Dictionary of English Furniture Makers 1660-1840. Originally published by W.S. Maney and Son Limited, Leeds, 1986.

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'N', in Dictionary of English Furniture Makers 1660-1840, ed. Geoffrey Beard, Christopher Gilbert( Leeds, 1986), British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/dict-english-furniture-makers/n [accessed 19 July 2024].

'N', in Dictionary of English Furniture Makers 1660-1840. Edited by Geoffrey Beard, Christopher Gilbert( Leeds, 1986), British History Online, accessed July 19, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/dict-english-furniture-makers/n.

"N". Dictionary of English Furniture Makers 1660-1840. Ed. Geoffrey Beard, Christopher Gilbert(Leeds, 1986), , British History Online. Web. 19 July 2024. https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/dict-english-furniture-makers/n.


Nadby, George, 18 Queen St, Seven Dials, London, cm (1794). In July 1794 took out insurance cover of £400 on his house, its contents and stock in a shop. [GL, Sun MS vol. 401, ref. 630384]

Nailor, Robert, York, u (1713). In 1713 his son Francis was made a freeman of York. [Freemen rolls]

Nailor, Thomas, Wath, Yorks., joiner and cm (1798). [D]

Nairn, Thomas, 15 Rupert St, Liverpool, carver and gilder (1827–32). His trade card [Landauer Coll., MMA, NY] states that he cleaned and repaired old paintings, ‘Branches for Lights, Paintings, Looking Glasses Prints & Needle Work Framed. Figures, Bronzes, Old Work Cleaned, Gilt Borders for Rooms. Transparencies Painted. Ornamental & Fancy work in General Executed’. In February 1832 his wife Ann died aged 63. [Liverpool Mercury, 2 March 1832]

Nairne, Charles, Ramsgate and Sandwich, Kent, cm (1831–39). Freeman of Sandwich. Living in Ramsgate 1831–32 but shown at Sandwich in July 1837. Trading in Ramsgate in 1839. [D; Sandwich poll bks]

Naisbett, John, Holywell St, Westminster, London, cm (1774). [Poll bk]

Naish, Catherine, St Mary-le-Strand, London, u and chairmaker (1759–72). A noted supplier of furniture to the Royal family. The earliest known commission was a set of eight mahogany backstools with compass fronts and tops at 15s each for Prince William's House in Leicester Sq. These were supplied in 1759 the year in which she succeeded her father Henry Williams to the business. She became chairmaker to George III in the following year and provided in that year a large state cradle with a canopy top. This had ‘carved ornaments to clip each corner and round the bottom and top, and up the front of the head with a crown and plume of feathers for the top and Lions heads at each end of the rockers and gilt in burnished gold & two pairs of neat chased handles’. For the Great Drawing Room, St James's Palace a ‘large four-post mahogany State Bedstead with carved headboard, being a scroll supporting a crown and other elaborate decorations, for the Queen to sit up in’ was supplied at a cost of £205. For Buckingham House in 1767 a set of ‘Twelve very neat Mahogany Hall chairs with Hollow Seats and open Backs and cross stretchers’ were provided for the hall at £2 5s each. A number of these chairs survive. Other commissions (noted in PRO, LC accounts) included a walnut settee the feet carved with Lions’ paws and leaves on the Knees to Match some chairs’, supplied in 1765 at a cost of £4 10s, and a mahogany sofa on castors with four straight legs in 1772 costing £3 10s. Split wicker cradles for the royal children were also invoiced at £13 2s each. The only other known commissions are to be noted in the Strathmore papers in respect of Gibside, Co. Durham. In 1761 a ‘Mr Nance’ was paid through the bankers Child & Co. for ‘two Moulding Desert Frames, Water Gilding ditto, two Silver'd Glasses for ditto, bought in London June last’. Despite the error in the name this commission was probably executed by Catherine Naish. She died early in 1772 or possibly the year before, for a receipt given in 1772 was in the name of her executors. [PRO, LC5/105, LC9/292–94; C. Life 10 November 1960, p. 1108, 21 December 1961, p. 1577; V&A Archives; H. Clifford Smith, Buckingham Palace, pp. 72, 79; DEF, III, p. 1; CGM; Durham RO, Strathmore MS, D/St/V 994]

Nancolas, William, Langley St, Long Acre, London, cm (1774). [Westminster poll bk]

Naniant, Francis, ‘The Golden Hand’, Little Newport St, Leicester Fields, London, varnish maker, frame maker and gilder (1763). [D]

Nappi, P., 7 Charles St, Middlx Hospital, London, mosaic painter (1830). On 26 June 1830 invoiced to the Lord Chamberlain's Dept ‘a Malechite coffer with cameos mosaics and very richly ornamented with ormolu, size 20 in by 11, standing on a table with antique black marble top and sides, supported by curved gilt legs three feet high’. For this £241 10s was charged. [PRO, LC11/68]

Nash, Mrs, 20 Philadelphia St, Bristol, u (1827–40). [D]

Nash, Goodwin, Bristol, cm (1793–1800). Shown in directories at Lodge St, 1793–94, and Corn St in 1795. Bankrupt in February 1798 but from 1799–1800 shown trading at 14 Clarence Pl. [D; Billinge's Liverpool Advertiser, 19 February 1798]

Nash, Harry, Worcester, u (1727). App. to Henry Lingon and free by servitude, 24 August 1727. [Freemen rolls]

Nash, Henry, Downshire Hill, Hampstead, London, cm and u (1839). [D]

Nash, James, 16 Wapping Wall, London, cm (1776–83). In both 1776 and 1782 took out insurance cover for £400. Of this £200 covered stock and utensils in 1776 and £250 in 1782. He owned a number of houses which were valued in 1783 at £300. [GL, Sun MS vol. 247, p. 271; vol. 279, p. 606; vol. 300, p. 380; vol. 319, p. 160]

Nash, James, West St, Leominster, Herefs., turner and chairmaker (1830–35). [D]

Nash, John, London, cm, u and undertaker (1784–95). At 22 Vine St, Piccadilly, 1784–87; but from 1789 at 46 Brewer St, Golden Sq. His two trade cards dated 1787 and 1791 [Banks Coll., BM] show engravings of chairs and mirrors in the style of the 1750s and 60s. Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793. Bankrupt June 1795. [D; Liverpool Advertiser, 8 June 1795]

Nash, John Downley, High Wycombe, Bucks., chairmaker (1830). [D]

Nash, Robert, address unknown (1759–65). Recorded repairing japan cabinets at Temple Newsam House, Leeds in January 1759 and cleaning and repairing an ‘India Pearl Screen, a Lacquered Screen and a Tonquin Trunk’ for St John Griffin Griffin at Audley End, Essex in 1765. [Furn. Hist., 1967; Essex RO, D/DBy/A23/12]

Nash, Thomas, St Clement Danes, London, cm (1692). His app. was discharged as Nash had ill-treated him. [GL, Middlx session bk 494, p. 66]

Nash, Thomas, ‘The Royal Bed’, Holborn Bridge, London, u (1714–d. 1748). Took out a Sun Insurance policy on 16 July 1714 on goods and merchandise in his house. Advertised in November 1722 that he had a stock of calico quilts and pointed out that these would not be available so readily after Christmas when a new Act of Parliament would impose £20 fines to protect the British textile industries. In partnership with a John Hill by April 1724 and although the Holborn Bridge premises continued to be the base of operations goods and merchandise were also kept at a new house at ‘The Golden Ball’, New Buildings, Fleet Ditch. Later the business traded as a partnership between Thomas Nash, Elkington Hall and Richard Whitehorne and they issued an elaborate trade card showing as fine state bed in a fashionable interior. The partners indicated that they made and sold ‘Fashionable Silk & Stuff Beds, with all other sorts of Upholsterers Goods. And large Sconces, Pier & Chimney Glasses, Dressing glasses, Chest of Draw's, Buroes, Desk & Book-cases, Mahogany tables, Card tables, Chairs & Settees, and all other Sorts of Cabinet Work’. They offered their services as appraisers. Thomas Nash was clearly a person of some status and in March 1733 was nominated for Governor of St Bartholomew's Hospital. At the time of his death on 23 October 1748 he was described as an ‘eminent upholsterer’ and a Common Councillor for the ward of Faringdon Without; ‘a person of good Character and esteem'd by all his Acquaintances’. At this point only one of the partners was still active in the business, and on 3 March 1749, due to pressure by the executors, part of the stock was sold off by auction.
Few of Nash's patrons are known, but one of them was Joseph Banks jnr who wrote to Joseph Banks of Revesby, Lincs. on 9 May 1716 complaining that ‘upon examining the bed Mr. Nash of Fleet Ditch has sent me I find it the most scurvy thing that ever was imposed on any body’. Richard Hoare who supported ‘Nash & Son’ in May 1740 was probably more satisfied with the two mahogany bookcases and other work carried out for which £19 4s 6d was charged. He made a payment to Nash on 13 November 1741 of £17 16s 6d which was probably for other work. [GL, Sun MS vol. 4, ref. 4186; vol. 10, 11 August 1719; vol. 10, ref. 4843; vol. 16, ref. 31730; The Post Boy, 15 November 1722; London Evening Post, 11–13 November 1740, 22–25 October 1748; Daily Advertiser, 11 February 1749; 3 March 1749; General Advertiser, 25 October 1748; Heal; St Bartholomew's Hospital archives; Hill, Letters … of the Banks Family…, p. 21; V & A Lib., 86 NN. 3; Hoare's Bank archives]

Nash, Thomas, 14 Charles St, Cavendish Sq., London, cm (1778–79). A fairly substantial business with an insurance cover of £600 on its utensils and stock in 1778. Thomas Nash was however bankrupt by November of the following year. [GL, Sun MS vol. 264, p. 11; Gents Mag., November 1779]

Nash, Thomas, High St, Stourbridge, Worcs., cm and u (1835). [D]

Nash, Timothy, Charles St, Bristol, cm (1828–32). At 19 Charles St, 1828–29, but from the following year the number was 10. [D]

Nash, William, 5 Queen St, Seven Dials, London, carver (1776). In 1776 insured his house for £100. [GL, Sun MS vol. 253, p. 441)

Nash, William, London, chairmaker (1820–39). At 24 Commercial Rd, Lambeth in 1820, 4 Robert St, Blackfriars in 1826 but in 1829 the number had changed to 8. At 14 Gibson St, Lambeth in 1835 but by 1839 the number had changed to 45. [D]

Nason, Charles William, Abington St, Northampton, cm (1830). [D; poll bk]

Nation, Robert, 175 High St, Deritend, Birmingham, cm and u (1830). [D]

Nation, Samuel, London, chairmaker (1808–39). In 1808–18 at 146 New Gravel Lane, Shadwell but 1821–35 at 87 Old Gravel Lane. In 1839 the number was 88. In December 1821 took out insurance cover of £400 of which £300 was in respect of stock and utensils in a workshop behind his house and in an open yard. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 480; ref. 948315; vol. 491, ref. 987276]

Natt, Joseph, 34 Back Hope St, Leeds, Yorks., carver and gilder (1822). [D]

Natt, Joseph, 10 Osmaston (or Osmarton) St, Derby, carver, gilder, looking-glass and picture frame manufacturer (1823–35). [D]

Natt, Thomas, Manchester, carver and gilder (1800–94). At 55 Hart St in 1800 and 9 Market St Lane in 1804. [D]

Natt, Thomas, 9 Market St Lane, Birmingham, carver and gilder (1805). [D]

Navin, Thomas, 16 Rupert St, Liverpool with shop at 10 Wood St, carver and gilder (1829). [D]

Nayers, John, Worcester, cm (1812). App. to William Handy and free by servitude, 13 October 1812. [Freemen rolls]

Naylor, Henry, Host St, Bristol, painter and furniture japanner (1799–1807). In 1806–07 the business is listed as Naylor & Barrett. [D]

Naylor, James, Lancaster, cm (1789–1822). Free 1813–14. Named in the Gillow records 1789, 1791, 1820, 1822. In 1820 named in the making of a commode. [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow vol. 344/100, p. 3042]

Naylor, James, Liverpool, cm and u (1823–31). In 1823 at 29 Soho St with a shop at 33 Woollen Hall but in the following year at 28 Soho St and 34 Richmond Fair. After 1827 at 30 Islington. It was from this address in 1829 that he advertised for sale ‘a large & elegant Assortment of Household Furniture’ which included ‘an elegant Rosewood Cabinet Piano-forte’. By October 1831 however the business was insolvent. [D; Liverpool Mercury, 26 June 1829, 14 October 1831]

Naylor, James, Rawdon, Yorks, cm (1830). [D]

Naylor, John, Salford Cresc., Salford, Lancs., cm (1781). [D]

Naylor, John, 14 Mint St, Southward, London, bedstead maker and cm (1808–20). [D]

Naylor, John, Leeds, Yorks., cm (1822–34). In 1822 at Hunslet and in 1830 at Hunslet Moor Side. By 1834 had moved to 3 Bethel St, Jack Lane. [D]

Naylor, Robert H., Darlington, Co. Durham, cm (1827–34). In 1827 at Deanery, in 1829 at Thompson's Yd and in 1834 at Horsemarket. [D]

Naylor, Thomas, Liverpool, u (1803–24). At Byrom St where the number was 14 in 1804, 33 in 1805 and 29 in 1807. He was probably the Naylor, u who subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803. By 1808 however he was bankrupt and in August his stock and household furniture was sold by auction to help meet his debts. His stock at this time consisted of ‘a great variety of Brussels, Kidderminster & Venetian Carpeting; Imperial Hearth Rugs; Blankets; Counterpanes; A large & Fashionable Assortment Oil Cloths (in various widths); about Thirteen Hundred Pieces Modern Paper Hanging & Flock Borders; fine Bed Ticks; Fringes; Bed Laces; Tasells; Lines; Hair Seatings; Brass Work; half a ton Flocks etc.’ In July of the following year a dividend of 10s in the £ was announced for his creditors. Business must have re-commenced soon after for in 1810–11 he is shown trading at 29 and 30 Byrom St moving in 1813 to 3 Circus St. From 1816– 18 he was at 3 Gerard St and in 1824 at Baptist Lane. [D; Liverpool Courier, 10 August 1808, 5 July 1809, 19 July 1809]

Naylor, William, Lancaster, cm (1784–1800). App. to William Blackburn 1775 and free by servitude, 1781–82. Named in the Gillow records, c. 1784 and 1786–1800. [App. reg.; poll bk; Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow]

Neal, John, Liverpool, cm (1816). Free 6 June 1816. [Freeman reg.]

Neal, William, Clapham Common, London, upholder, joiner and cm (1803–08). In 1808 shown as upholder at Clapham Common. The Neal of Clapham, joiner and cm who subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803, is probably the same person. [D]

Neal, William, 13 Regent St, Piccadilly, London, u (1825). [D]

Neale, Charles, Cornhill, Ipswich, Suffolk, cm and u (1830–35). [D]

Neale, James, London, u and cm and chairmaker (1826–39). At 47 Liquerpond St, Hatton Gdn, 1826–28, and 288 High Holborn, 1835–39. [D]

Neale, John, London, carver and gilder (1750–60). Supplied gilded frames and mirror surrounds to Henry Pelham's house, 22 Arlington St, London, 1750. In 1756–60 he was the gilder and painter in the State Rooms at Holkham, Norfolk. [RIBA, MS 728.3 (42.13A); Holkham MSS, Country Accts, 8]

Neale, Philip, 10 Mint St, Southwark, bedstead maker (1826). [D]

Nealey, Matthew, Workington, Cumb., joiner and cm (1828–34). At Ballast Hill in 1828, the Quay in 1829 and Henry St in 1834. [D]

Nealms, Richard, 13 Hatton Wall, London, cm and broker (1781). In 1781 took out insurance cover of £200 of which half was in respect of utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS, vol. 299, p. 96]

Neat, John, Brook Rent near the Turnpike, Tottenham Ct Rd, London, cm (1778). In 1778 insured a house for £100. [GL, Sun MS vol. 262, p. 580]

Neate, John, Charles Ct, Hungerford Mkt, Westminster, London, cm (1774). [Poll bk]

Neate, John, 2 Brill Row, Somers Town, London, cm (1808). [D]

Neave, John, 101 High Holborn, London, cm (1767–82). [D]

Neck, John, Launceston, Cornwall, cm u and shopkeeper (1777–83). In 1777 took out insurance cover of £500 of which £400 was in respect of stock and utensils. [D: GL, Sun MS vol. 263, p. 132]

Nedby, William, 75 Lambs Conduit St, London, cm (1817). [D]

Needham, Richard, Hanley St, Liverpool, cm (1835–39). At 19 Handley St in 1835 but by 1839 the number was 8. [D]

Needle, Thomas, 26 Hurst St, Birmingham, chairmaker (1828– 35). Listed at Herst St in 1828, 26 Hurst St in 1830 and no. 13 in 1835. [D]

Needs, Elizabeth, South St, Exeter, Devon, u (1816–33). [D]

Neilson, Lawrence, 7 Frith St, Soho, London, cm (1777). In 1777 took out insurance cover of £500 of which £100 was in respect of utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS vol. 260, p. 70]

Neilson, Lawrence, 78 Margaret St, Cavendish Sq., London, u (1786). [D]

Neilson, William, 7 Bolsover St, Oxford St, London, cm (1808). [D]

Nellteton, Thomas, Pontefract, Yorks., joiner/cm (1834). [D]

Nelme, Anthony, address unknown, looking-glass maker (1714). [C. Life, 7 January 1960, p. 14] He may be connected with the English silversmith of that name who worked in the Huguenot manner.

Nelmes, George, Malmsbury, Wilts., u (1723). In October 1723 took out insurance cover of £300 on his dwelling house, stable and goods. [GL, Sun MS vol. 17, ref. 30092]

Nelmes, Richard, 12 Hatton Wall, London, broker and cm (1789–1809). [D]

Nelson, —, Shrewsbury, Salop, architect, carver and gilder (1798). Possibly the John Nelson (1726–1812) recorded in Gunnis. [D]

Nelson, David, Marylebone, London, cm (1770). Bankruptcy announced, Gents Mag., September 1770.

Nelson, Henry, 14 New North St, Red Lion Sq., London, carver and gilder (1820). [D]

Nelson, Henry, South St, Greenwich, London, carver and gilder (1839). [D]

Nelson, Jeffrey, address unknown, carver (1794). Undertook carving at 15 St James's Sq., London. [Staffs. RO, Anson papers D 615, E(H)(59]

Nelson, John, Market Pl., Malton, Yorks., cm and appraiser (1834–40). Successor to Richard Nelson at this address. [D]

Nelson, Joseph, Liverpool, cm (1840). Free 27 July 1840. [Freemen reg.]

Nelson, Richard, Market Pl., Malton, Yorks., cm (1830). Succeeded at this address in 1834 by John Nelson. [D]

Nelson, Robert, Liverpool, chairmaker (1821–34). At 111 London Rd in 1821, 23 Lime St, 1823–24 and 11 Bottom St, Edgehill in 1834. [D]

Nelson, Robert, Market Pl., Bishop Auckland, Co. Durham, joiner and cm (1827–28). [D]

Nelson, Samuel, Liverpool, cm (1802–12). App. to John Eden and free by servitude, 5 July 1802. Shown in directories at Castle Ditch, Henington St in 1804 and 2 Union Ct, Duckworth St, 1813–14. The Liverpool freemen reg. however indicates that he died in 1812. [D; freemen reg.]

Nelson, Sefferin (sometimes ‘Saffron’), Marshall St, Golden Sq., London, carver and gilder (1769–c. 1796). An important craftsman employed on many of the major building projects of this period for carved work in wood. He had associations with the leading architects of the period such as Robert Adam and Henry Holland under whose general supervision he worked. He is often mentioned in Adam's bank account (Drummonds). The usual address quoted in connection with his work is that in Marshall St, probably his dwelling house. One directory of 1784 however also lists an address at 4 Carnaby Mkt. His trade card [Dept of Prints, V&A] displays the shape of a mirror frame with swags, lion masks and surmounted by a crest incorporating a lion and unicorn. The text indicates that he was carver and frame maker to ‘their Royal Highnesses the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Cumberland’. The exact date of death is not known but a payment of 1797 was made to his executors. His known commissions include:
SHELBURNE HOUSE, London. Worked here under the supervision of Robert Adam, 1769.
KENWOOD, Highgate, London. Amongst the Adam drawings in the Soane Museum is one for ‘a term for the great staircase at Kenwood’. This drawing includes a note that ‘Mr Nelson to make one complete, if that is liked he is to do three more’.
HOME HOUSE, 20 Portman Square, London. Worked here under the supervision of Robert Adam, 1775.
DERBY HOUSE, London. An account exists dated 30 April 1776 for furniture including ‘Four Girandoles on the Collumns in the Great Drawing Room from a design of Messrs Adams’. The items supplied cost £109 2s 6d.
CROOME COURT, Worcs. 1781. Capitals to columns and 2 pilasters.
CHATSWORTH, Derbs. Recorded working in the house in 1782 and 1784. In 1782 the work involved the Music Room, the Drawing Room and the Library. Major items included carving and gilding eight candelabras for the Music Room at a cost of £109 3s, supplying two glass frames for the Drawing Room at £76 12s, two tables at £58 and three curtain cornices at £67 10s. Three hundred feet of border were supplied for this room at £45 7s and gilding the cornice round the bookcases in the Library cost £37 3s. A further account of 1784 involved carved window draperies and other ornaments in the Music Room. Included in this account were two tables ‘as per design of Mr Carr’ which together with the carving and gilding cost £36. Eight bergère chairs and six back chairs were gilded, the former costing £4 3s each and the latter £3 12s each.
CARLTON HOUSE, LONDON. In 1786 Nelson's bills were amongst those examined by Henry Wood and in 1789 Nelson submitted an estimate of £6,500 for work required at Carlton House. In 1791 gilded a set of Chinese chairs and mirror frames.
ASHTON CLINTON. On 5 January 1786, £85 was paid to Nelson for work carried out. [RA 88619]
AUDLEY END, Essex. First recorded in 1787 at his house for gilding a dressing room and bedroom, and making a design for Arms and a Crest for which £15 was charged. Also in this year gilding of architectural details was charged at £35 14s 6d. In the period 1788–89 Nelson was carving and gilding a Gothick organ case in the Chapel, and parts of the ceiling in the same room were also gilded. This work was charged at £23 13s. In 1789 a small oval frame was supplied for Lord Howard's London house in New Burlington St and two carved frames made for views of the Elysian gardens. In 1791 he was working on the Temple of Concord at Audley End, designed by Robert Brettingham. As late as 1797 picture frames were being purchased from Nelson by the family.
ALTHORP, Northants. On 15 January 1791 charged £45 for carving and gilding the tops of the chimney and pier glasses in the Red Drawing Room on the instructions of Henry Holland. Later in the same month six cabriole backstools and two tète à tète were made to match a Canopy Bedstead. These were produced ‘by order of Messrs Holland & Daguire’. Further seating furniture was made for a Dressing Room and invoiced in the same month. Payments of £100 on 30 July 1791 and £50 on 14 February 1792 are recorded.
WOBURN ABBEY, Beds. Carver's work was carried out under the direction of Henry Holland for the 5th Duke of Bedford in 1793 for which £1,376 2s was paid.
DRURY LANE THEATRE, LONDON. The building accounts of 1794 include a sum of £823 13s to Nelson.
[D; DEF; GCM; Knowsley Hall papers, Preston RO; Burlington, September 1967, p. 520, June 1980, p. 143; Bedford Office, London; Booker, Face of Banking, 1979; V & A archives; Essex RO, D/DBy/A45/9, D/DBy/A47, D/ DBy/A47/5, D/DBy/A55/6; Stroud, Henry Holland, p. 72; H. Clifford Smith, Buckingham Palace, p. 104; M. D. Whinney, Home House, pp. 19–20. B.A.

Nelson, Thomas, Oldham St and Hilton St, Manchester, furniture broker, cm and u (1817–40). At 34 Hilton St, 1817–24; and also at 24 Oldham St, 1819–33. Also listed at 23 Oldham St, 1821–22 and nos 22 and 23 in 1824. From 1828–33 at 23–25 Oldham St and also 35 Hilton St, 1828– 29. In 1836 at 45 Oldham St, and from 1838–40 at nos 45, 47 and 49. [D]

Nelson, Thomas, Lancaster, furniture painter (1789–96). Named in the Gillow records, 1789–90 and 1793–96. [Westminister Ref. Lib., Gillow]

Nelson, Thomas jnr, Norwich, cm (1830). App. to John Blomfield and free by servitude, 21 September 1830. [Freeman reg.]

Nelson, Thomas, Lancaster, cm (1834–35). [Lancaster freemen rolls]

Nelson, William, London(?), cm (1772). Signatory to The Real State of the Complaints of the Cabinet Makers, 1772. [Gents Mag., June 1772, p. 275]

Nelson, William, Allonby, Maryport, Cumb., joiner and cm (1828). [D]

Nelson, William, Nelson's Sq., Carlisle, Cumb., cm/joiner (1834). [D]

Nelson, William, 3 Hilton St, Manchester, cm (1834–40). [D]

Nelthorpe, Thomas, Westminster, London, u (1737). Declared bankrupt, Gents Mag., January 1737.

Neptune, —, Little Queen St, London, looking-glass seller (1702). [The Post Man, 26 May 1702]

Nervell, John, 36 St John St Rd, London, u (1821). On 18 July 1821 took out insurance cover of £1,000 of which £900 was for stock and utensils in his dwelling house. [GL, Sun MS vol. 484, ref. 981609]

Nesbit, John, Cumberland St, Bishop Wearmouth, Sunderland, Co. Durham, cm (1827). [D]

Nesbitt, Cornelius, Wool Mkt, Berwick-on-Tweed, Northumb., joiner and cm (134). [D]

Nesbitt, William, St Peter's, Canterbury, Kent, cm (1794–96). [Poll bks]

Nesbitt, William, 73 Old St, London, cm and Tunbridge-ware manufacturer (1818–39). In November 1818 took out insurance cover of £300 on household goods ‘in his new dwelling house’. In 1835 recorded as a dressing case maker and clearly had an interest in other years in small decorative cabinet goods. In 1839 also u and undertaker. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 480, ref. 946757]

Nettlefold, Abram, 27 Lower High St, Bromley, Kent, cm (1800–40). [D: Baxter, Itinerary of Bromley, p. 10]

Nettlefold, John,, Bromley, Kent, u and cm (1838–39). [D]

Nettleton, Thomas, Northgate, Pontefract, Yorks., cm (1837). [D]

Nevell, John, Debenham, Suffolk, cm (1804). [Ipswich Journal, 9 June 1804]

Nevett & Hewitt, 113½ Bishopsgate St Without, London, cm (1835). [D]

Nevett, Samuel, Liverpool, cm (1766–87). At 122 Dale St, 1766–77, but in 1787 at Richmond St. Took as app. Robert Fairclough who petitioned for freedom in 1780. [D; freemen's committee bk]

Nevill, Samuel, Bermondsey New Rd, London, cm and u (1839). [D]

Nevill, William, 66 Green Lane, Sheffield, Yorks., joiner and cm (1822). [D]

Nevison, John, Sunderland St, Houghton-le-Spring, Co. Durham, joiner and cm (1807–34). [D]

Nevton, John, Lancaster, cm (1746–68). App. to Thomas Walker in 1746 and free by servitude, 1767–68. [App. reg. and freemen rolls]

Nevton, John, Lancaster, cm (1772–73). [Lancaster freemen rolls]

New, Harvey, 57 Robin Hood Lane, Poplar, London, cm and u (1839). [D]

New, John, 8 Aldgate High St, London, carver and gilder (1820–39). Recorded as John New in 1820 but by 1839 the business was trading as John, Edward & Frederick New. [D]

New, Thomas, Andover, Hants., cm and u (1792–99)). Patronized between 1792–99 by Richard Cox of Quarley, Hants., a banker of Pall Mall, London. Payments are recorded in his household account book. [D; Lloyds Bank archives, Cox accounts]

New, Thomas, Westbar, Sheffield, Yorks., cm and u (1828). A Thomas Newton traded at 33 Westbar as a cm and u 1833– 37. [D]

Newall, John, Bristol, cm (1775–1813). At 1 Cock & Bottle Lane, in 1775; Castle St in 1792; and once more recorded in Cock & Bottle Lane, 1793–1813. [D]

Newall, John jnr, Hotwells, Bristol, cm (1810). [D]

Newall, Mathew, Liverpool, cm (1784–96). Free 1784 and in 1796 took app. named James Browless, who was however assigned to John Parry in 1797 and petitioned freedom in 1812. [Freemen's committee bk]

Newark, Henry, George St, Gt Yarmouth, Norfolk, chairmaker (1830–36). [D]

Newark, John, New Buildings, Coventry, Warks., chairmaker (1822–28). [D]

Newberry, Henry, address unknown, cm (1803). Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803.

Newbery, David, Bristol, cabinet carver (1828–32). At 10 Charles St in 1828, 19 Castle St in 1829, 11 Lower West St, 1830–31, and 2 Clarence Rd in 1832. In 1829 also a wholesale egg warehouse. [D]

Newbery, Francis, London, upholder (1710–17). Son of Francis Newbery, freeman and member of the Wheelwrights’ Co. of London. Francis jnr was app. to George Smith on 18 January 1710 and free by servitude, 5 February 1717. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Newbery, John, Upper Marylebone St, London, leather gilder and table cover maker (1794–1825). At 28 Upper Marylebone St in 1794 but by 1807 the number was 54. In 1808 also a morine printer and in 1825 the business was listed as an ‘Upholsterer's warehouseman, Painted Baize and Leather Cover Maker’. In 1807 took out insurance cover of £800 which included £250 for utensils and stock and an additional £100 for similar items in a workshop in Ogle St. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 440, ref. 802449]

Newbery (or Newbury), Matthew, Bristol, cabinet maker (1820–38). In 1820–21 at 12 St James's Parade, churchyard; in 1822 at Maryport St; in 1824 at 7 Dolphin St; in 1827–35 at 31 Lower Arcade and in 1838 at 17 Barton. In 1824 described as a coach and cabinet carver, in 1830 as a cm and carver and in 1838 as a cm and u. [D]

Newblatt (Newbett or Newbott), William, Grantham, Lincs., cm, u and paperhanger (1822–40). In Vine St, 1822–26; and Swinegate, 1828–40. [D]

Newborn, Mary & Matilda, Barnaby Gate, Newark, Notts., u (1835). [D]

Newbott, James, Westgate, Grantham, Lincs., cm and u (1835). [D]

Newbrook, John, Birmingham, joiner and cm (1800–30). In 1800 at 14 Steelhouse Lane; in 1805 at Lich St; in 1818 at Bath St; and in 1830 at Steelhouse Lane. [D]

Newbury, Francis, ‘The Blue Boar’, Moorfields, London, u (1724–30). In December 1730 insured his house for £300 and his household goods and stock for an additional £200. [GL, Sun MS vol. 32, ref. 52780; Heal]

Newby, Christopher, Lancaster (1784–87). [Westminster Ref. Lib., Gillow records]

Newby, Miss Elizabeth, at Mr Pykes, Bear St, Leicester Fields, London, upholder (1727). In October 1727 insured for £300 ‘her house and barn and 2 stables situate in the parish of St Margaret near the bridge in Marlborough in the county of Wiltshire in occupation of a victualler’. [GL, Sun MS vol. 25, p. 285]

Newby, John, 37 Old Compton St, Soho, London, portable desk and dressing case manufacturer (1835–37). [D]

Newcomb, —, 16 Beak St, London (1803). Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803.

Newcomb, Alexander, 3 Albion Pl., Walworth, London, cm and u (1839). [D]

Newcomb, Oliver, Cavendish Sq., London, u (1806–20). At 23 Hollis St, Cavendish Sq., 1806–12 but in 1820 at 11 Margaret St, Cavendish Sq. His trade card [Leverhulme Coll., MMA, NY] describes his business as ‘upholstery & cabinet warerooms’ with house agency, appraising and undertaking as other elements in the enterprise. [D]

Newcombe, John, 32 Rathbone Pl., London, u (1829). [D]

Newdigate, Christopher, Norwich, cm (d. 1764). Will proved at Norwich 1764. [Norfolk Record Soc., index of wills]

Newell, James, Baker St, Nottingham, chairmaker (1822). [D]

Newell, John, Oxford, upholder (1756). Aged 31 in 1756 when he married Avis Drewett at the church of St John the Baptist, Oxford. [Bodleian index of Oxf. marriage bonds]

Newell, John, 36 Islington Rd, London, broker and u (1813– 25). [D]

Newell, John jnr, 6 Eliza Pl., New River Rd, London, u and cm (1824–27). In July 1824 took out insurance cover of £300 of which £250 was in respect of utensils and stock kept at his dwelling house. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 496, ref. 1019216]

Newell, John, St John St Rd, Clerkenwell, London, u (1826–39). At 39 St John St Rd, 1826–35 and by 1837 at 40. In 1837 trading as u, undertaker, etc. [D]

Newell, John, Halifax Rd, Bradford, Yorks., cm (1837). [D]

Newell, Nathan, Liverpool, joiner and cm (1784–1827). Son of Henry Newell and brother of Zachariah Newell, shipwright. Free 1 April 1784 by patrimony. Trading at Sir Thomas Ct, Dale St, 1790–96 but by 1803 in Cheapside. The number in Cheapside was 52 in 1803; 50 in 1804; 37 in 1805–07; 4 in 1810; and 40 in 1813–14. At 12 Peter St, 1824–27. Took as apps Robert Williams, 1806–18; Richard Maguire, 1813–30; and James Tunstall, app. in 1822. [D; freemen's committee bk; app. enrolment bk]

Newell, William, London, cm, carver and cm (1786–1829). Freeman of London and member of the Clockmakers’ Co. In 1786 at 100 Newgate St as a chair carver where he took out insurance cover for £100 of which £25 was in respect of utensils and stock. By 1789 he had moved to 69 Wood St and also from 1791 maintained a shop at 32 White Cross St, Cripplegate Without, at which his business was conducted throughout the remainder of its long life. At times he employed non-freemen and in 1791 took out a licence to employ twelve for six weeks and in 1810 eighteen for six weeks. In 1791 the utensils, stock and other items at his shop were insured for only £200. From 1808 his son was active in the business and from 1815 the title is uniformly Newell & Son. [D: GL, Sun MS vol. 338, p. 382; vol. 376, p. 683; City Licence bk, vol. 10]

Newell & Son, 36 St John St, Clerkenwell, London, u (1820). This enterprise appears to be unconnected with a similarly named firm operating from 32 White Cross St. [D]

Newey, E. & R., 266 Newtown Row, Birmingham, desk and dressing case makers (1839). [D]

Newey, Richard, Birmingham, cabinet case maker (1828–35). Trading at 39 Cardine St, 1828–30, and 52 Water St, Ludgate Hill in 1835. [D]

Newham, Robert jnr, Stockton-upon-Tees, Co. Durham, cm (1793–98). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793. [D]

Newhill, James, Bowling, Bradford, Yorks., cm (1822). [D]

Newhouse, Thomas, Coltishall, Suffolk, cm (1793). [D]

Newhouse, William, London, cm (1787–1820). At 28 Charles St, Hatton St, 1787–90. Even at this early stage the business was of substantial size and an insurance cover of £1,800 was maintained on the ‘house, workshops, rooms and shed all communicating behind’ and the utensils and stock kept in them. By June 1792 the business had moved to 4 Kirby St, Hatton Gdn at which it was to remain for the remainder of its extended business life. Again the insurance cover was substantial amounting to £2,100 of which only £150 referred to the house itself. Workshops, sheds and a warehouse were covered for £300 and utensils and stock for £850. The old premises in Charles St, now numbered 20 and leased for Leaver Pocket, a bookmaker, were insured for £300. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 340, p. 470; vol. 370, p. 281]

Newill, Gulielmus, Yorkshire St, Rochdale, Lancs., cm (1822–34). Listed at ‘top Yorkshire St’ in 1822. [D]

Newill & Horsfield, Union St, Halifax, Yorks., cm (1822). [D]

Newitt, Samuel, Liverpool, cm (1761). Free 9 February 1761. [freemen reg.]

Newland & Walker, address unknown, u (1772). Supplied a bedstead and chairs costing £4 2s 6d to Harewood House, Yorks. on 14 November and 30 December 1772. [Leeds RO, Harewood H.P. 491, f. 30]

Newman, Mr, address unrecorded, chairmaker and cm (1741– 43). Listed in the Vintners’ Hall archive [V&A, 1968] as a chairmaker, 1741–42, receiving £54; and as a cm in 1743 receiving £26 for tables. Possibly identified with Edward Newman of St Paul's Churchyard, London.

Newman, Aaron, Castle Hedingham, Essex, u (1838). Recorded in Jurors’ Bk for Hinekford Hundred. [Essex RO, Q/RJ/2/1]

Newman, Charles, Southampton, Hants, cm (1798). Declared bankrupt, Liverpool Advertiser, 24 September 1798. [D]

Newman, Charles, Edward St, Portland Pl., London, cm (1802). Freeman of Oxford. [Oxford Poll Bk]

Newman, Edward, St Paul's Churchyard, cm and chairmaker (1692?–d. 1758). In January 1738 ‘Mr Edward Newman of St Paul Churchyard’ was voted on to the Court of Livery of the Joiners Co. [GL, MS 8046/7] He was Deputy Renter Warden in May 1740 and was sworn in as Master on 24 August 1749 [GL, MS 8046/8] In July 1746 he was paid for ‘2 spring curtains’ and in May 1748 for providing two double and four single Windsor chairs, all for Earl Fitzwalter at Moulsham Hall. [A. C. Edwards, The Accounts of Benjamin Mildmay, Earl Fitzwalter] A ‘proper Handsome Master's Chair’ for the Court Parlour of the Joiners Co. was ordered by the then Master, Mr William Smith, on 1 October 1754. Edward Newman was paid £27 6s in May 1755 for this ‘large Mahogany carved chair’, which is now in the V & A Museum. [GL, MS 8046/9] He died in February 1758 leaving two sons, Isaac and Richard. [PRO, Prob. 11/835, ref. 48]

There is no proof, but it is likely, in view of the name given to his son, that he can be identified with Edward Newman, son of ‘Isaac Newman of Mash Gibborne in the County of Bucks, Yeoman deceased’, who was app. to Edward Newman ‘citizen and Joyner of London’ for seven years from 4 June 1706 [GL, MS 8052] and was admitted to the freedom of the Joiners’ Co. on 7 September 1714. [GL, MS 8051/3] J.G.

Newman, Edward, ‘At a White House the North Side of Golden Square’, London, chairmaker? (1733). Recorded as supplying 12 Walnut Chairs for Temple Newsam House, Leeds in January 1733. [Furn. Hist., 1967]

Newman, Edward, St Paul's Churchyard, London, chairmaker (d. 1748). Death on 18 March 1748 ‘at his House at Marsh Gibbon, Bucks.’ reported in General Advertiser, 23 March. He was described as ‘formerly an eminent Chair-maker in St. Paul's Churchyard, where he acquired a plentiful Fortune with a fair Character’. See Mr Newman.

Newman, Edward, 18 Charles St, Manchester Sq., London, u and undertaker (1814–25). [D]

Newman, G., 10 Bedford Pl., Southampton, Hants., cm (1836). [D]

Newman, Gilbert, Chester, u (1726). [Chester freemen rolls]

Newman, Isaac, St Paul's Churchyard, London, cm (1750–54). Freeman of the Joiners’ Co. Subscribed to Chippendale's Director, 1754. [GL, Joiners’ Co. records, list of Liverymen]

Newman, J., 36 St John St Rd, Islington, London, u (1820). [D]

Newman, James, 47 Redcliffe St, Bristol, cm (1815–40). Also undertaker from 1833. [D]

Newman, James, East St, Chichester, cm and u (1826). [D]

Newman, John, ‘The Feathers and Ball’, the South Side of St Paul's Churchyard, London, chair and cabinet maker (1752– 56). On his trade card [Banks Coll., BM] the text of which is framed by an elegant Rococo composition, he claimed to make and sell ‘all sorts of Chairs & Cabinet Work, Looking Glasses, Coach Glasses, Spring Curtains, Window Blinds & all other Goods in the Cabinet Makers way’. Subscribed to Chippendale's Director, 1754. At the time of his marriage in August 1752 described as an ‘eminent cabinet maker’. His wife, Rebecca Beal, appears to have been well connected. She was stated at the time of the marriage to have a fortune of £1,500 and the wedding festivities were celebrated not only at ‘The Sun Tavern’ near Ludgate St but also at her uncle Mr Penney's house at Carshalton, Surrey. She was the niece to the late Captain Beal of St Paul's Churchyard. John Newman took as app. Thomas Cooper in 1756. His trade was then described as joiner. [General Advertiser, 21 August 1752; V & A archives]

Newman, John, Oxford and London, cm (b. 1753–1802). Aged 20 in 1773 when he married Dorothy Compton of Oxford at the Church of St Mary Magdalene, Oxford. By 1802 living in London. [Bodleian index of Oxf. marriage bonds; Oxford poll bk]

Newman, John, 13 St Catherine's St, London, u (1796–1808). Included in the list of master cabinet makers in Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803. In 1808 described as a ship joiner and cm. [D]

Newman, John, Gt Peter St, Westminster, London, chairmaker (1808–29). The number in Gt Peter St was 87 in 1808, 8 in 1809 and 94 in 1829. [D]

Newman, John, Salisbury St, Blandford, Dorset, cm (1823–30). [D]

Newman, John Peter, 18 George St, Portman Sq., London, u (1826–27). [D]

Newman, John, 53 Suffolk St, Birmingham, chairmaker (1830). [D]

Newman, R., London, cm (1793). Signed a spectacular organcase, bureau, dressing table and jewel casket which was produced to a design by Sir William Chambers by Seddon Sons & Shackleton for King Charles IV of Spain. This piece of furniture has been broken up. [F. Robinson, English Furniture (frontispiece); Conn., vol. XLVI, pp. 188–90]

Newman, Ralph, St Peter's-in-the-East, Oxford, cm and wire worker (1777–98). In December 1777 announced that he had opened a shop in St Peter's-in-the-East. [D; Jackson's Oxford Journal, 6 December 1777]

Newman, Robert, St Mary Magdalene, Oxford, cm (1768). [Poll bk]

Newman, Samuel, 22 Lower Radleigh St, Pimlico, London, cm and u (1839). [D]

Newman, Thomas, next to the Great Rooms, Ship Lane, Oxford, cm (1768–77). In April 1777 advertised the display of a female dwarf aged 19 in his showrooms. By June 1777 Thomas Nelson was dead and his wife Sarah gave notice to her late husband's debtors to pay her, or Maycock, Jesus College Lane. [Poll bk; Jackson's Oxford Journal, 21 April 1777, 28 June 1777]

Newman, Thomas, East Peascod St, Windsor, Berks., cm and u (1830–39). [D; Fifth Hall Book 1828–52, p. 75]

Newman, Thomas, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham, Glos., rustic chairmaker (1839). [D]

Newman, William, London(?), carver (1676–94). Worked in several London City Churches as a carver, but also supplied the altar table, rails and altar-piece at St Stephen, Coleman St, 1676. [Wren Soc., x, pls 28, 31–32; XIX, pp. 43–44]

Newman, William, Elmington, Worcs., cm (1759). [S of G, app. index]

Newman, William, Tuesday Market Pl., King's Lynn, Norfolk, cm (1760–84). In 1760 took app. named Fisher. Advertised in October 1767 that he had moved to Tuesday Market Pl. where he made and sold ‘all sorts of Cabinet and Chair Makers goods’. He also stated that he wanted two journeymen cabinet or chairmakers. In the 1770s the business was of substantial size for a provincial concern. In 1777 insurance cover amounted to £1,400 of which half was in respect of his workshop and stock. In 1783 the total insurance was £1,000 but only £260 was cover for sheds, utensils and stock. [D; S of G, app. index; Cambridge Chronicle, 5 January 1770; GL, Sun MS vol. 255, p. 60; vol. 319, p. 10]

Newman, William, parish of St James, Bristol, carver and gilder (1774–81). [Poll bks]

Newman, William, St Martin's, Marlborough, Wilts., chairmaker and turner (1830). [D]

Newman, William, High St, Newmarket, Suffolk, u, cm and paper hanger (1830–39). [D]

Newnham, Samuel, London, cm and upholder (1775–77). At 156 St John St, Clerkenwell in 1775 when cover for utensils and stock was £330 out of a total insurance cover of £600. By 1777 at 1 Albemarle St, Clerkenwell with insurance on utensils and stock only £100 out of a total cover of £300. [GL, Sun MS vol. 243, p. 299; vol. 260, p. 251]

Newns, Richard, Wem, Salop, cm (1779). In 1779 insured some houses for £400. [GL, Sun MS vol. 267, p. 283]

Newsham, Edward, London Rd, King's Lynn, Norfolk, u and mattress maker (1836–39). [D]

Newsome, John, Petter's Hill, Pickering, Yorks., cm (1828) [D]

Newson, George, 90 Old St, St Luke's, London, cm (1826–29). [D]

Newson, George William, 9 Windmill St, Finsbury, London, cm, chair and sofa maker (1835–39). [D]

Newson, James, 17 Vine St, Hatton Wall, London, bedstead maker (1829). [D]

Newson, John, Norwich, cm (1830–39). At St Matthew St in 1830, Westgate St in 1835 and Dogs Head Lane in 1839. [D]

Newstead, William, Chesterfield, Derbs., cm (1792). In July 1793 advertised a range of items of interest to hosiers, trimmers and dyers. [Derby Mercury, 4 July 1793]

Newton, Ann, Westbar, Sheffield, Yorks., case maker for knives, razors, etc. (1787). [D]

Newton, Edward, Dowgate Hill, London, upholder (1726). [Heal]

Newton, Edward, London, upholder (1760–94). Son of John Newton, freeman of London and a member of the Upholders’ Co. Brother of Thomas Newton. Free of the Upholders’ Co. by patrimony 3 April 1760. Living in 1778 at Whitechapel; 1781 at Green St, Stepney; and 1786–94 at The Grove, Mile End. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Newton, Edward, 74 Shudehill, Manchester, cm (1797–1818). [D]

Newton, G. W., 7 Church St, Minories, London, auctioneer, appraiser and u, etc. (1820–21). [D]

Newton, Gabriel, Birmingham, u and cm (1826). Bankrupt by July 1826. The fact that the Commissioners appointed to examine him were to meet in Liverpool may suggest that many of his suppliers of materials were located in that area. [Liverpool Mercury, 14 July 1826]

Newton, Gabriel, 52 Oxford St, Manchester, u (1834). [D]

Newton, George, Nantwich, Cheshire, cm (1788). Son James bapt. on 21 September 1788. [PR (bapt.]

Newton, Henry, ‘The Three Tents’, Lime St, near Leandenhall Mkt, London, u (c. 1760). Also offered ‘Chairs, Cabinet-Work & Glasses with all Sorts of Tecks, Feathers, Quilts, Blankets, Coverlids & Ruggs’. Indicated that he bought and sold household furniture and acted as an appraiser & undertaker. [Heal]

Newton, J., 6 Smeaton St, Hull, Yorks., cm (1838–39). [D]

Newton, J., Stallards Lane, Trowbridge, Wilts., cm (1839). [D] See Thomas Newton.

Newton, James, London, cm (1738–49). At Gt Turnstile, Holborn in 1738 when his bankruptcy was announced. His trade was described as cm, milliner and chapman. Once more bankrupt in 1746 when his address was given as ‘St. Giles-in-the-Fields’. In 1749 at Red Lion Ct. [Read's Weekly Journal, 1 July 1738; Gents Mag., April 1746; Westminster poll bk]

Newton, James, 63 Wardour St, London, u and cm (1773–1821). Initially in partnership with Lawrence Fell, a former partner of Fell & Turton. James Newton is first recorded in Compton St at no. 37 in 1780 and 31 in 1781–83. In 1780 he was described as an upholder and insured a house for £200, but the Wardour St address was being used in 1781. In that year it was described as a house, and insurance cover of £300 was taken out on the property. The actual business is first recorded in trade directories in 1789, and by 1808 64 Wardour St was being used in addition to 63. By 1809 the trading style had changed to James Newton & Son, and after 1822 as Robert & James Newton. James Newton was a subscriber to Thomas Malton's Compleat Treatise on Perspective, 1775 and was listed in the names of master cabinet makers included in Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803.

A number of Newton's commissions are known and indicate that his business was held in high regard. He was a regular supplier of furnishings for Burghley House, Northants., and between 1773 and 1804 was in receipt of payments totalling nearly £8,000. One of the finest items, which is still in the house, was a state bed supplied in 1797 in connection with a visit by the Prince of Wales. The Heathcote family purchased items in 1797–98, and in June 1803 expended £55 18s 6d. Matthew Boulton of Soho, Birmingham was supplied with furniture from June 1798 to November 1799. At Osterley House bills survive dated 1800, 1804 and 1805 for work at houses in Cumberland Pl. and Charles St for which furniture was supplied. Lord Villiers expended £437 3s with Newton in 1804. Large quantities of fine furniture were supplied to the Earl of Breadalbane, 1809–12. In 1809 two accounts alone for beds, bedding and commodes came to £2,635 1s 2d. In the following year £3,393 7s 4d is shown for furniture for Taymouth Castle, Perths., which included no fewer than eight French commodes with brasswork, two tulipwood coffee tables, a rosewood claw table, and beds, one with a large dome. This year also saw furnishings for the Earl's London property in Park Lane and Wigmore St. An elaborately carved four poster bed was sent to Taymouth Castle in 1812.

Newton appears to have adopted a policy of labelling some of his furniture. A mahogany lady's writing table and cabinet is known with the label ‘James Newton. Wardour Street, 1793’. A pair of elbow chairs based on a design in Thomas Hope's Household Furniture, 1807 (plate 22) but bearing an inscription indicating that they were made in October 1806 are on display at the Royal Pavilion, Brighton. One of these bears a Newton label. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 289, p. 170; vol. 296, p. 580; C. Life, 29 August 1974, pp. 562–64; Lincoln RO, Heathcote, 3 ANC 6/380; ANC 7/14/13; Birmingham Lib., Boulton MS, box N; Scottish RO, GD 112/20/Box 1/33/1–8, GD 112/20/4/12/2–3X; Conn., June 1959, supplement, p. 63]

Newton, James & Son, Barton near Manchester, Lancs. (1803). Subscribers to Sheratons’ Cabinet Dictionary, 1803.

Newton, James, Patricroft and Barton, Lancs., joiner and cm (1825–34). At Barton, Eccles parish 1825 when his trade was listed as cm. In 1834 at Patricroft and Barton as a cm and joiner. [D]

Newton, James, 59 Margaret St, London, u (1829). [D]

Newton, John, London, upholder (1702–26). Son of Edward Newton of Wethersfield, Essex, Gent. Probably father of Edward & Thomas Newton. App. to Nicholas Patrick on 1 May 1702 but served his time with Thomas Collinson of King St, Westminster. Free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 3 March 1713/14. Appears to have taken as apps John Carrier and John Dennison in 1726. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Newton, John, Fleshmarket, Newcastle, cm and carpenter (1778). [D]

Newton, John, Lancaster, cm (1789–90). Free 1789–90, when Stated ‘of Liverpool’. [Freemen rolls]

Newton, John, back of 21 Cropper St, Liverpool, cm (1790–97). [D]

Newton, John, Barton-on-Humber, Lincs., joiner and cm (1819–35). Listed at Market Lane in 1835. [D]

Newton, John, Newgate St, Bishop Auckland, Co. Durham, joiner and cm (1827–34). [D]

Newton, John, Liverpool, joiner and cm (1829–39). At 11 Warren St with a shop at 11 Gill St in 1829 but from 1835 in Copperas Hill where the number was 69 in 1835, 70 in 1837 and 126 in 1839. [D]

Newton, Nathaniel, 3 John St, Bath, Som., cm (1833). [D]

Newton, Robert, Lancaster and Knutsford, Cheshire cm (1764–84). App. to J. Wright in 1764 and free, 1783–84. Living in Knutsford by April 1784. [App. reg.; Lancaster poll bk]

Newton, Robert & James, Wardour St, Soho, London, upholders and cm (1822–40). A continuation of the business established by James Newton and previously trading as Newton & Son from the Wardour St address. The numbers in Wardour St are 63 and 64 until 1835; and 64 and 65 in 1839. In 1824 supplied goods and services to the Royal Household amounting to £172 10s. [D; Windsor Royal Archives, RA 35580]

Newton, Thomas, Westminster, London, upholder (1760–86). Son of John Newton, freeman and member of the Upholders’ Co. Brother to Edward Newton. Free of the Upholders’ Co by patrimony on 6 March 1760. Living in Down St, 1778, and Dacre St, 1781–86. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Newton, Thomas, 43 Grafton St East, Tottenham Ct Rd, London, cm (1816–20). A set of Regency mahogany chairs is known with ormolu feet stamped ‘TN’. These initials may refer to Thomas Newton. The chairs are additionally marked ‘H. F. Webster Aug. 1816’. [D; Antique Dealer's and Collector's Guide, June 1974, p. 28]

Newton, Thomas, Stallard's Lane, Trowbridge, Wilts., cm (1830). [D] See J. Newton.

Newton, Thomas, 33 Westbar, Sheffield, Yorks., cm and u (1833–37). A Thomas New is shown in Westbar in 1828 in one directory. [D]

Newton, William, London, cm (1793). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793.

Newton, William, Mount St, Nottingham, joiner and cm (1832). [D]

Newton & Draper, 4 Cleveland St, Fitzroy Sq., London, cm and u (1839). [D]

Newton & Norman, 24 Cannon St, St George's East, London, cm and u (1826–27). In 1826 listed as cabinet and bedstead makers. [D]

Nias, Benjamin Merriman, London, u (1811–33). Initially at 4 Charles St, corner of Norfolk St, Middlx Hospital as an upholder and importer of Turkey carpets. Also able to supply ‘Dantzic Feathers’. By 1811 was trading as Nias & Co. There appears to have been a Benjamin Merriman jnr and this may be the date he entered the business. From 1819 an address at 32 Berners St was used as carpet and furniture warerooms in addition to the Charles St premises which were then numbered 34. From 1822 had financial connections with Count de Rhins, from whom he took a bill for £1,000. [D; PRO, C13 283/28/29 November 1822, C13 5561]

Nible, Henry, Oldbury, Tewkesbury, Glos., chairmaker (1826). Child bapt. at Tewkesbury in 1826. [PR (bapt.)]

Niblett, Edwin, Gloucester, cm (1839). Child bapt. at St Michael's Church in 1839. [PR (bapt.)]

Niccolls, Thomas, Old Soho, Covent Gdn, London, carver (1749). [Westminster poll bk]

Nice (or Nies), Mary, Thomas St, Liverpool, u (1818–29). At 52 Thomas St in 1818 and 55, 1824–29. [D]

Nicheles, J., Essex Buildings, Stratford, London, cm (1835). [D]

Nichol, James, St Margaret's, Westminster, London, cm (1786). In 1786 his son was app. to a mason, with assistance from Grinsell's Charity. [Westminster Ref. Lib., MS E3559]

Nicholas, Edward, Edstaston Wharf, Wem, Salop, joiner and cm (1840). [D]

Nicholas, George, 52 Parliament St, London, upholder and cm (1825–27). [D]

Nicholas, Henry, Fretton, Norfolk, chairmaker (1734). Freeman of Norwich. [Norwich poll bk]

Nicholas, John, 82 High St, Worcester, cm and u (1840). [D]

Nicholas, William, 6 Smallbrook St, Birmingham, cm, clock and clock dial maker (1816–22). [D]

Nicholas, William, Barrow St, Wenlock, Salop, cm (1840). [D]

Nicholettes, —, London, cm (1750). Robbed by two footpads on Constitution Hill. [General Advertiser, 27 September 1750]

Nicholl, Charles, 5 Cox's Ct, Aldersgate St, London, cm (1785). In May 1785 insured his utensils and stock for £60. [GL, Sun MS vol. 329, p. 259]

Nicholl, Charles, 14 George's Ct, Red Lion St, Clerkenwell, London, cm (1792). On June 1792 took out insurance cover of £200 of which £150 covered utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS vol. 387, p. 158]

Nicholl, John, John St, Oxford Mkt, London, carver (1763). [D]

Nicholl, Thomas, 17 Duke St, West Smithfield, London, upholder and undertaker (1724). [Heal]

Nicholl, Thomas, St Paul's Churchyard, London, upholder (1724–47). [Heal]

Nicholl, Thomas, Marylebone, London, carver (1768). [Lincoln RO, Monson, 22B/6/3]

Nicholl, Thomas, London, carver and gilder (1835–39). In 1835 the business was styled Nicholl & Brown and was trading from 21½ Foley St. By 1837 the partnership had broken up and Nicholl traded from this address on his own behalf. By 1839 he had moved to 31 Gt Titchfield St. [D]

Nicholls, Benjamin, Redruth, Cornwall, cm (1830). [D]

Nicholls, Charles, Little Church St, Wisbech, Cambs., cm, u and paper hanger (1822–30). [D]

Nicholls, Daniel, 19 Vine St, Hatton Wall, London, bedstead maker (1829). In 1839 a person of the same name was trading at 12 Brook Hill, Clerkenwell as a furniture broker. [D]

Nicholls, Humphrey, Canterbury, Kent, u (1678). [Canterbury freemen rolls]

Nicholls, J., 6 Red Lion St, Clerkenwell, London, clock and dial case maker (1812). [D]

Nicholls, Jacob, Wells, Som., cm (1774). Freeman of Bristol. [Bristol poll bk]

Nicholls, James, St Albans, Herts., cm (1829). Bankruptcy announced, Chester Chronicle, 31 July 1829.

Nicholls, John, Eld Lane, Colchester, Essex, cm and u (1823– 26). [D]

Nicholls, John snr, Exeter, Devon, cm and u (1812–26). In partnership with his son John Nicholls jnr until 1826, and in the 1820s trading from the General Commission Rooms, Newbridge. In 1812 supplied William Wade with furniture, utensils and linen which included a mahogany post bedstead at £18 18s, a secretary and bookcase at £15 and twelve single and two arm chairs at £16 16s. William Wade probably lived in the Tintagel area of Cornwall. [Cornwall RO, DDX 139.9; The Alfred, 14 February 1826]

Nicholls, John jnr, Exeter, Devon, cm and u (1823–40). At the General Commission Rooms, Newbridge, 1813–16, in partnership with his father, John Nicholls snr. In 1923 they announced that they had purchased the stock of a Mr Burt of Fore St, another cm. Amongst the stock they had on offer were musical instruments such as organs and pianos which were to be sold at reduced prices. They also offered to repair and tune musical instruments. In February 1826 the partnership was dissolved. Subsequent addresses for John Nicholls jnr are Bridge St in 1830; 14 Improvements in 1834; 9 Bartholomew St, 1836–38; New Bridge St, 1838; and 146 Fore St, 1838– 40. [D; The Alfred, 8 April 1823, 14 February 1826]

Nicholls, John, 8 Boundary Row, Blackfriars Rd, London, bedstead maker (1825–39). [D]

Nicholls, John, 82 High St, Worcester, cm and u (1828). [D]

Nicholls, Matthew, the corner of Bromley St in Drury Lane, London, frame maker (1723). Insured goods and merchandise in his dwelling house for £300 in August 1723. [GL, Sun MS vol. 16, ref. 29673]

Nicholls, Richard, Truro, Cornwall, cm (1759). In 1759 took app. named Gray. [S of G, app. index]

Nicholls, Richard, Castle St, Shrewsbury, Salop, chairmaker (1828). [D]

Nicholls, Robert, Chester, cm (1733). Son of John Nicholls of Chester, butcher. Free 7 July 1733. [Freeman rolls]

Nicholls, Thomas, ‘The Three Golden Keys’, west side of Houndsditch, parish of St Botolph without Aldgate, London, upholder (1708). Insured his timber house for £100 in November 1708. [GL, Hand in Hand MS vol. 6, ref. 2611]

Nicholls, Thomas, Wardour St, Soho, Westminster, London, carver (1749). [Poll bk]

Nicholls, William, 93 Long Acre, London, carver and gilder (1770–76). Employed by Horace Walpole at Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, Middlx in 1773 and 1776. [D; Heal]

Nicholls, William, 3 Meard's Ct, Dean St, Soho, London, cm u and undertaker (1809–22). [D]

Nichols, Mr, London, cm (1746). Taken ill suddenly in the Broadway, Westminster and died almost immediately. [General Advertiser, 28 January 1746]

Nichols, Eugene, 11 Gt Titchfield St, London, carver and gilder (1839). [D]

Nichols, Henry, parish of St Peter Mancroft, Norwich, chairmaker (1722–53). Son of Henry Nichols snr. Free 22 August 1722. Took apps named Hubard in 1724 and Barrett in 1729. Another of his apps, James Barroth was declared free on 3 May 1753. [Freeman reg.; S of G, app. index; poll bk]

Nichols, J., Teignmouth, Devon, cm (1813). In February 1813 the sale of the stock in trade and household furniture ‘of the lodging house of J. Nichols’ was announced. [Exeter Flying Post, 11 February 1813]

Nichols, James, Liverpool, cm (1761–c. 1815). Free 3 April 1761 and died between 1812 and 1817. [Freemen reg.]

Nichols, James, Gt Yarmouth/London, cm (1807–30). Living in London, 1818–30. [Gt Yarmouth poll bks]

Nichols, John, Worcester, cm and u (1828–30). Listed at New St in 1828, also as a broker; and at 82 High St in 1830. [D]

Nichols, Paul, 3 Masons Row, Liverpool, picture frame maker (1827). [D]

Nichols, Richard, 20 York Terr., Borough Rd, London, bedstead maker (1835–37). [D]

Nichols, Samuel, near the Bridge, Bradford, Wilts., cm and u (1822–30). [D]

Nichols & Relph, 75 Wells St, Oxford St, London, cm (1803– 20). In 1803 the firm of Oswald & Nichols is recorded trading from this address but Sheraton, in the list of master cabinet makers he included in the Cabinet Dictionary, 1803, listed Nichols J. & Relph. In 1813–16 traded as Nichols, Relph & Birch but by 1817 had reverted to Nichols & Relph who were listed as cm and chairmakers in 1820. [D; Heal]

Nicholson, Charles, 15 Northampton St, Clerkenwell, London, clock case maker (1839). [D]

Nicholson, Christopher, 12 King St, Liverpool, joiner and cm (1777). The King St premises were referred to as a warehouse. [D]

Nicholson, Dawson, St Mary's Chare, Hexham, Northumb., joiner and cm (1827–34). Recorded also at Back St in 1834. [D]

Nicholson, E. & W., High St, Fareham, Hants, cm and builder (1823). A mahogany reading and writing table is known bearing the label ‘Nicholson, Cabinet Manufacturer, upholsterer, paper-hanger etc., High Street, Fareham’. [D; Sotheby's, 4 July 1969, lot 133]

Nicholson, Edward, Union St, Doncaster, Yorks., u (1818). [D]

Nicholson, Edward, West St, Fareham, Hants, cm and u (1830). [D]

Nicholson, Edward, Johnson's Entry, High St, Hull, Yorks., cm (1834). [D]

Nicholson, Francis, 30 St John St Rd, London, u (1826). [D]

Nicholson, George, Rockley, Notts., chairmaker (b. c. 1801–41). Children bapt. at Rockley Methodist Church, 1831–36. Aged 40 at the date of the 1841 Census and had a resident app. named William Smith aged 15. Over twenty chairs of the Windsor type are known with the impressed mark ‘NICHOLSON/ROCKLEY’. [Furn. Hist., 1978; Antique Collecting, February 1974; Antique Dealer's and Collector's Guide, May 1978, p. 3]

Nicholson, H., Kirkby St, Maryport, Cumb., joiner/cm (1811). [D]

Nicholson, Henry, Workington, Cumb., joiner/cm (1828–29). In Key St, 1828 and Quay, 1829. [D]

Nicholson, Isaac, Cropper St, Manchester, cm (1800). [D]

Nicholson, Isaac, St Helen St, Cockermouth, Cumb., joiner/cm and wheelwright (1829). [D]

Nicholson, James, Southwell, Notts., joiner and cm (1832). [D]

Nicholson, Joash. W., Leeds, Yorks., cm and u (1826–40). At 12 West St in 1826; 70 Meadow Lane in 1828, no. 68, 1830–34; and 98 Kirkgate 1837–39. [D]

Nicholson, John, west side of Warwick St, Golden Sq., London, u (1763–d. by 1773). Son of Benjamin Nicholson, freeman and innholder of London. App. to Thomas Brown a member of the Merchant Tailors Co., 4 May 1763. Free of the Upholders’ Co. under the terms of the 1750 Upholders’ Act on 1 August 1770. His period of trading was probably short, for by December 1773 he was dead and his stock and household furniture was sold by auction by Mr Christie. The items in the sale included much cabinet furniture but this may have been household furniture rather than trade stock in some cases. Amongst a small number of books was one of drawings by Ince and Mayhew which was sold for £1 4s. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records; Christie's, 9 December 1773]

Nicholson, John, Cannon St, London, see Nicholson & Brown.

Nicholson, John, 35 Bishopsgate Within, London, upholder (c. 1790). [Heal]

Nicholson, John, Church St, Blackburn, Lancs., u and paper hanger (1814–24). In March 1821 announced his intention of retiring and offered his stock at valuation. As an inducement he stated that ‘the principal part, if required, may remain at interest, on satisfactory security’. His business was declared to be ‘in one of the principal streets of Blackburn, & the business of an upholsterer hath been carried on therein for the last 30 years’. He may not have been successful in disposing of the stock for he was still trading in 1824. At this date his address was New Inn Yd, Church St, and 31 John St. One directory of 1824 lists the business as Nicholson & Boardman. [D; Liverpool Mercury, 2 March 1821]

Nicholson, John, Market Pl., Burnley, Lancs., u (1818). [D]

Nicholson, John, Winlaton, Co. Durham, joiner and cm (1824–34). [D]

Nicholson, Jonah Walker, 98 Kirkgate, Leeds, Yorks., cm, u and furniture broker (1837). [D]

Nicholson, Joseph, Wood St, Maryport, Cumb., joiner/cm (1811). [D]

Nicholson, Jos., Wolsingham, Co. Durham, joiner and cm (1828). [D]

Nicholson, Neile, 6 Baptist St, Liverpool, cm (1829). [D]

Nicholson, Patrick, 15 Mercer St, Long Acre, London, carver (1826–29). [D]

Nicholson, Relph, Whickham, Co. Durham, joiner/carpenter(cm (1834). [D]

Nicholson, Richard, Union Lane, Sunderland, Co. Durham, u (1776). In May 1776 Ann Davenport advertised that paper hangings produced in her manufactory might be inspected at Richard Nicholson's premises. [Newcastle Courant, 18 May 1776]

Nicholson, Robert, Doncaster, u (1793–1837). In 1837 at Cleveland St. [D]

Nicholson, Thomas, South Collingham, Notts., chairmaker. Probate granted on will 3 July 1785. [Notts. RO, probate records]

Nicholson, Thomas, address unknown, cm (1803). Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803.

Nicholson, Thomas, Bridge Lane, Penrith, Cumb., joiner and cm (1828). [D]

Nicholson, Thomas, Pocklington, Yorks., cm (1831–40). At Swine Market in 1831 and 1840 but in 1834 listed at Waterloo Buildings. [D]

Nicholson, William, Carlisle, Cumb., joiner and cm (1810–11). At Abbey St in 1810 and Paternoster Row in 1811. [D]

Nicholson, William, Manchester, cm, u, feather dealer and furniture broker (1817–29). At 2 Hilton St in 1817 but from 1819 at 26 Oldham St. [D]

Nicholson, William, Skinner's Burn, Hexham, Northumb., joiner and cm (1827–28). [D]

Nicholson, William, Felling Shore, Jarrow, Co. Durham, joiner and cm (1828). [D]

Nicholson, William, Westgate, Bradford, Yorks., cm (1830). [D]

Nicholson, William, Barn St, Little Bolton, Lancs., cm (1834). [D]

Nicholson, William, 15 Platt Terr., St Pancras Rd, London, cm (1835). [D]

Nicholson & Brown, 41 Cannon St, London, u (1775–77). A partnership of John Nicholson and William Brown. Both partners were declared bankrupt in October 1777. [D; Gents Mag., October 1777]

Nicholson & Graham, Castle St, Carlisle, Cumb., joiners and cm (1805–08). [D]

Nicholson & Walker, Windsor St, Putney, London, cm and u (1838). Nicholson was one of the partners. [D]

Nickalls, Thomas, London, upholder (1734–d. 1776). Son of Daniel Nickalls of Canterbury, draper. App. to William Scrimshire on 9 February 1714 and Charles Harvey of the Merchant Tailors’ Co. on 3 March 1714. Free of the Upholders’ Co by servitude, 3 July 1734. Took as apps Richard Wear, 1737–54; Joseph Bradshaw, 1754–61; and Thomas Bradshaw, 1761–66. In 1750 Nickalls's address was given as St Paul's Churchyard. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records, Livery list, 1750]

Nickells, James, 6 Bateman's Row, Shoreditch, London, cm and u (1820–23). [D]

Nickells, John, 37 Haymarket, London, trunk and plate case maker (1789–1819). The Longford Castle, Wilts. accounts list the payment of £1 5s to a Nickells, case maker in 1792. [D; V&A archives]

Nickels, J., 27 Henrietta St, Brunswick Sq., London, cm and chairmaker (1825). [D]

Nickels, James, Stratford, London, cm, u and auctioneer (1832). [D]

Nickels, John Pells, Colchester, Essex, cm (d. 1828). Probate granted on his will 1828. [Wills at Chelmsford, 111, p. 236]

Nickels, William & Benjamin, 132 St John St, Clerkenwell, London, cm and u (1826–27). [D]

Nicklin, Thomas, Corbridge, Burslem (The Potteries), Staffs., cm, u and pianoforte maker (1828–35). [D]

Nicklin, Thomas, 72 Gt Guildford St, Southwark, London, chair and sofa maker (1839). [D]

Nicklin, William, Dudley, Worcs., cm (1809). [D]

Nickolds, Samuel, Norwich and Lakenham, Norfolk, cm (1817–30). App. to Elden Earl and free of Norwich by servitude, 16 June 1817. In the parish of St John Sepulchre, Norwich in June 1818 but by July 1830 at Lakenham. [Freemen reg.; poll bks]

Nickols, Thomas, London, u (1739). [Canterbury freemen rolls]

Nicks, —, 5 Dean's Row, Walworth, London, carver and gilder (1809). [D]

Nicks, J., Castle St, Warwick, builder and cm (1830). [D]

Nickson, —, Chesham, Bucks., cm (1793). [D]

Nickson, George, Tunstall, Staffs., joiner and cm (1798). [D]

Nickson, Samuel, Bridge St Row, Chester, cm and u (1802–27). Listed also at Commercial Buildings in 1816. Free 3 July 1802. Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803. Developed an extensive business and in 1815 claimed to be employing workmen from Gillows, and Tatham & Co., London. In that year he had additional premises at County Buildings, although in 1814 the address of these was stated to be Commercial Buildings. Took apps George Langshaw in 1814 and John Simecock in 1819, although in the following year he was transferred to another master. In June 1818 however he advertised the sale by auction of his entire stock as he was retiring from business. On offer was a very extensive and elegant stock consisting of ‘50 elegant four post, Chinese, tent and sofa bedsteads with rich china and other furniture, mattresses, prime goose feather beds, blankets, counterpanes, Marseilles quilts, handsome wardrobes, chests of drawers, ladies dressing chests, night tables, bidets, airing maids, gentlemen's dressing tables and plain ditto, angular and square bason stands, boot racks, secretaires and bookcases, bureaus, superb sideboards with cellarets and gardivines, handsome sets of dining tables, card, sofa, loo and Pembroke tables richly inlaid and ornamented with brass and or-molu, 36 Grecian and square sofas with 20 Grecian couches, lounging, tub, easy and bed chairs, finished in satin, hair and other coverings, 24 dozen of Trafalgar, Grecian and plain mahogany dining room chairs and hall ditto, elegant rosewood and japanned drawing room chairs, neat stained and painted chairs, ditto extensive assortment of rich pier and chimney glasses, mirrors and dressing glasses, hall lamps, music stools, supper, butlers, cheese and knife trays, dining and drawing room firescreens, bed steps, portable writing desks, ladies work tables and boxes, tea chests, caddies and backgammon tables, handsome dials and eight day clocks in rich cases, two thousand pieces of paper hangings with gold, flock and common borders of the most fashionable London patterns, elegant carpets in Brussels and Turkey, hearth rugs and coach ditto’. A wide range of upholstery stock was described in addition.
The sale commenced on 29 June but the stock that was unsold was offered again by auction on 8 and 9 July. Another sale of residual stock was held on 15 July and the two days following. At the time that these sales were progressing materials still in stock were being made up into furniture which was offered with the residue of the previous sales from 5 October of the same year. That which the public did not purchase at this occasion was again auctioned on 21 and 22 October. Having failed, despite all these efforts, to dispose of all the stock it was then displayed in the auction mart labelled with the lowest price that was acceptable. Nickson claimed that these prices were 25% below those of his competitors, a claim that produced an advertisement refuting this by the other Chester furniture makers. Attempts to dispose of stock continued through December 1818. The reason for these sales became obvious for in November 1819 Nickson was declared bankrupt. Despite this experience he recommenced business and the firm of Samuel Nickson & Son at Bridge St Row is shown in an 1822 directory. In July 1827 however he took a decision to discontinue the furniture making side of his business which he had carried on for ‘upwards of twenty years’. Henceforth he acted solely as an auctioneer and appraiser, and in September 1827 he opened auction rooms in Eastgate which proved a successful venture over many years. [D; freemen rolls; app. bks; Chester Chronicle, 2 June 1815, Chester Guardian, 20 June 1717, 27 June 1818, 4, 11 and 18 July 1818, 26 September 1818, 5 and 17 October 1818, 5 November 1818, 12, 18 and 31 December 1818, 25 November 1819; 3 July 1827; Liverpool Mercury, 26 November 1819]

Nickson, Thomas, 18 Cropper St, Liverpool, cm (1811). [D]

Nicol, Alexander, 21 St Vincent St, St James's, Liverpool, cm (1835). [D]

Nicol & Lewis, St James's St, Liverpool, cm and u (1835–37). At 29 St James's St in 1835 and 31 in 1837. [D]

Nicoll, Thomas, Printing House, Swan Alley, London, upholder (1717). In September 1717 took out insurance cover on two houses in the possession of T. Nicholl & Co. amounting to £300. [GL, Hand in Hand MS vol. 17, p. 252)

Nicols, J., Wells St, London, cm (1803). Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803.

Nicolson, Joseph, London, upholder (1729). Son of James Nicholson of Fetter Lane, London, apothecary. App. to William Jones on 2 August 1721 and free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 7 May 1729. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Nielson, Lawrence, London, cm (1782–84). In 1782 at 44 Frith St, Soho where he took out insurance cover of £400 on his house. In 1784 at 78 Margaret St, Cavendish Sq. where he took out insurance cover of £1,000, half of which was in respect of utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS vol. 304, p. 292; vol. 322, p. 300]

Nightingale, George, 143 Leadenhall St, London, carver, gilder and print seller (1802–35). Bankrupt by October 1802 but recommenced business by the following year. On 4 June 1815 his workshop was destroyed by fire but this does not appear to have seriously disrupted the business which continued at the same address. [D; Gents Mag., June 1815; Billinge's Liverpool Advertiser, 4 October 1802, 29 November 1802; PRO, C13/2649, C13/14761]

Nightingale, James, Stockport, Cheshire, cm (1825–40). At Throstle Grove in 1825 but from 1828 at Heaton Lane. [D]

Nightingale, John, Liverpool, cm (1766–d. 1782). At Pool Lane, 1766–69; 2 Hanover St, 1772–74; 44 Whitechapel in 1777 and 51 Whitechapel thereafter. His bankruptcy was announced in October 1773, and in February 1774 his stock was sold by auction. Included in the sale were ‘Neat Mahogany Chairs, Dining, Dressing & Pier Tables, Double Chests Drawers, neat Mahogany Desks, Dressing Chests & Commodes; a neat Mahogany Wardrobe & other Cabinet Goods’. A ‘rich Crimson Silk Damask Bed with Mahogany Bedstead’ and a ‘Variety of Pier & Dressing Glasses’ were also specified. Died 1782, though one directory still lists him at 51 Whitechapel in 1784. [D; Gents Mag., October 1773; Williamson's Liverpool Advertiser, February 1774, 28 March 1782]

Nightingale, John, Lancaster, turner and chairmaker (1797). On 6 December 1797 took an app. [App. reg.]

Nightingale, John, 5 Heatley St, Preston, Lancs., chairmaker (1818). [D]

Nightingale, John, Bloom St, Manchester, u (1825–40). At 10 Bloom St in 1825 and 23, 1838–40. [D]

Nightingale, Thomas, London, upholder (1777). Son of John Nightingale of the Liberty of Norton Falgate, Middlx ‘hare merchant’. App. to William Gould 13 May 1769 and free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude 2 July 1777. At this date he was living at 56 Bishopsgate St. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Nightingale, William, Goosegate, Nottingham, joiner and cm (1832–35). Recorded also at Glasshouse St in 1832. [D]

Niles, Edward, 8 Duke St, Devonport, Devon, carver and gilder (1838). [D]

Nind, Thomas, 19 Crown St, Bishopsgate, London, upholder and paper hanger (1817). [D]

Nisbett, William, 156 Oxford St, London, u, appraiser and house agent (1835). [D]

Niven, James, London, chair carver (1808–20). At 2 Old North St, Red Lion Sq., 1808–09, but in 1820 at 6 Gloucester St, Queen's Sq. [D]

Niven, S., London, carver (1826–29). At 4 Southampton Ct, Queen's Sq. in 1826 but in 1829 at 22 Gt Ormond St, Queen's Sq. [D]

Nix, Mr, London(?), glass maker and cm (1748). Notice in General Advertiser, 14 May 1748 announced the auction sale by Aaron Lambe of ‘Furniture … and Effects of SAMUEL WINDER, Esq. Jun. at Roehampton, one Mile and a Half from Putney Bridge … Screens, Escrutores, Desks, Bookcases, Chests of Drawers in Mahogany and Walnut-tree, and curious Rose Woods; the Cabinet Work being made in the neatest and best manner, by Mr. Nix; glasses …’. Probably:

Nix, George, London, cm and joiner (1716–d. 1743) and

Nix, George, London, cm (1744–51). Information about George Nix is somewhat sparse. In 1716 he is described as ‘citizen and joiner’ and recorded taking app. named Edward, son of Edward Halfhide, citizen and joiner, on 15 August for a payment of £15. On 24 April 1718 he took Theo Martinoff, a Russian, as app. for a premium of £100 and was then described as a cm of St Paul's Covent Gdn. [PRO, IR 1/5 and 1/6] On 22 February 1739/40 he is referred to as ‘Mr Nix ye Cabinet maker in King Street Covent Garden’. [PRO, C.109/ 25, Part 1, Daybooks and Ledgers of Thomas Wagg 1727–48, Chancery Masters Exhibits, vol. 8] In the Memoirs of Sir William Jones, Lord Teignmouth (1806, vol. 1, p. 10) he is described as a London cabinet maker who ‘although of low extraction … raised himself to eminence in his profession and from the honest and pleasant frankness of his conversation was admitted to the tables of the great, and to the intimacy of Lord Macclesfield’.
In 1729 and 1730 Nix supplied a table, chair, close stool and corner cupboard to Moulsham Hall, Essex. [A. C. Edwards, The Accounts of Benjamin Mildmay, Earl Fitzwalter, pp. 100–04] Also in 1729 he charged the Duchess of Montrose for a 4 leaf screen covered with ‘India paper’ [Scottish RO, GD 220/6/1383/11], while in 1732 the Duke of Montrose made a payment of £37 3s to a Mr Nix for his house at Cley, Norfolk. [Scottish RO, GD 220/6/31, p. 640] Nix supplied some mahogany tables to a Lord Monson in 1740 [Lincoln RO, Monson 12] and in the following year charged for a kettle stand supplied for Holkham Hall. [Holkham Hall accounts]
For Ham House he charged for a large range of items and repairs for the 4th Earl of Dysart over the period June 1729 to April 1734 at a cost of £430 13s 6d and his bill is the best source of information about the kind of goods he produced. [Lauderdale papers, Buckminster Estate Office, Grantham, Lincs.] The list of furniture supplied, from which several items can be identified, includes tables and chairs of all kinds, chests-of-drawers, close-stools, a bookcase, a reading desk, a firescreen, a dumb waiter (an early example of this type of furniture) and a chimneyboard, itemized as ‘white … grounded for Japaning’. He also charged for repairs to a number of dressing-and strong-boxes, to a crystal chandelier, a billiard table, the well-known ‘blackamore’ candlestands and other items. This bill also refers to ‘taking down the Great Book Case in Bond Street & Setting it up again in Arlington Street’ in December 1732 and in the following March to ‘taking the Great Bookcases to peices & carrying it to Grosvenor Square & fixing it up in the Hind Room’.
George Nix is said to have died in 1743. [Harris, Old English Furniture, 1935] The business was still being carried on in 1751 under the same name, however, presumably by his son. There is a reference in 1744 (in connection with a lost dog) to ‘Mr Nix, Cabinet Maker, in Exeter Street, in the Strand’. [Daily Advertiser, 1 May 1744] In the Westminster poll bk, 1749 he is listed as George Nix, cm of King St, near St Martin's Lane. In the Westminster rate bk, 1751 his address is given as Long Acre.
MOULSHAM HALL, Essex (Earl Fitzwalter). 1728–32: Bills for 3 tables, an easy chair, 8 chairs ‘for Chinese Room’, a close stool and a corner cupboard. Total £26 11s. [A. C. Edwards, The Accounts of Benjamin Mildmay, Earl Fitzwalter]
CLEY, Norfolk (Duke of Montrose). 1729: Receipted account to the Duchess of Montrose referring to repairs to an old screen and supplying a 4-leaf screen, covered with ‘India paper’. Total £3 16s. [Scottish RO, GD 229/6/1383/11] 1732: Payment to — Nix for chairs. Total £37 3s. [Scottish RO, GD 220/6/31]
BURTON HALL, Lincs. (Lord Monson). 1740: Bills for a mahogany tea board and two mahogany dining-tables. Total £5 3s [Lincoln RO, Monson 12]
HOLKHAM HALL, Norfolk (Earl of Leicester). 1741: Bill for a tea kettle stand £2 2s. [Holkham Hall accounts]
HAM HOUSE, Surrey (Earl of Dysart). 1729–34: Bill for some 150 items totalling £430 13s 6d, from which the following can still be identified at the house. 1729: ‘For a Carved and Gilt Pictor frame £1. 10. 0. For two Peer Glasses £12. 0. 0.’ The pier glasses, in gilded Kentian frames with broken scroll pediments, and the little gilded Kentian picture frame, which encloses a fan painting, all have the unusual decorative motif of an anthemion attached to acanthus leaves at the corners. 1730: ‘For mending and pollishing a Rosewood Dressing Box, and a New Lock Ketch and key 12. 0. For a Rosewood frame for the Box £1. 5. 0.’ These items probably refer to the strong box referred to in 1683 as a ‘box wth. an extraordinary Lock’, of which the stand shows signs of renewal. 1730: ‘For mending and Pollishing a plainer box and a New key’, 10s. This is probably the box kept by the Duke of Lauderdale in his dressing room. 1730: ‘For 18 Hall Chairs painted and Varnished’, £18. These oak chairs, of sgabello type, are painted on the backs with the arms of the Tollemache family, surmounted by an earl's coronet. 1730: ‘For Sawing the top of an India Cabinett, and putting on a Deale top, and Japaning the top, and New Pollishing the Cabinett and Lackering all the brass work £3. 10. 0. For altering the Cabinett frame and New Gilding it £4. 10. 0. For makeing a Table of the top of a Cabinett and a Neat Japand frame for the Table £2. 15. 0. For a Leather Cover for the Table lined with flanell’, 6s. The Japanese lacquer cabinet and the table made from its top, with the addition of straight legs and frieze, both survive but the protective cover does not. 1730: ‘For a black frame Japand, for an India Tea Table and Gilding and mending the Table, where it was broak’, £1 5s. This seems to refer to the 17th-century Javanese lacquer table for which an underframing with twist-turned legs was made in order to bring it to a more convenient height. 1730: ‘For New Gilding and Japaning two fine India figures’, £4. This refers to the restoration of the well-known pair of ‘blackamore stands’. 1731: ‘For two Elbow Chairs on Casters’, £3 10s. These are probably the pair of wide armchairs (later to be called ‘love-seats’), covered with red and green cut velvet. No bill exists for the sofa and 18 chairs belonging to the same suite but they may also have been supplied by Nix. 1731: ‘For mending an old Cabinett with Silver Corners, and other ornaments, and mending the frame, and four new black Balls, and lining the Inside with Cloth’, £1 10s. These are repairs to the Duke of Lauderdale's scriptor, which Nix fitted with four new feet and a new baize writing surface. 1731: ‘For New pollishing & Silvering a Glass and Cleaning & boyling the Silver, & new Silvering Ring hinges and Nayles, to Nayl the Silver on the frame’, £1 10s. This is a dressing glass with embossed silver mounts. 1732: ‘For a large Wallnuttree Horse frame and fixing on the Needle work on the Inner frame & India paper on the back side’, £2 15s. This cheval screen has a panel of gros-and petit-point needlework on one side and Chinese painted paper on the other. [V&A archives] M.T.

Nixers, Theophilus, London, cm and u (1741). In January 1741 the stock of Theophilus Nixers was advertised for sale. The goods had been ‘taken for Execution near Long-Acre’ and consisted of ‘Four-Post Bedsteads, Green and Red Worsted Damask Curtains, Settee-Bedsteads, Buroes, Bedsteads, Goose-Feather Beds … Chest-upon-Chest, Walnut-Tree Chairs, Leather Seats: Sconces, Desk and Bookcases, Glass Doors: two very good Clocks, and other sorts of goods’. [Burney Coll. newspapers, 1735–55 (BM) 3536]

Nixon, Allan, Leek, Staffs., cm (1814). [D]

Nixon, D., 21 Little Eastcheap, London, cm and u (1822). Succeeded by F. Nixon at the same address by 1823. [D]

Nixon, E., 40 Charlotte St, Blackfriars Rd, London, u, etc. (1835). [D]

Nixon, F., 21 Little Eastcheap, London, cm and u (1823–25). Successor to D. Nixon at this address and succeeded by Thomas Nixon. [D]

Nixon, Francis, Frodsham, Cheshire, cm/joiner (1828). [D]

Nixon, George, Strand, London, carver (1774). [Westminster poll bk]

Nixon, Isaac, Manchester, cm (1797–1804). At Newton Lane in 1797 and 129 Gt Newton St in 1804. [D]

Nixon, J., 21 Little Eastcheap, London, cm (1829). Successor to Thomas Nixon at this address. [D]

Nixon, James, 123 Gt Portland St, Oxford St, London, cm and u (1816–39). From 1835 trading as James Nixon & Son and by this date the nature of the business had changed. A directory of 1835 states their trade to be that of an ‘importer of foreign marbles and ancient furniture’. Loudon in his Encyclopaedia, 1833, noted that some London upholsterers were collecting both at home and overseas ‘curious and ancient furniture, including fragments … and rearrange these curious specimens and adapt them to modern uses.’ One of the firms specializing in this trade mentioned by Loudon was Nixon of Great Portland St. A Rococo marquetry table embellished with ormolu mounts of c. 1840 at Castle Ashby, Northants. bears a Nixon label. [D; V&A archives; Loudon, Encyclopaedia, pp. 1039, 1101]

Nixon, John, near the turnpike in New Rd, Back Lane, London, pawnbroker and cm (1776). In 1776 took out insurance cover of £100 which included £30 for utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS vol. 245, p. 230]

Nixon, John, 34 Cable St, Well Close Sq., London, cm and Venetian blind maker (1790–93). [D]

Nixon, Simpson, High St, Wigton, Cumb., joiner/cm (1829). [D]

Nixon, Thomas, 3 Mercers Ct, Tower St, London, upholder (1784–91). Son of James Nixon of Richmond, Yorks., stuff manufacturer. App. to John Allen on 7 April 1784 and free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 4 May 1791. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Nixon, Thomas, 21 Little Eastcheap, London, cm (1826). Successor to F. Nixon and succeeded by J. Nixon at this address. [D]

Nixon, William, Manchester, cm (1797–1825). At 15 Beswick's Row in 1797 but from 1817 in Oldham Rd. The number in Oldham Rd was 80 in 1817 and 115 in 1825. [D]

Nixon, William, Newcastle, joiner, cm and house carpenter (1811–24). At Northumberland St in 1811 and Percy Pl. in 1824. [D]

Nixon, William, Frodsham Cheshire, cm/joiner (1828). [D]

Nixon, William, Navigation St, Birmingham, carver and gilder (1830–35). Recorded at no,. 5 in 1835. [D]

Noake, Isaac, 4 Thomas St, Bristol, cm and broker (1801–36). In 1801 took out insurance cover of £600. Shown additionally at Bedminster Causeway in 1810. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 40, ref. 717356]

Noakes, Robert, 52 Blackman St, Southwark, London, cm and u (1822–26). In one directory of 1825 the business is listed as Noakes & Co. [D]

Noakes, Robert, 5 Cecil Sq., Margate, Kent, u (1838–39). [D]

Noar, E., Lancaster (1835–39). Named in the Gillow records 1835, 1837 and 1839. [Westminster Ref. Lib.]

Noar, John, Lancaster, cm (1766–74). App. to J. Wakefield and H. Birkett 1766 and free by servitude 1773–74. [App. reg. and freemen rolls]

Nobbs, William, 6 Crucifix Lane, Bermondsey, London, cm and u (1839). [D]

Noble, Barnard, 6 Long Acre, London, u and cm (1773–83). [D]

Noble, Bernard., 25 Castle St, Leicester Fields, London, upholder (1777). In 1777 took out insurance cover of £800 of which £300 was in respect of utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS vol. 257, p. 443]

Noble, Henry, 4 William St, Liverpool, cm (1834–37). [D]

Noble, James, Sandgate Head, Penrith, Cumb., cm/joiner (1834). [D]

Noble, John, Northgate, Wakefield, Yorks., u, cm and coach maker (1757–98). At Northgate in March 1757 but in May 1788 announced a move to the top of this road. In this year offered a choice selection of paper hangings. Also made coach harness. Bankrupt in 1793 but still trading in 1798. [D; Leeds Intelligencer, 13 March 1757, 6 May 1788, 13 May 1788, 15 September 1789, 10 November 1789, 7 June 1791; 6 August 1794; York Courant, 27 April 1784; Bailey's list of bankrupts]

Noble, John, Cold Bath Fields, London, bedstead maker and cm (1787–88). In July 1787 insured his house, goods, plate, etc. for £700 but was made bankrupt in the following year. [GL, Sun MS vol. 345, p. 462; Bailey's list of bankrupts]

Noble, Mary, 80 Devon St, Liverpool, u (1839). [D]

Noble, Nathaniel, ‘Hogsdon’, Middlx, u (1727). [Oxford RO, Hwy VIII/viii/3]

Noble, Thomas, 35 Gt St Andrew's St, London, upholder (1777). In 1777 insured his house for £300. [GL, Sun MS vol. 260, p. 34]

Noble, Thomas, St James's St, London, u (1784). [Westminster poll bk]

Noble, Thomas, 82 Park St, Grosvenor Sq., London, cm and u (1808). [D]

Noble, Thomas, 23 Francis St, Tottenham Ct Rd, London, carver and gilder (1835–39). An oval convex mirror or girandole in a gilt frame of Regency character is known, the label of which describes the business as ‘Cheap Window Cornice & Picture Frame Manufacturer’. It offered a wide range of frames, gilt, rosewood and maple, and stated that the business restored pictures and re-silvered mirrors. [D; Antiques, May 1968]

Noble, Thomas, Foundation St, Ipswich, Suffolk, carver and gilder (1839). [D]

Noble, William, Manchester Lane, Morpeth, Northumb., joiner and cm (1827). [D]

Nock, Edward, Rushall St, Walsall, Staffs., joiner and cm (1813). Successor to Thomas Nock. [D]

Nock, Thomas, Rushall St, Walsall, Staffs., cm (1780). Succeeded by Edward Noble at this address. [D]

Nock, Thomas, High St, Stourbridge, Worcs., cm and u (1830). [D]

Nodding, Michael, 33 Banner St, Bunhill Row, London, cm (1829–39). In 1839 listed as cm and u. [D]

Noden, William, Sheep Mkt, Market Drayton, Salop, cm (1840). [D]

Nodes, John, London, upholder (1706) Free of the Upholders’ Co., 2 October 1706. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Nodes, Joseph, near the Market Pl., Huntingdon, cm, auctioneer and appraiser (1765–d. 1769). In December 1768 an app. Thomas Withnee absconded. In April of the following year Nodes announced that he had moved his premises from near the Market Pl. to the same side of the street opposite ‘The Queen's Head’. His death was noted in August 1769 and in April of the following year his shop was taken over by John Box, formerly of St Ives, Hunts. [Cambridge Chronicle, 26 October 1765, 12 September 1767, 14 November 1767, 3 December 1768, 15 April 1769, 12 August 1769, 5 April 1770]

Nodes, William, ‘The Crown’, Fleet Ditch, London (1696). On 5 November 1696 the 1st Earl of Bristol paid Nodes £6 for two looking-glasses. [Wills, Looking-Glasses]

Nodin, John, London, trunk and chest maker, cm and undertaker (1776–95). Initially the business traded as Nodin & Houlds (1777–83) with the main address at 1 Leadenhall St but with additional premises at Lower Thames St, 1776–77 and 20 Haymarket, St James's from 1779. The Haymarket premises in turn became the main trading address and remained so until 1793 after which only the Leadenhall St address was used. In this terminal period from 1789–95 the trade is listed as cm and upholder only. Samuel Nodin was associated with John in 1787. The insurance cover maintained by this business indicates that it was of substantial size. The Leadenhall St premises was the manufacturing base and the property connected with 126, later 127 Houndsditch, which was also in use as workshops in 1779–87. An additional house, used as a workshop and warehouse, near Aldgate St was referred to in 1779. The Haymarket property was described as a house and stables. This was covered for £2,200 in 1779 while in that year two substantial policies were taken out on the other properties and the utensils and stock used in the business, one for £5,700 and the other for £3,900. [D; GL, Sun vol. 274, pp. 387, 616; vol. 275, pp. 274–75; vol. 299, p. 383; vol. 306, p. 504; vol. 346, pp. 45, 494]

Noel, John, 225 High St, Hoxton, London, carver and gilder (1839). [D]

Noke, Thomas, Droitwich, Worcs., cm (1828). [D]

Nolden, Thomas, address unknown, u (c. 1730?). Name recorded on a chair in the Birmingham City Art Gallery Collection which bears a label inscribed ‘Thomas Nolden did this chair’. [V&A archives]

Noldret, —, Duke St, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, u (?) (1756). Maintained a warehouse in Duke St. [Public Advertiser, 21 December 1756]

Noller, —, address unknown, u (1762). Paid £20 11s in connection with the supply of ‘Mr Cary's bed’ in the Chevening, Kent accounts. [Kent RO, Stanhope MS, U590 A61/5]

Nook, Isaac, Dorchester, Dorset, joiner and cm (1760). In 1760 took app. named Bryer. [S of G, app. index]

Noon, —, London, u (1744). Lived in Enfield, Middlx. In January 1744 attacked between Stamford Hill and the Cross at Tottenham, London. [London Evening Post, 24–26 January 1744]

Noon, John, London, u (1793). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793.

Noon, Lancaster, Chelmsford, Essex, u (1730–55). Also had a son named Lancaster bapt. at Chelmsford, 27 March 1732. Took app. named Thwaites in 1730. Undertook work for Benjamin Mildmay, Earl Fitzwalter at Moulsham Hall, Chelmsford 1731–34. The total cost of work undertaken in this period was £77 13s 9d. On 4 December 1755 paid by Peter Du Cane of Braxted Park, Essex £3 7s ‘for papering my rooms’. [PR (bapt.); S of G, app. index; Essex RO, D/DDC A13, folio 59; A. C. Edwards, The Accounts of Benjamin Mildmay, Earl Fitzwalter, pp. 102–06]

Noon, William, Anderstaff Lane, Burton-on-Trent, Staffs., turner and chairmaker (1828–35). [D]

Noone, John, 54 Bunhill Rd, London, u (1808). [D]

Norborns, —, 153 High Holborn, London, carver and gilder (1802). His trade card [Banks Coll., BM] indicates that the business was a ‘General Repository’, and ‘Carving and gilding in the greatest taste’ was offered.

Norbury, John, Chester, cm (1784–1837). App. to George Johnson of Chester, cm, and free by servitude on 6 April 1784. At Newgate St, 1784–1812; St Werburgh St, 1818–19; and Crewe St, 1837. [Freemen rolls; poll bks]

Norbury, Richard, Chester, furniture broker and cm (1818–19). Free 18 May 1818 and living at St Werburgh St but in the following year at Northgate St. [Freemen rolls; poll bks]

Norcott, —, 17 Drury Ct, by the New Church in the Strand, carver and gilder (1802–27). [Heal]

Norcross, Thomas, Lancaster and Blackburn, Lancs., cm (1779–84). App. to J. Wright and free by servitude, 1779–80. Moved immediately to Blackburn. [Freemen rolls; app. reg.; Lancaster poll bk]

Nordin, Edward, 11 Roll's Building, Fetter Lane, London, cm (1808). [D]

Nordon, Jacob, 5 Little Charlotte St, Blackfriars, London, bedstead maker (1839). [D]

Norfor, James, Timber Hill, Norwich, cm and u (1822). [D]

Norman, Albert, Barnsley, Yorks., cm/u (1822–37). Probably born in Hull for his name appears in the app. register of that town when in January 1822 he was app. to William Rollett of Gainsborough, Lincs. In 1837 in Cock Yd, Barnsley. [D]

Norman, Charles, address unknown, cm (1803). Subscribed to Sheraton's Cabinet Dictionary, 1803.

Norman, Ebenzer, 1 Little Turner St, Commercial Rd, London, cm, broker and mattress maker (1821–39). In May 1821 took out insurance cover of £300 of which £180 was in respect of utensils and stock. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 487, ref. 980389]

Norman, George William, London, carver and gilder (1820–39). At 7 Stephen St, Tottenham Ct Rd in 1820; 21 Windmill St, Tottenham Ct Rd in 1826; and 22 Charlotte St, Fitzroy Sq. in 1839. A gilt torchère stand with a circular tray top on a baluster stem in a Queen Anne Style with a label from the 22 Charlotte St address has been noted. [D; Sotheby's, 13 July 1956, lot 204]

Norman, George, Market Pl., Richmond, Yorks., u (1840). [D]

Norman, Gordon, 16 Cranbourn St, Brighton, Sussex, cm and u (1839–40). [D]

Norman, Henry, 9 Ilford St, Liverpool, cm (1839). [D]

Norman, J., 7 Rathbone Pl., London, carver and gilder (1825). [D]

Norman, J., 12 Cannon St East, London, bedstead maker (1835). [D]

Norman, J., South Front, Kingsland Pl., Southampton, Hants, cm and chairmaker (1839). [D]

Norman, James, Frenchgate, Richmond, Yorks., cm and u (1823–40). In 1823 the business was trading as James Norman & Son but by 1827 as James Norman. The father had probably died or retired from the business between these two dates. In 1840 trading as Norman & Metcalfe, cm at Finkle St. [D]

Norman, James, Market Pl., Ripon, Yorks, joiner/cm and u (1837). [D]

Norman, John, 35 High St, Deritend, Birmingham, cm and u (1830). [D]

Norman, Joseph, London, carver and gilder (1802–08). In 1803–04 at 441 Strand but in 1808 at 14 Change Ct, Exeter Change. Edward Lascelles paid him £21 18s on 16 February 1802 for making frames for Harewood House, Hanover Sq. On 14 January 1805 a further £21 10s 6d was paid and £35 17s 9d followed on 21 June of this year ‘for frames, drawings etc.’. [D; Leeds archives dept, Harewood MS 190, 192]

Norman, Joseph, 13 Berkeley St, Clerkenwell, London, cm (1809). [D]

Norman, Matthew, Richmond, Yorks, cm (1814–40). At Market Pl. in 1823; Millgate, 1827 and 1840; and Castle Walk from 1828–34. Six mahogany side tables with fluted term legs and Greek key fret friezes at Aske Hall, Richmond, Yorks. bear the trade label of ‘M. Norman & Son, Cabinet Makers, RICHMOND’. [D]

Norman, Paul, St Owen St, Hereford, cm and u (1818–40). [D; poll bks]

Norman, Samuel, London, carver and gilder (1746–67). Samuel Norman was app. to Thomas Woodin, carver and gilder, from 1746–53 for a premium of £15 15s. [PRO, IR 1/17] He set up his own business shortly after the end of his apprenticeship. Working from King St, Soho, he took an app., John Haynes, in July 1754 for a premium of £30. [PRO, IR 1/ 20] There were conflicting opinions as to the health of his business in 1755 when he went into partnership with James Whittle; Norman claimed that he had stock and effects of ‘very Considerable Amount or Value’ whereas John Becuda, an executor of Whittle's estate, claimed that Norman ‘was engaged in some small Trade or Business as a Carver and Gilder upon a Slender Capital which he had borrowed … of one William Hallett his Uncle’. [Kirkham, 1969] Hallett, one of the leading furniture makers of the day, took a close interest in the welfare and career of his nephew. When the only son of his old friend James Whittle died in March 1755 Hallett wrote to ask permission for Norman to call on Whittle's daughter Ann with a view to marriage. Whilst Whittle and his son were engaged in the same business as Norman, Hallett had hesitated to suggest that the young couple might court but felt free to do so when Whittle was left without a partner and with his business in a state of ‘fateage’. Hallett told Whittle that he had ‘a great pleasure in his [Norman's] well doing’ and believed that Norman's character would ‘bare the thickest inquiery, which at this time a day is one great step towards makeing a married state Hapy.’ With regard to business, Hallett told Whittle that Norman was ‘capeable of taking great part of the burden from you and therby prolong your days.’ [PRO, C 112/194 Pt 11]
Ann Whittle and Samuel Norman were married on 24 April 1755, with Whittle borrowing Norman's £700 marriage token from Hallett. [Kirkham, 1969] At the same time Whittle and Norman became full partners. Their articles of co-partnership reflected the family links; Norman was guaranteed half of the stock and goods-in-trade of his father-in-law and a clause was inserted into the agreement whereby, if Norman's wife should have any child living at her father's death, then one half of Whittle's estate should pass to Samuel Norman. Thus, only two years after completing his apprenticeship, Samuel Norman was a full partner in an established carving and gilding firm. The work of the partnership, which ended only with Whittle's death on 10 January 1759, is detailed under Whittle & Norman.
Only thirteen days after Whittle died Norman's house, workshops, stock and records were destroyed by a fire from which Norman and his wife were fortunate to escape with their lives. [PRO, C12 1299/11] Norman set up in a large room over Exeter Exchange from whence he carried on business as best he could. In January 1760 he only insured his household goods and stock-in-trade at £350, plus £50 for plate and glass. [GL, Sun MS 1760, ref. 173411] In June 1760, however, he took over Paul Saunders's Royal Tapestry Manufactory in Sutton St, Soho, and increased his insurance on household goods and stock-in-trade to £1,100, plus £500 for china, plate and glass and £800 for stock in a yard. [GL, Sun MS 1760, ref. 176419] Norman bought Saunders's unwrought stock-in-trade valued at £1,270 19s 10d. He also came to an arrangement with Saunders whereby for one year Saunders was to have use of the tapestry room but all orders taken by him for furniture should be executed by Norman who would receive the profits less five per cent. Norman was allowed to use Saunders's stock and materials and in return supplied Saunders with goods at trade prices. Orders for funerals were to be executed by both men for one year and the profits divided equally. [See Kirkham, 1969, pp. 506–10 for schedules of stock in trade belonging to Saunders taken over by Norman, and PRO, C12 2060/2]
The business association with Saunders helped Norman through a difficult time. He set to work fulfilling orders which came from Saunders's former clients who now became his. Theresa Cornelys was one of them. In 1761 Norman built a concert room at her famous public assembly rooms, Carlisle House in Soho Sq. and Mme Cornelys hired furniture made by Norman to the value of £1,209 5s 6½d to adorn it and other rooms. [Kirkham, 1969]
The continued patronage of the Duke of Bedford, the Earl of Egremont and the Earl of Holderness helped Norman to recover after the fire. Norman rendered a bill for work done at Woburn Abbey in 1759, before Whittle's death, which included an ‘exceedingly large and grand oval frame with eagles’ at £97 10s and a ‘grand state bed’ which cost £52 13s for the frame and £123 9s 7d for the blue silk furnishings. In 1760 Norman supplied two large glass frames in burnished gold at £229, together with one plate glass measuring 76 × 44 ins for the Blue Drawing Room where they hang today. Two years later he supplied a frame for a portrait of the Duchess and in 1763 a frame for a portrait of the Duke. Goods and services were also supplied to Bedford House, London, in 1760–61 including a magnificent set of fourteen parcel-gilt Virginia walnut chairs, with two elbow chairs, an easy chair and a ‘Grand Sofa French shaped’ to match in silk damask at a total cost of £122 13s 7d. [Bedford Office, London]
In 1760 Paul Saunders and Thomas Woodin appraised the two large gilt frames and the plate glass, agreeing Norman's overall charge of £142 5s which included carriage and insurance. In the following year Charles Smith and Robert Hyde examined work done by Norman ‘consisting chiefly of some rich Fringes for the State Bed and Drapery Window Curtains’ and a large oval glass in a gilt frame. Smith informed the Duke and his fellow valuer that he found the materials and workmanship to be of the very best quality and the prices charged to be fair. Smith, however, discovered ‘an early, determined (and I'm sorry to say partial) resolution to take off £20 from the bill’ to which he reluctantly agreed on the basis that if he did not then somebody else would. Consequently the bill was reduced by £20 to £358 5s. [Bedford Office, London and Scott Thomson] Norman continued to sub-contract work out to William Long who had worked for Whittle and Norman. In 1760 Long charged £23 to carve and gild an oval glass frame which may have been one of those commissioned by the Duke of Bedford. [PRO, C 12 1287/20]
Norman's prices were undoubtedly high. Sir William Chambers commented that the cornice of one room alone at Buckingham House cost nearly £200 in the 1760s. [Beard, Georgian Craftsmen, p. 92] Sir Lawrence Dundas queried Norman's total bill of £2,700 for work at Moor Park, Aske Hall and Arlington St from 1763–66. The Assessors (Thomas Chippendale, George Bradshaw and William Mayhew for the furniture, and Richard Brown, Samuel Haworth and William Almond the carving and gilding) made a detailed schedule of the work and reduced the sum to £2,410 1s. [N. Yorks RO, ZNK X 1/7/15–16] Norman was paid by Adam in 1764 for gilding of the gallery at Moor Park. In 1763 Mrs James Harris informed her son, the 1st Earl of Malmesbury, that she had spent the whole morning with Norman, ‘partly at Whitehall and partly at his warehouse’ and gave what, for her family, were large orders though, as she pointed out, ‘not so great as those of Sir Lawrence Dundas’. [Letters of Earl of Malmesbury; GCM]
The Earl of Holderness made payments to Norman in 1760, 1763 and 1764 of £150, £231 10s and £17 17s respectively but it was not until 1768 that he paid the principal sum and interest on a bond for £250 given to Whittle ten years earlier. Although Norman held the bond, the Earl had refused to pay, claiming that the debt was due to Whittle alone. Norman, however, was a full partner in Whittle's firm at that date and, as such, entitled to his share of the profits. [BM, Egerton MS 3497] Norman also experienced difficulty in getting Sir Herbert Pakington to pay £500 on a draft which Norman had passed to Matthew Boulton who encashed it. [Birmingham City Ref. Lib., Boulton papers, Z, Walker Senior, Box 1–1, 10 December 1765]
In 1762 Norman was favoured with a royal appointment as ‘Master Carver in Wood’ to the office of Works and in 1763 was described as ‘Sculptor and Carver to their Majesties; and surveyor of the curious carvings in Windsor Castle. [PRO, LC5/105, and Mortimer's Universal Director, 1763, resp.] The Windsor Castle archives note a ‘Mr Norman’ paid £82 7s for a pair of gilt frames in 1764, and £75 17s for a pair in the following year. It is clear from this appointment and other commissions undertaken, that Norman's business had expanded considerably from the small beginnings after the 1759 fire. His insurance policies reflect this expansion. By March 1764 he insured household goods, utensils and wrought stock for £2,250, china and glass for £2,400 and utensils and unwrought stock for £200. [GL, Sun MS ref. 207192] At the same time he also insured a number of houses and shops, together with goods therein, which he rented out. [GL, Sun MS ref. 207374] Such evidence suggests that he was poised for a long and fruitful career. However, there is no known major work by him after 1766, and he went bankrupt in 1767. [PRO, B1/46]
Although he had managed to build up his firm after the 1759 fire, Norman did not come to any satisfactory agreement with those representing the interests of James Whittle's grandson and consequently became involved in lengthy legal wrangles. He also found himself in court with representatives of Paul Saunders, with the sub-contractor William Long, with Theresa Cornelys and probably also Lord Dundas. None of these disputes were settled when he went bankrupt. [Kirkham, 1969]
A magnificent bed made by Norman was bought by James Cullen at a sale sometime in 1767 or early 1768. Cullen informed the Earl of Hopetoun, for whom the bed had been purchased, that the woodwork of the bedstead had cost Norman about £80 and apologized because the bed had ‘suffered much by the curious examiners at the Sale’. The sale was probably one disposing of the bankrupt Norman's effects. Norman does not appear to have worked in any major way after his bankruptcy. [Kirkham, 1969] [GCM; Heal; DEF; Matthew Brettingham, The Plans, Elevations and Sections of Holkham House in Norfolk, 1761, p. 3; Hugh Phillips, Mid-Georgian London, 1964, p. 280; James Howard Harris (ed.), Letters of the First Earl of Malmesbury, 1745–1820, 1870, vol. 1, pp. 94–95; Rococo Art and Design in Hogarth's England (exhib. cat.) 1984, V & A, L49, L50, L51, M21; G. Scott Thomson, Family Background, 1949; The Survey of London, Soho III, The Parish of St Anne, Soho, 1966, p. 75; Geoffrey Beard, ‘William Kent and the Cabinet Makers’, Burlington, December 1975, p. 871; Geoffrey Beard, Georgian Craftsmen, 1966; Apollo, September 1967, pp. 191–97; Conn., November 1966, pp. 154–60; Apollo, February 1964, pp. 122–28; C. Life, February 1980, pp. 427–31; Apollo, May 1977, pp. 361–62; C. Life, 25 September 1980, pp. 1031–32; C. Life, 14 June 1984, pp. 1698–1700; Pat Kirkham, ‘Samuel Norman: a study of an eighteenth century craftsman’, Burlington, August 1969, pp. 503–13]
1760–61. For patrons who ordered work from Paul Saunders which was handed over to Samuel Norman see Kirkham, 1969, Appendix II. They include Lord Sondes, Sir Orlando Bridgeman, the Duke of Cumberland, Lord Irwin, Lord Scarbrough, Lord Lyttelton, George Pitt Esq., and Sir John Delaval.
CARLISLE HOUSE, London (Theresa Cornelys). 1760–61: Norman executed work she had ordered from Saunders. 1761: Norman supplied furniture including a papier mâché pier frame with a glass (36” × 21”) and another with a glass 35” × 21½”). He also supplied girandoles — one with a richly carved bird, one with ‘Boys heads’, a small one with birds and a large one ‘with Sheep in China Taste’. [Kirkham, 1969]
WOBURN ABBEY, Beds. (Duke of Bedford). 1760–63: (the work is detailed in bills at the Bedford Office, London, see also G. Scott-Thomson).
MOOR PARK, Herts., ASKE HALL, Yorks., 19 ARLINGTON ST, London (Sir Lawrence Dundas). 1763–66: detailed schedule of work. [N. Yorks. RO, ZNK x 1/7/15–16] A chest of drawers from Aske Hall is in the Lady Lever Coll. [C. Life, 24 January 1980, p. 258] 1763: Mrs Harris ordered furniture from Norman. [Malmesbury Letters and C. Life, 24 September 1921] 1760–64: (Earl of Holderness) furniture supplied. Payments until 1768. [BM, Egerton MS 3497]
WINDSOR CASTLE, Berks. (Royal Household). 1762: appointed ‘Master Carver in Wood’. 1764–65: frames supplied for Windsor Castle.
BUCKINGHAM HOUSE (Royal Household), n.d. Gilding for cornice (Sir William Chambers). October 1771. reference to work done earlier by Norman. [Beard, Georgian Craftsmen, p. 92 and J. Harris, Sir William Chambers, pp. 217–18]
CHEVENING, Kent (Earl of Stanhope). 1764: 2 gilt frames with glasses — 5 gns ‘for my two childrens crayon pictures’. [Stanhope papers, Kent RO, U1590 A61/5]
WESTWOOD, Worcs. (Sir Herbert Pakington), n.d. Norman passed draft given him by Pakington to Boulton. [Boulton papers, Birmingham City Ref. Lib., archive dept, Z Walker Senior, Box 1–1, 10 December 1765]
1775 (James Cullen). Painting and gilding work for Cullen at house in Arlington St, Piccadilly, London. £26–16s–10½d. [Kirkham, 1969, p. 504] See James Whittle. P.K.

Norman, Simon, Charlotte St, Gt Yarmouth, Norfolk, cm and u (1830–40). [D; poll bks]

Norman, Thomas, Burnham Market, Norfolk, cm (1822–39). In 1822 described as a ‘cabinet & chair maker, joiner, machine maker’ and in 1839 as a ‘cabinet-maker & bell hanger’. [D]

Norman, Thomas, Blackfriars St, Carlisle, Cumb., joiner/cm (1828–29).

Norman, Thomas, Little Turner St, Commercial Rd, London, cm (1835). [D]

Norman, William, London, upholder (1708). Free of the Upholders’ Co., 5 May 1708. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Norman, William, London, cm (1760). Probably a partner and relative of Samuel Norman. An invoice for two large frames for glasses for Woburn Abbey, Beds. was issued in 1760 by William Norman, but the receipt was signed by Samuel Norman. [DEF; C. Life, 14 February 1980]

Norman, William, London, chair and cabinet maker (1812–22). At 63 St John's St, 1812–13, but at 15 Ratcliffe Pl., City Rd, 1814–22. [D]

Norman, William, Market St, Burnham Market, Norfolk, cm (1839).

Normansell, James, 135 Deansgate, Manchester, u (1829). [D]

Normansell, Robert, 154 Long Mill, Manchester, cm, auctioneer and appraiser (1797–1802). [D]

Normansell & Wilson, 46 High St, Manchester, cm (1794). [D]

Norns (possibly Norris), Edward, London, cm (1778). Journeyman cm working for Mr Seddon in Aldersgate St. [GL, P83/ MR YI/868/45]

Norris, —, 23 Tottenham St, Mddlx Hospital, cm, chairmaker and u (1781). His trade card [Banks Coll., BM] shows engravings of chairs, a demi-lune table, and a secretaire.

Norris, Edward, Manchester, cm, u and appraiser (1794–1802). In 1794 at 56 Market St Lane but from 1897–1802 at Back of 26 Market St Lane. Bankruptcy announced May 1794. [D; Williamson's Liverpool Advertiser, 19 May 1794, 27 February 1797]

Norris, Elizabeth, 8 Wilmot Sq., Bethnal Green, London, cm and u (1839). [D]

Norris, Frederick Augustus, Peterborough, Northants., cm and chairmaker (1801). In May 1801 took out insurance cover of £400. [GL, Sun MS vol. 40, ref. 717981]

Norris, George, St Mary, Blandford, Dorset, chairmaker (1840). [D]

Norris, Henry, 55 High Holborn, London, u (1820). See John Norris at this address, 1802–35. [D]

Norris, J., address unknown, cm (1793). Subscribed to Sheraton's Drawing Book, 1793.

Norris, James, parish of St Peter Hungate, Norwich, cm (1826– 30). Son of John Norris, cm. Free 3 June 1826. [Freemen reg.]

Norris, John, Long Acre, London, joiner and frame maker (1669–1702). Samuel Pepys in his diary records a visit to Norris at Long Acre ‘who showed me several forms of frames to choose by; which was pretty’. Supplied two picture frames for Hatfield House, Herts. in 1687 at a cost of £7 10s. On 16 April 1689 appointed Joiner to the Privy Council and thereafter worked on a number of commissions for the Crown. In the period 1693–95 supplied several ebony and pearwood frames to the Royal Household and early in 1696 a gilt frame for ‘Her Majesty's picture at length’. In 1702 paid £428 10s in respect of work undertaken and goods supplied to household of the late King, William III. [Heal; Hatfield House MS, 145/4; V&A archives; Worcs. RO, 2252/705: 366/2, 2252/705: 366/6(iii)]

Norris, John, parish of St Peter Hungate, Norwich, cm (1761– 67). Father of James Norris, cm who was made free 25 May 1771. [Poll bk; freemen reg.]

Norris, John, 20 Market St Lane, Manchester, cm (1772–88). Supplied furniture to George Cooke at Dunham Massey, Cheshire, 1773–88. On 27 October 1773 £14 14s was paid for mahogany furniture and on 19 June 1775 £5 15s 6d for two chests of drawers. A close stool paid for on 11 February 1786 cost £1 4s and a bureau was paid for on 8 July 1788 costing £5 18s. [D; John Rylands Lib., Manchester Univ., George Cooke's accounts]

Norris, John snr, Norwich, cm (1793–d. 1840). Son of Thomas Norris, cm, and free 7 December 1793. At All Saints Green in 1810 and Elm Hill from 1830. His five sons were all made freemen of Norwich between 1815–33. Four of these, Samuel (free 26 October 1815), John jnr (free 20 June 1818), Thomas (free 20 June 1818) and James (free 3 June 1826) were cm, the remaining son William (free 22 June 1833) being a tailor. Took as apps Leonard Hicks (free 24 February 1818) and Samuel Scott (free 24 February 1828). John Norris snr's will was proved at Norwich in 1840. [D; poll bks; freemen reg.; Norfolk Record Soc., index of wills]

Norris, John, Fakenham, Norfolk, cm (1796). Freeman of Norwich. [Norwich poll bk]

Norris, John, Richmond, Surrey, japanner and chairmaker (1798). [D]

Norris, John, 55 High Holborn, London, upholder (1794–1835). Son of Thomas Norris, freeman and member of the London Upholders’ Co. Brother to Thomas Heaton Norris. App. to his father on 2 July 1794 and free by servitude 7 July 1802. Listed by Sheraton in his Cabinet Dictionary, 1803 as a master cm. From 1806 shown in partnership with his father and trading as Thomas & John Norris. From 1812 in sole control. In the period 1812 to 1825 the business was described as a carpet and upholstery warehouse but from 1826 the trade was stated as u. The enterprise was conducted on a considerable scale and in June 1820 insurance cover amounted to £3,350. This was all in respect of stock with the exception of a small amount for household goods. One warehouse alone contained goods valued at £2,000 and several properties were involved, including one at 26 Lambs Conduit St. A Henry Norris is shown in 1820 in one directory at the Holborn address. [D; Heal; GL, Upholders’ Co. records; Sun MS vol. 487, ref. 968664]

Norris, John, 66 Mortimer St, Cavendish Sq., London, cm and chairmaker (1803–12). [D]

Norris, John, 36 Brick Lane, Spitalfields, London, cm and broker of household goods (1804). In May 1804 took out insurance cover of £1,000 which included £400 for his dwelling house and warehouse and £379 for utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS vol. 430, ref. 762610]

Norris, John Frederick, George St, Richmond, Surrey, cm and u (1808–32). [D]

Norris, John jnr, Norwich and London, cm (1818). Son of John Norris snr and free, 20 June 1818. Appears to have settled in London in this year. [Freemen reg.; poll bk]

Norris, Joseph, Gloucester, cm (1821–26). Children bapt. at St Aldgate's Church in 1821 and 1826. [PR (bapt.)]

Norris, Marmaduke William, 14 John St, Oxford Mkt, London, cm (1790). On 31 December 1790 took out insurance cover of £300 of which half was in respect of utensils and stock. [GL, Sun MS ref. 578318]

Norris, Paul, parish of St Peter Hungate, Norwich, cm (1784). [Poll bk]

Norris, Richard, 9 Back St, Horslydown, London, cm (1808). [D]

Norris, Robert, Liverpool, cm (1745–60). Free 2 August 1745. Took apps named Brockbank in 1751, Howard in 1754, Patrick in 1756 and Hunter in 1760. Dead by 1780. [Freemen reg.; S of G, app. index]

Norris, Robert, 6 Red Lion Ct, Fetter Lane, London, cm (1808) [D]

Norris, Robert, 30 Chandos St, Covent Gdn, London, cm and u (1827). [D]

Norris, Samuel, parish of St Clement, Norwich, cm and chairmaker (1771–1806). Son of John Norris, cm and free 25 May 1771. [D; freemen reg.; poll bks]

Norris, Samuel, Norwich, cm (1815–30). Eldest son of John Norris snr. Free 26 October 1815. Initially lived in the parish of St Peter Hungate but in July 1830 was in the parish of St George, Tombland. [Freemen reg.; poll bks]

Norris, Thomas snr, Norwich, cm (1763–1906). Son of John Norris, joiner and free 26 November 1763. Had three sons, Thomas jnr (free 29 July 1786), Samuel Taylor (free 22 November 1788) and John (free 7 December 1793). In 1768 in the parish of All Saints but moved and was living in St Ethelred, 1780–84; St Julian in 1786; St Peter per Mounterbank 1794; and St Ethelred again from 1802. [Freemen reg.; poll bks]

Norris, Thomas jnr, Norwich, King's Lynn, Norfolk and London, cm (1786–1830). Eldest son of Thomas Norris snr and free 29 July 1786. In the parish of St Peter per Mounterbank 1794 and from 1802 was living in the parish of St Ethelred. Took as app. Edward Wood who was made free 21 September 1807. By 1818 had moved to King's Lynn and by July 1830 was in London. [Freemen reg.; Norwich poll bks]

Norris, Thomas, 55 High Holborn, London, upholder (1770–1811). Son of Robert Norris of Heaton Norris, Lancs., Gent. Father of Thomas Heaton Norris and John Norris both of whom were upholders. Thomas Norris was admitted a freeman of the Upholders’ Co. under the terms of the 1750 Upholders’ Act, 5 December 1770. He immediately set up business at 55 High Holborn as a ‘Bedding, Carpet & Upholstery Warehouse’ no doubt aiming at an extensive demand from the middle class for ready-made goods. He probably had manufacturing facilities for he took as apps William Shuffrey, 1779–83, and his sons Thomas Heaton Norris, 1793–1802, and John Norris, 1794–1802. John Norris played an active role in the business after 1802 and by 1806 it was trading as Thomas & John Norris and from 1812 he appears to have been in sole control. Of Thomas Heaton nothing is known after 1802. The business of Thomas Norris was conducted on an extensive scale from its commencement. Already by 1779 utensils and stock were valued for insurance at £1,000 and this was to increase to £6,000 by 1791. As the firm was not seeking to produce individually designed items for the wealthy, little information about individual patrons is known. On 21 May 1787 however Lord Monson paid £36 10s 6d for a 25 ft by 18 ft 3 in Turkey carpet. [D: GL, Upholders’ Co. records; Sun MS vol. 276, p. 547; vol. 377, p. 47; Lincoln RO, Monson 10/1/ A/6]

Norris, Thomas Heaton, 55 High Holborn, London, upholder (1793–1802). Eldest son of Thomas Norris and brother to John Norris. App. to his father on 3 July 1793 and free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 7 July 1802. There is no evidence however that he took an active part in his father's business and it was his younger brother John who became a partner with his father and later took over the enterprise. [GL, Upholders’ Co. Records]

Norris, Thomas, 71 Pitt St, Liverpool, cm (1790). [D]

Norris, Thomas, 1 Merritts Building, Bishopsgate Without, London, bed cornice and Venetian blind manufacturer (1808). [D]

Norris, Thomas, Norwich, cm (1818). Son of John Norris snr, cm and free 20 June 1818. [Freemen reg.]

Norris, Thomas, Liverpool, cm (1818–d. 1829). Free 11 June 1818 and died on 21 October 1829. [Freeman reg.]

Norris, Thompson, address unknown, frame maker (c. 1691). About 1691 the sum of £5 5s was paid to Norris by the executors of the estate of Sir Peter Lely to whom he had supplied gilt and ebony frames. Norris also supplied the Beales with frames. [Burlington, November 1978, pp. 748–49]

Norris, W., Southwark, London, cm (1806–07). Freeman of Rochester, Kent. [Rochester poll bks]

Norris, William, 4 Coventry St, London, upholstery warehouse (1783). [Heal]

Norris, William, 16 John St, Oxford Mkt, London, upholder (1790–93). On 26 April 1792 he was paid 11s 6d for a deal table and lamp supplied for use at Harewood House, Hanover Sq., the London home of Edward, 1st Earl of Harewood. [D; Leeds archives dept, Harewood MS 212]

Norris, William, Norwich, cm and chairmaker (1807–40). At St Andrews, 1807–22, Orford Hill in 1830 and Maddermarket 1839. Took as apps Nathaniel Partridge (free 7 December 1818), John Holmes (free 24 February 1818) and Stephen Goodman (free 16 March 1820). His sons William Norris jnr a cm, and Samuel Gurbey Norris, a tailor, were free 14 July 1824 and 25 August 1832 respectively. [D; poll bks; freemen reg.]

Norris, William, 66 Princes St, Leicester Sq., London, bed and mattress maker (1827). [D]

Norsworthy, William, Shaldon, Devon, cm and u (1830). [D]

North, Francis, Hull and Louth, Lincs., cm (1747–84). Freeman of Hull but had already left and was living in Louth by 1747 and was to continue to live there. In 1754 took app. named Arlis. [Hull poll bks; S of G, app. index]

North, James, 10 Marsden's Ct, Manchester, chairmaker (1814–16). [D]

North, James, East St, Southampton, Hants, cm (1823). [D]

North, John, Thorganby-cum-Cottingworth, Yorks., cm (1823). [D]

North, Joseph, Manchester, chairmaker (1813–25). At 82 Shudehill in 1813 and 414 St George's Rd in 1825. [D]

North, Robert snr, London, upholder (1710–d. 1748). Free of the Upholders’ Co., 4 October 1710. Father of Robert North jnr who he took as app., 1723–24. Also took as apps John Fitchett (1710–18), William Fitchett (app. in 1713), John Deare (1716–24), Philip Box (1720–30) and Edward Lane (1733–49(?)). In 1724 trading from Bartholomew Close, but from 1735–48 at Red Lion St, Holborn. Undertook commissions for Paul Foley of the Temple and Little Ormond St, London, and Newport House, Almeley, Herefs., 1726–33. Over this period a total of £91 9s 11d was expended mainly on upholstery materials, bedding and labour charges for repairs and alterations. Another patron was Alderman Richard Hoare who employed North, 1733–48, for the supply of beds, bedding, upholstery materials and other work at his house at Barn Elms, Barnes, London. A total of well over £300 was expended during this period. The ‘North’ who was paid £21 for two japan cabinets supplied to Holkham Hall, Norfolk in 1741 may have been this maker. A Robert North was listed as bankrupt in February 1745, his address being given as ‘St. James's, Westminster’, and may be this maker. Died in 1748 when an account of Richard Hoare settled in that year was receipted on behalf of Robert North's executors. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records; Heal: Herefs. RO, Foley MS F/A III/55; V&A Lib., 86.NN.3; Gents Mag., February 1745; V&A archives]

North, Robert jnr, London, upholder (1731–48). Son of Robert North snr and app. to his father 14 June 1723. He was however transferred to John Spicer 19 June 1724 and made free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude 2 June 1731. On completion of his apprenticeship he appears to have joined his father's business and on 21 July 1731 signed a receipt on the behalf of ‘my Father & self’. No further reference to him after this date, has however been located, and his role in the business is therefore unclear. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records; Herefs. RO, Foley MS F/A III/55]

North, William, 18 Bow St, Sheffield, Yorks., cm (1837). [D]

Northcote, Ann, 4 Bridge St, Bristol, cm and u (1834–40). Successor to Richard Northcote at this address. [D]

Northcote, John, Castle St, Long Acre, London, upholder (1718). [GL, Sun MS vol. 7, 17 January 1718]

Northcote, Richard, 4 Bridge St, Bristol, cm and u (1828–33). Succeeded by Ann Northcote at this address. [D]

Northcote, William, Dartmouth, Devon, cm, u and innkeeper (1786). In November 1786 announced that he had opened ‘The Globe Inn’, Dartmouth but intended to continue with his business as a cm and u. [Exeter Flying Post, 9 November 1786]

Northend, John, Northowram, near Halifax, Yorks., joiner and cm (1822). [D]

Northend, Joseph, Stone Chair, Shelf, Rishworth, Yorks., joiner and cm (1837). [D]

Northern, J., St Martin's at Palace, Norwich, cm and u (1822). [D]

Northouse, Joseph, York and Leeds, upholder (1755–69). Son of John Northouse, flaxdresser of Leeds. App. to George Reynoldson of York, u, on 5 November 1755. Returned to Leeds after training and set up in business. The stock in trade of this enterprise was sold by auction in 1769. Amongst the items offered were a ‘Variety of Paper-hangings, upwards of forty Feather-beds, great choice of Carpets, etc.’. He also sought to sell ‘the utensils for grinding, polishing and silvering glass’ and several hundred mirror frames, some being in papier mâché. [York app. reg.; Leeds Mercury, no. 148]

Norton, Alexander, 14 Bulstrode St, Manchester Sq., London, u and cm (1822–37). Insurance records suggest that the business was of substantial dimensions. In 1822, out of a total cover of £1,200, workshops were insured for £300 and stock and utensils here and in his house were covered for £700. By the following year this latter figure had been raised to £1,000. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 493, refs 991156, 995077; vol. 498, ref. 1010032; vol. 499, ref. 1010791]

Norton, Ann, 11 Carnaby St, Golden Sq., London, chair and sofa maker (1835–39). W. Norton was trading from this address in the same trade in 1826. [D]

Norton, Benjamin, 4 Back Hill, Hatton Gdn, London, cm (1808). [D]

Norton, Charles, Salisbury, Wilts., cm and u (1801–39). Recorded at Catherine St in January 1801 when he took out insurance cover of £400 which included £300 on stock and utensils in his new dwelling house and shop which communicated with it and £50 on such items in a workshop. Listed at Market Pl. in 1822 and New St in 1839. Trading also as an auctioneer in 1808. [D; GL Sun MS vol. 37, ref. 713396]

Norton, Daniel & Godbold, Francis, Uxbridge, Middlx, u and cm (1777). In 1777 insured their utensils and stock for £300. [GL, Sun MS vol. 258, p. 378]

Norton, Edmund, Earl's (or Early) Ct, Drury Lane, London, upholder (1708–12). Mentioned in November 1709 as a contact for enquiries about a house belonging to the Duchess of Cleveland at Chiswick, London, which was advertised for rental. [The Post Man, 8 November 1709, GL, Sun MS vol. 2, p. 9]

Norton, Edmund, London, upholder (1716). App. to Thomas Turner a member of the Bricklayer & Tiler's Co., c. 1690, and admitted a freeman of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 7 November 1716. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Norton, George, Digbeth, Birmingham, chairmaker (1818). [D]

Norton, George, top of Mill Hill, Leeds, Yorks., cm (1822). [D]

Norton, H., High St, Wisbech, Cambs., cm and u (b. 1774–d. 1814). In April 1807 announced that he was taking over the shop of S. Clayton, auctioneer. Died in August 1814 aged 40. [Cambridge Chronicle, 25 April 1807, 2 September 1814]

Norton, Hugh, King's Lynn, Norfolk, cm (1806). Freeman of Lincoln but living in King's Lynn, November 1806. [Lincoln poll bk]

Norton, J., 10 Workhouse Croft, Sheffield, Yorks., cm (1833).

Norton, John, parish of St Michael at Thorn, Norwich, cm (1830). [Poll bk]

Norton, John, Hatfield, near Doncaster, Yorks., joiner and cm (1834). [D]

Norton, John, Thorne, Yorks., joiner/cm (1834). [D]

Norton, John, Addington Pl., Ramsgate, Kent, cm (1838). [D]

Norton, Matthew, Norwich Rd, East Dereham, Norfolk, cm (1839). [D]

Norton, Richard, ‘The Golden Anchor’, corner of Stonecutter St, Fleet Ditch, London, u (1727). Insured household goods and stock in his dwelling house for £500 in April 1727. [GL, Sun MS vol. 24, ref. 41519]

Norton, Robert, Norwich, cm (1815). Free 3 May 1815. [Freemen rolls]

Norton, W., 11 Carnaby St, Carnaby Mkt, London, chairmaker (1826). Ann Norton was trading from this address in the same trade in 1835–39. [D]

Norton, William, ‘The Lyon & Lamb’, by Fleet Ditch, London, u (1712–27). Names in a newspaper of 1712. In 1716 fined for refusing to take parochial office, parish of St Bride's, Fleet St but in 1722 was Questman. In October 1727 insured his household goods and stock in his dwelling house for £500. Recorded in the Chicheley Hall, Bucks. accounts in 1722 in connection with ‘making a blue bed’. [Heal; GL, MS 6561, p. 8; Sun MS vol. 25, ref. 42681; V&A archives]

Norton, William, Fleet Mkt, London, u (1753). [D]

Norton, William, 4 Coventry St, Piccadilly, London, upholder (1777–82). In 1777 in partnership with a Philip Abbott. The enterprise was of some size at this date, for out of a total insurance cover of £1,000, utensils and stock accounted for £900. By 1780 however Norton appears to have been trading on his own account, and in November 1782 his bankruptcy was announced. [D; GL, Sun MS vol. 261, p. 207; Sussex Weekly Advertiser, 11 November 1782]

Norton & Shuttleworth, Mill Hill, Leeds, Yorks., cm (1817–18). The address of this partnership would suggest a relationship with George Norton who was trading in this street in 1822. [D]

Norvell, John, Bristol, cm (1781). [Poll bk]

Nosotti, Charles Andrea, 2 Dean St, Soho, London, carver and gilder, u and cm (1835–40). [D]

Nosotti, Francis, 298 Oxford St, London, looking-glass and picture frame maker (1829). [D]

Nosworthy, William, Somerset Pl., Teignmouth, Devon, cm and u (1838). [D]

Notbone, —, 20 Queen's Row, Hoxton, London, cm (1809). [D]

Notley, William, Norwich, u (1760–79). App. to James Harrison but subsequently assigned to Paul Columbine. Free by servitude, 3 May 1760. In 1768 living in the parish of St Peter Mancroft, and as in 1779 his address was Market Pl. he may well have conducted his business from the same premises or at least in the same district throughout. In 1760 took app. named Carter and in 1761, Goddard. Announced his retirement from the trade in October 1779, and offered his stock of ‘Paper-Hangings of the newest Patterns, Carpets of all Sorts, and all other Kind of Upholstery Goods’ at low prices. [Freemen reg.; poll bk; S of G, app. index; Norfolk Chronicle, 2 October 1779]

Nott, James, 1 Phoenix St, Soho, London, painter and japanner (1826). [D]

Nott, Robert, London, u(?) (1688–89). The Royal Wardrobe accounts for 1688 record a payment of £11 3s 4d for tapestry repairs to a hanging of Diana & Actaeon. In the following year £35 was paid for Coronation robes. [PRO, LC9/123, p. 67]

Nottingham, John, London, joiner (1743–54). App. to John Ravenhill of the Joiners’ Co. in 1742 and free of this company by servitude, 6 February 1749. Subscribed to Chippendale's Director, 1754, suggesting an interest in furniture making. [GL, Joiners’ Co. records, freemen reg.]

Nottingham, John, Redcliffe Hill, Bristol, carver and gilder (1821–29). At 10 Redcliffe Hill, 1821–24 and at 43, 1827– 29. [D]

Nottingham, John, 11 Colonnade, Cheltenham, Glos., carver and gilder (1839). [D]

Nowell, John, parish of St James, Bristol, cm (1784). [Poll bk]

Nowell, John, Lowergate, Clitheroe, Lancs., joiner, cm and house builder, etc. (1824). [D]

Nowland, Martin, 78 Dale St, Liverpool, feather bed manufacturer (1827). [D]

Nowland, Mrs Mary Anne, 25 Basnett St and Dale St, Liverpool, feather dresser and feather bed maker (1826–30). In April 1826 announced that in addition to her existing business premises in Basnett St she had opened a branch in Dale St. An advertisement of March 1827 fails to mention the Dale St establishment and it had probably closed after a short period. Her stock consisted of an assortment of ‘feather beds, hair, silk, wool & cotton mattresses, sea beds, church chair & sofa cushions, pallases etc.’. Her bankruptcy was announced in July 1830. [D; Liverpool Mercury, 14 April 1826, 2 March 1827, 16 July 1830]

Nowle, Peter, London, cm and broker (1753). In May 1753 the sale by auction was announced of ‘the remaining part of the Goods left undeclared’ of Peter Nowle. The sale was conducted by S. Guilliford at the ‘Two Blue Posts’ in Holborn near Gray's Inn. [Public Advertiser, 26 May 1753]

Nowtier, Isaac, London, upholder (1712). Free of the Upholders’ Co., 3 December 1812. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Noyes, Benjamin, Shire Lane, London, u (1749). [Westminster poll bk]

Noyes, Edward, London, upholder (1723). Son of Edward Noyes of Marlborough, Wilts. a chirurgeon. App. to William Brathwaite on 2 December 1713 and free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude, 15 January 1722/23. [GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Noyes, Edward, snr & jnr, Chester, carvers and gilders (1814– 40). At City Walls, Eastgate in 1814 and Northgate St Row in 1816, also as picture dealer; but by 1818 had moved to Bridge St and in 1822 listed again at Northgate St Row. Employed at Erddig, Clwyd, N. Wales, 1818–20, repairing frames and cleaning and varnishing paintings, for which £24 was charged. In 1828 the business changed to a partnership trading as Dawes & Noyes from premises near the Feathers Inn in Bridge St Row. The wife of Edward Noyes snr died on 12 April 1829. His son Edward was free 1831 but on 29 September of the year previously had married at St Michael's Church Mary Kelly whose father was a marble mason. By February 1831 Edward Noyes jnr appears to have been in control of the business which was trading under the style E. Noyes jnr & Co. The address used was that previously recorded for Dawes & Noyes. Edward Noyes jnr claimed to manufacture ‘all kinds of Modern and Antique PORTRAIT FRAMES, CHIMNEY AND PIER GLASSES made to order in the most fashionable style’. He also offered ‘Antique and Modern Carving, Gold Mouldings for bordering rooms’ and ‘a large assortment of Portrait Frames, Chimney, Pier Mahogany, Cheval and Box Dressing Glasses’. Pictures were cleaned and upholsterers supplied. The business was still in Bridge St Row in 1840. [D; V&A archives; freemen rolls; Chester Chronicle, 17 April 1829, 28 August 1829, 1 May 1840; Chester Courant, 5 October 1830, 8 February 1831, 1 October 1833]

Noyes, Henry, Calverley Rd, Tunbridge Wells, Kent, cm and u (1832–39). [D]

Noyes, William, Cannon St, London, upholder (1761–1808). Son of John Noyes a Hampshire farmer. App. to Richard Farmer on 1 November 1753 and also on the same date to two members of the Drapers’ Co., Edward Wright and Thomas Brown. Free of the Upholders’ Co. by servitude on 2 July 1761 and by 1763 trading from Nicholas Lane, Cannon St. In 1772 living in Gt East Cheap. By 1782 at 61 Cannon St, an address which he continued to use until 1808. Included by Thomas Sheraton in the list of master cabinet makers in the Cabinet Dictionary, 1803. [D; Heal; GL, Upholders’ Co. records]

Nuckridge, William, Hosier Lane, West Smithfield, London, carver and sign maker. His 18th-century trade card [Landauer Coll., MMA, NY] states that he made ‘all Sorts of Signs, in Elm or Mahogany, Plain or Carved, Likewise Bacchus's Bunches of Grapes & all Manner of CarV&Apos;d Work’.

Nugent, J., 7 Corporation Row, Clerkenwell, London, cm (1808). [D]

Nunn, Samuel, Bridge St, Homerton, London, cm, u and undertaker (1839). [D]

Nunn, William, Church St, Hackney, London, picture frame and looking-glass maker (1838). [D]

Nurse, Henry, 10 Old Cavendish St, London, carver and gilder (1835–37). [D]

Nurse, Robert, Old Post Office Yd, Gentleman's Walk, Norwich, carver and gilder (1836–40). [D]

Nutcher, John, Arundel, Sussex, cm (1760). Surety for the marriage of John Ford of Arundel, clockmaker, on 26 August 1760.

Nutsford, George, Queen St, Whitehaven, Cumb., joiner/cm (1811–34). [D]

Nutsford & Ismay, Duke St, Whitehaven, Cumb., joiners/cm (1811). [D]

Nutt, Thomas, Victoria St, Bridgwater, Som., cm (1840). [D]

Nuttall, James, Bury, Lancs., cm, joiner and u (1793–1828). At 37 Union Sq. and Millgate in 1824 but earlier directory references indicate a Union Sq. address only. Trading as James Nuttall & Sons, 1824–28 and by 1828 at Fleet St. [D]

Nuttall, James, Manchester (1797–1817). At 31 Wood St in 1797 but by 1804 the number had changed to 35. In 1808 at 13 Back Irwell St; in 1813 at 36 Wood St; and in 1817 at 28 Back Bridge St. [D]

Nuttall, James, Blackwater St, Rochdale, Lancs., cm and joiner (1814–22). [D]

Nuttall, John, Cannon St, Manchester, cm (1781). [D]

Nuttall, Richard, Cock Gates, Manchester, cm and u (1838–39). [D]

Nuttall, Thomas, Ormskirk, Lancs., cm (1822–34). Listed at Burscough St, 1825–34. A chest with a handwritten label ‘THOMAS NUTTALL Cabinet-maker Ormskirk’ is known. [D]

Nutter, Joseph, Bradford, Yorks., cm (1820–40). Born at Pellon near Halifax, Yorks. in 1799 and said to have been app. to his relative Matthew Nutter whose workshop was in Westgate, Bradford. Established his own business in the town c. 1820 and is shown at 37 Darley St in 1830 and 3 North Parade, 1828–40. In 1830 took Christopher Pratt as app. Nutter used labels to mark his furniture, and a set of rosewood quartetto tables, one of which has a chess board, and another a reading stand which folds inside the top, is known. [D; Temple Newsam House, Leeds, Exhib. Cat., Victorian and Edwardian Furniture by Pratts of Bradford, 1970; Furn. Hist., 1971]

Nutter, Matthew, Westgate, Bradford, Yorks., joiner and cm (1818–30). In 1830 the number in Westgate was 10. [D]

Nutter, Thomas, Pound Hill, Cambridge, chairmaker (1763–d. 1765). First recorded on 19 April 1763 when it was agreed by the Corporation that Nutter could sink a saw pit on the Pound Hill. He had probably been in business in the town well before this however for when he died in August 1765 he was described as ‘an eminent and wealthy chairmaker of this town’ and was aged 79. In November 1764 advertised for two journeymen chairmakers. [Cambs. RO, Corp. day bk; Cambridge Chronicle, 17 November 1764, 13 August 1765]

Nutting, William, 5 Hoxton Fields, London, cm (1820). [D]

Nye, —, Ship St, Brighton, Sussex, u (1805). [D]

Nye, Carter, Maidstone, Kent, cm (1796). Freeman of Canterbury. [Canterbury poll bk]

Nye, Edmund, The Parade, Tunbridge Wells, Tunbridge-ware manufacturer (1818–40). Son of James Nye and partner to William Fenner 1810–17. Then traded independently from premises on the Parade (the Pantiles). An additional address nearby in the Market Pl. was added in 1823. His reputation was such that in 1826 he was one of the manufacturers selected to ballot for the honour of producing a work and writing table for presentation to the Princess Victoria by the inhabitants of Tunbridge Wells. Patronized by the Duchess of Kent in 1826. Used prints to decorate his early wares and one of the Parade is known dated 1827. Maintained a retail outlet at 10 Castle St, Hastings, Sussex 1826–35 and a Hastings print is known with a Nye imprint. A number of different types of printed label were used by Nye to identify his productions but all appear to be used post 1840. About 1836 Edmund Nye took into his employ Thomas Barton who later became his foreman, chief designer and successor. [D; Kent RO, U785/T10] B.A.

Nye, George, Gabriel's Hill, Maidstone, Kent, cm (1834–39). [D]

Nye, Henry, Grosvenor Rd, Tunbridge Wells, Kent, Tunbridgeware manufacturer and fancy repository (1839–40). [D]

Nye, Isaac, Brighton, Sussex, cm and u (1826–40). At Ship St Ct in 1826; Upper Bedford St in 1828; Silwood St, 1833–36; and Rock St, 1838–40. Five daughters and two sons bapt., 1828– 40. [D; PR (bapt.)]

Nye, John, Tonbridge, Kent, Tunbridge-ware manufacturer (1803–34). [D]

Nye, Robert, Ashford, Kent, cm (1790–96). Freeman of Canterbury. [Canterbury poll bks]

Nye, William, 112 High St, St Ann's, Lewes, Sussex, carver and gilder (1823–40). [D]

Nyles, William, Shipwright St, St Mary Rotherhithe, London, carver (1725). In August 1725 insured goods and merchandise in his dwelling house for £200. [GL, Sun MS vol. 30, ref. 36555]