Surnames beginning 'C'

The Cromwell Association Online Directory of Parliamentarian Army Officers . Originally published by British History Online, , 2017.

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. "Surnames beginning 'C'", The Cromwell Association Online Directory of Parliamentarian Army Officers , (, 2017). . British History Online. Web. 26 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/cromwell-army-officers/surnames-c.

Surnames beginning 'C'

Cade, Ambrose Ambrose Cade
Lieutenant in William Bampfield’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 40.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Caine [Kaine], Captain Caine [Kaine]
Captain in Ralph Weldon’s regiment of Kentish foot when it became part of the New Model Army; there by Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 154; Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 2.452.
Armies: Kent; New Model Army
Caldecoat, John John Caldecoat
In Nov. 1644, lieutenant in Captain Oxford’s company in Sir Samuel Luke’s Newport Pagnell-based regiment of foot.
References: Luke Letter Books, no. 181; Spring, Waller’s army, 95.
Armies: Bedfordshire
Caldecott, John John Caldecott
Lieutenant in Sir William Fairfax’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 44.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Caldwell, Andrew Andrew Caldwell
In Apr. 1645, near the end of the regiment’s existence in the Eastern Association, lieutenant in Richard Griffin’s troop in the earl of Manchester’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army. By late 1645 he was captain in the equivalent regiment in the New Model Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.52.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Calmady, Sir Shilston Sir Shilston Calmady (1584/5-1645)
Of Wembury, Devon, eldest son of Josias Calmady (1565-1611) and his wife Katherine (died 1663), daughter and coheir of Edward Courtneye of Ugbrooke. He married Honor, daughter of Edmund Fortescue of Fallopit and widow of Sir Humphrey Prideaux of Soldon, in Holdsworthy parish. Father of Captain Shilton Calmady and kinsman of Vincent Calmady.
Knighted 1618.
In late 1642 Calmady was at Plymouth, where he was paid various sums including £15 towards his company. By 4 Jan. 1643 (and probably earlier) he was a lieutenant-colonel. He was captured at Braddock Down (19 Jan. 1643) and was still a prisoner until Apr. 1643, when he was released and served as colonel of a regiment of foot in the Plymouth garrison. On 26 Jan. 1646 he led his regiment out of the garrison to the siege of Forde Abbey, where he was killed, Feb. 1646. (Vis. Devon gives the date of his death as 13 Feb., Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 2 Feb.).
References: Vis. Devon, 129-30; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 3.352-3, 358-9; Wolffe, Devon Gentry, 31, 257, 288; Worth, ‘Plymouth siege accounts’, 236.
Armies: Devon
Calmady [Kilmady, Camady], Vincent Vincent Calmady [Kilmady, Camady]
No doubt of the Calmadys/Kilmadys/Camadys of Devon, but as it was a family name, exact identification is uncertain. The least likely candidate, because of youth, is Vincent (baptised 1624), fifth son of Sir Shilston Calmady (1584/5-1645) of Wembury, Devon, with his second wife Honor, daughter of Edmund Fortescue and widow of Sir Humphrey Prideaux. More likely is Vincent Calmady (died 1651), fourth son of Vincent Calmady of Wembury, attorney (died 1579) and his wife Mary Nicks of Lifton. The most likely is probably the latter Vincent’s nephew, the third son of his eldest brother Josias Calmady (1565-1611) and his wife, Catherine, daughter of Edward Courtney of Ugbrooke (married 1584). This last Vincent married (1) a daughter of Thomas Mogridge; and in 1640 (2) Damaris, daughter of - Stuckley and widow of - Mason.
Captain in Lord Wharton’s regiment of foot in the latter’s army destined for Ireland in June 1642.
By the end of Aug. 1642 (and still there 27 Oct.) lieutenant-colonel in Sir John Merrick’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army.
By July 1644 he was a reformado of foot in Essex’s Army, named alongside several other officers of Merrick’s former regiment of foot.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 68, 28; Acts and Ordinances, 1.12-3; Vis. Devon, 128-30; TNA, SP28/2b/505, 2a/2; SP28/17/66.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Calthorp, - - Calthorp
Major in Lawrence Crawford’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army on 1 Mar. 1644; he had been replaced by William Hamilton by 26 Apr. 1644.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.13; TNA, SP28/12/266, SP28/25/474.
Armies: Eastern Association
Cam, William William Cam
Cam was admitted to the Company of the Artillery Garden (now the Honourable Artillery Company) on 31 Aug. 1635. In summer 1642 he was ensign in the Green regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel John Warner). In 1661 he was lieutenant in the same regiment.
References: Thrale 1642; Cardew-Rendle.
Armies: London
Cambridge, Owen Owen Cambridge
By spring 1644, at which time he was involved in the failed operation against Newark, captain in Edward King’s regiment of foot. Later served as captain in Thomas Rainsborough’s regiment of foot – probably pre-spring 1645 in his Eastern Association regiment of foot rather than post-spring 1645 in his (different) New Model regiment of foot. However, he did go on to serve in the New Model Army, by 1647 a captain in Twistleton’s regiment of horse. At some stage he was also a major in Needham’s garrison regiment at Leicester.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.48, 2.90; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 94.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Cambridge, Robert Robert Cambridge
Ensign in (presumably his kinsman) Owen Cambridge’s company in Edward King’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.48.
Armies: Eastern Association
Campbell [Cornell], Patrick Patrick Campbell [Cornell]
Ensign in Captain Taylor’s company in Lawrence Crawford’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army. Probably the same man had become lieutenant in Captain William Johnstone’s company in the same regiment at the time of its disbandment on 17 Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.15; TNA, SP28/22/341.
Armies: Eastern Association
Candler, - - Candler
By early 1644 captain in Valentine Walton’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.105.
Armies: Eastern Association
Candler, William William Candler
Captain in Thomas Rainsborough’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army; he stayed with the regiment when it transferred to the New Model Army in spring 1645 under Colonel Henry Grey and became lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, before moving to another New Model regiment.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.89.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Candy, - - Candy
Lieutenant in Robert Swallow’s troop in Oliver Cromwell’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army in or by Jan. 1645.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.23.
Armies: Eastern Association
Cann, William William Cann (died 1658)
Captain of Bristol Trained Band. Sheriff of Bristol, 1635-6; treasurer of the Merchant Venturers, 1641-2, and master of the Merchant Venturers, 1645-6; mayor, 1648-9.
In 1642 he was made a Trained Band captain and on 4 Oct. was sent to Bath to negotiate the hire of ‘some experienced Captaine’ to exercise the soldiery. At some point in 1643 he gave up his command and was probably succeeded by Captain Hart.
References: Merchants and Merchandise, 147; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.603-5.
Armies: Bristol
Canner, John John Canner
Of Tewkesbury. Captain. Captain of a Tewkesbury force paid at Gloucester, 26 Feb.-4 Apr. 1643, possibly the force (or part thereof) of 200 foot and dragoons who abandoned the town after the fall of Cirencester and re-occupied it in Apr. On 18 Mar. Canner’s company was paid £5 when it threatened to disband. On 28 Apr. 1643 he was one of Sir Horatio Carey’s officers, paid to go down from London[?].
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 623-4.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Cannon, Edward Edward Cannon
Lieutenant in Captain Edward Fox’s company in James Wemyss’s regiment of foot at the time of its disbandment in Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 159.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Cannon, Henry Henry Cannon
A captain in Lord Brooke’s regiment of foot in the latter’s Midland Association Army from 27 Jan. to 1 Apr. 1643. Later that year, following the dissolution of both army and regiment after Brooke’s death, Cannon became a captain in Sir Arthur Hesilrige’s regiment of foot. On 13 July 1644 he and his company transferred to James Holborne’s regiment of dragoons, in which he continued until 30 Apr. 1645. On the original officer list of the New Model Army (10 Mar. 1645), he is listed in Holborne’s regiment of foot (which was actually to be commanded by Sir Hardress Waller), but instead he evidently became a captain in Edward Whalley’s regiment of horse. He and Edmund Chillenden represented Whalley’s regiment on the Army Council in the summer 1647, though Cannon was evidently ‘a silent member’ (Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 1.215). At some point between May 1649 and June 1650 he left the army.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 58; Temple, ‘New Model Army’, 56; Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 1.209, 215, 224.
Armies: Brooke; Waller (Southern Association); New Model Army
Cantrell, - - Cantrell
Ensign in Edward Cooke’s regiment of foot, which existed from Aug. 1643 to May 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 29.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Cantrell, Henry Henry Cantrell
In Sept. 1642 lieutenant to Captain Bird in the regiment of foot which formed part of the earl of Essex’s Army under the earl of Stamford and which then formed the core of Edward Massey’s garrison and army at Gloucester.
References: Peachey and Turton, War in the West,6.646.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Cantrell, Henry Henry Cantrell
Lieutenant. Lieutenant in the earl of Stamford’s regiment of foot in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army Lists, 29; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 646.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Canwell, - - Canwell
Captain in the regiment of dragoons of George Mills/Sir William Waller.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 147.
Armies: Waller; Waller (Southern Association)
Cardwine, Edward Edward Cardwine
Lieutenant in Viscount Saye and Sele’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 30.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Carew, Sir Alexander, second baronet Sir Alexander Carew, second baronet (1609-1644)
Colonel. MP for Cornwall in the Long Parliament, where he was committed to Strafford’s attainder and hostile to episcopacy. Sent in July 1642 to assist in raising the Cornish militia. He was appointed governor of the island of St Nicholas (or Drake’s Island) and its fort, commanding the entrance of Plymouth harbour. He evidently replaced Ruthen as commander of the Cornish forces in early 1643. In July 1643, he commanded the forces which failed to relieve Exeter; after the fall of Exeter made approaches to the royalists to betray Plymouth to them. Discovered, he was arrested on 19 Aug. 1643 and was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Tried in Nov. 1644, he was beheaded on 23 Dec. 1644. The individual contingents that he commanded are uncertain. Peachey and Turton, 3.306-7 writes of ‘Carew’s Regiment, if it existed, or company’, which was probably raised in Launceston (the planned muster at Bodmin having been disrupted by Hopton’s occupation of the town on 28 Sept. 1642) at a muster of men from east Cornwall held at Bodmin; which was probably of volunteers but which may have taken over some Trained Bands.
References: Oxford DNB; Keeler, Long Parliament, 126-7; Peachey and Turton, 3.306-7.
Armies: Cornwall
Carew, Sir Alexander, second baronet Sir Alexander Carew, second baronet (1609-44)
Second but eldest surviving son of Sir Richard Carew (1579/80-1643?) of Antony, Cornwall (for whom see Oxford DNB) and his first wife Bridget (died 1611), daughter of John Chudleigh of Ashton, Devon, and sister of Sir George Chudleigh. James Chudleigh was Carew’s cousin. Carew married Jane (1605/6-79), daughter of Robert Rolle of Heanton, Devon.
MP for Cornwall in the Long Parliament, where he was committed to Strafford’s attainder and hostile to episcopacy.
Carew was sent in July 1642 to assist in raising the Cornish militia. He was appointed governor of the island of St Nicholas (or Drake’s Island) and its fort, commanding the entrance of Plymouth harbour. He evidently replaced Ruthen as commander of the Cornish forces in early 1643. In July 1643 he commanded the forces which failed to relieve Exeter; after the fall of Exeter he made approaches to the royalists to betray Plymouth to them. Discovered, he was arrested on 19 Aug. 1643 and was imprisoned in the Tower of London. Tried in Nov. 1644, he was beheaded on 23 Dec. 1644.
The individual contingents that Carew commanded are uncertain. Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 3.306-7 write of ‘Carew’s Regiment, if it existed, or company’, which was probably raised in Launceston (the planned muster at Bodmin having been disrupted by Hopton’s occupation of the town on 28 Sept. 1642) at a muster of men from east Cornwall. It was probably of volunteers but may have taken over some trained bands.
References: Oxford DNB, Keeler, Long Parliament, 126-7. For birth date see Vivian, Devon, 142; IGI; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 3.306-7; History of Parliament, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Cornwall; Devon
Carew, Edward Edward Carew
Lieutenant in the regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army commanded by Lord Oliver St John and then Thomas Essex in 1642-3.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 31.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Carew, Henry Henry Carew
Third captain in Lord Wharton’s regiment of foot in his army raised for Ireland in 1642; he went as captain in Wharton’s regiment in the earl of Essex’s Army by 29 Aug.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 68, 31; TNA, SP28/2a/84, SP28/2b/238.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Carey, Daniel Daniel Carey
In spring 1645 – and probably by 1644 – captain the regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army commanded successively by Colonels James Holborne and William Davies. Unlike Davies himself and a few of his other officers, he did not transfer to the New Model Army.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 149.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Carey, Horatio Horatio Carey
Eldest son of Sir Robert Carey (1583-1638), grandson of Henry, first baron Hunsdon, and nephew of George Carey, second baron Hunsdon, patrons of Shakespeare’s playing companies – which might explain why Horatio owned a manuscript version of a variant of the second sonnet. Sir Robert served under Horatio Vere, Lord Vere of Tilbury in the Netherlands, and married Alletta Hogenhove, daughter of the secretary of the States-General.
Horatio Carey married Pernel, daughter of Robert Harrington of Durham. His son Robert succeeded to the title of baron Hunsdon in 1677.
For much of the 1630s, Carey fought in the Swedish army. In Feb. 1638 Major Carey was one of a group of officers who sought letters patent for training the king’s cavalry, which was out of frame and unserviceable, citing their experience in horsemanship in the foreign wars as their qualification. In Jan. 1640 he was again one of a number of petitioners; having been induced to come over to England by the English ambassador at Hamburg upon the occasion of the king’s late expedition to the north (i.e. the First Scots War), they had not found any employment and appealed to the king for subsistence. In Apr. he and his lieutenant sought a pass to return to the continent.
The wars that followed provided more employment. He was captain in Sir James Hamilton’s regiment of foot in the earl of Northumberland’s Army against the Scots in the Second Scots War. In Jan. 1641 Sir William Uvedale wrote that Carey had been given one of Sir William Ogle’s cashiered companies, and that he had lent him £20 to carry him down. In summer 1642 Carey was second captain in William Bampfield’s regiment of foot raised for service in Ireland, though he is then listed as captain of a troop of horse to serve in the earl of Essex’s Army.
By Sept. 1642 Carey was major of the earl of Bedford’s horse (eight troops which he brought from the earl of Essex’s Army to the siege of Sherborne in Sept. 1642), in Sir William Waller’s regiment. On 24 Sept. Carey was ordered to pursue Captain John Digby and others and try and capture Sir Ralph Sydenham, Sir Hugh Pollard and the earl of Bath. Five days later the Devon commanders Sir George Chudleigh and Sir John Northcote thanked Carey for his conduct.
He was colonel of a regiment of foot raised in Gloucestershire under Sir William Waller’s authority, probably early in 1643 (the earliest certain payment is 12 Apr.). In June Carey deserted to the royalists at Wells. The regiment was probably destroyed at Roundway Down in July and what was left absorbed into other units.
By May 1644 Carey was royalist governor of Tetbury. He was knighted by the king. In 1645 he was a senior officer in the royalist garrison of Bristol, his name coming second after Prince Rupert’s in the articles of surrender on 10 Sept. A few days later he was ordered by the king to join him at Worcester. In Sept. 1648, in the wake of the second civil war, a warrant was issued for his arrest. He evidently fled abroad. Probably the following year, he appealed for a safe conduct to the committee for compounding; he had just arrived abroad and he wanted to consult the deeds of his long-sequestered estate – most of which lay in Yorkshire and County Durham.
Horatio Carey, then of Sockburn, Yorkshire, later compounded, having fought for the king at the battle of Worcester.
References: GEC, 6.630-1; E.G.S. Reilly, Historical anecdotes of the families of the Boleynes, Careys, Mordaunts, Hamiltons, and Jocelyns(1839), 26; G. Taylor, ‘Some manuscripts of Shakespeare’s sonnets’, Bulletin of the John Rylands university Library, vol. 68 (1985-86), 220-1;Peacock, Army lists, 87, 48;Peachey and Turton, War of the West, 6.623-4, 659; Bibliotheca, 65; Rushworth, Historical collections, 6.23-89; CCC.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Waller (Western Association; Gloucestershire)
Carey, Sir Horatio Sir Horatio Carey
Colonel. Major of the earl of Bedford’s horse (some eight troops which he brought from Essex’s army to the siege of Sherborne in Sept. 1642). On 24 Sept. Carey was ordered to pursue Captain John Digby and others, and try and capture Sir Ralph Sydenham, Sir Hugh Pollard and the earl of Bath. Five days later the Devon commanders Sir George Chudleigh and Sir John Northcote thanked Carey for his conduct. Colonel of a regiment of foot raised in Gloucestershire under Sir William Waller’s authority, probably early in 1643 (the earliest certain payment is 12 Apr.). In June Carey deserted to the royalists at Wells. The regiment was probably destroyed at Roundway Down in July and what was left absorbed into other units. By May 1644 Carey was royalist governor of Tetbury. Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, VI, 623-4, 659; Bibliotheca, 65.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.623-4, 659; Bibliotheca, 65.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Carey, John, Viscount Rochford John Carey, Viscount Rochford (1607/8-1677)
Son of Henry Carey, fourth Baron Hunsdon (1617), second Viscount Rochford (1621) and first earl of Dover (1628) (c. 1580-1666) and his first wife Judith, daughter of Sir Thomas Pelham, baronet, of Laughton, Sussex. His father was Speaker of the House of Lords, 14 Mar. 1641, and as a royalist Privy Councillor, colonel of a regiment of Oxford ‘scholars and strangers', 1644-6.
John was created a Knight of the Bath at coronation of Charles I and was summoned to the Lords in his father's barony on 3 Nov. 1640.
Following his father's creation as earl of Dover, until he succeeded to that title upon the latter's death, Carey was styled Viscount Rochford.
He married (1) Dorothy, daughter of Oliver St John, first earl of Bolingbroke and his wife Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of William Paulett on 9 May 1628; she died 28 June 1628; (2) Abigail, sister of Charles, first Viscount Cullen, daughter of Sir William Cokayne of Rushton, Northamptonshire and his wife Mary, daughter of Richard Morris on 2 Dec. 1630 (her mother had married his father on 6 July 1630).
On 10 June 1642 he pledged to maintain ten horses and serve in person in the parliamentarian cause. In Aug. he became colonel of a regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army, which was disbanded in May/June 1643.
In July 1644, faced with the evidence of two intercepted letters pointing to Rochford having obtained a royal pardon (one dated 1 Oct. 1643), the Commons resolved ‘That it doth appear, that the Lord Viscount Rocheford hath adhered to the Enemies of King, Parliament, and Kingdom, now in Arms against the Parliament’ (JHC, 3.559).
He was sequestered but on 27 Sept. 1645 the Lords let him in again, as the Commons had failed to follow the matter up with a particular charge.
He continued to sit at Westminster 26 July-6 Aug. 1647, after the Speakers and other MPs had fled to the Army, acting as Speaker of the House of Lords, 1-5 Aug. 1647. For this he was one of seven peers charged by the Commons with levying war against the king, parliament and kingdom. After imprisonment he was released in Jan. 1648, but although more detailed charges for impeachment were entered in Feb., and he was sequestered, in June the case was dropped.
He died on 26 May 1677.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 32; TNA, SP28/1a/38, SP28/7/317, 455, SP28/8/195, SP28/9/138,299; GEC, 4.445-6, 6.630-1,11.52; E.R. Foster, The House of Lords 1603-1649: structure, procedure, and the nature of its business (1983), 174-5; JHL, 5.123; JHC, 3.559, 561, 4.280.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Carleil, Robert Robert Carleil
Of Sewarby, Yorkshire (East Riding). By late 1642 a captain at Hull.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 405.
Armies: Yorkshire
Carmichael, - - Carmichael
Captain of a troop of horse in the Kent Trained Bands in Nov. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 78.
Armies: Kent
Carmichael, John John Carmichael
Having served as lieutenant to Captain John Fiennes in Colonel Nathaniel Fiennes’s regiment of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army, from autumn 1643 until early 1645 he was a captain in Hans Behre’s regiment of horse. When the regiment mustered during the 1644 campaign in the South West, he was commanding a troop of 11 officers and 72 troopers. On 5 Aug. 1644, when Essex signed a warrant to pay him £50 arrears, it was noted that he had been very diligent in the service, but was now sick and weak and so exposed to much expense.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 25; Peacock, Army lists, 55;Symonds, Diary, 73; TNA, SP28/10/155, SP28/17/298, SP28/19/74.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Waller (Southern Association)
Carmichael, Joseph Joseph Carmichael
In 1642 he is listed as lieutenant in Fiennes’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 54.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Carr, Gilbert Gilbert Carr
By Aug. 1643 captain in John Middleton’s regiment of horse, wounded at the first battle of Newbury; possibly succeeded Bosworth as major after the latter’s death from wounds sustained at Cheriton. But he is probably also the Gilbert Carr who appears for a time as major of the regiment of horse raised by Sir Richard Grenville and, after his defection to the king, commanded by Colonel Edward Cooke.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 104.
Armies: Essex’s Army; Waller (Southern Association)
Carr, James James Carr
Colonel. Probably a Scottish professional soldier. He served as lieutenant-colonel of foot, probably a Scottish professional serving in John Fettiplace’s regiment. He was described as the only experienced officer at Cirencester when it was stormed on 2 Feb. 1643, when he was taken prisoner. In May 1643 he received £10 when he was at Oxford, presumably still a prisoner. He became sergeant-major-general of foot and dragoons, and later colonel of a regiment of foot disbanded after Cheriton (29 Mar. 1644).

References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 617.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Carr, Thomas Thomas Carr
Deputy-governor and later governor of the Isle of Wight. Colonel of a regiment of foot whose companies garrisoned various strongpoints on the Isle. Rather tardily, a detachment from this regiment crossed to the mainland in 1644 and campaigned under Waller for a time, probably fighting at the second battle of Newbury.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 35.
Armies: Isle of Wight; Waller (Southern Association)
Carrick, - - Carrick
Captain in the regiment of foot in the Portsmouth garrison commanded by Sir William Lewis/William Jephson in Apr. 1643, but no longer there by 7 Dec. 1643.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 62.
Armies: Hampshire
Carrington, William William Carrington
Lieutenant-Colonel in John Booth’s regiment of Lancashire foot. By Mar. 1645 Carrington was deputy-governor (to Booth) of Warrington, Lancashire, involved in the unlawful arrest of Cheshire sequestrators, part of a dispute over Cheshire’s responsibility for the upkeep of the garrison. Dore notes the local connection with the Carringtons of Carrington in Cheshire, a few miles south-east of Warrington, and familial, as John’s father’s first wife had been Jane Carrington of the Cheshire family.
Carrington was at the siege of Chester in Dec. 1645 and into Jan. 1646.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 81-2, 2. 402-3, 487; TNA, E121/5/7.
Armies: Lancashire
Carter, George George Carter
Of Hambleton, Lancashire.
In summer 1643 Carter was commissioned captain by Colonel Alexander Rigby senior to raise a company in Stalmine, Hambleton and adjacent townships.
References: Warr in Lancashire, 42; Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 293.
Armies: Lancashire
Carter, John John Carter (c. 1619-1676)
Son of Thomas Carter, vicar of Dinton, Buckinghamshire (who sat in the Westminster Assembly) and brother of the merchant William Carter.
John was reputedly a linen-draper in London, but it is by his command in Sir Thomas Myddelton’s brigade that he emerges from obscurity. The warrants in TNA, SP28/346 mentioning him are all late, after the initial raising of the brigade in spring 1644: no. 217, 19 Nov. 1644, ‘by virtue of warrant of TM, William Carter acknowledges receipt of £600 for use of my brother John Carter’; no. 222, 19 Nov. 1645, ‘Acq. For £200 [part of an order for £1,380] due to me from TM, signed Jon. Carter; no. 254, ‘Recd. of AM, 5 Dec. 1645, in part of what is due to my brother Colonel John Carter, upon an order payable out of my Lord Peter’s estate: £100: signed Will. Carter’.
As a lieutenant-Colonel John Carter served under Colonel Beale, commander of the foot landed in Pembrokshire in Aug. 1644 that later marched north to join forces with Myddelton in mid Wales.
About 1647 Carter married a Denbighshire heiress, Elizabeth, daughter of David Holland of Kinmel. In 1648 he led the force that defeated Sir John Owen’s royalists at Llandegai. Carter ‘became the mainstay of the republican cause in North Wales’ (HoP, 2.26): in 1650 as a commissioner for the propagation of the gospel; as a county assessment commissioner for Anglesey, Caernarfonshire, Denbighshire and Flint, and sitting as MP for Denbigh in all three Protectorate parliaments. In 1658 he accordingly received a Protectorate knighthood. By 1660, evidently having shifted with the political tide, Carter was entrusted by Monck with the slighting of the castles at Denbigh and later Caernarfon. He was the MP for Denbigh borough in the Convention Parliament.
References: HoP: The Commons, 1660-1690, 2, 26-7; Tucker, Denbighshire Officers, 27-30; Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 252-3; TNA, SP28/346.
Armies: North Wales
Carter, John John Carter
In Aug. 1644 succeeded the late Robert Wase as captain in John Pickering’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army. He transferred with the company and regiment into the New Model Army in spring 1645 and had become the regiment’s major by 1648.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.87; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 49, 59, 71, 81, 91, 103.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Carter, Matthew Matthew Carter
A captain in the Hull garrison at the beginning of the war. He was posted to the West Riding in Sept. 1642, based at Cawood Castle. Following Lord Fairfax’s abandonment of Selby in Mar. 1643 Carter moved to Wressell Castle, where he was based for a few months with Captain William Goodrick. In Mar. 1644 Carter became a captain in Sir William Constable’s regiment of foot, and later major in either John Lambert’s or Laurence Parson’s regiments of horse, before being Major of Simon Needham’s regiment of foot. He retained his commission when Needham’s was merged into John Bright’s regiment in 1646. In Dec. 1644 Carter testified against the Hothams.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 375.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Poyntz)
Carter, Ralph Ralph Carter
Lieutenant in Rochford’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 32.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Carter, William William Carter
Of Cotton, near Chester.
By Apr. 1645 captain of a 40-strong troop in Sir William Brereton’s regiment of horse. That Oct. Carter’s troop had increased to about 60 men and he remained in command in Apr. 1646, when Brereton sought (fruitlessly) to have the unit transferred from Cheshire to join him at the siege of Lichfield.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 175, 324, 328, 411, 430, 441, 2. 111, 273; Carr and Atherton, Brereton Staffs., 123.
Armies: Cheshire
Cartleton, Henry Henry Cartleton
Captain in Herbert Morley’s regiment of horse, commanding a company of dragoons by 3 Aug. 1643 and still there in Oct. 1644. In Dec. 1643 Cartleton led his troop in a successful repulse of a royalist force trying to cross Bramber Bridge.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 98, 99.
Armies: Sussex; Waller (Southern Association)
Cartwright, - - Cartwright
From near Audlem, Cheshire.
By Apr. 1645 a captain of a ‘country company’ in George Booth’s regiment of foot in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire Army.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 325, 329-30.
Armies: Cheshire
Cartwright, - - Cartwright
In 1646 ensign in Captain (-Lieutenant) Hugh Birtles’s company in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire forces at the siege of Lichfield.
References: Carr and Atherton, Brereton Staffs., 271, 326, 354.
Armies: Cheshire
Carver, - - Carver
By spring 1644 and still there a year later on the eve of the regiment’s transfer to the New Model Army, though he did not enter the New Model, captain in John Pickering’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.86.
Armies: Eastern Association
Case, Henry Henry Case
Lieutenant in the earl of Peterborough’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 28.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Case, John John Case
A captain in Gilbert Ireland’s Lancashire regiment.
References: Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 290.
Armies: Lancashire
Casie, William William Casie
Lieutenant in the regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army commanded by Lord Oliver St John and then Thomas Essex in 1642-3.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 31.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Caslie, - - Caslie
Ensign in the Surrey regiment of foot of Samuel Jones/John Fielder.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 66.
Armies: Surrey; Waller (Southern Association)
Castle, James James Castle
From Jan. 1643 captain, from summer 1643 major and from spring 1645 lieutenant-colonel of Godfrey Bosvile’s regiment of foot largely based in Warwickshire, though in summer 1644 Castle supported Waller’s Oxfordshire campaign. He served as an officer in Ireland in the latter half of the 1640s and was killed while supporting Cromwell’s storming of Drogheda.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 30.
Armies: Warwickshire; Waller
Castle, Thomas Thomas Castle
In Aug. 1643 captain of a company in a regiment of foot which served under Oliver Cromwell and later under Colonel Francis Russell in their capacity as governors of the Isle of Ely and which probably originated as an auxiliary regiment of the Cambridgeshire militia.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.28.
Armies: Eastern Association
Castolon [Castlon], Ralph Ralph Castolon [Castlon]
Captain in the earl of Denbigh’s Army: on 15 Apr. 1644 he was paid £4 for his journey to London on the state’s service.
References: TNA, SP28/131, part 12, f. 22.
Armies: Earl of Denbigh
Catcott, Henry Henry Catcott
Captain in a company of the Arundel Rape Trained Bands, part of the garrison of Arundel Castle until its capture on 2 Dec. 1643 and then of the Chichester garrison.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 125.
Armies: Sussex
Caudron, - - Caudron
At the time of the unsuccessful operation against Newark in spring 1644 captain in Edward King’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.48.
Armies: Eastern Association
Caulfield, Lord, William William Caulfield, fifth Lord Caulfield and baron Caulfield of Charlemont in the Irish peerage (later first viscount Charlemont) (1625-1671)
Son of William Caulfield, second Lord Caulfield, baron of Charlemont (baptised 1587, died 1640) and his wife Mary, daughter of Sir John King of Boyle Abbey, County Roscommon. The younger William inherited his title after the deaths of his elder brothers Toby (died Feb. 1642, killed during the Irish Rebellion) and Robert (died 1 Jan. 1644), the latter from an opium overdose. In 1653 he married Sarah, second daughter of Charles Moore, second Viscount Drogheda.
William was a cornet in Waller’s Southern Association army, captured at the second battle of Newbury (23 Oct. 1644). In 1645, although not on the original officer list, he became a captain in Richard Graves’s regiment of horse in the New Model Army. He left the regiment about June 1645, about the same time as his colonel, who supported parliament rather than the New Model in their conflicts. In the 1650s he served in Ireland in Sir Charles Coote’s regiment of horse, capturing Sir Phelim O’Neill in 1653, who had taken the family castle at Charlemont and was held responsible for Toby Caulfield’s death. After Coote’s regiment disbanded in 1655, Caulfield remained governor of Charlemont Castle. At the Restoration he was made governor of Fort Charlemont for life, but he agreed to sell it to the crown for £3,500 in 1664. An Irish privy councillor, he was created Viscount Charlemont in 1665.
References: Oxford DNB; Spring, Waller’s army,app. 2, p. 3; GEC, III, 135-6; Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 1.103, 107, 2.617.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association); New Model Army; Ireland
Caunaday, - - Caunaday
Apparently not of gentry class.
A captain in Sir William Constable’s regiment of Yorkshire horse serving in Cheshire in Apr. 1645.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 198, 522; Jones, ‘War in the North’, 375.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax)
Cause [Clos, Claus], Christopher Christopher Cause [Clos, Claus]
Cornet in Major Samuel Bosa’s troop in Hans Behre’s regiment of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army in Apr. 1644 (probably a troop of Dutchmen); lieutenant by Oct. 1644. At the latter date he was probably captain-lieutenant of the colonel’s troop. In Apr. 1645 he was commissioned a captain in the same regiment (now commanded by Major Buller). After the regiment was sent west to become part of the Massey Brigade, and was reduced into Massey’s own regiment of horse after May 1645, he became captain-lieutenant of the colonel’s troop, and was captain of another troop in the same regiment at the time of its disbandment in summer 1647.
He then served as captain-lieutenant to Edward Cooke’s own troop of horse (possibly a militia troop), until its disbandment in Feb. 1648.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 25; TNA, SP28/14/266, SP28/19/52; CSPD, 1644-45, 423; JHC, 4.120;Temple, ‘Massey Brigade’, 438, 439, 441, 443.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Waller (Southern Association); Massey Brigade; Somerset
Cave, - - Cave
Captain, evidently in the earl of Denbigh’s Army. Denbigh wrote a letter, undated, on Cave’s behalf, to the Leicesterhire county committee.
References: A2A, citing calendar of Denbigh Mss. in Warws. RO,CR 2017/C10/56.
Armies: Earl of Denbigh
Cawley, Soloman Soloman Cawley
Lieutenant in Robert Swallow’s troop in Oliver Cromwell’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army in or by Aug. 1644.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.23.
Armies: Eastern Association
Cawley, William William Cawley (baptised 1602, died 1667)
Eldest son of John Cawley (died 1621), a brewer of Chichester who was three times mayor, and his third wife, Catherine. Cawley was MP for Chichester in 1628 and for Midhurst in the Long Parliament. Captain in the Chichester Rape Trained Bands. In 1642 he procured arms and ammunition from Portsmouth to secure Chichester for parliament but had to flee to Portsmouth when the royalists occupied the city. In Oct. 1644 he was appointed governor of Cowdray House. In 1646 was given responsibility for the reduction of the Chichester garrison.
Oxford DNB underlines, however, that he was most active and significant as a civilian administrator rather than as a military officer: ‘one of the most zealous parliamentarian activists in Sussex, and one of the most energetic members of the county committee’ (Oxford DNB).
A regicide and an active MP in the Rump Parliament. After the Restoration he fled first to the South Netherlands and then to Switzerland, dying at Vervey in 1667.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 124; Oxford DNB; Thomas-Stanford, Sussex, 39-43, 161.
Armies: Sussex
Caylo, - - Caylo
Lieutenant, Dorset, from whom £64 was borrowed 5 May 1643.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.524.
Armies: Dorset
Cecil, Benjamin Benjamin Cecil
Captain in Sir William Constable’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 41; Davies, ‘Essex’s Army’, 47.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Ceely [Celie], Thomas Thomas Ceely [Celie]
References 29 May 1643 to 17 July 1643 as Captain Ceely at Lyme, although he may be a kinsman of Thomas Ceely. 20 July 1643 reference to Colonel Celie of Lyme, and colonel by opening of siege in Apr. 1644, which suggests that in May 1643 a number of companies were raised under and expanded and reorganised into a regiment of at least four companies.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.515-6.
Armies: Dorset
Ceely, Thomas Thomas Ceely
Probably son of William Ceely of St Ives, Cornwall. A colonel in Dorset.
References 29 May 1643 to 17 July 1643 as Captain Ceely at Lyme, although he may be a kinsman of Colonel Thomas Ceely rather than the man himself.
20 July 1643 reference to Colonel Celie of Lyme, and colonel by opening of siege in Apr. 1644, which suggests that in May 1643 a number of companies were raised under and expanded and reorganised into a regiment of at least four companies. A Ceely was a committeeman and mayor of Lyme Regis on 2 Jan. 1644 when he petitioned parliament for aid in the face of the royalist approach and was governor during the siege (Apr.-May 1644). The army officer is presumably a kinsman. At Lyme he acquired a reputation for grasping high-handedness. A 1648 pamphlet complained of ‘the late imperious governor of Lyme (Thomas Ceeley) and others of his office and broken condition’, whilst earlier he was a target of Clubmen, ‘a stout man, narrowly escaping’ from a Clubman rising in the town on 3 July 1645.
References: Vis. Cornwall, 82; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.515-6; Bayley, Civil War in Dorset, 263, 353; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Dorset
Celey, Refor [?] Refor [?] Celey
Major in Lyme garrison who in 1650 signs a petition for maimed soldier. His forename may be a misreading of signature [actually Thomas Ceely?]
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.516.
Armies: Dorset
Chadwick, James James Chadwick
A distant kinsman of Lewis Chadwick, of whom he was an ally in supporting the earl of Denbigh against Sir William Brereton. A barrister who served as deputy recorder of Nottingham, and at other times recorder of Derby and Stafford.
According to the hostile Lucy Hutchinson, who regarded him as low-born (he came of a Lancashire gentry family), he got supporting letters from the Nottinghamshire county committee and so procured a commission for a regiment from Lord Fairfax and joint-governorship of Nottingham town and castle with Colonel Pierrepoint. ‘The last he kept very private; the first he bragg’d of as a thing, which, my lord considering his greate abilities, would need enforce upon him. In execution of this, he rays’d seven men, which were his meniall servants, went into Staffordshire, possesst a papist’s fine house, and fired it to runne away by the light, when the enemie was thirty miles from it, and cheated the country of pay for I know not how many hundred men: for which, if he had not stolen away in the night, he had bene stoned’ (Hutchinson, 167-8).
His secretively-obtained governor’s commission was exposed and thwarted, and his failure in Nottinghamshire explains his move into Staffordshire. Sir John Gell scornfully described him as ‘the wandering collonell Chadwick’, commanding a regiment no stronger than a troop (Shaw, Staffordshire, 1, ‘General History’, 59).
In 1644 he procured the governorship of Caverswall House from the earl of Denbigh, again apparently by fairly secretive means, overriding the fact that he had neither sufficient men to hold it whilst it was actually being garrisoned by Captain John Ashenhurst. He was an ally of Lewis Chadwick, supporting the earl of Denbigh in his conflicts with Sir William Brereton, and was arrested when the latter staged a coup at Stafford in Dec. 1644. In Oct. 1645 a Staffordshire JP, he was continuing the struggle in Staffordshire of the ‘civil power…to distract the military power’, as Brereton put it (Dore, Brereton Letter Books 2.127).
References: Dore, Brereton Letter Books, 2.127, 129; Hutchinson, Life, 106-8, 111, 154-5, 192-3, 193, 196, 204, 206, 208. 210; Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, 144, lxxix and passim.
Armies: Staffordshire; Nottinghamshire
Chadwick, John John Chadwick (born 1617/18)
Eldest son of Jordan Chadwick (died 1634) of Hely Hall, Lancashire and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Matthew of Hollinwood, Lancashire. He married c. 1636 a kinswoman, Catherine, daughter and heiress of Lewis Chadwick of Mavesyn Ridware and his wife Mary, daughter of Anthony Bagot of Coton, Staffordshire. The Mavesyn Ridware estate passed to John at Lewis’s death.
His military career is vague. He served with his father-in-law when the parliamentarian forces took Stafford (May 1643). Probably the ‘Chedwick’ assessed as worth £400 per annum in 1662-3, of whom it was noted that, ‘Hee hath bin a captine for the parliament but appears loyall. An able dangerous fellow’ (‘Staffs. Gentry’, 12).
References: ‘Staffs. Gentry’, 12.
Armies: Staffordshire
Chadwick, Lewis Lewis Chadwick (baptised 1596, died 1655)
Of Mavesyn Ridware, Staffordshire. Eldest son of John Chadwick (baptised 1564, died 1623) and his wife Joyce Carwarden. Elder brother of James Chadwick. His father had bought the manor of Pipe Ridware in 1606, and later exchanged it for land in Mavesyn Ridware. He married Mary, daughter and heiress of Anthony Bagot of Coton, Staffordshire. Lewis’s daughter married her kinsman John Chadwick of Hely Hall, Lancashire (who inherited his estates at Mavesyn Ridware, Lichfield, Stafford and Edingdale) and Lewis and John served together at the taking of Stafford in 1643.
Listed as lieutenant in Captain Simon Rugeley’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
Chadwick was an active county committeeman (first nominated 4 Feb. 1643), and was a supporter, with his friend Colonel Simon Rugeley, of the earl of Denbigh.
Lieutenant-Colonel in the regiment of Colonel Simon Rugeley raised in Feb. 1643. By July 1643 apparently promoted colonel.
In Apr. 1643 he stormed Lord Deincourt’s fortified mansion at Sutton (Derbys.), with Derbyshire forces under Thomas Gell, Thomas Sanders and Johannes Molanus.
Chadwick was governor of Stafford from its capture in May 1643 until Dec. 1644 when he was displaced and sent prisoner to Eccleshall Castle in a coup by Sir William Brereton against the supporters of the earl of Denbigh.
References: Vis. Staffs., 102; Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, lxiii, lxxix, lxxviii, 350-1 and passim; Dore, Brereton Letter Books, 1.487; CSPD 1650, 506; Shaw, Staffs., I, 182-3; Turbutt, Derbyshire, 1068.
Armies: Staffordshire; Nottinghamshire
Chalderott, - - Chalderott
Captain. Surely misreading for Chaldecott (passing references to family of that name in Vis. Somerset, 1672, 147, 158; on former page, a reference to William Chaldecot of East Whiteway in Church Knowle, Dorset, gentleman). And see Vis. Dorset, 1623, 26, for family of Francis Chaldecott of East Whiteway (with sons George, Andrew and William).
References: Vis. Somerset, 1672, 147, 158; Vis. Dorset, 1623, 26.
Armies: Somerset: Colonel William Strode’s Regt. of Foot
Challoner, John John Challoner
Cornet in Colonel Edmund Jordan’s troop of horse by Apr. 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 67.
Armies: Surrey
Challoner, Thomas Thomas Challoner
By early 1644 and still there the following autumn, major in Herbert Morley’s regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 106.
Armies: Sussex; Waller (Southern Association)
Challys, Isaac Isaac Challys
Provost Marshal in Sir John Meyrick’s regiment of foot in the earl of Northumberland’s Army against the Scots in 1640.
Lieutenant in Thomas Grantham’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 81, 41.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Chamberlain, Thomas Thomas Chamberlain
In 1642 first captain and by Sept. 1643 major of the White regiment of the London Trained Bands (Colonel Isaac Penington), but no longer there by autumn 1646.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 167.
Armies: London
Chambers, John John Chambers
In Sept. 1642 ensign in the Colonel’s company in the regiment of foot which formed part of the earl of Essex’s Army under the earl of Stamford and which then formed the core of Edward Massey’s garrison and army at Gloucester.
References: Peachey and Turton, War in the West,6.646.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Gloucestershire
Chandos, Thomas Thomas Chandos
Lieutenant of dragoons in the Lyme Regis garrison in the troop of Captain Thomas Pyne, Sept. 1643-1 Feb. 1644. At latter date becomes lieutenant of horse under Pyne.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.537.
Armies: Dorset
Chaning, - - Chaning
Lieutenant. A payment is noted as to be paid to Chaning’s wife. Not clear if he was ill or dead.
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 386.
Armies: Dorset
Channing, - - Channing
Ensign.
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 377.
Armies: Dorset
Channing, Richard Richard Channing
Dorset Committee, 6 May 1647, records his career through arrears, although dates not entirely clear. Lieutenant under Captain Perry, 25 June – 14 Jan. [?1646] (30 weeks); lieutenant to Colonel William Sydenham and then Sydenham’s captain of foot to 4 May 1647 (45 weeks). Still a serving officer in Jan. 1650 when the company formerly of Captain Lacy was reduced under his command and Channing was one of the few officers of the new-raised companies at Weymouth not disbanded. Also recorded as a captain in the new companies stationed at Weymouth on 18 Mar. 1651.
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 272-3, 490, 492; Bayley, Civil War in Dorset, 337.
Armies: Dorset
Chantrell [Cantrell], James James Chantrell [Cantrell]
Dore speculated that Chantrell was either from a family in West Derby Hundred, Lancashire, or Broxton Hundred, Cheshire.
Arrears for one of his men, by then serving in Robert Duckenfeild’s regiment of Cheshire foot, identify Chantrell as lieutenant-colonel in Richard Holland’s regiment of Lancashire foot. He was probably the Captain Channell who in Sept. 1642 fought with distinction at the siege of Manchester. By late Oct. 1645, as a lieutenant-colonel, Chantrell was at the siege of Chester, holding a position near the Northgate with 200 men. He was evidently the senior Lancashire officer during the latter stage of the siege, heading the list of Lancashire officers who in Dec. 1645 and Jan. 1646 received money due their units, including reinforcements of 250 men from the Wirral. In May 1648 Chantrell was a signatory to the Presbyterian, anti-New Model Army petition by Lancashire officers.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 2. 168-9, 180, 382, 510; Lancashire military proceedings, 46, 248-50; TNA, E121/5/7; Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 288-9.
Armies: Lancashire
Chapman, John John Chapman
By Oct. 1643 lieutenant in John Thorney’s troop in Mazieres’s short-lived regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army. He may be the John Chapman who in 1647 appears as a cornet in Rich’s New Model Army regiment of horse, but this could be a second and separate man.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.26; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 125.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army?
Chapman, John John Chapman
Succeeded John Sparrow as captain in the regiment of dragoons in the earl of Essex’s Army which was commanded by Sir John Seaton and then George Melve in 1642-3.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 48.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Chapman, Thomas Thomas Chapman
Captain. Captain in Thomas Morgan’s regiment at Gloucester when it was disbanded at the turn of 1647/8.
References: HMC, Seventh Report, 68-9.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Chapman, William William Chapman
Major of the Tower Hamlets Trained Bands regiment of foot by May 1644 and still there at the end of the year. In 1647-8 he was imprisoned on suspicion of treason.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 137.
Armies: Tower Hamlets
Chard, William William Chard
In summer 1644, cornet in Hunt’s troop in William Purefoy’s regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 122.
Armies: Warwickshire
Charlton, Andrew Andrew Charlton (died 1643)
Colonel of Bristol Trained Bands in 1643: there is a reference to him as ‘now a colonel’ on 29 Apr. 1643. Sheriff of Bristol, 1620-1; mayor of Bristol, 1634-5; master of the Merchant Venturers, 1639-40. He died Nov. 1643.
References: Merchants and Merchandise, 153; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.604-5.
Armies: Bristol
Charnocke, John John Charnocke
Probably first appears as Ensign Charnocke of the colonel’s company in Sir John Wittrough’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army, as it looks as if his payments do not overlap (certainly to 31 Aug. 1643) with those of Captain John Charnocke.
Captain in the regiment from 30 Aug. 1643, continuing as captain in Thomas Ayloffe’s regiment of foot when his company was absorbed into that regiment.
References: TNA, SP28/11/143, 145, 147; SP28/18/159; Spring, Eastern Association, 1.112; Thomson, Hertfordshire, 101-2.
Armies: Eastern Association
Chase, Nathaniel Nathaniel Chase
Ensign in Daniel Thomas’s company of dragoons in James Holborne’s regiment of dragoons at the time of its disbandment on 25 Apr. 1645. He then followed Thomas as ensign in his company in Sir Hardress Waller’s regiment of foot in the New Model Army.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 146.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association); New Model Army
Chase, Thomas Thomas Chase
Captain in Anthony Stapley’s Sussex regiment of foot from at least 16 May 1643 to Nov. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 122.
Armies: Sussex; Waller (Southern Association)
Chatterton, Edmund Edmund Chatterton
On 28 Sept. 1650 commissioned a captain in Thomas Birch’s Lancashire militia regiment of foot.
References: CSPD, 1650, 511.
Armies: Lancashire
Chayney, - - Chayney
Captain. Brother of Sergeant-Major Chayney.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.555.
Armies: Somerset: Col. Alexander Popham’s Regt. of Foot
Chayney [Chomney, Cheyney], John John Chayney [Chomney, Cheyney]
Sergeant-Major.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.553-5.
Armies: Somerset: Col. Alexander Popham’s Regt. of Foot
Cheekline, - - Cheekline
Cornet in Captain Pritchard’s troop in Nathaniel Whetham’s Northampton-based regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 164.
Armies: Northamptonshire
Cheney, William William Cheney
Cornet in the earl of Peterborough’s troop of horse in the Earl of Essex’s Army in 1642. By 1644 a reformado lieutenant of horse.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 48.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Cheshorne [Cheshire], John John Cheshorne [Cheshire]
By the beginning of 1644, captain-lieutenant in the colonel’s own troop in William Purefoy’s regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 121.
Armies: Warwickshire
Chetham, Thomas Thomas Chetham (baptised 1599, died 1657)
Of Nuthurst, Lancashire. Eldest son of James Chetham of Nuthurst and his wife Margery, daughter of John Cudworth of Werneth, Lancashire. Thomas married (1) Mary, daughter of Francis Forester of Watling Street, Shropshire and (2) Susan, daughter of Sir William Davenport of Bramhall, Cheshire, knight.
In Sept. 1642 Chetham was among the local gentry who ‘with their tenants and well-affected neighbours’ joined in the defence of Manchester (Lancashire military proceedings, 54).He became a captain in Richard Holland’s regiment of foot raised in Salford Hundred. He ‘fought both within and outside Lancashire between 1642 and 1646’ (Guscott, Humphrey Chetham, 220n.).
In Oct. 1644 Chetham was appointed an assessment commissioner. That Dec. he was signatory to a petition by Manchester’s inhabitants, requesting that proper maintenance be allowed to the ministers of the parish’s chapelries, and that the delinquents of the collegiate church be sequestered.
References: TNA, E121/5/7; E. Axon, ‘Chetham Genealogies’, 25-8, in R. Raines and C.W. Newton, Life of Humphrey Chetham, founder of the Chetham hospital and library, Manchester, 2 vols. (1903),2; Vis. Lancs., 1664, 76; S.J. Guscott, Humphrey Chetham, 1580-1653: fortune, politics and mercantile culture in seventeenth-century England, Chetham Soc., ser. 3, 45 (2003), 220, 52; Lancs. military proceedings, 52, 91; CSPD, Addenda, 1625-1649, 669-70.
Armies: Lancashire
Chetmill, Thomas Thomas Chetmill
Ensign.
References: Bayley, Civil War in Dorset, 337.
Armies: Dorset
Chettnoll, - - Chettnoll
Quartermaster.
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 377.
Armies: Dorset
Cheynell, - - Cheynell
Chaplain to Colonel Anthony Stapley’s regiment of foot garrisoning Chichester by Apr. 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 122.
Armies: Surrey
Cheyney, - - Cheyney
Lieutenant in Thomas Essex’s regiment of foot in 1643. He was accused of involvement in the royalist plot to betray Bristol to the king’s army in the published confession of Robert Yeamans. He is there said to have commanded the lieutenant-colonel’s company.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.650; Seyer, Bristol,389.
Armies: Bristol
Chichester, Charles Charles Chichester
In 1642 he is listed as captain of a troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 54.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Chidley, Christopher Christopher Chidley
Lieutenant in Charles Essex’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 45.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Child, John John Child
By the end of 1643, when he and his company took part in the siege of Arundel Castle, until at least spring 1645, captain and later major in Aylesford Lathe’s Kentish Trained Band regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 83.
Armies: Kent
Child, Robert Robert Child
Captain in a Kent Trained Band regiment of auxiliaries by Jan. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 78.
Armies: Kent
Chitty, Henry Henry Chitty
A Chichester citizen. In 1642 he was a captain in the Chichester Rape Trained Bands. In Aug. he refused to hand over the magazine at Chichester to the local royalist leaders, and later was one of the local leaders who succeeded in getting arms and ammunition from Portsmouth. In Nov. he was excepted from royal pardon and had to flee when the royalists seized the town. In July 1643 he petitioned the House of Commons for a commission to raise a company for the Chichester garrison, and accordingly became a captain in Anthony Stapley’s regiment of foot, in which he remained until Nov. 1645. Early in 1645 he led his company into the West.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 122, 124; Thomas-Stanford, Sussex, 39, 42-3.
Armies: Sussex; Waller (Southern Association)
Cholmley, John John Cholmley
Of Braham Hall, Spofforth, Yorkshire (West Riding), a parliamentarian colonel in Yorkshire.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 119 [citing TNA, SP23/172/314, SP23/244/307, SP24/5/38, SP28/253a/part ii/19, SP28/266/part iii/117-18].
Armies: Yorkshire
Cholmley, Sir Henry Sir Henry Cholmley (baptised 1609, died 1666)
Of West Newton Grange, Ryedale, youngest, but second surviving son of Sir Richard Cholmley (died c. 1625) of Whitby and his first wife Susan, daughter of John Legard, a London merchant. Younger brother of Sir Hugh Cholmley and half-brother of the royalist Sir Richard Cholmley, knighted for his part in the taking of Exeter and slain in command of the forces besieging Lyme Regis. Henry married Catherine (died 1672), daughter of Henry Stapleton of Wighill, Yorkshire (sister of Sir Philip Stapleton) and widow of Sir George Twisleton of Barley. Knighted on 22 Dec. 1641, Cholmley was the Long Parliament MP for Malton.
In 1640 he was lieutenant-colonel of Sir Hugh Cholmley’s regiment of the Yorkshire Trained Bands, leading it to Durham during the Second Bishops’ War. By Sept. 1642 he was a colonel of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army. However, Sir Henry’s blue-coated regiment became notorious for looting and fled at Edgehill. The unit was disbanded in July 1643. Despite remaining friendly with his brother after the latter’s defection to the king, Sir Hugh was trusted by parliament into 1648 (which on 16 Jan. 1644 had simply replaced Sir Hugh with Sir Henry on all the commissions the former had held in Yorkshire). Cholmley was an active figure in parliament, by 1647 (if not well before) being closely involved with political Presbyterians such as his brother-in-law Philip Stapleton and Denzil Holles.
During the second civil war Cholmley raised a regiment of horse and by Oct. had been in command of the (largely militia) forces besieging Pontefract castle for three or four months. He then protested to the Commons against Fairfax’s appointment of Thomas Rainsborough to command the siege, which over-rode his own appointment by the York militia committee. Due to the standoff caused by Cholmley’s refusal to recognize his command Rainborowe retired to Doncaster, and his murder there on 29 Oct. settled the matter. Cholmley, probably still in York and possibly held prisoner in the aftermath of these quarrels, was secluded at Pride’s Purge and his regiment was disbanded between Nov. 1648 and Jan. 1649. Cholmley worked with Fairfax in Yorkshire for the Restoration and became MP for Appleby. In 1666 he went to Tangier to superintend the harbour works, deputizing for his nephew Hugh, although he quarrelled with the authorities there. He died at Tangier, but his body was returned to Yorkshire and buried on 30 June 1666.
Sir Henry was described by his brother Sir Hugh as ‘a kind well natured man and loving trew friend valliant and ingenious and a good solliscitor in law businesses’ (Cholmley, Memoirs, 77).
References: Keeler, Long Parliament, 134; HoP: The Commons, 1660-1690, 2, 61-2; Vis. Yorks., 2, 254;Underdown, Pride’s Purge, 211-2; R. Holmes, ed., The Sieges of Pontefract Castle, 1644-1648 (Pontefract, 1887), 185-7, 190, 204-5, 303, 312-3; Cholmley, Memoirs; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming); TNA, SP28/2a/212; SP28/7/26, 443; SP28/8/210; SP28/9/229; JHC, 3, 369.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Yorkshire
Cholmley, Sir Hugh Sir Hugh Cholmley, first baronet (1600-1657)
Born at Roxby Castle, Yorkshire (North Riding), into a Yorkshire landed family, a cadet branch of the Cholmondeleys of Cheshire. After education at Beverley grammar school and Cambridge University, he married into the Twisden family of Kent. He represented Scarborough in most parliaments from 1624 until he was disabled in 1643. Disenchanted by some royal policies of the 1630s and hostile to the earl of Strafford, he supported the king’s opponents in the early 1640s, but by 1641-2 there were already signs that his support for the parliamentarian cause was not strong – he opposed both the Militia Ordinance and the Nineteen Propositions. Nonetheless, with most of his friends supporting parliament at the outbreak of civil war and his Yorkshire enemies in the king’s camp, he initially accepted the earl of Essex’s commission to secure and to hold Scarborough for parliament. At first he was active in that cause, raising over 500 men and resisting royalist assaults in the area. But for a variety of reasons, in 1643 he switched sides and thereafter held Scarborough for the king, holding out against a long and destructive siege. When finally forced to surrender in 1645, he went into exile on the continent for a time, but by the end of the 1640s was living in Whitby.
References: Oxford DNB; The Memoirs and Memorials of Sir Hugh Cholmley of Whitby, 1600-1657, ed. J. Binns, Yorkshire Archaeological Society, 153 (2000).
Armies: Yorkshire
Chorley, John John Chorley
A captain in the Lancashire foot regiment of John Moore.
References: Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 291 [citing TNA, SP28/300/951].
Armies: Lancashire
Chruttenden, Bevill Bevill Chruttenden
Captain in Sir William Springate’s regiment of Kentish foot by Dec. 1643 and there until its disbandment early the following year.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 120.
Armies: Kent; Waller (Southern Association)
Chudleigh, Sir George, baronet Sir George Chudleigh, baronet (1582-1658)
Elder son of John Chudleigh (baptised 1565, died 1589), of Ashton, Devon, and Elizabeth (died 1628), daughter of Sir George Speke of White Lackington, Somerset He married Mary (died 1644), eldest daughter of Sir William Strode of Newnham, Devon. Father of James Chudleigh. Chudleigh’s sister was the mother of Sir Alexander Carew.
MP for Mitchell (1601), Lostwithiel (1621), East Looe (1604, 1614, 1625), Tiverton (1625); JP (1614-1642).
Deputy lieutenant from 1625 and from at least 1635 sergeant-major-general of the Devon County Militia.
In May 1642 Chudleigh became a deputy lieutenant under parliamentarian ordinance. Although he was present at the siege of Sherborne, he largely served within Devon and Cornwall He supported the local truce which ran from 28 Feb. to 22 Apr. 1643. Stamford appointed him his lieutenant-general of horse, evidently as a stabilizing counter to his son James Chudleigh who had been appointed over Stamford’s wishes as major-general, ‘which made him [Stamford] knowing [James] Chudleigh’s fire and heat, to make his father Sir George Chudleigh Lieutenant-General for his more temper’ (Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 4.454, citing a newsletter published in 1643 justifying Stamford’s actions to the fall of Exeter).
Chudleigh was probably colonel of a regiment of dragoons raised in early 1643, and marched against Bodmin. However, following his son’s defection after the battle of Stratton, Chudleigh resigned his commission.
References: Oxford DNB; Wolffe, Devon Gentry, 131-64; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 4.448-9, 454-5; HoP: The Commons, 1604-1629.
Armies: Devon
Chudleigh, James James Chudleigh (1617-43)
Fourth son of Sir George Chudleigh and his wife Mary Strode. Sir Alexander Carew was his cousin, son of his father’s sister.
Chudleigh served in Ireland and in 1640 was a captain in the earl of Northumberland’s regiment of foot in the army led by the earl against the Scots.
In early 1641 Chudleigh was heavily involved in the First Army Plot, and in 1642 went to Oxford to offer his services to the king – which were rejected because his family (his father Sir George and uncle William Strode) were ‘notoriously disaffected to the King’ (Oxford DNB, quoting Clarendon). So he went to London where Parliament commissioned him colonel of a regiment of dragoons to be raised in Devon, Cornwall and Somerset. By mid-Dec. Chudleigh was in Devon. He was appointed sergeant-major-general in the earl of Stamford’s army: Stamford (or his supporters) later claimed that Chudleigh had been imposed upon him, and that he had appointed Chudleigh’s father as lieutenant-general to counter-balance the son’s ‘fire and temper’.
In Apr. 1643 Chudleigh attacked Hopton’s forces at Launceston; he was forced to retreat upon the arrival of royalist reinforcements, but a few days later defeated the pursuing royalists at Sourton Down (25-26 Apr.).
On 16 May 1643 Chudleigh was captured at the battle of Stratton, where Stamford’s army was heavily defeated. Chudleigh defected, claiming that he hoped to see a peace between the two sides which was only prevented by the intransigence of the city of Exeter. He served as a royalist colonel at the sieges of Exeter and Dartmouth: he was killed at the latter and was buried on 4 Oct. 1643.
References: Oxford DNB; Peacock, Army Lists, 73;Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 4.454-5.
Armies: Devon
Church, John John Church
By Apr. 1645 a major commanding the colonel’s company in Henry Brooke’s regiment of Cheshire foot. Church and his men may have come from Bucklow Hundred, although Dore questioned this, as there appears no record of a Church family there at that time. Dore instead suggested that Church was an outsider (possibly from Nottinghamshire) or else a career soldier. In TNA, SP28/225 there are several acquittances signed by Church and other references to him. On most the endorsement refers to him as captain, up to and including 6 Mar. 1645 (but Major by 12 Apr. 1645). One text, dated 4 Oct. 1644, endorsed with the rank of Captain, called him ‘Undr Captayne Church’. An entry dated 26 July 1644 (f. 55) refers to his receipt of £17, to ‘my listed souldiers’.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 331; TNA, SP28/225.
Armies: Cheshire
Church, Thomas Thomas Church
Of Twistall, Staffordshire. A captain in Staffordshire. He was recorded as aged about 50 and worth £300 per annum in the survey of the Staffordshire gentry in 1662/3; he was noted there as ‘Now lo[y]all but was a captain for the Parliament; any religion. Of ability sufficient will drinke’ (‘Staffs. Gentry’, 13).
In May 1645 Church and Captain Henry Stone with their small force harried the advancing royal army; later that month he was ordered to join Brereton’s Army by the Staffordshire county committee. In Jan. 1646 his troop was before Chester. In that month, when Brereton ordered Colonel John Bowyer to march into Staffordshire with the Warwickshire and Staffordshire Regts of horse, Church’s was one of the three troops to stay behind to strengthen the leaguer of Chester.
References: ‘Staffs. Gentry’, 13; Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, lxxi, 307-8; Dore, Brereton letter books, 2. 499-500.
Armies: Staffordshire
Church, William William Church
A captain in Cheshire and Staffordshire. In a petition to Sir William Brereton dated around Dec. 1644, William Church stated that in previously serving with Brereton in the Wirral he had seized 16 oxen, which Brereton had disposed of promising to reimburse Church £5. Brereton had also taken the colour captured by Church from Sir Vincent Corbett’s cornet of horse. Church was by then endeavouring to raise a troop of horse to serve in Shropshire, and wanted both the £5 and the colour: ‘and the rather your peticoner hath noe other help, to further his intencons neither can hee procure coulers at this instant and yor. hor. having given yor. peticoner verye little or nothing for his service done in Cheshire.’ Church at least received the £5, paid by Brereton's treasurer, Croxton, on 30 Dec. 1644, when he was described as ‘belonging to the Staffordshire forces or troopes’ (TNA, SP28/225, ff. 541-2). He was thus probably the Captain Church of the Staffordshire forces who (with Captain Stone) in May 1645 harried the king’s army in its quarters in west Staffordshire and along the Shropshire border, and by Jan. 1646 was serving at the leaguer of Chester.
References: Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, lxxi; Dore, Brereton letter books,2. 499-500; TNA, SP28/225, ff. 541-2.
Armies: Cheshire; Staffordshire
Church, William William Church
Possibly of the Church family of Bretton, Shropshire. A captain in Shropshire, who took part in the capture of Shrewsbury in Feb. 1645.
References: R. Gough, ‘Antiquityes and Memoryes of the Parish of Myddle’, edited by D. Hey as The History of Myddle (1981), 176.
Armies: Shropshire
Churchill, William William Churchill
Captain. Of Dorchester. Captain Churchill’s company noted 2 Sept. 1642-5 Oct. 1642, when serving at the siege of Sherborne, and still in existence in Jan. 1643. Probably based in or near Dorchester, and when Dorchester volunteer companies were being raised they were forbidden from recruiting from this force. Possibly a volunteer company but probably Trained Band. Churchill was not a captain in pre-war Trained Bands, but Underdown identifies this firmly as from the pre-war Trained Band (and also provides the forename). Following the surrender of the town to the royalists, Churchill was persuaded to become deputy governor: ‘by 1643 his royalist sympathies were clear. After “much importunity” he agreed to take the job, and used his influence with the King’s county commissioners … to protect his neighbours from violence’. In Dec. 1643 he was briefly captured by a parliamentarian raiding party.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.505; Underdown, Fire from Heaven, 200-1, 204-5.
Armies: Dorset
Churchman, Thomas Thomas Churchman
In summer 1642 he became a lieutenant in Holles’s short-lived regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army. Like most of his fellow-officers and the regiment as a whole, little is heard of him after their shattering defeat at Brentford in Nov. 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 37.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Chute, Nathaniel Nathaniel Chute
In early 1645 he was a captain in the earl of Essex’s own regiment of horse, commanded by Stapleton, and like several officers from that regiment he was earmarked to transfer to the New Model regiment of horse initially commanded by Richard Graves, but his death in Mar. 1645 scuppered those plans.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 96, 150.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Clapp, Richard Richard Clapp
Commissary in Devon: he and his fellow commissary, Samuel Slade, were paid £410 by the mayor of Plymouth. Later a sequestration commissioner.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West,4.451; Roberts, Devon, 14, 40-2, 159.
Armies: Devon
Clare, - - Clare
Captain in Edward Harley’s regiment of foot in Gloucs. in late 1644/early 1645. By Oct. 1644 he was in the Forest of Dean and at Gloucester, raising troops. By 3 Dec. it was reported that he commanded only twenty men. By Feb. 1645 he was commanding a small garrison in Herefordshire, made up of commanded men and a few men that he had raised.
References: HMC, Portland Mss., 3.128-9, 131, 135.
Armies: Gloucestershire; Herefordshire
Claridge, Samuel Samuel Claridge
Captain of a company in Samuel Jones’s regiment of foot from 12 Sept. 1643 until some point before 20 Feb. 1645, by when the command had passed to Captain Price. In 1644 Claridge served in Waller’s Oxford campaign which saw the regiment at the battle of Cropredy Bridge.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 65; TNA, SP28/135/1.
Armies: Surrey; Waller (Southern Association)
Clark, - - Clark
Captain in the regiment previously commanded by Sir William Constable in the earl of Essex’s Army in Apr. 1644, by which time Constable had returned to Yorkshire and his southern regiment was being disbanded; at that stage Clark’s company may well have been one of only two remaining in the regiment.
References: TNA, SP28/14/322.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Clark, Francis Francis Clark
Lieutenant-Colonel of Thomas Grantham’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 41.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Clark, George George Clark
Lieutenant in the earl of Essex’s own regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 26.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Clark, Henry Henry Clark
Lieutenant. An officer in Gloucestershire, recorded on 3 June 1643.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 635.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Clarke, - - Clarke
Captain in Thomas Waite’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.103.
Armies: Eastern Association
Clarke, - - Clarke
Ensign in Major Francis Whestone’s company in Thomas Ayloffe’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army at the time of its disbandment in Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.9.
Armies: Eastern Association
Clarke, Edward Edward Clarke
Captain in John Meldrum’s short-lived regiment of horse, 1643-4, present at the battle of Cheriton.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 102.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Clarke, Ferdinando Ferdinando Clarke
Ensign in the colonel’s company in Thomas Ayloffe’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army at the time of its disbandment in Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.9.
Armies: Eastern Association
Clarke, James James Clarke
Ensign in Lawrence Nunnery’s company in Edward Montagu’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.71.
Armies: Eastern Association
Clarke, John John Clarke
At its muster in Nov. 1643 lieutenant in Captain Frebon’s company in the earl of Warwick’s regiment of foot formed from the Essex militia, part of the Eastern Association Army that contributed to the siege of Reading in spring 1643, the siege of Greenland House in summer 1644 and probably to some other actions in which the army was involved.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.31.
Armies: Eastern Association
Clarke, John John Clarke
By 1644 captain in Skippon’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army and still there in spring 1645. He transferred to the New Model Army and became a captain in Skippon’s New Model regiment of foot, continuing to serve there until at least 1649.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 44, 55, 148.
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army
Clarke, John John Clarke
Lieutenant. Lieutenant to Major Oliver Beecher in the regiment of foot of Colonel Sir Robert Cooke.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 618; TNA, SP28/129, Part 5, fol. 3v.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Clarke, Samuel Samuel Clarke (born 1609/10, alive in 1663)
Of Ashegate, Derbyshire. Eldest son of Ralph Clarke (died 1660) of Ashegate and Chesterfield and his wife Frances, daughter of George Blount of Eckington, Derbyshire. He married Bridget, daughter of Gilbert Nevill of Grove, Nottinghamshire. Clarke’s father became a leading opponent of Sir John Gell on the Derbyshire county committee.
A captain in Sir John Gell’s Derbyshire regiment of foot. In late 1643 he and Captain Samuel Taylor defected from Gell, going first to Nottinghamshire and then going to join up with Sir Thomas Fairfax. Taylor later claimed he had deserted Gell after the latter had threatened to shoot and arrest any who tried to collect money without the Derbyshire county committee’s permission for Fairfax’s troops when they were at Derby. Gell got warrants for Taylor’s and Clarke’s arrest, complaining that ‘if some speedy course bee not taken herein other Captaines and officers will doe the like, so that we are sure to bee undone by raiseing forces to goe away at theyre owne pleasure’ (Slack, Man at War, 93-4). Both Clarke and Taylor went on to be commissioned in the regiment of foot raised by another deserter from Gell, Randle Ashenhurst, under the authority of Lord Fairfax.
References: Vis. Derbyshire, 106-7; Slack, Man at War, 93-4, 99, 105.
Armies: Derbyshire; Nottinghamshire
Clarke, Samuel Samuel Clarke
From 1642 captain in Skippon’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army and still there in spring 1645. He transferred to the New Model Army and became a captain in Skippon’s New Model regiment of foot, promoted to major in summer 1645. Although he left the regiment in summer 1647, he may have joined the Bristol garrison. In 1650 he contracted to take prisoners captured at Dunbar to serve in the American colonies.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 44, 55, 76, 148, 157.
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army
Clarke, Thomas Thomas Clarke
Lieutenant in the Red regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Thomas Atkin).
The name is too common for certainty, but the Trained Bands officer of Thomas Atkin, his lieutenant (1642) and his lieutenant-colonel (1647) and the major in George Langham senior’s/Samuel Carleton’s regiment in Essex’s Army 1642-3, a regiment with strong Trained Bands connections, may all be the same man.
References: Thrale, 1642.
Armies: London
Clarke, Thomas Thomas Clarke
Admitted colonel of the Blue regiment, the London auxiliaries, in the place of Colonel George Langham junior by the City’s Presbyterian militia committee in 1647, and reported to the New Model Army that he had ‘sayd that if the Army should come neere London, if other men were of his mind they should march through their blouds’ (Clarke Papers, 1.155).
References: Nagel, ‘London militia’, 271, 317; Clarke Papers, 1.155.
Armies: London
Clarke, William William Clarke
In Apr. 1645, around the time the regiment was disbanded, ensign in Captain Ellis’s company in the regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army then commanded by Sir Thomas Hoogan.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.79.
Armies: Eastern Association
Clarke, William William Clarke
Lieutenant. Lieutenant to Captain Thomas Pury, senior in Henry Stephens’s regiment of Gloucester townsmen raised in spring 1643.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 625-7
Armies: Gloucestershire
Clarke, William William Clarke
Of Marton-with-Moxby, Yorkshire (North Riding), a parliamentarian captain in Yorkshire.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 94 [citing TNA, E121/3/3 no. 43].
Armies: Yorkshire
Clarkson, William William Clarkson
Of Bradford and Bingley, Yorks (West Riding).
Served as a chaplain to Lord Fairfax.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 106.
Armies: Yorkshire
Claxton, John John Claxton
Cornet in Captain Nicholas Devereux’s company in John Middleton’s regiment of dragoons (pay warrant: 10 Nov. 1642) in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: TNA, SP28/3b/305.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Clay, Roger Roger Clay
Lieutenant in the Green regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel John Warner) in early summer 1642.
Captain in Philip Skippon’s regiment of foot in Essex’s Army, raised in late 1642. A pay warrant specifies him on 19 Nov. 1642 as one of the ‘captaynes of severall foot companyes raised in the City of London and to be employed and to serve under Collonell Phillip Skyppen’. He was still a captain in that regiment on 13 May 1643, when his company was at Reading.
References: Thrale 1642, Firth and Davies, Regimental History, 2.424-5; TNA, SP28/3B/300, 412; SP28/7/183.
Armies: London
Clayton, John John Clayton (born c. 1620)
Of Oakenshaw, Cleckheaton township, Birstall parish, Yorkshire (West Riding). Eldest son of John Clayton, the recorder of Leeds, and his wife Elizabeth Fitzwilliam.
By probably winter 1643 a captain in John Saville’s regiment of foot, Clayton had fought at Adwalton Moor and carried the news of the engagement to parliament. He joined the new regiment of foot raised by Savile upon his release from imprisonment in spring 1644. When Saville’s second regiment was reduced in June 1645 Clayton transferred to John Bright’s regiment of foot where he served into 1646 at least. From June 1645 Clayton’s father was a Northern Association committeeman for the West Riding, and after Pride’s Purge John became a JP. In Apr. 1650 he was commissioned captain in a regiment of foot in the Yorkshire militia.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 375; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 104; CSPD, 1650, 506.
Armies: Yorkshire
Clayton, Thomas Thomas Clayton
A captain in Alexander Rigby’s regiments of foot and horse in Lancashire. During summer 1643, ‘Mr Claton an Antient gentleman dwelling about Fulwood More was made Captaine [under the command of Alexander Rigby senior] and the freehoulders in the Hundred [of Amounderness] put under his conduction’ (Warr in Lancashire, 42).
References: Warr in Lancashire, 42; Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 293.
Armies: Lancashire
Clear, Audry Audry [Adury] Clear
Lieutenant in the company of Captain John Harvie in the regiment of foot of Thomas Essex in 1643. He is not in the published list of officers in Essex’s army in 1642, but he received a payment at Gloucester in June 1643.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.649-50 [citing SP28/299/83]
Armies: Bristol
Clegatt [Claget], Edward Edward Clegatt [Claget] (1613-1672/3)
Son of George Clegatt, alderman of Canterbury, Kent, and his wife Anne Colbrand of Leyborne Castle, Kent. He was apprenticed to Colonel Thomas Adams, and subsequently married Adams’s daughter, Margaret (born 1616).
A member of the Drapers’ Company: made free, 1636; Master, 1672. Of Gracechurch Street (1641).
Captain-Lieutenant of the Colonel’s company in the Blue regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Thomas Adams, his former master and father-in-law) in Sept. 1643.
According to Woodhead, sometime colonel of an auxiliary regiment, but if so not at the time of the earl of Essex’s funeral in Oct. 1646. Appointed lieutenant-colonel of the Red regiment, London Trained Bands in Dec. 1659.
Common councillor, Bridge Ward, 1654-73; lieutenancy commissioner, 1660. Personal estate of £4,000 at death.
References: BL, Harl. 986, p. 25; Woodhead, Rulers, 48-9; Vis. London, 1664, 39-40;Strype, London, 2.i.302.
Armies: London
Cleggar, Edward Edward Cleggar
Between Jan. and Mar. 1644, when the regiment was reduced, lieutenant in St John Holcroft’s company in the earl of Manchester’s regiment of dragoons in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.58.
Armies: Eastern Association
Cleghorne, John John Cleghorne
Lieutenant in Major Nathan King’s company in Samuel Jones’s regiment of Surrey foot by Dec. 1643; he served in the garrison at Betchworth Castle, Surrey.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 75.
Armies: Surrey
Clement, Thomas Thomas Clement
In summer 1642 he became an ensign in Holles’s short-lived regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army. Like most of his fellow-officers and the regiment as a whole, little is heard of him after their shattering defeat at Brentford in Nov. 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 37.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Clerke, - Thomas Clerke
Chaplain to Colonel Mark Dixwell, colonel of a Kentish regiment (probably the Aylesford Trained Band volunteer regiment of foot).
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 74.
Armies: Kent
Clerke, John John Clerke
Captain in Anthony Stapley’s Sussex regiment of foot by 2 Feb. 1644, and still an officer there in Nov. 1645. In the first half of 1645 he served in the West, including in May in the relief of Taunton.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 123.
Armies: Sussex; Waller (Southern Association)
Clerke, John John Clerke
Lieutenant in Captain Redman’s troop in Nathaniel Whetham’s Northampton-based regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 164.
Armies: Northamptonshire
Clerke, John John Clerke
Possibly the son and heir of Humphrey Clarke, gentleman, of Edmonton, Middlesex, who attended Gray’s Inn in 1635. Captain in Sir William Waller’s (later James Holborne’s) regiment of dragoons from at least Sept. 1643 to Apr. 1645. In the New Model Army he was a captain in Sir Hardress Waller’s regiment of foot, being promoted to Major about July 1649 and lieutenant-colonel early in 1650, commanding the five companies which had been left in England when the rest went to Ireland. In May 1651 he commanded the troops who captured the Scilly Isles. He was made full colonel on 18 Nov. 1651 when the Council of State decided that the five companies be made up to a full regiment and sent to Ireland. The regiment landed at Waterford in June 1652, and was disbanded in Aug. 1655. He was given another command, of a number of ‘loose companies’, that is unregimented garrison companies. He retained this command until the end of 1659.
He was a representative for Ireland in the Nominated Assembly, where he acted as teller sixteen times and sat on a number of committees. He was appointed an admiralty commissioner at the end of 1653, which allegedly brought him £500 per annum on top of his Colonel’s salary of £365 per annum.
He was MP for counties Derry, Donegal and Tyrone, for Cardiganshire (1656) and for Dartmouth in the three Protectorate parliaments. He was regarded as a useful man by Thurloe, to whom he was connected by marriage, and regarded by hostile sources as ‘deeply engaged to uphold the court interest’ (Firth and Davies, Regimental history, 2.450). Indeed, he supported both the offer of the crown to Oliver Cromwell and in 1659 was loyal to Richard Cromwell. He defended James Nayler from the charge of blasphemy, though deploring his ‘devilish delusion’ (Woolrych, 182).
References: Spring, Waller’s army,145; Firth and Davies, Regimental history,2.443, 449-50; A. Woolrych, Commonwealth to Protectorate (1982), 181-2; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Clerke, William William Clerke
Captain in John Hampden’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1643.
References: TNA, SP28/11/369.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Clerrige, Samuel Samuel Clerrige
Ensign in the Green regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel John Warner) in summer 1642.
References: Thrale 1642.
Armies: London
Cletherow, Henry Henry Cletherow
At its muster in Nov. 1643, captain in Colonel Thomas Honeywood’s regiment of foot formed from the Essex militia, part of the Eastern Association Army that contributed to the siege of Reading in spring 1643, the siege of Greenland House in summer 1644 and probably to some other actions in which the army was involved.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.32.
Armies: Eastern Association
Clifford, John John Clifford
Captain in the regiment of dragoons of Colonel George Mills/Sir William Waller.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 147.
Armies: Essex’s Army; Waller
Clifton [Clinson], - - Clifton [Clinson] (died 1643)
Captain-Lieutenant in the colonel’s company in Sir William Waller’s regiment of foot. He was killed in hand-to-hand fighting at the siege of Basing on 7 Nov. 1643.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 75; Godwin, Hants., 113-5.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Clifton, - - Clifton
Captain. A parliamentarian officer captured at Cirencester when it fell to the royalists on 2 Feb. 1643.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 617.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Clifton, - - Clifton
In 1643 captain in Sir John Wittrough’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army; he continued to serve in the regiment, which later passed to Thomas Sadler.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.113.
Armies: Eastern Association
Clifton, - - Clifton
Lieutenant-Colonel of the earl of Manchester’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army by the end of Sept. 1643 and still serving as such in Jan. 1645.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.61.
Armies: Eastern Association
Clifton, John John Clifton
In Sept. 1642 captain-lieutenant in the colonel’s company in the regiment of foot which formed part of the earl of Essex’s Army under the earl of Stamford and which then formed the core of Edward Massey’s garrison and army at Gloucester.
References: Peachey and Turton, War in the West,6.646.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Clifton, John John Clifton
Lieutenant in the earl of Stamford’s regiment of foot in 1642. He was possibly a captain-lieutenant, and may well have left the regiment by Jan. 1643.
References: Peacock, Army Lists, 29; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 646.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Clifton, Laurence Laurence Clifton
Ensign. Ensign in the earl of Stamford’s regiment of foot in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army Lists, 30; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 646.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Clifton, Lawrence Lawrence Clifton
In Sept. 1642 ensign in Captain Cosby’s company in the regiment of foot which formed part of the earl of Essex’s Army under the earl of Stamford and which then formed the core of Edward Massey’s garrison and army at Gloucester.
References: Peachey and Turton, War in the West,6.646.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Clive, Robert Robert Clive
Of Styche Hall, Shropshire. At Wem in Dec. 1643, probably as a captain in Thomas Mytton’s regiment of horse. Still based at Wem in June 1644, when he was appointed to the Shropshire county committee. As a captain, took part in the capture of Shrewsbury in Feb. 1645. By spring 1646 he had been promoted to colonel, his rank when he is named in the articles for the surrender of Bridgnorth Castle in Apr. 1646. Prominent on Shropshire committees in the later 1640s.
References: Warws. R.O., CR2017/C10/37, CR2017/C9/133; A More Exact and Particular Relation of the taking of Shrewsbury, than hath hithero been published. With the manner and performance thereof by Lieutenant Colonell William Reinking (1645); Carr and Atherton, Brereton Staffs., 93.
Armies: Shropshire
Clough, Jeremiah Jeremiah Clough
Cornet in Captain Robert Cloughe’s troop in Colonel John Booth’s regiment of Lancashire horse. Clough’s arrears are recorded in Feb. 1652 (£7 10s), Aug. 1652 (£55 3s) and Oct. 1652 (£94 15s). He had served in the Ashton garrison. By Oct. 1652 Clough was serving in Captain Richard Merest’s troop in Lord Fairfax’s regiment of horse.
References: TNA, E121/5/7; E121/4/8.
Armies: Lancashire; New Model Army
Cloughe, Robert Robert Cloughe
Captain of a troop in Colonel John Booth’s regiment of Lancashire horse, also placed in the Ashton garrison. He is identified from money due to his cornet, Jeremiah Clough (warrants dating from Feb., Aug. and Oct. 1652).
References: TNA, E121/5/7, E121/4/8.
Armies: Lancashire
Clutterbooke [Clutterbuck], Benedict Benedict Clutterbooke [Clutterbuck] (died 1644)
(Captain-)Lieutenant in the colonel’s troop, in Colonel Richard Turner’s regiment of London horse from 10 Oct. 1643 until the regiment was reduced and transferred to Waller’s Army under the command of Colonel George Thompson on 3 Mar. 1644. Clutterbooke, promoted captain, took command of Turner’s troop. He was made major of the regiment on 21 May 1644. On 30 Sept. 1644 Waller wrote from Shaftesbury that, ‘upon Friday last the enemy killed Major Clutterbuck, he was religious and valiant, we have cause to lament his loss’ (CSPD, 1644, 545).
References: TNA, SP28/132, Part 1, ff. 2r.-v., 4r.; Spring, Waller's army, 141; CSPD, 1644, 545.
Armies: London; Earl of Essex; Waller (Southern Association)
Clutterbucke, Beindicke Beindicke Clutterbucke
Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Gardner’s troop of harquebusiers in Lord Brooke’s Association Army (21 Jan.-15 May 1643). He went with the troop when it became part of Sir Arthur Hesilrige’s regiment of horse later that year and was still its lieutenant during Waller’s Oxford campaign in 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 65; TNA, SP28/147, f. 559r.
Armies: Brooke; Waller (Southern Association)
Clutton, Richard Richard Clutton (died 1643)
Nephew by marriage of the annalist Thomas Malbon, father of the Nantwich-based Captains Thomas and George Malbon.
Clutton was a captain in Cheshire, buried at Nantwich on 6 Sept. 1643. He was probably the Mr Clutton, ‘an active Gentleman’ who defied the commissioners of array when they entered Nantwich on 24 Sept. 1642: he ‘disarmed the under-sheriff’s man, who came from the Cavaliers, …would not hear talk of any parley, but gave express command to the townsmen of his own company to give fire as soon as the Cavaliers shall come within shot, and not to admit of any parley; but other gentlemen persuaded the contrary, lest it should be fired, whereupon they came to parley’ (Cheshire tracts, 238).
References: Cheshire tracts, 238.
Armies: Cheshire
Coatesworth, Thomas Thomas Coatesworth
A captain of artillery in the Hull garrison in 1642.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 90.
Armies: Yorkshire
Coats, [?]Samuel [?]Samuel Coats
In 1644 appointed by John Hutchinson captain of a newly-formed company of foot raised for the townsmen of Nottingham to defend the town.
References: Hutchinson, Life, 168, 222.
Armies: Nottinghamshire
Coatsworth [Cotsforth], Ralph Ralph Coatsworth [Cotsforth]
Captain in Lord Brooke’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 34.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Coatsworth [Cotsworth, Cottesworth], Ralph Ralph Coatsworth [Costworth, Cottesworth] (died 1646)
Lieutenant in the Blue regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Thomas Adams) in early summer 1642. Captain in Lord Brooke’s regiment of foot in Essex’s Army from or by 19 Aug. 1642, and may well have continued in Brooke’s service in the latter’s army in Midlands. Certainly, like several other officers of Brooke’s Army, he joined Sir William Waller’s Southern Association Army, and by Dec. 1643 was major in Colonel Sir Arthur Hesilrige’s regiment of foot (later commanded by Colonel James Holborne). Coatsworth was promoted lieutenant-colonel, perhaps by July 1644. He commanded three companies at Lyme (Dorset) from May 1644. He retained his rank when the regiment was reduced into the New Model Army under the command of Colonel Sir Hardress Waller. He was killed by a cannon shot at the siege of Oxford in June 1646.
References: Thrale 1642; Peacock, Army Lists, 34; TNA, SP28/1a/188; Spring, Waller's Army; Firth and Davies, Regimental History, 2.433; Temple, 'New Model Army', 55-6; J. Sprigg, Anglia Rediviva (1646), 259.
Armies: London; Brooke; Waller (Southern Association); New Model Army;
Dorset
Cobb, John John Cobb
Ensign in Captain Done’s company in Lawrence Crawford’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army in Nov. 1644. In 1647 a John Cobb is listed as a lieutenant in Rainsborough’s New Model Army regiment of foot, but it is far from certain this is the same man.
References: TNA, SP28/25/100, 103; Spring, Eastern Association, 1.16; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 133.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army?
Cobbet, Robert Robert Cobbet
Captain in a probably short-lived regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army commanded by Lord Grey of Warke during the first half of 1643; that regiment probably disbanded in summer 1643, around the time that Grey of Warke was dismissed, and by the end of the year Cobbet was serving as an officer in Colonel James Carr’s regiment of foot in Sir William Waller’s Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.38.
Armies: Eastern Association; Waller (Southern Association)
Cobbett, - - Cobbett
Captain in Colonel James Kerr’s [Carr’s] regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 37.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Cockaine, John John Cockaine
Captain. Lieutenant in the troop of Edwin Sandys/Thomas Essex. By 1643 often called captain, perhaps in succession to Essex after the latter’s arrest. He was captured at Roundway Down and his release was included in the terms of Bristol’s surrender in July 1643. Nevertheless, on 16 Sept. Nathaniel Fiennes wrote to Prince Rupert that Cockaine had still not been released.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.652-3; Peacock, Army Lists, 52.
Armies: Bristol
Cocke, Nathaniel Nathaniel Cocke
Merchant. Son of Edmund Cock of Norwich and his wife Sara Remington. By 1633 he had married Joane, daughter of Richard Slaney of London, merchant.
Lieutenant in the White regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Isaac Penington) in summer 1642. Presumably the Nathaniel Cocke who briefly appears as a captain in George Langham’s/Samuel Carleton’s regiment of foot attached to the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642-3.
References: Thrale 1642; Vis. London, 1633-5, 1.177.
Armies: London
Cockeram, Edward Edward Cockeram
Ensign in the earl of Essex’s own regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 26.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Cockraine, Richard Richard Cockraine
Lieutenant-Colonel in Sir Samuel Luke’s regiment of foot and his deputy governor at Newport Pagnell. After some wrangling and uncertainty, in summer 1645 he succeeded Luke as governor of Newport Pagnell. He appears very frequently in Luke’s letter books and a number of letters by or to him survive there.
References: Luke Letter Books, especially nos. 606, 613, 615, 621, 624, 637, 995, 1010, 1013, 1016, 1019, 1021, 1022, 1026, 1230, 1237, 1270, 1294, 1421, 1536, 1537, 1538, 1546, 1547, 1548, 1549, 1550, 1552, 1553, 1555, 1559.
Armies: Bedfordshire
Cockram, Richard Richard Cockram
Captain in Herbert Morley’s regiment of horse, commanding a company of dragoons by 19 Aug. 1643.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 99.
Armies: Sussex; Waller (Southern Association)
Coe, - - Coe
A cornet in Sir Thomas Myddelton’s brigade, identified only from a reference to his desertion from the garrison at Red (Powys) Castle, Welshpool, in spring 1645: ‘Cornet Coe is gone to the enemy.’
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 240.
Armies: North Wales
Coe, - - Coe
Captain in the Blue regiment, London Trained Bands, put in by the Independent militia commission in 1647. ‘A Broker’, according to the hostile author of A paire of spectacles for the Citie (1648).
References: A paire of spectacles for the Citie (1648), 10; Nagel, ‘London militia’, 319.
Armies: London
Coe, Mark Mark Coe
Captain in the Southwark auxiliaries regiment (Colonel James Houblon) on 16 Apr. 1644, inferred from the date of the muster when other companies of the regiment mustered; probably the Captain Coe of the Southwark Trained Bands regiment on 22 Oct. 1646.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, Part 4, ff. 572r.-575r.; Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 12.
Armies: Southwark
Cokayn, Charles Charles Cokayn
Lieutenant in Captain Moses Meares’s company in the Red regiment, London Auxiliaries (Colonel Samuel Harsnett), a company from Fetter Lane and Holborn (no date but probably 1644).
References: TNA, SP28/121A, Part 5, ff. 620 r. & v.
Armies: London
Coker, Robert Robert Coker (1616/17-1698)
Of Mappowder. MP for Dorset, 1656, 1660. Lieutenant-Governor of Weymouth when he witnessed the terms of Portland’s surrender, 4 Apr. 1646; governor of Weymouth in succession to Sydenham, but replaced by Heane on 10 Sept. 1647. Committeeman. May 1647, Sheriff of Dorset. On 12 June 1660 one of those presenting Dorset’s humble address to the king.
References: See HoP: The Commons, 1660-1690, 2.102-3. See also Vis. Dorset, 1677, 13-5; Bayley, Civil War in Dorset, 327, 396, 479-80, 387; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Dorset
Cole, - - Cole
Lieutenant [of foot].
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 377.
Armies: Dorset
Cole, - - Cole
Captain in Richard Norton’s regiment of dragoons in July 1643, when his company attempted to capture Basing House.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 104.
Armies: Hampshire, Waller (Southern Association)
Cole, Joseph Joseph Cole
Captain of a company in a regiment of foot which served under Oliver Cromwell and later under Colonel Francis Russell in their capacity as governors of the Isle of Ely and later under Colonel Valentine Walton senior, which probably originated as an auxiliary regiment of the Cambridgeshire militia.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.29.
Armies: Eastern Association
Cole, Richard Richard Cole
Colonel. Of Nailsea, Somerset. Colonel of a regiment of horse and dragoons, which can be traced in the record from Feb. to July 1643. The regiment was probably mainly stationed at Bristol, although some or all of it served at the taking of Cirencester. Cole was the son of a Bristol merchant family. He had married by 1623 Anne, daughter of Sir Arthur Hopton, Knight Baronet, and so brother-in-law of the diplomat Sir Arthur and uncle to the royalist general Sir Ralph. A parliamentarian committeeman at the start of the war, he lapsed into royalism or neutrality, and obtained a royal pardon in early 1644. In 1647 he was high sheriff of Somerset and one of the assessment commissioners appointed in June of that year, as part of the counter-balance to the more radical John Pyne’s dominance of county administration.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.560; Somerset Visitation, 1623, 27, 57; Underdown, Somerset, 37, 47, 69, 139, 142.
Armies: Somerset
Coleborn, Thomas Thomas Coleborn
In 1643 ensign in Castle’s company in Godfrey Bosvile’s regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 30.
Armies: Warwickshire; Waller
Coleman, Henry Henry Coleman
At its muster in Nov. 1643 captain in Colonel Thomas Honeywood’s regiment of foot formed from the Essex militia, part of the Eastern Association Army that contributed to the siege of Reading in spring 1643, the siege of Greenland House in summer 1644 and probably to some other actions in which the army was involved.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.32.
Armies: Eastern Association
Coleman, William William Coleman
In 1645 ensign in Willoughby’s company in John Barker’s/Thomas Willoughby’s regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 23.
Armies: Warwickshire
Colemore [Coleman], Robert Robert Colemore [Coleman] (born 1603/04)
Second son of William Colemore of Birmingham and his wife Frances, daughter and heir of Henry Willoughby of Gorton, Nottinghamshire, esquire, and younger brother of Colonel William Colemore. If this identification is correct, then he was aged 15 at the time of the 1619 herald’s visitation.
Captain of a company in the Coventry regiment of foot (Colonels John Barker/Thomas Willoughby), commissioned 20 Sept. 1642 and still in place at the time of the regimental muster in Sept. 1645.
References: Vis. Warwicks., 1619, 335; TNA, SP28/136, Part 53B, f. 111r.
Armies: Warwickshire
Colemore [Coleman], William William Colemore [Coleman] (born 1600/01)
Of Birmingham. A merchant, the son of William Colemore of Birmingham and his wife Frances, daughter and heir of Henry Willoughby of Gorton, Nottinghamshire, esquire. He was 18 in 1619.
Colemore was probably within Lord Brooke’s circle by the end of the 1630s, and was later reported as having gone to fight with him. He became an active county committeeman during the war, serving as sheriff in 1644-5.
Colemore was a captain in the Coventry regiment of foot (Colonels John Barker/Thomas Willoughby) and still named as such on the Sept. 1645 muster. When William Purefoy stood down as colonel of his regiment of horse in May 1645 under the Self-Denying Ordinance, Colemore was promoted in his place. However, when he attempted to exert his authority and take command of the contingent of his regiment outside Chester under the command of Major Hawkesworth in early Dec. 1645, the troops reacted with open disobedience and contempt. The reasons are not clear – perhaps the replacement of an experienced cavalry commander with an officer whose only experience had been in the infantry; a tension between the troops’ commitment to the war around Chester and the county committee’s desire for its return to Warwickshire; or perhaps a sense that Colemore was not the godly militant that Hawkesworth was. Further, when he was appointed colonel in the spring of 1645 he was serving as sheriff: the county committee had appointed one of their own, but in the months when Colemore should have been establishing his authority with his new regiment, and sharing in its experience of battle, he could not actually leave the county. According to the Warwickshire committeeman Sir Richard Skeffington, the regiment had petitioned for Colemore as their colonel when Purefoy went off, whilst Colemore had a distinguished record of service to the parliamentarian cause: ‘He set himself to this work in the first beginning of it, went himself and his men to lord Brooke, and carried himself as gallantly as any man in all the service he has been employed in. To be thus disgraced in a strange country is intolerable’ (Brereton letter books, 2.314).
Colemore had returned to Warwickshire by the end of the month and Hawkesworth stayed in command of the Warwickshire horse before Chester. The incident may explain why Colemore evidently gave up his command prematurely in Apr. 1646. He remained on the county committee, actively resisting the accounts subcommittee’s attacks on it and signing its warrants up to 1649. But in the 1650s he seems to have become more estranged from the regimes; he did not serve as a JP and at the Restoration claimed that he had ‘never acted in any public employment’ between the execution of the king and ‘the coming in of general Monck’ (Hughes, Warwickshire, 340).
References: Vis. Warwicks., 1619, 335, TNA, TNA, SP28/136, Part 53B, f. 116r.; Brereton letter books, 1. 211; 2.313-5, 372, 439; Hughes, Warwickshire, 112, 177, 180, 195, 206, 208, 244, 248, 270, 295, 333, 340, 360-3.
Armies: Lord Brooke; Warwickshire
Coles, Richard Richard Coles
Ensign in Captain Alexander Blake’s company in a regiment of foot which served under Oliver Cromwell and later under Colonel Francis Russell in their capacity as governors of the Isle of Ely and later under Colonel Valentine Walton senior, and which probably originated as an auxiliary regiment of the Cambridgeshire militia.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.29.
Armies: Eastern Association
Coleson [Coulson], William William Coleson [Coulson]
‘A Dyer living neare Dyers Hall in Thames [Street] in Little All-Hallowes parish’.
Fourth captain of the Blue regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Thomas Adams) in Sept. 1643.
‘He with his Company carried the Statues in the Church of Alhalowes to the Parliamt.’
Elected common councilman in Dec. 1641 and identified by Lindley as a ‘parish zealot’. Collector for supplying the Army in the 1640s.
References: BL, Harl. 986, p. 31; Lindley, Popular politics, 193-5, 208, 219.
Armies: London
Collham [Culme], Hugh Hugh Collham [Culme] (died 1645)
Of an Anglo-Irish Protestant family, related by marriage to Michael Jones.
By Apr. 1645 Captain Collham, together with Captain William Edwards, held joint command of a 50-strong troop of harquebusiers in Sir William Brereton’s regiment of horse (of which Jones was then lieutenant-colonel). Shortly before 9 Apr. troops under Collham and a captain Vivers had plundered the house of one Evan Edwards. On 24 Sept. 1645 Collham was killed at the battle of Rowton Heath. Captain Richard Brereton succeeded him in command of the troop.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 328, 178-80, 2. 384; BL, Harl. Ms. 2128, f. 73r.
Armies: Cheshire
Collier, Francis Francis Collier
In 1644 lieutenant in Richard Cockraine’s company in Sir Samuel Luke’s Newport Pagnell-based regiment of foot.
References: Luke Letter Books, nos. 857(a), 1256.
Armies: Bedfordshire
Collin, - - Collin
Captain in Thomas Waite’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.103.
Armies: Eastern Association
Collingwood, Henry Henry Collingwood
Ensign in Thomas Ballard’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642. Reformado lieutenant of foot (alongside another ensign of Ballard’s regiment, Thomas Axtell) named in pay warrants May and July 1644.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 43; TNA, SP28/15/200, SP28/17/66.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Collingwood, Henry Henry Collingwood
In Sept. 1642 ensign in Captain Blunt’s company in the regiment of foot which formed part of the earl of Essex’s Army under the earl of Stamford and which then formed the core of Edward Massey’s garrison and army at Gloucester.
References: Peachey and Turton, War in the West,6.646-7.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Gloucestershire
Collingwood, John John Collingwood
Captain in the regiment of foot of Colonel George Langham, which in spring 1644 was temporarily attached to the regiment of foot which had been commanded by Henry Bulstrode but by then was commanded by Adam Cunningham and which fought at the battle of Cheriton.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 48.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Waller (Southern Association)
Collins, Thomas Thomas Collins
Captain in the Hastings Rape Trained Bands from at least 4 Nov. 1643 to at least Oct. 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 125.
Armies: Sussex
Collins, Thomas Thomas Collins
Marshal. Presented by the constables of Greengate Ward in 1662 as a former active parliamentarian in Stafford.
References: ‘Active Parliamentarians, 1662’, 58.
Armies: Staffordshire
Collis, - - Collis
Ensign.
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 377.
Armies: Dorset
Collman, Richard Richard Collman
Lieutenant in Captain John Baskett’s company in the Isle of Wight foot regiment, serving both in the Plymouth garrison and on the Isle of Wight when Robert Hammond was governor there.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 60.
Armies: Isle of Wight
Colthorpe, - - Colthorpe
Captain-Lieutenant of Colonel Richard Onslow’s troop of horse by 28 Mar. 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 105, 112.
Armies: Surrey; Waller (Southern Association)
Colville, James, second Lord Colville of Culross [Lord Calvin] James Colville, second Lord Colville of Culross [Lord Calvin] (c. 1604-1654)
Son of Robert Colville (died 1614), Master of Colville, and his wife Christian Bruce, and grandson of James Colville, first baron Colville of Culross (c. 1551-1629). He married (1) Magdalene (died 1638), daughter of Sir Peter Young of Seton; (2) Elizabeth (?); (3) Margaret Clynton. As a child James was the subject of Calvin’s case in 1608, which established that Scots born after king James had ascended to the English throne were his natural subjects and could hold land in England.
Upon succeeding to the title in 1629 Colville sold his Scottish estates and settled in Ireland. Like fellow officers Jones and Coote, in 1643 he probably refused to accept the Cessation and by late summer 1644 had joined Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire Army as a captain. In early Sept. he was posted to Shropshire under the immediate command of the county committee there although remaining one of Brereton’s officers. Colville was in turn governor of the Shropshire garrisons at Stoke-upon-Tern and Moreton Corbet (and was one of the officers commanding when the last was stormed on 8 Sept. 1644). At the end of Apr. 1645 he remained listed as a captain in Brereton’s regiment of foot, when he and his 100-strong company were noted as being ‘At Salop’. From June 1645 Colville was governor of Broncroft Castle in south Shropshire, and by Oct. had evidently fully transferred to the Shropshire county forces. From 1646 he returned to soldiering in Ireland, and on 11 Aug. 1647 was appointed quarter-master-general of Monck’s Army there. In a letter of 15 Feb. 1649 Oliver Cromwell reported that he had placed ‘my Lord Colvill’ in command of Butler’s castle at Callan with a company of foot and troop of horse.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 45, 324, 2. 111-2, 352; Scots Peerage, 23, 553-9; GEC, 3.381-2; Cheshire tracts, 146.
Armies: Cheshire; Shropshire; Ireland
Combes [Coombes], Anthony Anthony Combes [Coombes]
Of Dorchester. Cornet on list of reduced officers, 6 Apr. 1648. In 1643 a trooper in Sir Walter’s Erle’s troop of horse.
His arrears claim was heard, 18 Apr. 1647. 14 June 1644-4 Apr. 1645, was corporal in troop of Captain James Duey [Dewy], in Brune’s regiment of horse; 4 Apr. 1645-4 May 1645, cornet to troop of horse, Brune’s regiment;
27 Dec. 1644-27 Mar. 1645, quartermaster to troop of horse in Wareham under Captain James Haynes.
References: Underdown, Fire from Heaven, 201.
Armies: Dorset
Compton, Anthony Anthony Compton
Lieutenant in Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Lee’s company in the Red regiment, London auxiliaries (Colonel Samuel Harsnett) when it mustered on 27 Apr. 1646. Captain in the same regiment on 22 Oct. 1646 (by when Lee was no longer an officer in it).
References: TNA, SP28/121A, f. 693r.; Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 11.
Armies: London
Compton, Eyton Eyton Compton
Of Dawley, Shropshire. After serving for a time in Ireland, cornet in a Shropshire regiment of horse.
References: CCAM, IV, 3043.
Armies: Shropshire
Compton, Richard Richard Compton
Cornetin Alexander Pym’s troop of horse.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.657-8.
Armies: Somerset
Compton, Richard Richard Compton
In the listing of summer 1642 he is shown as cornet in Pym’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 51.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Compton, Thomas Thomas Compton
Lieutenant in Sir William Constable’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 42.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Constable, Nathaniel Nathaniel Constable
Ensign in the Lancashire regiment of foot of John Moore.
References: Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 292 [citing TNA, SP28/299/1365].
Armies: Lancashire
Constable, Sir William Sir William Constable, first baronet (1591-1655)
Of Flamborough and Holme on Spalding Moor, Yorkshire.
Born 27 Feb. 1591, the only surviving son of Sir Robert Constable (died 1600) of Holme, and Anne, daughter and heir of John Hussey of North Driffield, Yorkshire. He married in 1608 Dorothy (died 1656), daughter of Sir Thomas Fairfax (later first Lord Fairfax of Cameron). He was thus brother-in-law to Ferdinando, second Lord Fairfax and uncle to Sir Thomas Fairfax. He was created baronet in 1611, was MP for Yorkshire in 1626, Scarborough in 1628 and (from 17 Aug. 1642, after the result of the poll was overturned) for Knaresborough in the Long Parliament.
In Aug. 1642 Constable was colonel of a regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army, which he led at Edgehill, where brigaded on the right of the parliamentarian army it fought well. Constable also attended Essex’s councils of war. He returned to Yorkshire and in summer 1643 was in command in the East Riding under Ferdinando Lord Fairfax. (Constable’s old regiment, much reduced in number and sometimes described as remaining under his command, seems to have remained with Essex’s Army into early 1644). In Yorkshire Constable raised and was colonel of a regiment of dragoons (which had passed to Sir William Fairfax by the beginning of 1644), of foot (which passed to his lieutenant-colonel Simon Needham at the end of Jan. 1645) and of horse. By summer 1644 Constable was colonel-general of the East Riding and lieutenant-general of the Yorkshire horse. Constable relinquished his Yorkshire commands under the Self-Denying Ordinance, when his regiment of horse was handed to Christopher Copley. Constable sheltered with the Army during the attempted Presbyterian counter-revolution of 1647. In Dec. 1647, when John Lambert was needed in the North, Constable assumed the colonelcy of his regiment of foot. He became governor of Gloucester when his new regiment took over the garrison of the city in Jan. 1648. Constable played a significant part in the Council of Officers, including membership of the committee that collaborated in drawing up the Agreement of the People, and possibly of the subcommittee that planned Pride’s Purge. His regiment passed to Colonel John Biscoe. Constable attended the king’s trial and was signatory to his death warrant. In Feb. 1649 he was elected to the first Council of State. Constable died on 14 June 1655 and was buried in Westminster Abbey. As a regicide his body was disinterred at the Restoration.
References: Oxford DNB; Jones, ‘War in the North’, 375-6; HoP: The Commons, 1604-1629, 3, 636-9; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming); Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 99; Peacock, Army lists, 41-2; JHC, 3.154; Firth and Davies, Regimental History, 399-401.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax); New Model Army
Cony, - - Cony
Captain in Edward King’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.48.
Armies: Eastern Association
Conyers, Nicholas Nicholas Conyers
Of Bowlby (or Cleasby), Yorkshire (North Riding), a gentleman. Second son of Nicholas Conyers of Bowlby and his wife Catherine Trotter, sister of George Trotter of Skelton Castle, a leading Yorkshire committee man. Two of Conyers’s younger brothers were royalists and both were killed during the wars. He married Grace, daughter of Christopher Smithson of Moulton and sister of George Smithson.
By Mar. 1643 Conyers was a cornet in the Scarborough garrison, which he left when Cholmley shifted sides. He became lieutenant in Captain Micklethwaite’s troop of horse, becoming its captain after the latter's death at Marston Moor. By Feb. 1645 Conyers had transferred as a captain to Hugh Bethell’s regiment of horse.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 376; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 93.
Armies: Yorkshire
Coo, Thomas Thomas Coo
Ensign in Thomas Grantham’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 41.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Cooke, - - Cooke (died 1644)
Ensign in the company of Captain John Nelme in the regiment of Gloucester townsmen raised in spring 1643. He was buried in Feb. 1644.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 626-7.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Cooke, - - Cooke
Possibly began the war as a captain of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army. By May 1643, captain serving in one of the three regiments of foot formed from the Essex militia, part of the Eastern Association Army that contributed to the siege of Reading in spring 1643, the siege of Greenland House in summer 1644 and probably to some other actions in which the army was involved.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.33.
Armies: Earl of Essex?:
Eastern Association
Cooke, - - Cooke
Captain in Sir William Waller’s regiment of horse until Feb. 1644 (not there in 1642 or traceable in records in 1643).
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 143.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Cooke, Edward Edward Cooke (died 1683)
Colonel. Second son of Sir Robert Cooke of Highnam, Gloucestershire and his first wife Dorothy, daughter of Sir Miles Fleetwood of Aldwincle, Northamptonshire, and younger brother of the royalist William Cooke. He married Margaret, daughter of John, Lord Poulett of Hinton St George and widow of Robert Rolle of Steventon and of Sir Richard Cholmondleigh of Gromont, Yorkshire. MP for Tewkesbury in the 1659 parliament.
In March-June 1643 he was captain of a troop of horse, which, Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West suggest, became operational in mid-May and disintegrated after Roundway Down. By Apr. 1645 he was colonel of horse, given command (on paper) of five troops of horse drawn out of Gloucestershire garrisons. He attended the king at Carisbrooke Castle in 1648 (he was at the time stationed at Hurst Castle, and was sympathetic to letting the king escape). In the winter of 1659-1660 he was in London, where he held ‘great sway’ amongst Presbyterians and MPs secluded at Pride’s Purge. In Feb. and March 1660 he and Colonel Stephens helped organize the Gloucestershire militia for the Restoration, although by Apr. he was being opposed by former royalists: ‘Ned Cooke is made Collo[ne]ll of the horse surruptitiously…and most of the gentry oppose him’ (Warmington, 167).
References: Vis. Glos., 1682-3, 47-8.Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.629-30; Warmington, Glos., 36, 69, 74, 127, 164-5, 167, 199.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Cooke, Edward Edward Cooke
A trusted colleague of Waller and for a time his chief staff officer. In Aug. 1643 he was commissioned to raise a new regiment of foot or just possibly to take over an existing regiment. Apart from involvement at the unsuccessful siege of Basing in late 1643, Cooke’s foot regiment does not seem to have been very active and in spring 1644 it was reduced and some of its soldiers taken into Sir Arthur Heselrige’s regiment of foot.
Around the same time Cooke succeeded Sir Richard Grenville, who had defected to the king, as colonel of a regiment of horse; Cooke’s own troop in this regiment served as Waller’s lifeguard, so that thereafter the rest of the regiment effectively served under his major, Robert Thorpe. In spring 1645 Cooke was commanded to lead 600 horse west to reinforce Massey’s brigade; he served with and under Massey until that force was disbanded in 1646. What remained of his old horse regiment, formerly Grenville’s, was disbanded shortly after Cooke’s departure westwards in spring 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 40, 58.
Armies: Waller; Waller (Southern Association); Massey Brigade
Cooke, Gabriel Gabriel Cooke
Captain in the regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army commanded successively by Hampden, Tyrrill and Ingoldsby. He was still there in spring 1645 but did not transfer to the New Model Army.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 148.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Cooke, Patroclus Patroclus Cooke (died 1658)
An active agent of the reformation of manners in Dorchester in the 1620s and 1630s, as serjeant and constable. Burgess, 1631.
Ensign to Captain Richard Yardley in Colonel William Sydenham’s regiment of foot, in Weymouth garrison: served 14 weeks, 17 Jan. 1645-14 Apr. 1646.
6 Jan. 1647: Cooke has an order for county treasurer to pay him £6 17s. 6d. for powder, match and bullets which ‘were us’d agt. the Irish when they came withall, on intent to surprize Dorchester’.
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 168, 129; Underdown, Fire from Heaven, esp. 141-2; Whiteway, Diary, 175.
Armies: Dorset
Cooke, Richard Richard Cooke
Reformado major serving in the Eastern Association, probably the same man who later served as major in Fairfax’s New Model Army regiment of foot, but who was killed at Bristol in Sept. 1645.
References: Holmes, Eastern Association, 201-2; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 43, 55, 65.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Cooke, Richard Richard Cooke
Sergeant and later ensign in Lieutenant-Colonel Baker’s company in Sir William Waller’s regiment of foot. He was still in the regiment when it was disbanded in Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 149.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Cooke, Robert Robert Cooke
In summer 1645, ensign in Captain Ward’s company in John Barker’s/Thomas Willoughby’s regiment of foot.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 23.
Armies: Warwickshire
Cooke, Sir Robert Sir Robert Cooke (1598-1643)
Of Highnam Court, Gloucestershire. Colonel. Eldest son of Sir William Cooke of Highnam (died 1619) and his wife Joyce, daughter of Sir Thomas Lucy of Charlecote, Warwickshire knight, sole heir of her mother Dorothy, only daughter and heir of and Arnold of Highnam, Gloucestershire. He married (1) Dorothy, daughter of Sir Miles Fleetwood of Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire, and Cranford, Buckinghamshire, receiver general of the Court of Wards; (2) Jane, daughter of Charles Danvers of Baynton, Wiltshire, and widow of George Herbert (died 1633), Rector of Bemerton and poet.
Knighted 1621.
MP for Gloucestershire in the Short Parliament and for Tewkesbury in the Long Parliament, where he was an active member, especially concerned with Irish affairs, the Grand Remonstrance. He was active in parliament and in Gloucestershire in preparing for war, and was one of those excepted from the royal general pardon published in Feb. 1643.
A puritan in religion who in the late 1630s was summoned before High Commission about Tetbury Church.
His house was occupied by the royalists in early Feb. 1643 and recaptured by Waller on 25 March.
Colonel of a regiment raised in Gloucestershire under Sir Wiliam Waller’s commission and which was raised in late March-early Apr., and was possibly included many Welsh royalists who had been captured at Highnam Court and changed sides. Cooke was made governor of Tewkesbury and by 13 Apr. his regiment was garrisoning the town although in early June it was called away for Waller’s western expedition, and the town defences slighted. At that point the garrison was made up of 1,000 horse and foot. Cooke’s regiment was probably destroyed at Roundway Down (13 July). Cooke died between 8 June 1643 (when he made his will) and 24 Oct. The herald’s visitation of 1682-3 gives his death date as June 1643.
References: Vis. Glos., 1682-3, 47Keeler, Long Parliament, 141; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 618-9; Warmington, Glos., 24-6, 28-30, 34-6, 38, 42-3, 45, 47, 65; JHC, 3.287-8.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Cooke, Thomas Thomas Cooke
Lieutenant to Captain Richard Hill in James Holborne’s regiment of foot in Nov. 1644, when it was at Wareham, Dorset.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 69.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Cooke, William William Cooke
Of Penistone, Yorkshire (West Riding), a parliamentarian captain in Yorkshire.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 116 [citing TNA, SP28/253a/part i].
Armies: Yorkshire
Cooker, William William Cooker
Lieutenant in Captain Edward Kightley’s troop in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 52.
Armies: Essex’s Army
Cooper, - - Cooper
Of Longnor, Shropshire. A Captain, shot and killed at the siege of High Ercall in Mar. 1646 and buried at St Mary’s, Shrewsbury, on 27 Mar.
References: J. Blakeway and H. Owen, A History of Shrewsbury (1825), II, 386.
Armies: Shropshire
Cooper, Sir Anthony Ashley Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper (1621-1683)
Born 22 July 1621, first son of Sir John Cooper, first baronet of Rockbourne, Hants, and Anne, daughter and heir of Sir Anthony Ashley, first baronet of Wimborne St Giles, Dorset. After he defected from the royalist cause, on 3 Aug. 1644 the Dorset committee commissioned him commander of a brigade of horse and foot in Dorset with the title of field marshal-general. He took Wareham on 10 Aug. On 25 Oct. he was appointed commander-in-chief of a parliamentary force of 1500 men to oppose Sir Lewis Dyve’s local force. He captured Abbotsbury House in early Nov., followed by Sturminster and Shaftesbury, and in Dec. helped relieve Robert Blake at Taunton. His military career then ceased, probably because of ill-health. MP for Tewkesbury in the Short Parliament of 1640, and for Wiltshire, constituencies in the parliaments of the 1650s. Created Baron Ashley in 1661, first earl of Shaftesbury, 1672.
References: Oxford DNB; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Dorset
Cooper, Arnold Arnold Cooper
Captain in Sir William Waller’s regiment of horse from 30 Apr. 1644 to 30 Apr. 1645. On 4 May 1645 he became captain in Edward Cooke’s regiment of horse and served with it in the Massey brigade until 23 Oct. 1646.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 143; Temple, ‘Massey Brigade’, 438-9, 441.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association); Massey Brigade
Cooper, Benjamin Benjamin Cooper
Captain in Valentine Walton’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army (commanded by James Hobart from spring 1645).
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.105.
Armies: Eastern Association
Cooper, Conyers Conyers Cooper
In 1642 he is listed as cornet in Long’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 54.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Cooper, Marmaduke Marmaduke Cooper
Captain in Lord Willoughby’s regiment of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army and the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.108.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Eastern Association
Cooper, Marmaduke Marmaduke Cooper
In 1642 lieutenant in Lord St John’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 48.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Cooper, Philip Philip Cooper
By spring 1645, when it was disbanded, captain in the regiment of foot by then commanded by Edward Aldridge in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 149.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Cooper, Thomas Thomas Cooper
By spring 1645, when it was disbanded, captain-lieutenant in the regiment of foot by then commanded by Edward Aldridge in the earl of Essex’s Army. He transferred at that rank with that regiment, initially still under Aldridge, into the New Model Army.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 48-9, 149.
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army
Coote, Chidley Chidley Coote (died 1668)
A younger son of Sir Charles Coote, first baronet (died 1642) of Castle Coote, County Roscommon – notorious from Oct. 1641 for his ruthlessness against the Catholic uprising – and younger brother of Charles Coote (c. 1610-1661), later first earl of Mountrath (for both of whom, see Oxford DNB).
From Nov. 1641 to Jan. 1643 Chidley defended Birr Castle, King’s County, against the Confederates. Like Michael Jones, he refused to accept the Cessation of Sept. 1643, publishing a pamphlet against it (Ireland’s Lamentation for the Late Destructive Cessation, or a Trap to Catch Protestants (1644)). In 1644 he became a lieutenant-colonel in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire forces, and ‘alternated lobbying in Westminster with fighting in Cheshire’ (Clarke, Prelude, 201). On 7 Sept. 1644 he was with the force that captured Moreton Corbet Castle, Shropshire. He later rejoined Brereton in Cheshire with the rank of lieutenant-colonel of horse, and by Apr. 1645 commanded a troop in Brereton’s regiment of horse and a company in Brereton’s regiment of foot. In spring 1646 he served with Brereton at the siege of Lichfield. He returned to Ireland and fought in the campaigns of the late 1640s and early 1650s against the Confederates. In July 1646 he contracted to recruit and transport 500 horse to Ireland. In spring 1648 his regiment numbered 389 troopers (plus officers) quartered in and around Drogheda. In June 1649 Inchiquin’s forces defeated Coote’s regiment and while part of it withdrew into Drogheda, around 150 men with Coote reached Dublin. Reinforced, Coote’s horse joined the brigade under Robert Venables sent by Cromwell to assist Sir Charles Coote in Ulster. He continued in Ulster until the end of the year, and in 1650 seems to have still been serving under Venables. His regiment was disbanded in 1653. Coote aided his brother Charles in the Restoration in Ireland, and was MP for Dublin University in the Irish Parliament of Mar. 1660. He died on 19 Nov. 1668.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, esp. 1. 49, 324, 332; Carr and Atherton, Brereton Staffs., 73, 345; Firth and Davies, Regimental History, 2, 618-9; Clarke, Prelude to Restoration, 201.
Armies: Cheshire; Ireland
Copley, Christopher Christopher Copley (died 1663/64)
Of Wadworth, Yorkshire (West Riding). Eldest son of William Copley (baptised 1575, died 1658) and his wife Anne, daughter of Gervase Cressy and widow of Lionel Rolston. Christopher Copley had important Puritan family connections: Godfrey Bosvile and Robert Greville, Lord Brooke, were cousins, whilst another cousin was the second wife of Sir Arthur Hesilrige. Lionel Copley was his brother Christopher married Elizabeth (died 1644), daughter of Gervase Bosvile of Warmsworth. As well as being a progressive landowner, Christopher had interests in the iron industry near Sheffield that provided parliament with bar iron and bullets worth £1,843.
In 1642 Copley with his father was active for parliament in south Yorkshire, and by Feb. 1643 had raised a troop at his own expense which was mustered before Lord Fairfax on 22 Feb. He fought at Adwalton Moor (30 June 1643). On 6 Aug. 1643 Copley became major of Lord Fairfax’s own regiment of horse, later fighting at Winceby and in Jan. 1644 at Nantwich. He then went to London to lobby parliament. Soon returning to Yorkshire, he became a colonel of horse on 1 Apr. 1644, and as late as June was still raising forces at his own expense. He fought at Selby and at Marston Moor. Having marched with Sir John Meldrum into Lancashire, Copley was present when Liverpool was surrendered in Nov. 1644. In early 1645 he was active in south Yorkshire and at the siege of Pontefract. His regiment was retained in the Northern Association, and leading it in June 1645 Copley defeated Lord Digby at Sherburn. In late 1645 Copley was deprived of his command over doubts about his religiosity. He was still doggedly seeking reinstatement 12 years later.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 376-7; Vis. Yorks., 2, 53; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 119.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax); Northern Army (Poyntz)
Copley, John John Copley
Captain of a company of dragoons in the earl of Essex’s Army; on 1 June 1643 a warrant was made out for £50 for completing his company of 100 men.
References: TNA, SP28/7/328.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Copley, Lionel Lionel Copley
Captain in the earl of Essex’s own regiment of horse, commanded by Stapleton, until he was succeeded by Gabriel Martin early in 1645; Copley may have been dismissed.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 51, 150.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Copley, Lionel Lionel Copley (baptised 8 Nov. 1607, died 7 Dec. 1675)
Of Rotherham and Wadworth, second son of William Copley of Wadworth (1575-1658) and younger brother of Christopher Copley (whose estates he inherited). An ironmaster with interests in the local coal industry.
He served as a parliamentary commissary officer, and ‘suffered great losses by the forces of the Earl of Newcastle’ (Oxford DNB, quoting TNA,C5/22/27).
References: Oxford DNB; Vis. Yorks., 2, 53-4; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 117.
Armies: Yorkshire
Coppe, Abiezer Abiezer Coppe (1619-1672?)
Son of the artisan Walter Coppe (born 1593, died in or after 1667) of Warwick.
Chaplain to Major George Purefoy’s troop of horse by June 1644, when Purefoy was appointed governor of Compton Wynyates House, Warwickshire. Coppe became chaplain there until (at least) Apr. 1646: the garrison was disbanded in June. At this time he seems to have been an Independent and a Baptist; later a prominent Ranter.
References: Oxford DNB; A. Hessayon, ‘The making of Abiezer Coppe’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History, Vol. 62 (2011), 38-58;
TNA, SP28/136, part 37.
Armies: Warwickshire
Coppendale, - - Coppendale
Of North Cave, Yorkshire (East Riding), a parliamentarian captain in Yorkshire.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 101 [citing BL, Birch Ms. 4460, f. 34].
Armies: Yorkshire
Copperthwaite, Christopher Christopher Copperthwaite
An esquire of Barningham, Yorkshire (North Riding).
By Dec 1642 Copperthwaite was cornet to Captain Henry Anderson in the North Riding, and then a cornet under Sir Hugh Cholmley at Scarborough until the latter’s defection in Mar. 1643, when Copperthwaite withdrew to Beverley.
He served in Lincolnshire as lieutenant to Captain (later Major) Lowenger in Lord Willoughby of Parham’s regiment, later returning to Yorkshire as major in Norcliffe’s regiment of horse by spring 1644. By summer 1645 Copperthwaite was major in Poyntz’s regiment of foot. In 1649 he was major of Charles Fairfax’s newly-raised northern regiment of foot on the New Model Army payroll. In Dec. 1659, following the dismissal of Fleetwood as colonel of his regiment of foot and his replacement by Thomas Fitch, Copperthwaite was appointed the lieutenant colonel.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 377; Firth and Davies, Regimental History, 2, 487; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 163.
Armies: Yorkshire; New Model Army
Corbet, John John Corbet
Chaplain to Edward Massey, governor of Gloucester, and author of A historicall relation of the military government of Gloucester: from the beginning of the civill warre betweene king and parliament, to the removall of Colonell Massie (1645), reprinted in Bibliotheca, 1-152.
From 1640 rector and schoolmaster in Gloucester, he subsequently held livings in the south of England until he was ejected as a Presbyterian in 1662. Thereafter he preached under the protection of gentry patrons.
References: See Oxford DNB.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Corbet, John John Corbet
On 22 Aug. 1650 commissioned a captain in Robert Duckenfeild’s Cheshire militia regiment of foot.
References: CSPD, 1650, 509.
Armies: Cheshire
Corbett, Thomas Thomas Corbett
At the beginning of 1644 but apparently no longer there by the summer, lieutenant in Hunt’s troop in William Purefoy’s regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 122.
Armies: Warwickshire
Corbett, Thomas Thomas Corbett
Ensign in the Red regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Thomas Atkin) in summer 1642.
References: Thrale 1642.
Armies: London
Corbett, Vincent Vincent Corbett
In 1642 he is listed as cornet in Thompson’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 54.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Corbin, - - Corbin
Lieutenant [of foot].
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 377.
Armies: Dorset
Corby, - - Corby
Ensign in Viscount Saye and Sele’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 30.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Corey, William William Corey
Ensign in the White regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Isaac Penington) in summer 1642.
References: Thrale 1642.
Armies: London
Corleton, - - Corleton
Major in Edward Cooke’s regiment of foot, which existed from Aug. 1643 to May 1644; in Jan. 1644 he was promoted to become the regiment’s lieutenant-colonel.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 29.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Corneby, Thomas Thomas Corneby
In summer 1644, lieutenant in Christopher Innes’s troop in Sir Samuel Luke’s Bedfordshire-based regiment of horse. Several letters by and to him survive in Luke’s letter books.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 92; Luke Letter Books, nos. 312, 516, 611, 1222, 1303.
Armies: Bedfordshire
Cornelius, Peter Peter Cornelius
Captain. His rank is provided on his oath of 24 Oct. 1649 as to Colonel William Sydenham’s activities as governor of Weymouth, strengthening the town’s defences in 1644. He also made arrears claims for himself, without his rank specified.
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 555, 402, 496.
Armies: Dorset
Corningbie, - - Corningbie
By Mar. 1644, captain in Edward Montagu’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.69.
Armies: Eastern Association
Cory, Humphrey Humphrey Cory
Captain, Dorset volunteer foot company, references 29 Oct. 1642-3 Aug. 1643
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.506-7.
Armies: Dorset
Cosbie, Arnold Arnold Cosbie
Captain. Captain in the regiment of foot of the earl of Stamford, and served with it in the garrison at Gloucester in 1643.
References: Peacock, Army Lists, 29; Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 642-3, 646.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Cosby, Arnold Arnold Cosby
In Sept. 1642 a captain in the regiment of foot which formed part of the earl of Essex’s Army under the earl of Stamford and which then formed the core of Edward Massey’s garrison and army at Gloucester.
References: Peachey and Turton, War in the West,6.646-7.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Coshe, John John Coshe
In 1642 listed as lieutenant in George Thompson’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 51.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Cossens, John John Cossens
Ensign in the Blue regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Thomas Adams) in summer 1642.
References: Thrale 1642.
Armies: London
Cosworth, Samuel Samuel Cosworth
In 1642 listed as Cornet in Anthony Mildmay’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 51.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Cotchett, Robert Robert Cotchett (1611-1657)
Of Mickleover, Derbyshire. He was a captain in the Derbyshire regiment of horse, and like several others, was opposed to its colonel, Sir John Gell. After Cotchett signed a petition of the officers against Gell in Dec. 1644, the latter called him a ‘factious fool and knave’, imprisoned him and after his release expelled him and his family from Derby. In Dec. 1645 Cotchett was one of Gell’s military accusers before the committee of examinations.
Cotchett was in London in early 1649, from where he wrote an eye-witness account to a friend of the execution of the king: ‘the highest action which was ever acted on the English stage’ (Turbutt, Derbyshire, 3.1088). Cotchett had inscribed over the porch of his hall Mickleover ‘Nissa Deus Frustra 1648’ (‘In vain but for God’).
References: Brighton, ‘Governor’, 7, 25; Turbutt, Derbyshire, 3.1062, 1088-9; Slack, Man at War, 137; www.derby-guide.co.uk/mickleover.html.
Armies: Derbyshire
Cotsmore, John John Cotsmore
Identified by a pay warrant dated 15 Apr. 1644 as lieutenant to Captain John Lloyd in Sir Thomas Myddelton’s brigade.
References: TNA, SP28/346, no. 122.
Armies: North Wales
Cotterill [Cotterell], John John Cotterill [Cotterell]
Of Huggate, Yorkshire (East Riding). He married Frances, fourth daughter of Richard Manby of Middleton on the Wolds.
Cotterill was probably a captain in John Gifford’s regiment of foot, promoted Major in the same regiment in June 1644 when Francis Lascelles became its colonel; he remained Major in June 1645. By 1647 he was a lieutenant-colonel and parliament’s governor of Pontefract Castle. Cotterill was surprised in his bed and wounded when royalists under Colonel John Morris infiltrated and took the castle on the night of 1 June 1648; ‘he signalised himself, then, by his courage if not by his vigilance’ (Firth and Davies, Regimental History, 2, 551). By 1652 Cotterill was lieutenant-colonel of Robert Overton’s regiment of foot, serving in Scotland. That June he campaigned in the western isles and was later governor of Dunbarton Castle. In June 1653 he ejected the Scottish General Assembly, and in Sept. 1654 received the surrender of the earl of Glencairn. During 1656 he was stationed at Aberdeen, although also spending much time in England.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 377; Firth and Davies, Regimental History, 2, 551-4; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 100.
Armies: Yorkshire; Northern Army (Fairfax); Northern Army (Poyntz); New Model Army
Cotterral, John John Cotterral
Lieutenant in Lord Brooke’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642. He was captured by the royalists – perhaps at the same time as Captain John Lilburne, when Brooke’s regiment was attacked at Brentford on 12 Nov. 1642. He was a prisoner at Oxford, signing a petition to Speaker Lenthall against their harsh treatment in the castle, dated 19 July 1643. He had been released by 20 Nov. 1643.
In mid-1644 paid as a reformado cornet of horse.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 34; Somers tracts, 4.615-8; TNA, SP28/11/369, SP28/18/86.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Cotton, - - Cotton
Ensign in Lord Brooke’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 34.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Cotton, - - Cotton
Lieutenant in the troop of Captain Zachery Walker in Oliver Cromwell’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association. His military service apparently ended in Mar. 1645 when he and Walker were arrested and cashiered on suspicion of malignancy and the troop disbanded.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.24.
Armies: Eastern Association
Cotton, Edward Edward Cotton
Captain. Captain in the earl of Stamford’s regiment of foot. He does not appear as an officer in the published list of Essex’s army in 1642, but had joined by Jan. 1643 when the regiment was in garrison at Gloucester in 1643.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 642-5.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Cotton, John John Cotton
In 1644 a captain of horse in the earl of Denbigh’s Army. By spring 1645, captain-lieutenant in the colonel’s own troop in William Purefoy’s regiment of horse, soon promoted to captain. Fought alongside Major Hawkesworth at the battle of Rowton Moor in Sept. 1645 where he was mortally wounded.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 121; Dore, Brereton letter books, II. 485.
Armies: Earl of Denbigh; Warwickshire
Cotton, Philip Philip Cotton
Ensign in Captain Henry Turner’s company in the Westminster auxiliary regiment (Colonel James Prince) at its muster, 13 May 1644.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, Part 4, ff. 536r.-537v.
Armies: Westminster
Cotton, Thomas Thomas Cotton
Of Cotton Hall, near Holmes Chapel, Cheshire.
A captain in Colonel Mainwaring’s regiment in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire Army.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 331.
Armies: Cheshire
Cottorill, Thomas Thomas Cottorill
In summer 1642 he became an ensign in Holles’s short-lived regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army. Like most of his fellow-officers and the regiment as a whole, little is heard of him after their shattering defeat at Brentford in Nov. 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 37.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Council, Thomas Thomas Council
Captain of dragoons. Variously placed with Popham’s regiment of dragoons and Cole’s regiment of dragoons.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 5.560-2.
Armies: Somerset: Colonel Popham’s Regt. of Dragoons and Cole’s Regt. of Dragoons; Col. William Strode’s Regt. of Foot
Court, John John Court
In summer 1642 he became a lieutenant in Holles’s short-lived regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army. Like most of his fellow-officers and the regiment as a whole, little is heard of him after their shattering defeat at Brentford in Nov. 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 37.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Courthop, - - Courthop
Lieutenant in Sir William Constable’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 42.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Covell, Thomas Thomas Covell
Of All Hallows Barking.
Trained Bands captain by 1639.
Lieutenant-Colonel in the Green regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel John Warner) in Apr. 1642, but no longer there shortly after.
Peace petitioner in Dec. 1642.
References: Barriffe, Mars, sig. ¶r.; Overton 1642; Lindley, Popular politics, 65, 342.
Armies: London
Coventry, Richard Richard Coventry
From the Wirral, Cheshire.
By Apr. 1645 Coventry was a captain holding joint command, with Captains Ball and William Coventry, of a 150-strong company from Wirral in Sir William Brereton’s regiment of foot. He was described as ‘Captain Richard Coventrie of Knoctorum’ when a debt of £100 belonging to one Elizabeth Gill, delinquent, was seized upon from his hand on 4 Dec. 1647 (BL, Harl. Ms. 2018, f. 134r.).
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 325, 329; BL, Harl. Ms. 2018, f. 134r.
Armies: Cheshire
Coventry, William William Coventry
From the Wirral, Cheshire.
By Apr. 1645 a captain holding joint command, with Captains Ball and Richard Coventry, of a 150-strong company from Wirral in Sir William Brereton’s regiment of foot.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 325, 329.
Armies: Cheshire
Cowell [Covell], William William Cowell [Covell]
Lieutenant in John Desborough’s troop within Cromwell’s horse regiment in the Eastern Association Army. He transferred to the New Model in that capacity, and by 1649 was a captain in what by then was Fairfax’s horse regiment.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.19; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 105.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Cowell, William William Cowell
By spring 1645 – probably from 1643 – a captain in Harry/Henry Barclay’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army. Like many of his fellow-officers in that regiment, he then transferred to the New Model Army, as captain in what became Edward Harley’s New Model Army regiment of foot. Later in the 1640s he transferred as lieutenant-colonel to Fairfax’s own regiment of foot, but his service there was quite brief, as he died or was killed in late summer 1648.
References: Wanklyn, New Model Army, 1. 47, 58, 69, 85, 150.
Armies: Earl of Essex; New Model Army
Cowper, - - Cowper
Of Knowsthorpe, Yorkshire (West Riding), a parliamentarian lieutenant in Yorkshire.
References: Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 115, [citing BL, Add. Ms. 21418, f. 354, BL, Add. Ms. 21427,.ff. 9, 59]
Cowsey, Henry Henry Cowsey
Lieutenant to Captain Franklin, probably in Nathaniel Fiennes’s regiment of foot in 1643.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6.608-9.
Armies: Bristol
Cox, Thomas Thomas Cox
Quartermaster to the Blue regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Thomas Adams) in summer 1642. In 1647 the Presbyterian militia committee approved him as captain in the same Blue regiment, London Trained Bands (now Colonel William Underwood). Put out by the Independent militia committee after the failure of the Presbyterian coup.
References: Thrale 1642; Nagel, ‘London militia’, 318; A paire of spectacles for the Citie (1648), 10.
Armies: London
Coxe, Alban Alban Coxe (c.1600-1665)
Son and heir of Sir Richard Coxe, sometime master of the royal household, of Beamonds, near St Albans, Hertfordshire.
Alban was a colonel in the Hertfordshire militia during the 1630s. A parliamentarian administrator in Hertfordshire from the outbreak of civil war. Colonel of a Hertfordshire regiment of foot, largely drawn from the militia, during the civil war, which occasionally assisted wider campaigns, including helping mop up royalists after the battle of Naseby. He became a Recruiter MP in 1649 and sat again in the Protectorate Parliaments.
References: A. Thompson, The Impact of the First Civil War on Hertfordshire, 1642-47 (2007), passim but especially 213-4.
Armies: Hertfordshire
Coysh, - - Coysh
Captain in the Orange regiment, London auxiliaries (Colonel Thomas Gower) in Oct. 1646.
References: Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 11.
Armies: London
Coysh, John John Coysh
Identified by warrants dating from Mar. and Aug. 1644 as a captain and later major (perhaps of horse) in Sir Thomas Myddelton’s brigade.
References: TNA, SP28/346, nos. 49, 295.
Armies: North Wales
Cracroft, Jo. Jo. Cracroft
Lieutenant in the earl of Essex’s own regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 26.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Craddock, - - Craddock
Captain in Waller’s Southern Association Army by 30 Dec. 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, App. 2, p. 3.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Cranage, - - Cranage
By Jan. 1645 a lieutenant in command of a troop of 12 dragoons serving with Sir Thomas Myddelton’s brigade based in Montgomeryshire.
References: National Library of Wales, Chirk Castle Ms. 1/Biii, 93.
Armies: North Wales
Cranage, George George Cranage
An officer in Lancashire. He was a signatory to the Presbyterian, anti-New Model Army ‘Engagement or Declaration of the Officers and Souldiers of the County Palatine of Lancaster’, May 1648.
References: Lancashire military proceedings, 248-50.
Armies: Lancashire
Cranley, Benjamin Benjamin Cranley
A mariner, active in the local administration of raising supply for the parliamentarian army.
Nominated by the Commons to be captain under the earl of Warwick of such volunteers as he should raise in the parish of Stepney on 22 Oct. 1642.
References: JHC, 2.816; Lindley, Popular politics, 232.
Armies: Stepney
Crant [Grant], - - Crant [Grant] (died 1645)
The name is sometimes spelt Grant, but Crant is how his widow Elizabeth spelt his name. He is described in sources both as a captain and as a lieutenant. Crant was captain-lieutenant of the Colonel’s troop in Michael Jones’s regiment of horse in the Cheshire Army. He was killed at the battle of Rowton Heath on 24 Sept. 1645.
In the first of a series of relief orders, on 22 Nov. the Cheshire county committee allowed his widow Elizabeth £8, ‘she having a great charge of children, and in great distress’ (TNA, SP28/224, f. 72r.). She was placed in the house of a petty canon in Abbey Court, and in Sept. 1648 was appealing to keep the house upon her return, as she had long been in London in pursuit of her husband’s arrears.
References: TNA, SP28/224, ff. 72, 90, 91, 249; Dore, Brereton letter books, 2. 384, 511.
Armies: Cheshire
Crawford, - - Crawford
Chaplain of Lawrence Crawford’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army at the time of its disbandment on 17 Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.17.
Armies: Eastern Association
Crawford, Daniel Daniel Crawford
Captain in Lawrence Crawford’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army by mid-Mar. 1644, and probably by 15 Mar.; he is presumably one of the captains then recorded as having served under Lawrence Crawford in Ireland.
Daniel Crawford had been promoted major in succession to William Hamilton by early 1645.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.13; TNA, SP28/23/16, SP28/25/493; Davies, ‘Eastern Association’, 94; JHC, 3.427-8.
Armies: Eastern Association
Crawford, Hugh Hugh Crawford
Captain-Lieutenant and in effect commander of the troop nominally commanded by (his kinsman) Lawrence Crawford in Colonel Charles Fleetwood’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.35.
Armies: Eastern Association
Crawford, John John Crawford
A captain in the Lancashire regiment of foot of John Moore.
References: Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 291 [citing TNA, SP28/299/1162, SP28/300/265].
Armies: Lancashire
Crawford, Lawrence Lawrence Crawford (1611-1645)
Born Nov. 1611, the sixth son of Hugh Crawford of Jordanhill, near Glasgow, and Elizabeth Stirling. From 1626 Crawford served on the continent, in the armies of Sweden, Denmark and the Elector Palatine.
From 1641 he served as a colonel in Ormonde’s Army in Ireland, but in Dec. 1643 he defected to the Scottish garrison at Carrickfergus; although, as he told Ormonde, he was willing to follow English or Scottish forms of religion within their respective territories, he refused to take the oath demanded by Ormonde of his officers to renounce the Covenant. The committee of the English parliament at Edinburgh recommended him to the Speaker of the House of Commons and on 3 Feb. 1644 he related his sufferings to the Commons, who commended him and endorsed his publication of his case, which came out as Irelands ingratitude to the parliament of England, or, A remonstrance of Colonell Crawfords, shewing the Je[s]uiticall plots against the parliament, which was the onely cause he left his imployment there (1643/4).
Two days earlier, on 1 Feb., the earl of Manchester had commissioned him to the Eastern Association Army as sergeant-major-general of the horse and foot, commissary-general of the horse, president of the council of war, colonel of a regiment of horse and captain of a troop of horse (the last to be raised in Suffolk).
Very quickly the Presbyterian Crawford was at odds with Cromwell over his lieutenant-colonel, Henry Warner, whose dismissal he sought from the earl of Manchester as an Anabaptist. Crawford’s own preferred candidate (probably William Hamilton) was one of his officers from the Irish wars, a veteran who presumably shared Crawford’s Presbyterianism. In a letter of 10 Mar., Cromwell rebuked Crawford over his intolerance towards a godly and committed officer, making clear that he thought Crawford had already made problems for himself by his sectarian attitude: ‘I advised you formerly to bear with men of different minds from yourself; if you had done it when I advised you to it, I think you would not have had so many stumbling blocks in your way’ (Abbott, Cromwell, 1.277-8).
He also pointedly contrasted the virtues of the godly Warner with the vices of the professional soldier: ‘Give me leave to tell you, I cannot be of your judgment; that if a man notorious for wickedness, for oaths, for drinking, hath as great a share in your affection as one that fears an oath, that fears to sin, that this doth commend your election of men to serve as fit instruments in this work’ (Abbott, Cromwell, 1.277-8).
On 15 Mar. the Commons promised Crawford a regiment in Ireland if the war went on there. They also noted that he had several officers serving in his regiment whom he had brought over from Ireland: three captains, three lieutenants and two ensigns, and his lieutenant-colonel. But in fact either Crawford backed down or was simply over-ruled by Manchester; the Cambridgeshire Independent Warner remained his lieutenant-colonel. Crawford’s officers included both his veterans and local men; at least two of his captains, Eaton and Done, seem to have had personal ties to Warner.
Crawford was shortly after again at odds with Cromwell over an officer of the latter’s regiment, the Baptist William Packer, whom he sought to arrest.
‘Proving very stout and successful’, the Scottish Presbyterian Robert Baillie recorded, Crawford ‘got a great head with Manchester, and with all the army that were not for sects’ (Oxford DNB). However, even Baillie condemned the ‘foolish rashness of Crawford, and his great vanity to assault alone the breach made by his mine without acquainting [David] Leslie and [Sir Thomas] Fairfax’ at the siege of York, a storm which was heavily repulsed (Oxford DNB). After Marston Moor, Crawford took various royalist garrisons in south Yorkshire and the north Midlands, including Sheffield, Staveley, Bolsover, and Welbeck.
After the battle, Cromwell’s willingness to work with the committed godly of all stripes gave way to a conflict with Crawford’s intolerant Presbyterianism which polarized junior officers. Attempts to purge officers of Crawford’s faction (including for probably justified accusations of plunder) culminated in Cromwell’s attempt to get Crawford cashiered and both men accusing each other before the Committee of Both Kingdoms. The aftermath of the second battle of Newbury led to more conflict and recriminations between Crawford and Cromwell. ‘Each sought the dismissal of the other, and each had too much political support to be sacked …. Manchester broke the deadlock by calling on both parties to unite in common service but they returned to their military duties deeply antagonized’ (Oxford DNB: Oliver Cromwell).
As his military service in the Eastern Association often led him to campaign around the fringes of the east Midlands, he features quite frequently in Sir Samuel Luke’s letter books, and several letters to and by him survive there.
With the formation of the New Model Army, Crawford was one of four Scottish colonels named to the New Model Army, but he refused to serve, probably following the instructions of the Scottish commissioners attending the Committee of Both Kingdoms.
A few weeks later Crawford was appealing to the Lords to defend the reputation of himself and the Scottish nation. When Richard Man, constable of Covent Garden, tried to press Crawford’s servant, the General first sent Captain Walter Sterling, whom the constable in turn disarmed of his sword and threatened to press. Crawford then himself went to remonstrate: ‘desiring him in a friendly Manner to release his Servant, and to restore the said captain his Sword; who imperiously and disdainfully replied, “That he would neither release the Servant, nor restore the Sword”; and further said, “God confound you all for a Company of beggarly Scotts Rogues! and God confound all your Nation and Army for beggarly Rogues! you may thank God that ever you knew the Wars of England; for you were begging your Bread before you came, and you will beg it when you are gone."’ (JHL, 7.393). According to the servant, ‘when his Master, Major General Crawford, returned back, the Constable and the said Moore whooted at him’ (JHL, 7.398). On 3 June the Lords committed the constable and his fellow defendant to the Fleet, ‘for their base and scandalous Words and Execrations against the Scottish Nation; and Tomorrow this House will consider what Satisfaction is sitting for to be given to the Scottish Nation for this Offence’ (JHL, 7.405).
In winter 1644-5, Crawford, his troop of horse under Captain Dendy and his regiment of foot lay in and near Aylesbury for two months. He twice defeated Thomas Blagge, the royalist governor of Wallingford. His forces became notorious for their depredations: ‘be the Mars. [Major-General’s] owne war[ran]t (as sole plunderer & oppressor of the country) by his horse & imprisoning of the constables and others for it’, as the inhabitants of Tingwick and Water Stratford reported (TNA, SP28/127, Part 15, f. 231r.). Concluding a list of Buckinghamshire complaints against Crawford, it was alleged that he and his officers had had a month’s pay advanced to them from the Eastern Association at the procuring of the Buckinghamshire county committee, because he had claimed that he could not march for want of pay for his soldiers quartered there. However, when they marched away, they failed to pay for their quarters; instead Crawford and his companies charged the town with more money, provisions and carriages, ‘and the Maior [Major-General] beinge complained unto by the [Bucks.] Comte. [committee] for releife told them he came into the Country for all theire goods and called the Comte. Fooles’ (TNA, SP28/127, part 15, f. 232r.).
By summer 1645 Crawford was with the earl of Leven’s Scottish army besieging Hereford. He was killed by a stray bullet on 17 Aug. 1645. Ten days later, the Lords recommended to the Commons the case of Crawford’s widow for some of his arrears. He was buried in Gloucester cathedral but his monument was removed at the Restoration.
References: Oxford DNB; Holmes, Eastern Association. 143, 147, 148; 156, 162, 164, 173, 177, 199-204; The quarrel between the Earl of Manchester and Oliver Cromwell, ed. J. Bruce, Camden Soc., new ser., 12 (1875);SSNE (www.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/ssne/item.php?id=1338&id2=1338, accessed 11 Dec. 2009); Bodleian Library, Mss. Carte, 6, ff. 384, 386, 458, 474, 467; JHC, 3.387, 396, 427-8; CSPD, 1644, 11, 404, 423, 1645-7, 538-9, 546-7; JHL, 7.393, 397-9, 401, 403, 405, 555.
Abbott, Cromwell, 1.277-8; TNA, SP28/127, Part 15; Luke Letter Books, nos. 228, 489, 490, 491, 494, 502, 806, 808, 959, 1039, 1132, 1195, 1200, 1209.
Armies: Eastern Association
Creane, Robert Robert Creane
A sergeant and then lieutenant of Captain Robert Jollie’s company (raised in summer 1643 in Bispham and Poulton-le-Fylde, Lancashire) in Colonel Alexander Rigby senior’s regiment of foot. He may later have served as a trooper under Captain Roger Bamber in Nicholas Shuttleworth’s regiment of horse (Nicholas was colonel after the Self-Denying ordinance). Creane claimed arrears of £45 4s 8d on 14 May 1659.
References: TNA, E121/4/8.
Armies: Lancashire
Creed, Richard Richard Creed
By early 1644, lieutenant in Hawkesworth’s troop in William Purefoy’s regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 121.
Armies: Warwickshire
Crew, John John Crew
A company captain in Sir William Brereton’s Cheshire forces identified in the arrears claim of Lieutenant William Burscoe, who served in the company for 528 days. The date is uncertain, but given the details of Burscoe’s previous service, probably during 1645. He is possibly John Crew, younger son of Randle Crew of Crewe Hall, but he seems to be in London, 1645-6. In Feb. 1644 he was indicted for treason at the royalist Chester assizes as John Crewe of Ulkington [i.e. Utkinton near Tarporley]. He was ‘a Cheshire committee man, he was rarely active, although he kept his position as JP throughout the 1640s and 1650s and was sheriff in 1652’ (Carr and Atherton, Brereton Staffordshire, 308). At the same assizes John Crew of Nantwich, a yeoman, was also indicted. The MP John Crew, first baron Crew (1597/8–1679), though a kinsman of Brereton’s, seems a very unlikely candidate (for him, see Oxford DNB).
References: TNA, SP28/224, f. 327; Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 75-6, 2. 241; Carr and Atherton, Brereton Staffs., 130, 307-8.
Armies: Cheshire
Crichlow [Crichloe], Ralph Ralph Crichlow [Crichloe]
Identified by issues of equipment to his men as a captain of a company of foot serving in Sir Thomas Myddelton’s brigade in Montgomeryshire in autumn 1644.
References: National Library of Wales, Chirk Castle Ms. 1/Biii, 93.
Armies: North Wales
Crimes [Crymes], Ellis Ellis Crimes [Crymes] (1616-90)
Eldest son of William Crimes (1583-1627) of Buckland Monachorum, Devon, and his wife Joan (died 1665), daughter of John Coplestone of Warleigh. He married (1) Mary (died 1652), daughter of Sir Francis Drake of Buckland Monachorum on 28 Apr. 1636 (and hence brother-in-law of Colonel Sir Francis Drake, second baronet, MP; (2) Rebecca (died 1666).
MP for Tavistock, c. July 1641 until his seclusion at Pride’s Purge; MP for Bere Alston, 1659; returned MP for Bere Alston in 1661, but a double return, and his petition to the elections committee was dismissed when he failed to attend.
An officer at Plymouth. In late 1642 or early 1643 he was paid £15 by the Mayor of Plymouth in part payment for his company, and remained a captain at the time of Maurice’s siege, listed by Worth (as Elias Crymes) one of the ‘Captains of the Town’, perhaps a Trained Band officer. By 1645-6 a lieutenant-colonel.
References: Vivian, Devon, 258; Roberts, Devon, 20, 146; HoP: The Commons, 1660-1690, I, 194-5; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660, (forthcoming); TNA, SP28/128, Part 19, f. 5r.; Worth, History of Plymouth,110, 134.
Armies: Devon
Crippes, Ralph Ralph Crippes
Lieutenant in Captain Thomas Kekewich’s company in the Westminster auxiliaries regiment (Colonel James Prince) when it mustered, 13 May 1644.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, Part 4, f. 549r.
Armies: Westminster;
London; Waller (Southern Association)
Crisp, Peter Peter Crisp
Captain. Captain in the earl of Stamford’s regiment of foot, serving in the Gloucester garrison. Early during the siege of Gloucester, in Aug, 1643, he led an effective sally against the enemy lines, and a few weeks, after the raising of the siege, struck at the enemy from a defensive outpost.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 6. 642-6; Bibliotheca, 46, 66.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Crispe, Peter Peter Crispe
In Sept. 1642 a captain in the regiment of foot which formed part of the earl of Essex’s Army under the earl of Stamford and which then formed the core of Edward Massey’s garrison and army at Gloucester.
References: Peachey and Turton, War in the West,6.642-6.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Crocker, Francis [?] Francis [?] Crocker
Colonel Crocker commanded a regiment of foot at Plymouth from late 1642 to at least Apr. 1644. The forename is tentatively suggested by Peachey and Turton, but assumes two payments to Francis Crocker of £20 each apply to Colonel Crocker in the same accounts. They may well be correct, but he may be Colonel John Crocker, who was definitely at Plymouth in 1645.
References: Peachey and Turton, Fall of the West, 3.361.
Armies: Devon
Crocker, John John Crocker
Colonel in the Plymouth garrison, 1645-6. He was lent £14 for supply of his present necessity, 27 Feb. 1645. Named a member of the Plymouth defence committee, 5 May 1645. This John Crocker is difficult to place; presumably a kinsman of the Crockers of Lyneham, who included the royalist mayor of Exeter in 1643, Sir Hugh Crocker (for whom see Stoyle, Deliverance). Possibly the same man as the Colonel Crocker identified by Peachey and Turton tentatively as Francis Crocker.
References: Worth, History of Plymouth, 134; Worth, ‘Plymouth siege accounts’, 224, 220.
Armies: Devon
Crocker, Philip Philip Crocker
A captain at Plymouth by Apr./May 1643, when he was paid £10; in June he was paid a further £20. Listed by Worth in his History of Plymouth as ‘A captain of the Town’ at Plymouth at the time of Prince Maurice’s siege, Sept.-Dec. 1643.
Crocker was commissioned colonel of foot in the Devon militia, 2 Mar. 1650.
References: TNA, SP28/128, part 20, ff. 4v., 5v.; Worth, History of Plymouth, 110; CSPD 1650, 254.
Armies: Devon
Croft, John John Croft
A captain in the Lancashire regiment of Gilbert Ireland.
References: Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 290.
Armies: Lancashire
Crofte, Thomas Thomas Crofte
A captain in John Moore’s regiment of Lancashire foot. He is mentioned in records dated Dec. 1645 and Jan. 1646 as serving at the siege of Chester. He was probably the Captain Croft, commissioned captain in Gilbert Ireland’s Lancashire militia regiment of foot on 28 Sept. 1650.
References: TNA, E121/5/7; Dore, Brereton letter books, 2. 382, 396, 510; CSPD, 1650, 511.
Armies: Lancashire
Croker, John John Croker
Cornet in Saye and Sele’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642, according to the contemporary printed list.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 48.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Crompton, George George Crompton
Lieutenant-Colonel in the Westminster auxiliaries regiment (Colonel James Prince) on 13 May 1644 and 22 Oct. 1646.
References: TNA, SP28/121A, Part 5, ff. 590 r. & v.; Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 11.
Armies: Westminster
Crompton, Thomas Thomas Crompton (born 1606/7, alive in 1662)
Colonel. Of Park Hall, Stone, Staffordshire. Second son of Thomas Crompton (died 1645) of Stone, esquire, and his wife Margaret, daughter of Samuel Marrow of Berkwell, Worcestershire. He married (1) Anne, daughter of Thomas Whitgreeve of Burton, Staffordshire, (2) Elianor, daughter of James Skrimshire of Norbury, Staffordshire, (3) Elizabeth, daughter of George Hovenden and widow of Dr Chaloner, son of Sir Thomas Chaloner, baronet, and (4) Elianor, daughter of Sir George Morton of Millburn, Dorset and widow of Thomas Hussey of Tomson, Dorset.
An active Staffordshire county committeeman from 18 Oct. 1644. Recruiter MP for Staffordshire from 1647 to 1653, and MP for Stafford in the parliaments of 1654, 1656 and 1659.
Commissioned colonel of horse in the Staffordshire militia, 14 May 1650.
References: Vis. Staffs., 102; Pennington and Roots, Committee at Stafford, lxxviii, 351 and passim; Dore, Brereton Letter Books, 1.487; CSPD, 1650, 506; HoP: The Commons, 1640-1660 (forthcoming).
Armies: Staffordshire; Nottinghamshire
Crompton, Thomas Thomas Crompton (born c.1619)
Identified by Jones as probably of Great Driffield, Yorkshire (East Riding).
By summer 1642 a captain of dragoons in the W. Riding, when he reported that his men had ‘run away'. Having gained a commission to raise another company, Crompton was serving in the East Riding by Jan. 1643, and was captured in Apr. 1643. There is no further record of him as a parliamentarian officer, although he may have shifted sides: a Thomas Crompton was a royalist witness to the surrender of Scarborough, whilst Thomas Crompton of Driffield, perhaps the same man, was later sequestered.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 377.
Armies: Yorkshire
Crompton, Thomas Thomas Crompton
Chaplain to Thomas Morgan’s regiment of foot at the time it was disbanded at the turn of 1647/8.
References: HMC, Seventh Report, 68-9.
Armies: Gloucestershire
Cromwell, - - Cromwell
By spring 1644 and still there a year later on the eve of the regiment’s transfer to the New Model Army, though he did not enter the New Model, captain in John Pickering’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.86.
Armies: Eastern Association
Cromwell, Oliver Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658).
Born 1599, second but in time only surviving son and heir of Robert Cromwell of Huntingdon. Married in London in 1620 Elizabeth, daughter of Sir James Bourchier. A minor gentleman in Huntingdon until 1631, when – probably in unhappy circumstances – he sold up and became a tenant farmer in St Ives. The inheritance from a maternal uncle brought him to Ely in 1636 and gave him greater prosperity. MP in 1628-9 and in the Short and Long Parliaments.
In part through (often distant) kinship with more substantial critics of the king and in part through his conversion sometime during the 1630s to a more godly, active and radical faith, he became a prominent opponent of the king in parliament in 1640-2.
Captain of horse at the outbreak of the civil war, raised mainly in his native Huntingdonshire and Cambridgeshire and with several kinsmen and old associates as his officers, he and his troop joined the earl of Essex’s Army sometime around the end of the battle of Edgehill.
Colonel of a horse regiment in the Eastern Association Army from Feb. 1643, during that year he campaigned to strengthen and defend the Association’s heartlands from royalist advances, capturing Crowland and Burghley House and securing (mainly cavalry) victories in battle at Gainsborough (July) and, with Sir Thomas Fairfax, at Winceby (Oct.); governor of the Isle of Ely from July 1643.
In Feb. 1644 he became Manchester’s lieutenant-general of the horse and in effect second-in-command of the Eastern Association Army. As such, he took part in the siege of York and played a decisive role in the battle of Marston Moor, where he commanded one of the cavalry wings. He was subsequently very critical of Manchester’s lack of dynamism in the weeks and months after Marston Moor and of Manchester’s failings in and immediately after the second battle of Newbury (Oct.), though Cromwell’s own performance at Newbury was not above criticism. In the wake of his clash with Manchester, he supported the Self-Denying Ordinance and the creation of a new parliamentarian field army.
After serving briefly in effect under Waller’s command or direction, in spring 1645 and via an exemption from the Self-Denying Ordinance, he became lieutenant-general of horse in the New Model and Fairfax’s second-in-command. As such, he fought at the battle of Naseby, again playing a key role as commander of one of the cavalry wings, in the reconquest of the South West – he and his men played conspicuous roles at Langport, Bridgwater, Bristol, Bovey Tracy, Dartmouth and Torrington – and at the siege of Oxford; in autumn 1645 he led a New Model brigade which mopped up Devizes, Winchester and Basing House.
His active parliamentary career resumed in 1646-7, now with the enhanced power and status of a triumphant general, with God and troops behind him. In 1647 he sided with the army in its clashes with the Long Parliament, though (at Putney in Oct. and Nov.) he struggled to keep the army united and to keep its radical elements in check.
He returned to the field in summer 1648, leading roughly half the New Model Army westwards, to crush anti-parliamentarian and royalist insurrection in South Wales, culminating in the lengthy siege of Pembroke (June-July), and then northwards, to engage and crush the Scottish-royalist army of invasion around and south of Preston (Aug.). After visiting Scotland and supporting the siege of Pontefract, he returned to London just after Pride’s Purge. He actively supported and was very prominent in the regicide.
Having again worked with Fairfax to restore order in the New Model Army and to crush minor mutinies, between Aug. 1649 and May 1650 he campaigned in Ireland, leading a large New Model force which, sometimes with considerable brutality, crushed royalist and Irish Catholic resistance in much of eastern and southern Ireland, in a campaign of sieges and stormings of towns and strongholds rather than field engagements and battles; it was left to other English commanders after his departure, including his son-in-law Henry Ireland and Charles Fleetwood, to complete the reconquest of the whole island.
In summer 1650 he succeeded Fairfax as lord general and commander-in-chief and it was in that capacity that he led a large New Model force into Scotland. His Scottish campaign of 1650-1 was marked by setbacks and periods of inactivity. Initially unable to tempt the Scottish-royalist army out of Edinburgh-Leith and unwilling to mount a frontal assault, he was falling back with his depleted and sickening army when his opponents moved in for the kill at Dunbar; his great victory there against numerical odds on 3 Sept. 1650 enabled him to mop up the lowlands, including Edinburgh and Glasgow. But the Scots rebuilt their army in heavily-fortified Stirling at the gateway to the Highlands, which Cromwell dared not attack or enter, and during winter and spring 1650-1 he became and lay seriously ill in Edinburgh. To tempt and force the Scots out of Stirling, in summer 1651 he threw much of his army across the Firth of Forth into Fife, leaving the road south lightly guarded. The Scottish-royalists took the opportunity to drive southwards, into England, Cromwell falling in behind them; he caught them at Worcester and destroyed the Scottish-royalist army on 3 Sept. 1651.
Although the battle of Worcester was the last occasion on which Cromwell led an army in the field and campaigned in person, via a mixture of stick and carrot he retained tight control over the New Model Army and remained lord general until his death. His military might, combined with his godly confidence and political standing, enabled him to break the Rump in spring 1653, to set up the Nominated Assembly (July-Dec. 1653), and to become head of state as lord protector in Dec. 1653. On the one hand, Cromwell’s military prowess and backing ensured that he was a powerful head of state, that the Protectorate was secure at home in England and Wales, Scotland and Ireland, and that the regime was able to run an adventurous, expansive and largely successful foreign policy; on the other hand, as Protector Cromwell was keen to oversee a largely civilian government and generally to keep to the terms of, and the checks and balances set out within, the written constitution. The Protectoral regime was in debt but otherwise quite strong and stable down to his death at Whitehall on 3 Sept. 1658.
Cromwell was buried in Westminster Abbey but was exhumed and posthumously ‘executed’ in Jan. 1661, his headless corpse then dumped and buried at Tyburn; his head was for a time on public display and became a macabre collectors’ item until in 1960 the head believed to be his was immured in the ante-chapel of his old Cambridge college.
References: Oxford DNB.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Eastern Association; New Model Army
Cromwell, Oliver, junior Oliver Cromwell, junior
Son of Oliver Cromwell, the future lord general and Lord Protector, born 1624.
He may be the Oliver Cromwell who in late summer 1642 is listed as cornet in Lord St John’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army, though the identification is not certain.
By that time his father’s eldest surviving son, he served as captain in his father’s horse regiment in the Eastern Association Army; died in spring 1644, probably while visiting or serving at Newport Pagnell garrison.
References: Oxford DNB.
Armies: Eastern Association
Crooke, William William Crooke
An officer in the Northern Army. A captain, probably of foot, he had been promoted to major by Nov. 1644. According to Jones, Crooke was a lieutenant-colonel by 1647, but the regiment to which he can firmly be ascribed is Charles Fairfax’s regiment of West Riding foot, in which he served as lieutenant-colonel, raised in May 1648 (as one of three regiments of foot and one of horse raised to face the Scottish invasion). Crooke was prominent during the third and final siege of Pontefract Castle in 1648-9. In 1648 Crooke claimed £890 16s in arrears and £29 6s 8d in expenses. In early 1649 Charles Fairfax’s regiment was absorbed into the establishment of the regular army and marched with Cromwell into Scotland in 1650. But in June/July 1649 Crooke had resigned his commission to avoid a court martial, in the face of charges that included ‘tippling’.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 377-8; Firth and Davies, Regimental History, 2, 500-2; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 163.
Armies: Northern Army (Fairfax); Northern Army (Poyntz); Northern Army (Lambert); New Model Army
Cross, - - Cross
Major in Edward King’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.46.
Armies: Eastern Association
Cross, William William Cross
Captain in Sir Arthur Hesilrige’s regiment of horse, 29 Aug. to Nov. 1643.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 56.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Crosse, - - Crosse
Ensign in Major Calthorp’s company in Lawrence Crawford’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army on 1 Mar. 1644.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 1.13.
Armies: Eastern Association
Crosse, Richard Richard Crosse
A corporal, and then cornet, in Captain Edward French’s troop in the regiment of horse of Colonel Richard (later of Colonel Nicholas) Shuttleworth in Lancashire. In Oct. 1650 Crosse claimed arrears of £208 1s 8d.
References: TNA, E121/4/8.
Armies: Lancashire
Crosse, Richard Richard Crosse
Captain of a troop of horse in Lancashire. He may have been Cornet Richard Crosse, but that seems unlikely.
References: TNA, E121/5/5.
Armies: Lancashire
Crosse, Richard Richard Crosse
In 1642 lieutenant in Lord Brooke’s troop of horse in the earl of Essex’s Army, by 1643 he had probably succeeded Brooke as captain of the troop.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 48.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Crosse, Thomas Thomas Crosse
By Jan. 1645 and still there when the regiment was broken up in spring 1645, captain in Francis Russell’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army. He then served in Thomas Rainsborough’s newly-formed New Model Army regiment but was killed at the siege of Sherborne Castle in autumn 1645.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.98; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 46, 57.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Crouch [Chrouch], Thomas Thomas Crouch [Chrouch]
Ensign to Lieutenant-Colonel Sowton in the Southwark White auxiliaries (Colonel James Houblon) in spring 1644.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 124.
Armies: Southwark
Crow, Christopher Christopher Crow
Lieutenant in Francis Hamond’s regiment of foot in the earl of Northumberland’s Army against the Scots in 1640.
Lieutenant in Charles Essex’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army in 1642.
References: Peacock, Army lists, 90, 45.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Crowther, Thomas Thomas Crowther
Cornet in George Mill’s (later Waller’s) regiment of horse.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 148.
Armies: Waller
Croxton, Benjamin Benjamin Croxton
A captain in Cheshire.
Identified by a pay warrant as having employed his officers and soldiers to collect assessments levied upon Wirral and Broxton Hundreds.
References: TNA, SP28/224, f. 316.
Armies: Cheshire
Croxton, Thomas Thomas Croxton (c. 1603-1666)
Son of George Croxton (died during or before 1621) of Ravenscroft, near Northwich, Cheshire, and his wife, Judith, daughter of William Hassal of Burland, or Nantwich, Cheshire.
In Aug. and Sept. 1643 Croxton was joint governor, with Robert Venables, of Cholmondley, Cheshire, from where they destroyed the salt works at Dirtwich (Foulwich). In Sept. they were sent to assist Sir Thomas Myddelton and Thomas Mytton and the Shropshire committeemen in fortifying Wem, Shropshire. By Apr. 1645 Croxton was major of Sir William Brereton’s regiment of foot.
He later became colonel of a Cheshire-based regiment of foot, which opposed the Scottish-royalist invasions of 1648 and 1651 and which may have been present at the battle of Worcester. Loyal to the regimes of the 1650s, he continued to hold local office in Cheshire and he sat on various courts martial in the region. As governor of Chester Castle, he stoutly resisted Booth and his royalist forces in 1659. He was several times arrested on suspicion of anti-government activity during the early 1660s.
References: Oxford DNB; Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 324, 328-9;BL, Harl. Ms. 2128, f. 60r.; Cheshire tracts, 72.
Armies: Cheshire
Cruso, Timothy Timothy Cruso
Major. Second son of John Cruso of Norwich, cloth merchant and elder of the Dutch church, and his wife Jane Verlinke; both parents had fled from Flanders as refugees in the late sixteenth century. His elder brother John Cruso was also a church elder in Norwich, and by 1632 a musketeer (and apparently later captain) of the Dutch/Walloon Company in the Norwich Trained Bands, and was a translator of military manuals, including as patron and dedicatee Philip Skippon. The letter from Skippon to Lieutenant Cruso in Oct. 1640, though about estate business in London or Norfolk, may be to either brother.
Timothy married (1) Catharina de Plantere, daughter of Charles, of Winaxberge, Flanders in 1618 (died 1641); (2) Rachaell (buried 3 Dec. 1656: he was evidently still alive at that date). He is probably the Major Crusoe whose maid was buried 12 Jan. 1660, though this is possibly his eldest son Timothy, father of the nonconformist minister Timothy Cruso, schoolfellow of Daniel Defoe, from whom the surname evidently became attached to Robinson.
Merchant with London and Dutch interests. Residence: ‘neere the Black Bull Inne within Bishopsgate’ (Grell, 272), St Helen’s within Bishopsgate. Deacon of the Dutch Church, Austen Friars, 1630-after 1642; his first children were baptised at the Dutch church but from 1623 in St Helen’s Bishopsgate.
Lieutenant in the White regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Isaac Penington) in summer 1642.
He went with George Langham senior from the London Trained Bands into Essex’s Army where he was major in George Langham’s regiment of foot on 28 Feb. 1643 when he received a month’s pay for the regiment (by 10 May Thomas Clarke was its major). Given the rarity of the name, he is presumably the Major Crusoe who marched at the earl of Essex’s funeral in Oct. 1646.
References: Vis. London, 1633-5, 1.209;Overton, London; Thrale, 1642; TNA, SP28/5/330, SP28/7/23; Marshall, Essex funeral, 4; Reg. St Helen’s Bishopsgate, esp. 19, 294, 303, 308; O.P. Grell, Dutch Calvinists in Early Stuart London: the Dutch Church in Austin Friars, 1603-1642 (Leiden, 1989), 68, 78, 82, 238, 244, 260, 269, 272, 296; Oxford DNB [John Cruso and Timothy Cruso]; BL, Egerton 2716, f. 360r. [for John Cruso].
Armies: London
Cubham, Thomas Thomas Cubham
Captain of a foot company in the Liverpool garrison under Colonel John Moore, and later under Lieutenant-Colonel John Asshurst. On 22 Mar. 1650 Cubham was commissioned captain of foot in Gilbert Ireland’s militia regiment raised in Lancashire.
References: TNA, E121/4/8; CSPD, 1650, 505.
Armies: Lancashire
Cudworth, - - Cudworth
A captain in the Lancashire regiment of foot of John Moore.
References: Gratton, Lancs. war effort, 291 [citing TNA, SP28/12/9].
Armies: Lancashire
Cuffley, Francis Francis Cuffley (born 1603/4)
Of Hampshire, he matriculated plebeian from University College, Oxford, aged 17, 17 June 1621, and graduated BA from New Inn Hall, 23 Feb. 1624/5. Minister of St Nicholas’s church, Guildford, from 19 June 1643; recorded as sequestered to the rectory of St Andrew, Guildford, and of Cranleigh, Surrey, in 1645. On 28 Dec. 1646 Cuffley wrote to the Commons describing disorders that had happened in Guildford. Instituted vicar of Axmouth, Devon, Aug. 1647, and subscribed upon appointment as rector of St Nicholas, Guildford, Jan. 1649. Minister at Arundel, Sussex, by Oct. 1653, but no longer there by 1 Jan. 1657.
Captain of a company in Sir Richard Onslow’s regiment of Surrey foot. On a Sunday at the beginning of June 1646, Cuffley preached to the troops about to march to Basing House: ‘Captain Cuffly, an honest godly man of Gilford, who goes out with them upon this design, preached unto them, and after sermon they marched towards Farnham, and so for Basing’ (Spring, Waller’s army,106).
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 106; Alumni Oxonienses; JHC, 5.34; CSPD, 1653-4, 200, 416; CSPD, 1656-7, 224; Clergy of the Church of England Database (www.theclergydatabase.org.uk).
Armies: Surrey; Waller (Southern Association)
Culliford, Henry Henry Culliford
Captain of foot, Dorset forces, 1646-8. Previously had served in the Weymouth garrison in the regiment of Colonel William Sydenham. Ordered, with Captain William Culliford, to disarm papists, 10 Dec. 1646. Ordered to keep watch against pirates, 25 Mar. 1647. The Cullifords were an established gentry family on the Isle of Purbeck. It is not clear which they were: perhaps William and Henry were the first and second sons of Alexander Culliford (William was aged 16 in 1623), although there was also then a Henry, third son of Henry Culliford of Whitcliffe.
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 102, 210, 235-6, 377; Vis. Dorset, 1623, 33.
Armies: Dorset
Culliford, William William Culliford
Captain of foot, Dorset forces, 1646-8. Ordered, with Captain Henry Culliford, to disarm papists, 10 Dec. 1646. The Cullifords were an established gentry family on the Isle of Purbeck. It is not clear which they were: perhaps William and Henry were the first and second sons of Alexander Culliford (William was aged 16 in 1623).
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 102, 377; Vis. Dorset, 1623, 33.
Armies: Dorset
Culme [Collham], Hugh Hugh Culme (died 1645)
Of an Anglo-Irish Protestant family, related by marriage to Michael Jones.
By Apr. 1645 Culme was a captain in the Cheshire horse. Troops commanded by him and Captain Vivers plundered Plas Teg in Flintshire shortly before 9 Apr. 1645. Culme was killed at the battle of Rowton Heath on 24 Sept. 1645. From references in a certificate by Richard Brereton, who succeeded to his company, we know that Culme’s forename was Hugh, and that he commanded a troop of harquebusiers.
References: Dore, Brereton letter books, 1. 166, 324, 328, 178-80, 2. 384; BL, Harl. Ms. 2128, f. 73r.
Armies: Cheshire
Cumberbach, Arthur Arthur Cumberbach (died 1644)
A quartermaster in the Cheshire forces, buried at Nantwich on 6 July 1644.
References: Malbon and Burghill, Cheshire memorials, 258.
Armies: Cheshire
Cumberbach, Thomas Thomas Cumberbach
An officer in John Bromhall’s company of dragoons in Cheshire. In May 1643 he was a corporal and by Aug. a sergeant (when Bromhall’s mother sent her son £30 to discharge his soldiers’ quarters by Cornet Turner and Sergeant Cumberbach, when Eccleshall Castle was taken). Probably shortly after he was a cornet (when she sent her son at Wem £3 by Cornet Cumberbach and Nicholas Sherman). By early Nov. 1644 Cumberbach was a lieutenant.
References: BL, Harl. Ms. 2128, ff. 21r., 28v.
Armies: Cheshire
Cunningham, - - Cunningham
Captain in Edward Montagu’s regiment of foot in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.71.
Armies: Eastern Association
Cunningham, Adam Adam Cunningham
Lieutenant-Colonel in the army raised for service in Ireland before the English civil war. On 31 Mar. 1642 the Irish Lords Justices and Council ordered that he be paid £10.
Lieutenant-Colonel of Charles Essex’s regiment of foot raised for service in Ireland in Lord Wharton’s Army in July 1642, and then instead lieutenant-colonel of Charles Essex’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army from or by 27 Aug. 1642, a regiment which seems to have disbanded not long after Essex’s death at Edgehill.
Cunningham may have become lieutenant-colonel in Henry Bulstrode’s regiment of foot in the earl of Essex’s Army; certainly in Aug. 1643 he succeeded Bulstrode as its colonel after the latter’s death, in place probably by the time of the first battle of Newbury and certainly by 14 Oct. In or shortly before Apr. 1644 he led out a party of Scottish reformado officers.
Between 20 May and 26 July 1644 command of his regiment passed to Richard Fortescue.
In Mar. 1657 the widow of Cunningham’s brother Robert, Adam’s administrator, petitioned the Council of State, for arrears of £602 4s 6½d for his service to the state as colonel and lieutenant-colonel, citing a debenture of 31 May 1645, for which she prayed satisfaction out of lands in Ireland. The Council referred the matter to the Lord Deputy and Council of Ireland.
References: CSP Ireland, 1633-1647, 788;Peacock, Army lists, 69, 45; TNA, SP28/2a/40, SP28/10/158, SP28/14/214, SP28/15/191, SP28/17/128; CSPD, 1655-1657, 297-324.
Armies: Earl of Essex
Cunningham, Adam Adam Cunningham
Lieutenant-Colonel in the regiment of foot commanded first by Henry Bulstrode. By autumn 1643 he had succeeded Bulstrode at colonel of the regiment, which he led when it formed part of Balfour’s brigade supporting Waller. As such he may have present at the battle of Cheriton in Mar. 1644 – where it is possible he and his men moved forward on horseback, effectively as dragoons – but he was probably back with Essex’s Army as it sought to encircle Oxford in summer 1644. He was mortally wounded in June 1644 when trying to capture Enslow bridge, Oxfordshire. In due course, he was succeeded by his lieutenant-colonel, Richard Fortescue.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 48.
Armies: Earl of Essex; Waller (Southern Association)
Curlet, - - Curlet
Captain in the Kent Trained Bands by Nov. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 78.
Armies: Kent
Currer, Henry Henry Currer
Probably Henry Currer (baptised 1587, died 1653) of Kildwick, son of Hugh Currer (died 1623); possibly, but less likely, Henry’s second son, also Henry (died 1654).
A captain in Hugh Bethell’s regiment of horse and later lieutenant-colonel of Richard Thorneton’s regiment of foot, by 1646 Currer was governor of Skipton Castle.
On 10 Apr. 1650 (when described as holding the rank of lieutenant-colonel) he was commissioned a captain in a regiment of foot in the Yorkshire militia.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 378; Vis. Yorks., 2, 20-1; Hopper, ‘Yorkshire parliamentarians’, 112 [citing TNA, SP23/195/311; SP23/197/839; E121/4/8, no. 21];CSPD 1650, 506.
Armies: Yorkshire
Currer, Hugh Hugh Currer (baptised 1608, died 1690)
Of Kildwick and Flasby, Yorkshire (West Riding). Eldest son of Henry Currer (baptised 1587, died 1653).
In 1642 and 1643 Hugh Currer was a collector of proposition and advance money in the Bradford area.
From early in the conflict he had been associated with John Lambert, and by July 1643 was a captain of foot, probably in Lambert’s own regiment. In Dec. 1644 Lambert wrote from London that he had left the choosing of a new major for his regiment of horse to Captain Currer, he alone being able to attend to it. In 1645 Currer was appointed to the West Riding committee of accounts.
References: Jones, ‘War in the North’, 378.
Armies: Yorkshire
Curson, Richard Richard Curson
Captain (or captain-lieutenant) in Batholomew Vermuyden’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army. He served as a captain-lieutenant in the regiment after it transferred to the New Model Army, though he left the regiment later in summer 1645, perhaps transferring to another New Model regiment.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.102; Wanklyn, New Model Army, I, 52, 62.
Armies: Eastern Association; New Model Army
Curtis, -, - Curtis
Lieutenant in the London militia in a Walbrook ward company (not stated if Trained Bands or auxiliaries), put out of his command ‘for being an Independent, the [Presbyterian] militia [committee] would have none of that judgment in command’ in 1647.
References: Clarke Papers, 1.153.
Armies: London
Curtis, - - Curtis
Ensign. Dorset committee ordered payment of £4, one month’s pay, upon his reducement, 3 Dec. 1646.
2 May-1 Nov. 1644: quartermaster to a troop of horse under the command of Colonel Bingham.
1 Jan.-16 Aug. 1645: cornet in troop of horse under command of Colonel Butler.
References: Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 96; Mayo, Dorset Standing Committee, 67, 123-4.
Armies: Dorset
Cusack, - - Cusack
Captain-Lieutenant to Colonel Michael Jones’s troop of horse in Cheshire by 1646. A pay warrant dated 17 Oct. was to Cusack for satisfaction of his officers and soldiers (gratuity and pay). The order links to a letter of 10 Nov. from the Cheshire deputy-lieutenants to pay sums specified in a later warrant to Captain Cusack for the use of Colonel Jones’s troop (and also to Captain John Glegge for his troop), ‘(these beinge both designed for Ireland) …and lykewise to free the countrey from further free quartr, and so to go on wth. other Troops to whom ther is the lyke engagemt. as yow shalbe supplyed wth. moneys’ (TNA, SP28/224, f. 163r.).
References: TNA, SP28/224, f. 163r.
Armies: Cheshire; Ireland
Cushin, Peter Peter Cushin
Lieutenant in the Red regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Thomas Atkin), summer 1642. Appointed lieutenant-colonel of the same regiment (then under Colonel John Hayes), by the Independent militia committee.
References: Thrale 1642; Nagel, ‘London militia’, 319.
Armies: London
Cuthbert, Richard Richard Cuthbert
‘a Wollen Draper in FleetStreet by Whyte Fryers gate’ (BL, Harl. 986, p. 19). Captain in the Yellow regiment, London Trained Bands (Colonel Sir John Wollaston) in Apr. 1642 (shortly after recorded as third captain), and major of the same regiment in Sept. 1643; lieutenant-colonel of the same regiment (Colonel Ralph Harrison) in Oct. 1646, but displaced by the Presbyterian militia committee in 1647. Not re-instated later that year.
References: Overton 1642; Thrale 1642; Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 12; BL, Harl. 986, p. 19.
Armies: London
Cutlett, Thomas Thomas Cutlett
Captain in the Tower Hamlets Trained Bands regiment on 18 Apr. 1644 and on 22 Oct. 1646.
References: Thrale 1642. TNA, SP28/121A, Part 5, f. 580 r. & v.; Nagel, ‘London militia’, 317; Marshall, Essex funeral, 12.
Armies: Tower Hamlets
Cuttell, John John Cuttell
Ensign in James Wemyss’s regiment of foot at the time of its disbandment in Apr. 1645.
References: Spring, Waller’s army, 155.
Armies: Waller (Southern Association)
Cutting, - - Cutting
In Apr. 1645, on the eve of the regiment’s breaking up, ensign in Dayne’s troop in Francis Russell’s regiment of horse in the Eastern Association Army.
References: Spring, Eastern Association, 2.95.
Armies: Eastern Association