, especially nos. 293, 318, 322, 330, 338, 1098, 1110, 1122.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Abernethy, - - Abernethy
On 26 Feb. 1643 Major Abernethy and Major James Sergeant led a successful action at Pillington, Staffordshire, where they took horses and cattle. On 4 Mar. the two officers were ordered to march the Stafford forces to Lichfield, with Abernethy commanding the foot. The order was countermanded that very day when they were ordered to retreat back to Stafford. In 1643 money was paid to his wife.
From his name, he was presumably a Scottish professional. On 3 Mar. Sergeant was made commander-in-chief of the marching force because it was he, rather than Abernethy, who knew the country.
References: Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 58, 64, 319.
Armies: Staffordshire
Acklom [Acklam], Peter Peter Acklom [Acklam]
Of Hornsea, Yorkshire (East Riding). A major in Yorkshire. On 26 Dec. 1648 the Commons rewarded Acklom with £40 for bringing the news of the surrender of Scarborough Castle. He became a Quaker and in the early 1660s was twice arrested for conspiracy. He was accused of holding conventicles in his house, and of having declared that ‘tythes should quickly by putt downe; and if the Lord would putt the sword into their hands, wee should see they would fight the Lords Battale’ (Greaves, Enemies under his feet, 136).
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 100 [citing TNA, SP28/189]; E121/4/8, no. 35; R.L. Greaves, Enemies under his feet: radicals and nonconformists in Britain, 1666-1677 (1990), 136; JHC, 6, 104, 105.
Armies: Yorkshire
Acock, George George Acock
By late summer 1644, lieutenant in Potter’s troop in William Purefoy’s regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 122.
Armies: Warwickshire
Acock, William William Acock
A captain in the earl of Denbigh’s Army. Captain Richard Turton paid him £20 at Stafford which he had received for him from Denbigh’s major, Thomas Fraser. He was probably the Captain Acock in Staffordshire, who, probably in June 1643, was paid £10 ‘which was borrowed of him by the Committee and to bee payd by J. Southwell who is now prisoner’ (Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 319). He appears in the accounts for Denbigh’s Army as a captain of foot (Apr. and 6 May 1644).
References: TNA, SP28/253B (examination of Richard Turton); TNA, SP28/131, part 12, ff. 24, 25; Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 319.
Armies: Earl of Denbigh; Staffordshire
Acton, Francis Francis Acton
Of Over Alderley, Cheshire. A captain in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire Army. Although Acton does not appear on the list of Brereton’s officers dated 30 Apr. 1645, he had served in Robert Duckenfeild’s regiment of foot, perhaps in command of the colonel’s company. He was present at Brereton’s council of war on 16 May 1645. On 12 Jan. 1646 Acton received £60 1s 4d in pay for himself and his company.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 327, 437-8, 2. 511.
Armies: Cheshire
Acton, John John Acton
Named on pay warrants, of 24 and 27 Dec. 1644, the latter paid on 21 Mar. 1645, as lieutenant in Captain George Malbon’s company in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire Army.
References: TNA, SP28/21/294, 295.
Armies: Cheshire
Adams, - – Adams
Captain, Sir Edward Hungerford’s regiment of dragoons.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.547.
Armies: Wiltshire: Sir Edward Hungerford’s Regt. of Dragoons
Adams, Anthony Anthony Adams
Lieutenant-colonel. Lieutenant-colonel in Thomas Stephens’s Gloucestershire regiment of foot, raised early in 1643, and was paid £30 at Gloucester on 1 June 1643. By 11 Aug. 1643 he had defected to the royalists and was serving in the army attacking Gloucester.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.621-2, 635; Vis. Glos., 1623; Bibliotheca, 212.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Adams, Richard Richard Adams
Ensign in Sir William Fairfax’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 44.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Adams, Thomas Thomas Adams (baptised 1586, died 1668)
Baptised at Wem, Shropshire, on 6 Dec. 1586, second son of Thomas Adams (baptised 1559, died 1607) of Wem, yeoman, and his wife, Margaret, daughter of John Erpe of Shrewsbury. He married Ann (1592-1642), daughter of Humphrey Maptide (or Mapstead) of Trenton, Essex.
Became a prosperous London woollen draper, with premises on Gracechurch Street.
Admitted to the Company of the Artillery Garden (now the Honourable Artillery Company), 10 Mar. 1639.
Successively common councilman for Bridge Within Ward, 1639; sheriff of London and Middlesex, 1639-40; alderman for Bridge Within, 1639-49 (deprived in 1649, restored in 1660); lord mayor of London, 1645-6.
Knighted and created baronet, 1660.
Colonel of the Blue regiment (London Trained Bands), Apr. 1642 and Sept. 1643. He did not lead the regiment at the first battle of Newbury. (By Oct. 1646 the regiment was commanded by William Underwood). He played a more prominent role in City politics and administration during the 1640s and in providing administrative and financial support to parliament’s war effort.
References: Oxford DNB; Overton 1642; Thrale 1642; BL, Harl. 986, p. 25; Cardew-Rendle.
Armies: London
Adams, William William Adams
In Feb. 1645, lieutenant in Captain Van der Voone’s company in Sir Samuel Luke’s Newport Pagnell-based regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 95.
Armies: Bedfordshire
Addams, Thomas Thomas Addams
Ensign in Sir William Waller’s regiment of foot by the time of its disbandment in Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s Army, 151.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Aderson, James James Aderson
Lieutenant in Captain John Flood’s company in the Westminster auxiliaries regiment (Colonel James Prince) at muster on 13 May 1644.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, Part 5, f. 594r.
Armies: Westminster
Adshed, Thomas Thomas Adshed
Commissioned lieutenant-colonel of foot in the Staffordshire militia, 14 May 1650.
References: CSPD 1650, 506.
Armies: Staffordshire
Afflecke, James James Afflecke
Recorded on 10 June 1647 as captain-lieutenant to Colonel Robert Duckenfeild. The date may be misleading as to Afflecke’s dates of service: in Oct. 1647 James Duckenfeild attested that £8 was paid for Captain Afflecke’s use by Sir William Brereton above a year after he left the command of Colonel Duckenfeild.
References: BL, Harl. 2128, f. 77r.; TNA, SP28/128, Part 10, f. 10r.
Armies: Cheshire
Ainsworth, - - Ainsworth
Ensign in Thomas Ashfield’s company in the regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army commanded first by Sir John Palgrave and then by Sir Thomas Hoogan.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.81.
Armies: Eastern Association
Aishford, Henry Henry Aishford (died 1649)
Of Aishford, Devon. Eldest son of Roger Aishford (died 1611) and his wife Elizabeth (died 1608), daughter of Richard Michell of Pericourte, Somerset. He married Amy (died 1659), daughter of Richard Blewet of Holcombe Regis, Devon.
Colonel of a Devon Trained Band regiment in 1637-40.
Captain at Plymouth in Jan. 1643.
Lieutenant-Colonel in Colonel Crocker’s regiment at Plymouth by June-July 1643.
References: Vis. Devon, 23; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 3. 317, 321, 362-3; TNA, SP28/128, part 20, f. 2r.
Armies: Devon
Albany [Allanby], Thomas Thomas Albany [Allanby]
Lieutenant in Captain Robert Long’s company in Lord Wharton’s regiment of foot in Wharton’s Army raised for service in Ireland in 1642. Later that summer he instead went as lieutenant in Wharton’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 68, 31.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Alcocke, - - Alcocke
In Apr. 1645 a Lieutenant Alcocke was an officer in the Warrington garrison (Lancashire), complained of by the Cheshire authorities when he seized recruits who had been raised in Bucklow Hundred and then discharged them home.
References: Dore,Brereton letter books, 1. 281.
Armies: Lancashire; Cheshire
Alcocke, Edward, junior Edward Alcocke, junior
Lieutenant in the company of Edward Alcocke (probably his father) in Henry Bradshaw’s militia regiment of foot in the Cheshire brigade at the battle of Worcester.
References: Earwaker, East Cheshire, 2, 64-8.
Armies: Cheshire
Alcocke, Edward Edward Alcocke
Of Wilmslow, Cheshire. In 1648-50 Alcocke was a head constable in Macclesfield Hundred when living at Gorst Hall. In 1645 he was captain of an auxiliary company in Cheshire, and both his lieutenant, Edward Alcocke junior, and ensign, William Alcocke, were kin, possibly sons. That Apr. Sir William Brereton wrote summoning Captains Alcocke and Richard Grantham to muster their north-east Cheshire companies in George Booth’s regiment of foot and bring them to the siege of Chester. By the end of the month both ‘country’ companies (in all 100 men) had duly joined Brereton's Army. By early Dec. Alcocke and Grantham were disgruntled that their men had not been paid, but both companies (now reduced to 70) remained at the leaguer. On 22 Aug. 1650 Alcocke was commissioned captain in Henry Bradshaw’s regiment of foot in the Cheshire militia, and was with the regiment at Worcester, 3 Sept. 1651.
References: Earwaker, East Cheshire, 1, 93, 111, 154, 2, 68; Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 161, 325, 2. 168, 235, 303-5, 402-3, 511; Morrill, Cheshire, 259.
Armies: Cheshire
Alcocke, William William Alcocke
Ensign in the company of Edward Alcocke (probably his father) in Henry Bradshaw’s militia regiment of foot in the Cheshire brigade. He was wounded at the battle of Worcester. This might be the same William Alcock[e] who is shown as a lieutenant in John Booth’s Lancashire regiment.
References: Earwaker, East Cheshire, 2, 64-8; Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 285.
Armies: Cheshire; Lancashire?
Aldeney, Walter Walter Aldeney
Ensign in Captain William Foxall’s company of foot, Dec. 1643-May 1647.
References: TNA, SP28/134, Part 4, f. 57r.
Armies: Staffordshire
Alderley, John John Alderley
In early 1644 Colonel John Alderley was acting as a commissary officer for Sir Thomas Myddelton, in and around the London area, especially in procuring transport; on 23 Mar. Myddelton authorised the payment to Alderley of £50 ‘towards the paying for wagons and carriages by him brought’ (TNA, SP28/346 Part 1, no. 32). There appears no evidence that Alderley campaigned with Myddelton's brigade.
References: TNA, SP28/346, Part 1, no. 32, Part 2, no. 67.
Armies: North Wales
Aldine, Thomas Thomas Aldine
An ensign in Staffordshire, presented by the constables of Eastgate Ward, Stafford.
References: ‘Active Parliamentarians, 1662’, 57.
Armies: Staffordshire
Aldred, Robert Robert Aldred
Around the time it was disbanded in Apr. 1645, ensign in the company of Captain Palgrave in the regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army initially commanded by Sir John Palgrave but by then commanded by Sir Thomas Hoogan.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.78.
Armies: Eastern Association
Aldrich [Aldridge], Edward Edward Aldrich [Aldridge]
He began the civil war as lieutenant-colonel in Rochford’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army. Having served under Sir John Meldrum as a major, sometime in summer 1643 he succeeded Meldrum as colonel of the regiment of foot initially raised and commanded by Viscount Saye and Sele. In spring 1645, he was earmarked for command of a New Model Army regiment of foot, but he resigned as he was dissatisfied with the officers assigned to him; at Fairfax’s request, he stayed in post for a few weeks, but was gone by early May 1645.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 48-9.
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army
Alexander, - - Alexander
Lieutenant-Colonel in Thomas Birch’s Lancashire regiment of foot.
References: Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 284 [citing TNA, SP28/12/45; Dore Brereton letter books, 2. 382-6].
Armies: Lancashire
Alexander, John John Alexander
Lieutenant in Captain Matthew Draper’s troop in Colonel Jonas Vandruske’s regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s Army, 144.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Alfont, - - Alfont
Ensign by 19 June 1644, and shortly after lieutenant, in the company which came to be commanded by Richard Knolly in Anthony Stapley’s/Algernon Sidney’s Sussex regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s Army, 128.
Armies: Sussex
Alford, John John Alford
Admitted to the Company of the Artillery Garden (now the Honourable Artillery Company), 20 July 1630.
Ensign in the Yellow regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Sir John Wollaston) in summer 1642.
References: Thrale 1642; Cardew-Rendle.
Armies: London
Alford, John John Alford
Captain (from the creation of the regiment in Aug. 1643 until the beginning of 1644) and then major in the earl of Manchester’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army; he continued to serve in that capacity in the regiment, then under Nathaniel Rich, after it was absorbed into the New Model Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.52; Holmes, Eastern Association, 98, 145, 155, 240; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 52, 62, 73, 83.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Aline, - - Aline
Ensign in Edward Rous’s Worcestershire regiment of foot, receiving ammunition for his company, Aug. 1645.
References: TNA, SP28/138, Part 17, f. 24r.
Armies: Worcestershire
Allan, Robert Robert Allan
A captain of dragoons in Yorkshire. On 30 June 1643 he led his company to Beverley to defend it against royalists under Sir Hugh Holley. Allan’s company was probably later incorporated into Sir William Constable’s regiment of dragoons.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 367.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax)
Allen, Edward Edward Allen
Second captain in Thomas Ballard’s regiment of foot raised for Lord Wharton’s Army for service in Ireland in 1642; instead, when Ballard’s regiment of foot became part of the earl of Essex’s Army, he remained one of its captains, possibly later promoted to major.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 69, 43; TNA, SP28/2a/202.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Allen, Edward Edward Allen
Sergeant-Major, Sir Edward Hungerford’s regiment of dragoons, references 10 May 1643-28 July 1643.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.546-7.
Armies: Wiltshire: Sir Edward Hungerford’s Regt. of Dragoons
Allen, Francis Francis Allen
A lieutenant in Philip Skippon’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in summer 1644, when he was discharged by Essex and allowed to pass to Wales. Later in the year he was arrested and sent to London on the orders of Sir Samuel Luke, but apparently nothing was proved against him and he was released.
References: Luke Letter Books, especially nos. 922, 1514, 1519.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Allen, John John Allen
Captain of foot company in Weymouth garrison, whose minimum service dates from a complaint of his lieutenant can be computed as 10 Feb. 1645-16 Jan. 1647.
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 556.
Armies: Dorset
Allen, Thomas Thomas Allen
Cornet in Captain Richard Stephens’s troop in Edward Cooke’s regiment of horse in Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s Army, 50.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Almot, Laurence Laurence Almot
Ensign in John Hampden’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 46.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Alsop, Richard Richard Alsop
Chaplain to Colonel Simon Rugeley’s regiment of foot.
References: Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 164.
Armies: Staffordshire
Alsupp, John John Alsupp
Major in the Red regiment, London auxiliaries (Colonel Samuel Harsnett) when it mustered on 27 Apr. 1644.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, Part 5, f. 690r.
Armies: London
Alured, Christopher Christopher Alured
Son of Henry Alured (c.1581-1628) of Sculcoates, Yorkshire (Eeast Riding) and his wife Frances Vaughan. Brother of John Alured and Matthew Alured.
Christopher evidently served for a long period in the Northern Army, claiming arrears of £1,477 7s 10d in 1648. In summer 1642 (until 19 Sept.) he was captain of a company of foot in the Hull garrison. Thereafter he probably served in his brother John’s regiment of horse, rising, according to Hopper, to lieutenant-colonel.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 367; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 101.
Armies: Yorkshire
Alured, John John Alured (baptised 1607, died 1651)
Eldest son of Henry Alured (c.1581-1628) of Sculcoates, Yorkshire (East Riding).and his wife Frances Vaughan. Elder brother of Matthew Alured and Christopher Alured and nephew of Lancelot Alured. In 1631 John married his second cousin Mary (died 1635), daughter of Sir Richard Darley of Buttercrambe, Yorkshire (North Riding), sister of Henry Darley and Richard Darley. During the 1630s he became part of a godly network and invested in the Providence Island Company.
He expressed both support for the Scots in their conflict with Charles I and, elected MP to the Short and Long Parliaments, dissatisfaction with elements of royal government. In spring 1642 he was sent to Hull to bolster parliament’s hold over the town.
In summer 1642 Alured was captain of a troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army. He became a colonel in the Fairfaxes’ Northern Army, fighting at Adwalton Moor and (probably) Marston Moor.
Even though he rarely took his seat at the time, he seems to have abided by the Self-Denying Ordinance and did not enter the New Model Army. He was, however, an active regicide. He died in autumn 1654.
References: Oxford DNB; Jones, ‘War in the North’, 367; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 101; Peacock, Army lists, 90; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming); Keeler, Long Parliament.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax)
Alured, Lancelot Lancelot Alured
Younger son of John Alured of Sculcoates, Yorkshire (East Riding), younger brother of Thomas Alured (1583-1638)—in 1628 the MP for Hedon—and uncle of Matthew Alured, John Alured and Christopher Alured.
In Feb. 1628 Lancelot wrote from Rudston, Yorkshire (East Riding) to the bailiffs of Scarborough soliciting their support in the coming election for his brother Thomas and brother-in-law Henry Darley, ‘being a poore frehoulder, and in tending to be a naybor a nongst you’ (Scarborough records, 1600-1640, 188). By 1633 he was a captain at Scarborough, presumably an officer in the castle garrison. In May 1639 he again wrote to the bailiffs, this time as an officer passing on the demands of his unnamed colonel to have their men attired ready to march northwards—no doubt this was Sir Hugh Cholmley's regiment of Trained Bands.
In 1642 Alured was lieutenant-colonel of Sir Henry Cholmley’s regiment of foot and captain of a troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army, but by early Nov. had returned to Yorkshire. He was probably the Captain Alured whose loyalty Sir Hugh Cholmley suspected: ‘I cannot much confide in Captain Alured’, he complained to John Pym, ‘Both at Hull and since his coming to me he has much magnified the King’s party in London, till this defeat [Edgehill]’ (HMC, Tenth Report, Part 6 (1887), 90). However, Alured stayed at Scarborough Castle as lieutenant-colonel under Sir Hugh Cholmley, and when Cholmley defected and took the castle over to the king Alured remained with him and was reportedly his chief confederate.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 101; Scarborough records, 1600-1640: a calendar, ed. H.T. Ashcroft, North Yorkshire County Record Office Publications vol. 47 (1991), 188, 335;CSPD, 1633-1634, 314; HMC, Tenth Report, Part 6 (1887), 90; HoP: The Commons, 1604-1629, 3.33-5
Armies: Earl of Essex; Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax)
Alured, Lawrence Lawrence Alured
Lieutenant-Colonel in Cholmley’s probably short-lived regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642-3.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 36-7.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Alured, Matthew Matthew Alured (baptised 1615, died 1694)
Younger son of Henry Alured (c. 1581-1628) of Sculcoates, Yorkshire (East Riding) and his wife Frances Vaughan. Brother of John Alured and Christopher Alured.
Commissioned a lieutenant of horse in July 1642 and by the end of the month was a captain of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army, probably taking part in the Edgehill campaign. But at some point thereafter he left Essex’s Army and returned north, for by Apr. 1644 Alured was a colonel of horse in the Fairfaxes’ Yorkshire Army, and later in the Northern Army, and retained his rank until the disbandment of his regiment in Feb. 1646.
In 1648 and 1650 he was commissioned colonel of foot in the Yorkshire militia, and in Aug. 1650 returned to the regular army when he was given command of a Yorkshire regiment raised by George Gill (Gill alleged that charges against him which led to the loss of his regiment were falsified in order for Alured to secure the colonelcy) intended for service in Scotland under Cromwell. He continued serving in Scotland after Cromwell had departed, but in spring 1654 Alured was cashiered for making speeches and petitioning against the Lord Protector and subsequently imprisoned.
He was elected MP to the third (Richard Cromwell’s) Protectorate Parliament and joined republicans in denouncing the regime. He was restored to the army and to a colonelcy by the returning Rump and he continued to support the Rump in autumn 1659, for which he was dismissed by the clutch of senior officers who ejected it once again. He was prominent in opposing the short-lived military regime, supported the returning Rump and Monck in the opening months of 1660, though Monck was clearly suspicious of him and removed him from command on the eve of the Restoration. He was pardoned, though lost some of his lands, at the Restoration and was briefly imprisoned on suspicion of disaffection several times during the 1660s. He seems to have spent his last years living quietly in East Yorkshire.
References: Oxford DNB; Jones 367-8; Firth and Davies, Regimental History, 2, 462-5; CSPD, 1650, 506; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Earl of Essex; Yorkshire; Northern Army (Poyntz)
Amon, Rowland Rowland Amon
Of Thornton, Poulton-le-Fylde parish, Lancashire. He had a captain's commission to raise a company in Bispham and Poulton-le-Fylde for Alexander Rigby senior’s regiment of Amounderness and Leyland foot.
References: Warr in Lancashire, 42; Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 293.
Armies: Lancashire
Anderson, - - Anderson
Captain in Edward Rossiter’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.93.
Armies: Eastern Association
Anderson, Henry Henry Anderson
Of Long Cowton, Yorkshire (North Riding). He was probably eldest son of Sir Henry Anderson of Long Cowton, and hence son-in-law to Sir John Hotham and brother-in-law to John Hotham.
As a captain of horse in Yorkshire, in Dec. 1642 Anderson brought 40 horsemen from the North Riding to the West Riding. He was appointed to all North Riding committees from Feb. 1643 to Oct. 1644.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 368; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 94 [citing TNA, SP23/63/311].
Armies: Yorkshire
Anderson, James James Anderson (died 1643)
Anderson was not originally a member of Sir John Meyrick’s regiment of foot in Essex’s Army, but was an officer during its service in the West early in 1643. He was captured by Royalists and escaped.
Anderson was captain in James Wardlaw’s regiment from 28 Aug. 1643, where he served in the defence of Plymouth until he was killed on 12 Dec. 1643. He was buried in the parish church of Plymouth, St Andrew’s.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 3.60; Worth, ‘Siege of Plymouth’, 310.
Armies: Devon
Anderson, John John Anderson
After a time as a reformado officer, at the end of 1643 he joined Jonas Vandruske’s regiment of horse and served with that regiment as its major until summer 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s Army,143.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Andrewes, Edward Edward Andrewes
Major in the regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army commanded first by Lord Oliver St John and then by Thomas Essex in 1642-3.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 31.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Andrewes, Henry Henry Andrewes
By late 1644 he was a captain in Sir Samuel Luke’s Bedfordshire-based regiment of horse, active in and around Newport Pagnell and also occasionally in London seeking more support for that garrison. As such, he frequently features in Sir Samuel Luke’s letter books, including several surviving letters to and by him.
References: Spring, Waller’s Army, 93; Luke Letter Books, especially nos. 197, 334, 342, 345, 354, 524, 546, 558, 578, 899, 975, 1028, 1029, 1192, 1193, 1553.
Armies: Bedfordshire
Andrewes, John John Andrewes
Possibly the John ‘Androwes’ of Fish Street admitted to the Company of the Artillery Garden (now the Honourable Artillery Company), 18 Feb. 1639.
Captain in the Red regiment, London Auxiliaries (Colonel Samuel Harsnett) when it mustered on 27 Apr. 1644; he was its lieutenant-colonel on 22 Oct. 1646.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, Part 5, ff. 621 r. & v.; Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 12; Cardew-Rendle.
Armies: London
Andrewes, Matthew Matthew Andrewes
Lieutenant in the Yellow regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Sir John Wollaston) in summer 1642. Probably the Captain Andrewes, ‘a staunch parliamentarian and religious zealot’ (Lindley, Popular politics, 261) commanding a company of Randall Mainwaring’s Red regiment of foot guarding royalist prisoners in early 1643, which clashed violently with the conformist rector of St Mary’s, Lambeth, and his parishioners.
References: Thrale 1642; Lindley, Popular politics, 261-2.
Armies: London
Andrews, - - Andrews
Lieutenant in Cholmley’s probably short-lived regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642-3.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 36-7.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Anlaby, John John Anlaby (died 1661)
Of Etton, Yorkshire (East Riding). The eldest surviving son and heir of Thomas Anlaby (1566-1642) and his first wife Ursula Palmer (marriage licence 1591). His step-sister Sarah was the fifth wife of Sir John Hotham. Other connections by marriage linked John to Sir William Fairfax. He married (1) Sarah (died 1661), daughter of Roger Beckwith of Aldborough and sister of Arthur Beckwith and Matthew Beckwith, and (2) Dorothy, daughter of Sir Matthew Boynton of Barmston, the sister of Francis Boynton and Matthew Boynton.
From summer 1642 Anlaby was a captain in the Hull garrison. His commission was suspended because he supported John Hotham against Cromwell but was re-affirmed on 6 July 1643. In spring 1644 Anlaby became lieutenant-colonel of Robert Overton’s newly-raised regiment of foot, in which he served at Marston Moor and (in winter 1645) at the siege of Pontefract. It is unknown when he relinquished his commission.
From 24 Feb. 1643 Anlaby was named on every East Riding committee, and in June 1645 was appointed to the East Riding committee of the Northern Association.
From 1647 to 1653 he was MP for Scarborough, as successor to his deceased father-in-law Sir Matthew Boynton. Although Anlaby was appointed to the high court of justice to try Charles I he attended just one sitting. He represented Yorkshire in the Nominated Assembly, and, acting with a Fifth Monarchist as teller on issues of liberty and preaching in meeting houses, was identified as a religious radical. He also piloted through an act for relief of creditors and poor prisoners.
Anlaby was MP for Beverley in 1659 and was active in the restored Rump, but withdrew when Monck readmitted the purged members in Feb. 1660.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 368; Greaves and Zaller, British radicals, 1, 17-8; Vis.Yorks., 3, 141-2; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 99; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax)
Anselem, William William Anselem
Captain of troop of horse, serving mostly away from the south west, as earl of Bedford’s own cuirassiers.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.546.
Armies: Wiltshire: William Anselem’s Troop of Horse
Ansell, William William Ansell
Lieutenant of the earl of Essex’s own troop of horse in the latter’s Army in 1642, according to the contemporary printed list. Perhaps the ‘William Anselme’ who is listed as captain of his own troop of horse in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 48, 54; TNA, SP28/1a/140.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Anthony, Adrian Adrian Anthony
A captain, who served at Plymouth from 1642-1645/6. In Apr. 1643 he was described as master gunner and captain of a work called Hollywell belonging to the garrison of Plymouth, and later he was still commanding an outwork.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 3.350; Worth, History of Plymouth, 134.
Armies: Devon
Appesley, Edward Edward Appesley
Lieutenant in Thomas Grantham’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, army lists, 41.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Appleby, Thomas Thomas Appleby
Ensign in Cholmley’s probably short-lived regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642-3.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 36-7.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Appleyard, Christopher Christopher Appleyard (died in or before 1645)
A gentleman of Burstwick Garth, Yorkshire (East Riding), the younger son of Thomas Appleyard (born 1580) and Anne, daughter of Christopher Legard of Anlaby (so kin of Christopher Legard). He married a daughter of John Overton of Easington Hall. Appleyard's brother Matthew became the royalist governor of Leicester, and either Christopher or Matthew may have served in First Bishop’s War.
Appleyard was a captain in the Hull garrison from Aug. 1642, and by Mar. 1643 had joined the Beverley garrison. He may then have withdrawn with John Hotham into Lincolnshire. He was a lieutenant-colonel by 4 July 1643 when ordered by the Commons to return to Hull and resume his former duties. Jones has suggested that if Appleyard continued to serve in the North he probably did so in Matthew Boynton’s regiment of foot.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 368.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax)
Apsley, Edward Edward Apsley
From c. 1643 MP for Steyning, Sussex in the Long Parliament and the Rump. In 1643 he was serving with the Sussex Trained Bands (as captain in the Bramber Rape division) garrisoning Cowdray House and was captured and briefly held prisoner by the royalists. In spring 1644 he was commissioned by Waller to raise a horse regiment and a foot regiment in Sussex, but in the face of local opposition and with only a handful of officers recruited, the commission was soon withdrawn.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 15, 131.
Armies: Sussex
Archbold, Henry Henry Archbold
Captain. Captain in Sir Edward Hungerford’s regiment of foot from 21 Dec. 1642 to 30 May 1643; then officially joined John Fiennes, where he served 1 June-26 Aug. 1643. On 6 June 1643, when still apparently actually in Hungerford’s regiment, he requested a transfer to Nathaniel Fiennes’s forces. After Bristol fell he took a good part of his company to Brentford where it passed to Captain Stokes. Archbold then joined the earl of Manchester. From July 1644 to spring 1645 he was lieutenant-colonel in John Lutteral's regiment. In 1655 he served in the expedition to the West Indies, first as captain in the regiment of James Heane, then as major and lieutenant-colonel in the regiment of Andrew Carter, taking command following Carter’s death in Oct. 1655. In June 1656 Archbold was court martialled for seditious words but was acquitted. Archbold was set up as a planter on Jamaica, and was a member of its council from 1661 to at least 1666.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.40-1, 6.606-7; Firth and Davies, Regimental History, 2.710-1, 722; Spring, Eastern Association, 2.63.
Armies: Bristol; Wiltshire; Eastern Association
Archer, Thomas Thomas Archer (baptised 1619, died 1685)
Of Umberslade, Tanworth, Warwickshire. Second, but eldest surviving son of the antiquary Sir Simon Archer (1581-1662) [for whom see Oxford DNB] and his wife Anne, daughter of Sir John Ferrers of Tamworth Castle, Staffordshire. He married (by 1650), Anne (died 1685), daughter of Richard Lye alias Leigh, merchant of London.
During the first civil war Colonel Thomas Archer raised and commanded a regiment of horse, and was a commander under the earl of Denbigh rather than under the Warwickshire county committee. In late July 1644 he and Major Thomas Fraser encountered royalist cavalry in several skirmishes near Alcester. About the same time he was ordered by the Committee of Both Kingdoms to garrison Evesham. By 11 Aug. he was at Chipping Campden, writing to Denbigh to defend his troops against accusations of irregular conduct and complaining of the failure of Edward Massey from Gloucester to send any troops and of John Fox from Edgbaston to send more than 60 (unarmed) men.
In late 1644 Archer was the first colonel of the Worcestershire regiment of horse raised under the parliamentary ordinance of Sept. 1644; when Thomas Milward was commissioned as captain of a troop under him on 8 Oct. 1644, it was by the Worcestershire county committee, not by Denbigh. The command of the regiment had passed to William Lygon by 18 Mar. 1645.
Archer was a moderate parliamentarian, willing to sit on the Warwickshire assessment committees of the 1650s. He supported the Restoration, and whilst after 1660 he was mainly concerned with local administration and estate management, his Whig views, although linked to a concern with political unity and compromise within the county, led to his removal from the bench in Mar. 1680.
MP for Warwick in Richard Cromwell’s parliament (1659) and for Warwickshire in the Convention Parliament (1660).
References: HoP: The Commons, 1660-1690, I, 543; Hughes, Warwickshire, 223, 297, 331, 335-7, 343; CSPD, 1644, 383, 386; HMC 4th Rep, 269-70; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Earl of Denbigh; Worcestershire
Archer, Thomas Thomas Archer
Of Cheapside, when he was admitted to the Company of the Artillery Garden (now the Honourable Artillery Company), 1 Mar. 1641.
Archer was an ensign in the Red regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Thomas Atkin) in summer 1642.
References: Thrale 1642; Cardew-Rendle.
Armies: London
Archer, William William Archer
Captain in the Tower Hamlets auxiliaries regiment on 22 Oct. 1646.
References: Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 11.
Armies: London
Archibald, Henry Henry Archibald
By the end of 1644, captain in Edward Harley’s regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s Army, 62.
Armies: Waller; Gloucestershire
Arderne, Ralph Ralph Arderne
Eldest son of Henry Arderne (baptised 1580, died 1623) of Harden, Cheshire, and his wife Margaret, daughter of Thomas Legh of Adlington, Cheshire. Margaret in 1627 married as her second husband William Davenport of Bramhall, Cheshire (for whom see Oxford DNB).
Early in the war Arderne raised a troop of horse for parliament in Cheshire, as one of several ‘of the leading neutralist group’ to do so, but by early 1645 had withdrawn from active service (Morrill, Cheshire, 80). He was an active JP in the late 1640s.
References: Morrill, Cheshire, 80, 184; Vis. Cheshire, 1613, 11.
Armies: Cheshire
Arminger, Clement Clement Arminger
Captain of a company in Colonel Charles Fleetwood’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army by or from Aug. 1644, though he was later replaced by Captain Paul Hobson.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.35; Holmes, Eastern Association, 199.
Armies: Eastern Association
Armyn, Theophilus Theophilus Armyn (1623-1645)
Second son of Sir William Armyn (1593-1651) of Osgodby, Lincolnshire, baronet (for whom, under Armine, see Oxford DNB), and his first wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Michael Hicks (died c. 1625).
By winter 1644-5 Armyn was a colonel of foot in the Northern Army. On 1 Mar. 1645 he was killed at Pontefract when royalists under Sir Marmaduke Langdale raised the siege.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 368.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax)
Arnett, Hercules Hercules Arnett
Captain in John Hampden’s/Thomas Tyrrill’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army from or by 10 Aug. 1642, until at least late May 1644.
Recorded as a reformado captain of foot in July and Sept. 1644 and that autumn he requested to join one of Sir Samuel Luke’s regiments.
References: TNA, SP28/2b/514, SP28/13/128, SP28/11/ 272, SPO28/12/301, SP28/15/233, SP28/17/244, SP28/18/76; Luke Letter Books, no. 824.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Arney, Alexander Alexander Arney
Son and heir of Alexander Arney of Chalbury, Dorset, aged 20 in 1623. Orders for arrears of pay, 20 Oct. 1646, 19 Jan. 1647, and other references to Jan. 1649.
References: Vis. Dorset, 1623, 7; Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 33, 149, 247, 373, 377, 492.
Armies: Dorset
Arscott, John John Arscott
Commissioned captain of foot in the Devon Militia, 24 May 1650.
References: CSPD 1650, 507.
Armies: Devon
Arthur, John John Arthur
Captain of a company of soldiers, of which first record 1 May 1643, which took part in the Portland campaign. In Mar. 1646 he was vice-admiral of Dorset, when he was attacked and abused by a Weymouth merchant, whilst in Aug. 1647 a local seaman in a tavern called Arthur a French dog, a cur and a toad. There may have been religious differences here: Arthur’s merchant abuser also accused one Mrs Pitt of being ‘an independent loose woman’. In 4 Mar. 1647 Parliament appointed Arthur governor of Sandy Fort (SandsFoot Castle). A very active committeeman in Dorset, 1646-50.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.510; Bayley, Civil War in Dorset, 316-7, 327; Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, passim.
Armies: Dorset
Arundel, Thomas Thomas Arundel
A captain, commander of the Plymouth Fort for nine months in 1642-3 (he ceased in or by Apr. 1643).
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 3.348.
Armies: Devon
Arundell, John John Arundell
Identified by purchases of military supplies and equipment he made in London in early 1644 as engineer and master-gunner to Sir Thomas Myddelton. An account describing the capture of Powis Castle (Montgomeryshire) by Myddelton's brigade on 2 Oct. 1644 (The True Informer, no. 49, 363) recorded how Arundell set the petard that broke open the outer gate. Wounded in May 1644 at the taking of Rushall Hall, Staffordshire, Arundell was killed around Christmas 1644 while directing siege operations against Chirk Castle, Myddelton's home. The parliamentarians withdrew after an unsuccessful three-day siege, leaving Sir John Watts, the royalist governor, to report with satisfaction to Prince Rupert that 'their prime engineer was slain by the castle-side; they are very sad for him'. (Phillips, Wales,2, 224).
References: TNA, SP28/346, Part 1, no. 76; Phillips, Wales,2, 212-3, 224; Dore, ‘Attempted Conquest’, 101; CSPD, 1644, 178.
Armies: North Wales
Asbinwalle [Aspinall], Archibald Archibald Asbinwalle [Aspinall]
Identified by a pay warrant dated 28 Mar. 1644 as ensign to Captain Thomas Judd in Sir Thomas Myddelton’s brigade.
References: TNA, SP28/346, no. 38.
Armies: North Wales
Ashe, Samuel Samuel Ashe
Captain in Colonel Strode’s regiment which went with Stamford into the west: undated reference made retrospectively. A kinsman of John Ashe, Somerset parliamentarian activist, for whom see Oxford DNB; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.551; Oxford DNB.
Armies: Somerset: Col. William Strode’s Regt. of Foot
Ashely, Robert Robert Ashely
A captain of Shropshire horse at the engagement at Bishop’s Castle, Shropshire, in Aug. 1645. He was probably the Captain Astley leading a troop of the Shropshire horse in Cheshire in Nov. 1645. Reported as leading from Shropshire into Herefordshire in early Mar. 1646 a force of 100 horse and 50 foot that skirmished with Sir William Vaughan's royalists.
References: The City Scout, 19 Aug. 1645; Dore, Brereton letter looks, 1, 184-5, 204; The Kingdomes Weekly Intelligencer, 20-17 Mar. 1646.
Armies: Shropshire
Ashenhurst, Edward Edward Ashenhurst
Second son of Ralph Ashenhurst (died c. 1624) and his wife Elizabeth, eldest daughter and coheir of William Berd, Glossop parish, Derbyshire, younger brother of Randle Ashenhurst and uncle of John Ashenhurst.
By Mar. 1644 he was a major and governor of Paynsley, Staffordshire, which he refused to abandon and slight. By Nov. 1644 he had been promoted colonel. In May 1645 he was ordered by the Staffordshire county committee to join Sir William Brereton at Chester.
References: Vis. Staffs., 12-3; Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, liv, 68-9, 142, 214, 308.
Armies: Staffordshire
Ashenhurst, John John Ashenhurst (born 1621/2, alive in 1662)
Eldest son of Randle Ashenhurst (born 1584/5, alive in 1662) and his first wife Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Davenport of Davenport, Cheshire; nephew to Edward Ashenhurst.
John Ashenhurst was a captain in Staffordshire in 1643; by Dec. he was governor of Caverswall Castle, Staffordshire, commanding (by an order of 21 Dec.) 20 foot and 20 horse. In Mar. 1644 Ashenhurst refused to obey the county committee’s order to slight Caverswall and ordered pay for the garrison to be stopped. Colonel James Chadwick complained to the earl of Denbigh of the weakness of the Caverswall garrison and asked him for authorisation to march there and rectify abuses. In turn, Ashenhurst’s supporters sought his reinstatement and in July 1644 the county committee sought a compromise by putting the garrison for the time being under the authority of Ashenhurst’s colonel, John Bowyer. By Mar. 1645 Captain Ashenhurst was back in command of the garrison.
Commissioned colonel of horse in the Staffordshire militia, 14 May 1650.
References: Vis. Staffs., 12-3; Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, liv, 19-20, 35, 68-9,144, 268; CSPD 1650, 506.
Armies: Staffordshire
Ashenhurst, Randle Randle Ashenhurst (born 1584/5, alive in 1662)
Of Ashenhurst, Leek parish, Staffordshire, and Beard, Derbyshire. Eldest son of Ralph Ashenhurst (died c. 1624) and his wife Elizabeth, eldest daughter and coheir of William Berd, Glossop parish, Derbyshire. He married (1) Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Davenport of Davenport, Cheshire, knight, and (2) Mary, natural daughter of Edward Revell of Carlingthwait, Derbyshire, in 1633. Elder brother of Edward Ashenhurst and father of John Ashenhurst.
In 1639 Ashenhurst accused the sheriff of Derbyshire, John Shalcross, of embezzlement in collecting the ship money levy for that year (another accuser was a future royalist colonel, Thomas Bagshawe).
At the beginning of the war, Ashenhurst took out a commission as captain, later becoming major and colonel, and serving in both Staffordshire and Derbyshire (he also had property in Glossop Dale). He served as captain of Sir John Gell’s own troop, but, as one of a number of officers whom Gell alienated, he left his service, probably to serve with his brother Edward’s Staffordshire forces. According to Sir George Gresley, an ally of Gell’s, ‘Captaine Ashenhurst, beinge Captaine of the collonell’s own troope, … runne away with about forty of our horse, for which worthy service he has since become a major, but whether to the new colonel his brother, or to the wandering Collonell [Lewis] Chadwick, wee certainly knowe not, these two collonells being greate friends, and much together, as in reason they should, for theyre regiment consists of fewe more than that single troope’ (Stone, Derbyshire, 151).
Probably in late 1643, Ashenhurst was captured in a skirmish with the royalist Colonel John Frescheville of Staveley. Eventually released or escaped, he then raised a volunteer regiment of foot, including among its officers two other officers, captains Clarke and Taylor. After the surrender of Bolsover Castle in Aug. 1644 Sir Thomas Fairfax made Ashenhurst its governor, infuriating Gell who flouted orders to supply the garrison by attempting to deprive it of provisions.
A Derbyshire JP in 1650.
References: Vis. Staffs., 12-3; Dore, Brereton letter books, 2.468-9; 1063, 1073, 1077, 1100; Shaw, Staffs., I, ‘General History’, 59; Turbutt, Derbyshire, 3.1043, 1063, 1073, 1077, 1100.
Armies: Derbyshire; Staffordshire; Nottinghamshire
Ashfield, John John Ashfield
Lieutenant in Lord Brooke’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 34.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Ashfield, Richard Richard Ashfield
Captain in Skippon’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army, still there in spring 1645. He transferred at that rank into Skippon’s New Model Army regiment of foot and was promoted to the regiment’s lieutenant-colonel in summer 1645, following Lieutenant-Colonel Francis’s death at Naseby.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 44, 55, 148.
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army
Ashfield [Ashwell], Thomas Thomas Ashfield [Ashwell]
By Apr. 1644 and still there a year later when the regiment was disbanded, captain in the regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army commanded first by Sir John Palgrave and then by Sir Thomas Hoogan.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.80.
Armies: Eastern Association
Ashley, - - Ashley
Captain in Edward Cooke’s regiment of foot, which existed from Aug. 1643 to May 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s Army, 29.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Ashley, Edward Edward Ashley (died 1643)
A lieutenant in the Cheshire forces, accidentally shot by his own side in a skirmish with Lord Capel's royalists at Ravensmoor near Nantwich, 3 Aug. 1643. He was buried at Nantwich two days later.
References: Cheshire tracts, 67-8.
Armies: Cheshire
Ashley [Astley], Sir Edward Sir Edward Ashley [Astley]
By spring 1643 and still serving there a year later, lieutenant-colonel in Sir John Palgrave’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.76.
Armies: Eastern Association
Ashley, Henry Henry Ashley
Captain in Thomas Grantham’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 41.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Ashley, John John Ashley
Possibly the John ‘Asheley’ admitted to the Company of the Artillery Garden (now the Honourable Artillery Company), 11 June 1633.
Ensign in the Red regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Thomas Atkin) in summer 1642.
References: Thrale 1642; Cardew-Rendle.
Armies: London
Ashton, Andrew Andrew Ashton
A captain in John Moore’s regiment of foot in June 1644 (and before then possibly an officer in Sir Thomas Stanley’s regiment). Ashton was later examined about the loss of Liverpool on 7 June 1644 and the lukewarm allegiance of Sir Thomas Stanley.
References: HMC, Tenth Report, Part 4, 101-3; Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 291.
Armies: Lancashire
Ashton, John John Ashton
Identified as a lieutenant of a troop of horse and then captain of a foot company in Lancashire. Later major in the regiment of Colonel Richard Shuttleworth and then lieutenant-colonel in Ughtred Shuttleworth’s regiment of foot. Arrears of £558 2s and £107 18s 6½d recorded in Oct. 1650 and June 1654 respectively.
References: TNA, E121/4/8; E121/5/5; Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 297-8.
Armies: Lancashire
Ashton, Miles Miles Ashton
Lieutenant in Rochford’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 32.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Ashton, Myles Myles Ashton
A captain of Shropshire horse reportedly killed in the skirmish near Broncroft, Shropshire, on 4 July 1645. But a Captain Myles Ashton was with the Stokesay garrison in Feb. 1646.
References: Mercurius Aulicus, 13-30 July 1645; Bishop’s Castle Heritage Resource Centre, Bishop’s Castle town chest, first corporation minute book, f. 209.
Armies: Shropshire
Ashton, Robert Robert Ashton
Ensign in the Yellow regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Sir John Wollaston) in summer 1642.
References: Thrale 1642.
Armies: London
Ashton, Robert Robert Ashton
Of Shepley, West Derby Hundred, Lancashire. A captain of a troop of horse in Richard Holland’s regiment in Lancashire.
References: TNA, E121/5/7; Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 289.
Armies: Lancashire
Askwith, John John Askwith (died 1644)
Of Bramley township, Leeds parish, Yorkshire (West Riding). Asquith was below gentry class.
Having acted as a Scoutmaster at Bradford early in the war, on 27 May 1643 Askwith was commissioned a captain in Sir Thomas Fairfax’s regiment of horse leading the troop he had raised. ‘He was an early, possibly the first, non-gentry cavalry captain’ (Jones, ‘War in the North’, 368). Askwith fought at Adwalton Moor and at Nantwich, and on 5/6 Mar. 1644 led a successful attack on Hunslet near Leeds. He was either wounded or fell ill at the siege of York and died on 23 July 1644, having on 22/23 May relinquished command of his troop to his brother or cousin Simon Askwith. John’s widow was injured at Bradford and their house sacked by royalists.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 369; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 113.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax)
Askwith [Ayscough], Simon Simon Askwith [Ayscough]
Of Bramley township, Leeds parish, Yorkshire (West Riding), Asquith was not of the gentry class.
Simon succeeded John Askwith (his cousin or brother) as captain of the latter’s troop in Sir Thomas Fairfax’s regiment of horse in the Northern Army in May 1644. On 18 Feb. 1645 he transferred as captain to Sir William Constable’s regiment of horse. When Constable lost his commission under the Self-Denying Ordinance, Askwith transferred to Christopher Copley’s regiment of horse until his troop was reduced on 1 Jan. 1646. Askwith was a signatory to a letter from the officers of the regiment dated 9 Apr. 1645 at Whitchurch, Shropshire, to Sir William Brereton, making financial demands to meet their needs whilst protesting their continued willingness to serve. During 1646 Askwith claimed arrears of £1,358 3s 6d in pay and expenses. Jones and Hopper both placed him as coming from Bramley, Leeds; Dore (who also gave the alternative spelling of Ayscough) differed in situating Askwith at Osgodby, North Riding.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 369; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 114; DoreBrereton letter books, 1. 177-8, 394, 522.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax)
Aspinwall, Edward Edward Aspinwall
Of Toxteth, Lancashire. Son of Edward Aspinwall (died 1656), founder of Toxteth Chapel. He married the sister of Gilbert Ireland.
Aspinwall was a captain in John Moore’s regiment of foot in the Liverpool garrison when the town was taken by Prince Rupert in June 1644. After Liverpool was regained Aspinwall's company remained in the garrison until transferring into the regiment of Ralph Assheton junior, presumably when Moore resigned under the Self-Denying Ordinance. In Oct. 1650 Aspinwall was owed arrears of £449 18s 1½d for serving as a captain of foot in Lancashire. On 28 Sept. 1650 he was commissioned lieutenant-colonel in Gilbert Ireland’s militia regiment of Lancashire foot. Aspinwall was an assessment commissioner in 1651, and a sequestration commissioner in 1652-5. During the 1650s he was also an active magistrate, as was Jeremiah Aspinwall, perhaps his brother.
References: TNA, E121/4/8; E121/5/7; HMC, Tenth Report, App. 4, 102-3; Blackwood, Lancashire gentry, 98-9; CSPD, 1650, 511; VCH, Lancashire, 3, 40-5.
Armies: Lancashire
Assheton [Ashton], Ralph, junior Ralph Assheton [Ashton], junior (born 1626; alive in 1664)
Of Middleton, Lancashire. Eldest son of Ralph Assheton, senior, and his wife Elizabeth Kaye. He married Anne, eldest daughter of Sir Ralph Assheton of Whalley, Lancashire, baronet
Aged only nineteen, by 24 May 1645 Ralph junior had succeeded as colonel of his father’s regiment of foot in Lancashire following his resignation under the Self-Denying Ordinance. At least two companies from Colonel John Moore’s regiment transferred to Assheton’s at that time. Described by Blackwood as ‘an irreconcilable opponent of the Republic’, Ralph junior joined in Booth’s Rising in 1659 (Blackwood, Lancashire gentry, 75).
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 487; Vis. Lancs., 1664, 1, 15; Blackwood, Lancashire gentry, 75; Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 169, 281.
Armies: Lancashire
Assheton [Ashton], Ralph, senior Ralph Assheton [Ashton], senior (1596-1651)
Of Middleton, Lancashire, eldest son of Richard Assheton (died 1618) of Middleton and his wife Mary, daughter of Thomas Venables of Kinderton, Cheshire. He married Elizabeth, daughter of John Kaye of Woodsom, Yorkshire. Buried Middleton, 25 Feb. 1651. He was father of Ralph Assheton junior.
Assheton senior was high sheriff of Lancashire in 1632-3 and was an MP for Lancashire in the Long Parliament until being secluded at Pride’s Purge.
Assheton was one of the colonels raising forces in Salford Hundred in spring 1642, and from Dec. was colonel of a regiment of foot raised largely there. In summer 1645 he handed over command to his son and namesake. By spring 1643 Assheton had assumed the role of ‘Generall for the Parliament in this County’ (Warr in Lancashire, 29), when he marched to relieve Lancaster and effectively cleared the county of royalists except for the garrisons at Lathom, Warrington and Thurland. He later served in Westmorland and was at Adwalton Moor, and in 1644 fought at Nantwich and at Marston Moor. In spring 1645 Assheton led his regiment at the siege of Chester until resigning his commission under the Self-Denying Ordinance. In 1648 he was appointed major-general of the Lancashire auxiliary forces supporting the New Model Army in the Preston campaign, and in Oct. accepted the surrender of Appleby Castle. By Jan. 1649 the auxiliaries were an anti-army and strongly pro-Presbyterian force in Lancashire, and so Assheton, already secluded from parliament, was also relieved of his command.
References: Keeler, Long Parliament, 92; Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 26; Warr in Lancashire, 9, 22, 30, 35-9; Blackwood, Lancashire gentry, 51, 73, 74, 165; Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 280-1 and passim; Underdown, Pride’s Purge, 177-8; Broxap, Great Civil War, 32; HoP: The Commons: 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Lancashire
Asshurst [Ashurst], John John Asshurst [Ashurst]
Of Radcliffe Bridge, near Manchester, Lancashire. Second son of Henry Asshurst – a vocal opponent of the Book of Sports in Lancashire – and his wife Cassandra, daughter of John Bradshaw of Bradshaw, Lancashire. John married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of Richard Duckenfeild.
In Feb. 1643, as a captain Asshurst fought bravely in the defence of Bolton against the earl of Derby’s royalists. In Oct. with Colonel Alexander Rigby he commanded the force that captured and burnt Thurland Castle. In Mar. 1644 during the first siege of Lathom House, Captain Asshurst, ‘a man that deserves a fairer character than the rest, for his even and civil behaviour’, delivered terms for surrender (which were rejected) to the countess of Derby (Lancashire military proceedings, 168). He was Major in Colonel Ralph Assheton’s Lancashire regiment of foot at the siege of Chester in Apr. 1645 (having transferred from John Moore’s regiment) and was later promoted lieutenant-colonel. That May, when governor of Liverpool, Asshurst delivered to the Lancashire committee at Manchester news that soldiers at Ormskirk had mutinied over want of pay. On 17 June 1647 parliament reappointed him governor of Liverpool, a probable placement by parliamentary Presbyterians of an individual they regarded as politically reliable. Accordingly, in May 1648 Asshurst was a signatory to the Presbyterian, anti-New Model Army ‘Engagement or Declaration of the Officers and Souldiers of the County Palatine of Lancaster’. In 1651 Asshurst ‘came close’ actively to supporting the earl of Derby in the third civil war (Gratton, Lancashire war effort, 156). Post Restoration he was living in or near Manchester, but by 1670 had moved to Ireland.
John's elder brother William Asshurst (1606/7-1657) was MP for Newton, Lancashire, from c. Mar. 1642. As a Presbyterian and a war party man William was an ally of Sir William Brereton at Westminster. By 1648 he can be seen as a middle party Presbyterian and abstained from attending the Rump. He was MP for Lancashire in the first Protectorate parliament.
The Asshhursts’ younger brother Henry was a merchant and friend to the Shropshire-born divine Richard Baxter (for whom see Oxford DNB).
References: Vis. London, 1687, 1, 206; Lancs. military proceedings, 77-82, 168, 248-50;Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 51, 311, 481; Earwaker, Local Gleanings, 2, 276; Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 47, 69, 91-2, 94, 126, 156, 194, 216, 236, 240, 281, 283, 291.
Armies: Lancashire
Astell, William William Astell
Identified in Mar. 1644 by an acquittance for purchasing horses as lieutenant in Captain Noakes’s troop in Sir Thomas Myddelton’s regiment of horse.
References: TNA, SP28/346, no. 14.
Armies: North Wales
Astwood, - - Astwood
Lieutenant. Lyme Regis volunteers placed under Captain Revet and Lieutenant Astwood, 22 Aug. 1642.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.515.
Armies: Dorset
Atchason, James James Atchason
Major in Viscount Saye and Sele’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 30.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Atkins, Richard Richard Atkins
Lieutenant in Robert Shanke’s company in Sir Miles Hobart’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army; he did not go on to serve in the New Model Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.43; Holmes, Eastern Association, 75.
Armies: Eastern Association
Atkin [Atkins], Thomas Thomas Atkin [Atkins] (c. 1589-1668/69)
Younger son of a prosperous merchant of King’s Lynn. After a London apprenticeship, he returned to Norwich, where he became a prosperous cloth trader and rose to prominence in civic affairs, noted for his religious radicalism. Returned to London in the late 1630s, becoming sheriff, alderman and an active member of the Mercers’ Company.
Admitted to the Company of the Artillery Garden (now the Honourable Artillery Company), 7 Dec. 1624. He was colonel of the Red regiment, London Trained Bands, by Apr. 1642 and still colonel 26 Sept. 1643; by 22 Oct. 1646 replaced by Edward Hooker, presumably around Nov. 1645 when Atkin became recruiter MP for Norwich until the expulsion of the Rump (he had also sat for Norwich in the Short Parliament). He gave financial backing to parliament’s war effort and also supplied cloth and other goods to parliament’s armies.
References: Oxford DNB; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming);BL, Harl. 986, p. 1; Cardew-Rendle.
Armies: London
Atkinson, - - Atkinson
From Yorkshire (West Riding). A captain of horse killed at Wetherby in late Nov. 1642 when leading horse against royalist dragoons commanded by his friend and neighbour Lieutenant-Colonel Norton, also was also killed in the fight.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 369.
Armies: Yorkshire
Atkinson, Henry Henry Atkinson
Lieutenant in Viscount Saye and Sele’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642, according to the contemporary printed list.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 48.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Attie, John John Attie
A captain of foot in an unidentified regiment, in 1648 claimed £256 10s in arrears. Later a captain in the Yorkshire militia. He was perhaps the Mr Aty of Burton Agnes, Yorkshire (East Riding), identified in 1654 as an ejector.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 369; CSPD, 1650, 506.
Armies: Yorkshire
Audry, - - Audry
Captain. Not certainly of Hungerford’s regiment of foot, but in Mar. 1643 at Malmesbury with Hungerford and then left behind to defend it with 100 men when Hungerford left for Bristol; the town then fell to the royalists.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West,5.540.
Armies: Wiltshire: Sir Edward Hungerford’s Regt. of Foot
Austin, George George Austin
In 1642 listed as captain of a troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 51.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Awder [Auder], - – Awder [Auder]
Captain. In Mar. 1651 captain of a company under authority of Heane, governor of Weymouth, but at that point on secondment to Rede at Poole.
References: Bayley, Civil War in Dorset, 346.
Armies: Dorset
Awder, Hatton Hatton Awder
By spring 1644 and continuing to serve until the regiment was broken up in spring 1645, captain in Francis Russell’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.97.
Armies: Eastern Association
Awson, John John Awson
Lieutenant in Francis Finch’s company in Valentine Walton’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.105.
Armies: Eastern Association
Axtell, Daniel Daniel Axtell (baptised 1622, died 1660).
Born Great Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire, probably the son of William Axtell. Apprenticed to a London grocer and became a Baptist. He probably served as a junior officer in the foot in the earl of Essex’s Army, but by spring 1644 he had become a captain in John Pickering’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army and stayed with that regiment when it transferred to the New Model Army the following year; later promoted to major and lieutenant-colonel of the regiment (by then under Hewson) – in which capacity he commanded troops at the trial of Charles I and served in Cromwell’s expedition to Ireland – before being given command of a New Model regiment of his own which campaigned in Ireland with considerable brutality against the Irish. He was elected to the first Protectorate parliament but once Henry Cromwell was in charge in Ireland he fell out of favour as one of the Baptist officers who Henry viewed with suspicion. He resigned from the army and retired to Hertfordshire, though he retained property in Ireland. He briefly returned to military service and command in both Ireland and England in 1659-60. At the Restoration he was deemed a regicide and was executed in autumn 1660.
References: Oxford DNB.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Eastern Association; New Model Army
Axtell, Samuel Samuel Axtell
By late 1644 ensign in (presumably his kinsman) Axtell’s company in John Pickering’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army, remaining in that role with the company and regiment when it transferred to the New Model Army in spring 1645 and rising to be captain by 1649.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.85; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 104.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Axtell, Thomas Thomas Axtell
Ensign in Thomas Ballard’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
Reformado lieutenant of foot by May and in July 1644 (alongside other officers Ballard’s regiment). Probably the Thomas Axtell, commissioned by the restored Long Parliament captain in Jan. 1660 when the regiment previously commanded by John Lambert passed to William Eyres.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 43; TNA, SP28/15/200, SP28/17/66; JHC, 7.818;Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 2.528-9.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Ayers, - - Ayers
Lieutenant serving with John Fiennes in Oxfordshire, probably in his regiment of horse. On 18 July 1645 he was paid £2 for his charges in a journey to London upon the public service.
References: TNA, SP28/139, Part 19, f. 208r.
Armies: Oxfordshire
Aylberton, William William Aylberton
Commissioned captain of foot in the Gloucestershire militia, 8 Feb. 1651.
References: CSPD, 1651, 513.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Aylen, - - Aylen
Captain in the Sussex Trained Bands.
References: Spring, Waller’s Army, 125.
Armies: Sussex
Aylett, Jeremy Jeremy Aylett
At its muster in Nov. 1643 captain in the earl of Warwick’s regiment of foot formed from the Essex militia, part of the Eastern Association Army that contributed to the siege of Reading in spring 1643, the siege of Greenland House in summer 1644 and probably to some other actions in which the army was involved.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.31.
Armies: Eastern Association
Aylett, Richard Richard Aylett
In spring 1645 lieutenant in the regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army commanded successively by Colonels James Holborne and William Davies. Unlike Davies himself and a few of his other officers, he did not transfer to the New Model Army.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 149.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Ayleward, - - Ayleward
A captain in one of the militia-based regiments of foot in Hertfordshire.
References: A. Thompson, The Impact of the First Civil War on Hertfordshire, 1642-47 (2007), xxxiv.
Armies: Hertfordshire
Ayloffe, Thomas Thomas Ayloffe
Son of Sir William Ayloffe of Bretons and of Broxted, Essex, and his second wife Barbara Sexton. Identified by Holmes as coming from a lesser gentry family in financial difficulties. By 1634 he had married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Wentworth of Bocking, Essex.
A captain in Sir John Seaton’s regiment of dragoons, presumably joining when Seaton brought his regiment into the earl of Warwick’s short-lived army in late Oct./Nov. 1642. He continued in the regiment after it became part of Essex’s Army under Seaton and then under its new colonel George Melve, by or from 30 Nov. 1642 to at least Mar. 1643.
Commissioned colonel of a regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army raised in Huntingdonshire on 25 Mar. 1643. The regiment never formed part of Manchester’s marching army, serving instead in the garrisons of Boston, Lincolnshire and later in the Newport Pagnell garrison; in consequence, he and his men are frequently referred to in Sir Samuel Luke’s letter books. Ayloffe was governor of Boston by 22 June 1643, until 6 Sept. He continued colonel until the regiment’s reduction on 2 Apr. 1645.
In summer 1644 a detachment of the regiment served with Sir William Waller and on 15 Aug. the regiment was sent to reinforce Abingdon, where it remained until its reduction; it was disbanded with the formation of the New Model Army, with contingents going into Pickering’s and Rainsborough’s regiments.
The Commons had resolved on 21 Jan. 1645 that Ayloffe be made a colonel of foot in the New Model Army, but his name does not appear either on Fairfax’s lists or the Lords’ attempts to amend them.
Ayloffe was appointed to various administrative positions in Essex: subsidy commissioner in 1640; deputy-lieutenant and county committeeman in May 1645; militia commissioner in Dec. 1648; assessment commissioner in Jan. 1660.
In June 1649 he submitted his accounts, which the Commons referred to the committee of accounts.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.7; Vis. Essex, 1.340; JHC, 4.26, 149, 6.239; JHL, 7.354; TNA, SP28/4/362, SP28/5/204, 205, 206, SP28/211, SP28/18/208; Holmes, Eastern Association, 176, 236.
Armies: Earl of Warwick; Earl of Essex; Eastern Association
Aylworth [Ayleworth], Richard Richard Aylworth [Ayleworth] (c. 1619-59)
Of Naunton, Gloucestershire. Colonel. Eldest son of Bray Aylworth (c. 1588-1638) of Aylworth, Gloucestershire, and his wife Luce, daughter of Sir Paul Tracy of Stanway, Gloucestershire. He married Mary, daughter of Sir Thomas Sackville of Bibury, Gloucestershire.
Described as ‘the first gentleman in the county in arms for the Parliament’ (Warmington, Glos. 102), although his earliest certain service is early 1644, when as captain he raised a troop of horse for the Gloucester garrison, later that year incorporated into the city regiment.
On 1 Jan. 1644 the Commons voted £200 out of the legacies of the royalist Sir Humphrey Tracy and other delinquents to Rich. Ayleworth, captain of a troop of horse, towards his raising and completing a troop of horse to serve in the Gloucester garrison; a similar order followed on 2 Feb., drawing on a Catholic royalist’s estate. On 25 May 1644, he distinguished himself at the storming of Malmesbury: ‘Major Gray and Captain Ayleworth with joynt courage, and brave horses well mann’d, swiftly entered the towne, by leaping their horses over the chaine, and over the turnepike, and encountred the first enemy, by cutting off his arme with a sword, and shot the next in the head with a pistoll’ (Bibliotheca, 333).
After the war he was made governor of Sudeley Castle and by 1647 was a colonel, and, as ‘one of very few [parliamentarians] in the Cotswolds, was hounded from all sides and was constantly seeking indemnity’ (Warmington, Glos. 90), sued, for instance, for assault by a renegade soldier whom he had tried to arrest and by another man for the grass that sheep that Aylworth had been driving into Gloucester had eaten.
He became a JP in the 1640s, was added to every county committee and was named to eleven government commissions between 1650 and 1653. In religion by the 1650s he seems to have been an Independent, and prosecuted the Ranter, Richard Coppin.
References: Vis. Glos., 1682-3, 4-5; JHC, 3.355-6, 885-6; Bibliotheca, 333; Warmington, Glos. 57, 62, 81, 90, 102, 115-6, 117.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Aylworth, Walter Walter Aylworth
A Reformado captain on 2 Aug. 1642.
Major in Lord Brooke’s regiment of foot in Essex’s Army from or by mid-Aug.; by the end of the month Aylworth was claiming for clothing and equipment for completing Brooke’s regiment. Brooke’s regiment was shattered at Brentford in Nov. 1642. By early Feb. Aylworth was in Devon, where he had become lieutenant-colonel in Sir John Northcote’s regiment of foot by Mar. 1643. That regiment was disbanded in London on 20 Dec. 1643.
On 31 May and 1 June 1644 Aylworth and Captain Jessop accused Captain Anthony Rous of casting doubt on the loyalty of named peers in their opposition to the Committee of Both Kingdoms.
References: Peacock, Army Lists, 34;TNA, SP28/4/121, SP28/1a/144, 237, SP28/2a/72; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 4.424-6; JHL, 6.574.
Armies: Reformado; Earl of Essex; Devon
Ayres, William William Ayres
Captain in Oliver Cromwell’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army from June 1643 until late summer (either Aug. or Sept.) 1644, when he was succeeded by James Berry.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.21.
Armies: Eastern Association
Ayscough, Edward Edward Ayscough
In summer 1642 he appears in the army list as captain of a troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army. From the creation of the regiment in Aug. 1642 until the eve of its break-up in spring 1644, captain in Lord Willoughby’s regiment of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army and the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.108.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Eastern Association
Aysluye, Henry Henry Aysluye
In late summer 1642, down to the troop’s poor performance at Edgehill, cornet in Lord Hastings’s short-lived troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 48.
Armies: Earl of Essex