Aldermen in Parliament

The Aldermen of the City of London Temp. Henry III - 1912. Originally published by Corporation of the City of London, London, 1908.

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'Aldermen in Parliament', in The Aldermen of the City of London Temp. Henry III - 1912, (London, 1908) pp. 261-297. British History Online [accessed 11 April 2024]

In this section


Until the Stuart period, and indeed until the Restoration, Aldermen of London were comparatively rarely found in Parliament except as representatives of the City. On the other hand it has been, from the earliest period to the present day, still more rare for the City not to number amongst its representatives one or more of the existing Aldermen. I have, therefore, in the following pages given first (A) a list of the Parliamentary representatives of the City of London from the earliest date obtainable, followed by (B) memoranda as to Aldermen representing other constituencies.

A. Members Of Parliament For the City of London. 1283–1905.

The following is certainly the completest and most accurate list of the Parliamentary representatives of the City of London which has appeared in print, and I doubt if it is now possible to supply with certainty from any extant source the lacunæ which I have found myself unable to fill.

The names recorded in the Blue Books ("Return of Members of Parliament") published in 1878 and 1879 were considerably supplemented by Dr. Sharpe in his Appendix B to "London and the Kingdom" (vol. iii. pp. 467–491), a most valuable work which should be in the hands of everyone who takes interest in the history of the metropolis, and of its connexion with and influence upon the general political history of the nation. Dr. Sharpe's list, however, though more complete than any that had preceded it, leaves room for additions and corrections, and he does not record the votes polled at contested elections, or the names of unsuccessful candidates (many of whom were Aldermen), or the political opinions of those elected or defeated: these I am enabled to supply in a great measure from contemporary newspapers and other records, from the Revolution to the present time.

The following extract from "London and the Kingdom" gives details as to the occasional variations in the number of members elected:

"The number of representatives of the City in Parliament has varied from time to time . . . . The more usual number as gathered from the City's archives was either two or four, although there have been occasions (as in the Parliament of 1284" [this should be 1283] "and more especially during the Commonwealth) when it amounted to six and (as in Barebone's Parliament) even to seven. Frequently it happened that when the writ prescribed the election of two members, four or more were elected, although not more than two, or perhaps three, were to attend. It is in 1346 that we meet for the first time with a writ commanding the election of four members. In the following year a writ was issued for the election of the old number (two), but this was apparently a mistake, for another writ was soon afterwards issued stating that the number should be four. The City, however, displayed great apathy in the matter—the attendance in Parliament interfered no doubt with the commercial pursuits of the members—and although four were elected, it was distinctly provided that three (or even two) might attend. On the other hand, when the City was called upon to elect two members for the Parliament of 1348 it returned four. From 1351 to 1354 the writs prescribed only two members, and the City returned only two; but from 1355 down to the passing of the Redistribution of Seats Act in 1885 . . . . the City of London was, if we except the Parliament of 1371, never represented in the council of the nation by less than four members."

Dr. Sharpe goes on to say that, "so long as the City was represented by two members, both were usually Aldermen," adding in a footnote that "an exception appears to have been made in 1352, when a Commoner was returned with an Alderman." The rule was not so general as Dr. Sharpe implies; it will be seen from the following list that it was not observed in the case of several other Parliaments in addition to that of 1352. Dr. Sharpe has been misled by the fact that most of the Commoners elected were themselves subsequently Aldermen (or, as in the case of Robert de Kelesye, had previously held the office), but were not at the period of election in that position.

Dr. Sharpe is quite correct in adding that "at first when four were returned, two were, as a rule, Aldermen, and two Commoners." From 1355 to 1439 this seems to have been the invariable practice (with the single exception of 1371, when only two members, an Alderman and a Commoner were returned). In 1442 the place of one of the Aldermen was filled by the Recorder, but in the subsequent Parliaments from 1445 to 1460 inclusive two Aldermen were chosen, as well as in those of 1469, 1472, 1478, 1482, January and July, 1483 and 1491. With those exceptions, the representatives from 1463 to 1628 were one Alderman, the Recorder and two Commoners, but in 1489 and 1566 an Alderman was elected in place of the Recorder on a vacancy occurring during the continuance of the Parliament. Two Aldermen sat in 1628, in the short Parliament of 1640, in the long Parliament and in "Barebone's Parliament," in the last of which there were five Commoner representatives. In 1654 one of the six members was an Alderman, the Recorder being another: in 1656 two out of a total of six were Aldermen. In 1659 and 1660 only one Alderman was elected on each occasion. From 1661 to the Reform Act of 1832 the number varied: very frequently all the four members were chosen from the Aldermanic body. To the first Reformed Parliament three Aldermen were returned, but in the following year (1833) two of them were succeeded by Commoners, and from that date till his death in 1843, Sir Matthew Wood was the only Aldermanic representative of the City in Parliament. From 1843 to 1849 there was an interval during which the representation was monopolised by Commoners; from 1849 to 1880 one Alderman was included in the list.

In the Parliament of 1880–1885 (the last in which four were returned) three Members were Aldermen, and since Mr. Gladstone's Reform Act of 1885, which took away two members from the City, (no doubt, because, after a long period of Liberal domination, the Conservative party was now in the ascendant in the constituency), the representation has been evenly divided, one member being an Alderman and one a Commoner, until Sir J. Dimsdale's withdrawal from the Court of Aldermen, retaining his Parliamentary seat, in December, 1902.

With regard to the constituency by which the members were chosen, Dr. Sharpe writes (London and the Kingdom, vol. iii., page 469):

"The Parliamentary elections were originally carried out by the Mayor and Aldermen and a deputation specially summoned from each ward, but the choice of members practically lay with the Mayor and Aldermen. In course of time the Commoners came to be elected by the Common Council. . . . . In 1523 we find an election taking place at the [court of] Husting in the Great Hall. One Alderman and the Recorder were nominated by the Court of Aldermen, and their nomination was subsequently confirmed by the Common Council in the Guildhall; whilst two Commoners were nominated by the Commonalty attending at the Husting. But even the latter nominations appear to have been in this instance confirmed by the Common Council. Six years later (viz. in 1529) . . . . the election took place as before at the [court of] Husting in the Great Hall; the Aldermen were nominated by the Mayor and Aldermen in the Inner Chamber of the Guildhall [i.e., in the Court of Aldermen] and were afterwards ratified and confirmed by a large gathering of the Commonalty in the Great Hall, but the Commoners were elected by the Commonalty without any subsequent ratification by the Common Council.

"At what date the Livery—as distinct from the citizens at large—began to usurp the functions of the Commonalty and claim the exclusive right of electing City members is not clear; but that they did so monopolise the Parliamentary franchise long before it was restricted to them by the Election Act of 1725 there is ample evidence, and they continued to enjoy this monopoly until the passing of the Reform Act of 1832."

Since 1832 the qualifications for the franchise in the City of London have been the same as in other cities and boroughs.

In the following list names of Aldermen are in small capitals: those to whom the mark * is prefixed subsequently became Aldermen, while the mark † denotes those who had already been Aldermen but had retired from that position before the date of election to Parliament. The references to "Palgrave" in the footnotes are to Sir F. Palgrave's "Parliamentary Writs."

The earliest record of the names of the Members for the City of London is found in the Chronicles of Edward I. and II. (Rolls Series No. 76) vol. i., p. 92, in which it is assigned to the year 1284. This should certainly be 1283. The Chronicle, as is clear from other entries throughout, divides the years by the names of the Mayors and Sheriffs, and dates of the earlier events in each year so reckoned often correspond with the preceding year according to the ordinary calendar. The members whose names are here recorded attended the Parliament at Shrewsbury 'on the business of David' (the Welsh prince, Llewelyn's brother) and brought back his head with them to London to be fixed on London Bridge ("perrexerunt ad Salopiam ad parliamentum super negotio David filii Griffini et portabant caput ejus secum Londonias"). This Parliament met September 30, 1283, and David was sentenced and executed October 3 in that year.

1283 (fn. 1)

(Writ dated June 28).

Henry le Waleys, Mayor [Cordwainer]

Gregory de Rokesle [Dowgate]

Philip Cissor (i.e. le Taillour) [Bishopsgate]

Ralph Crepyn [Cornhill]a

Joce le Acatour [Bridge]

John de Gisors [Vintry]

a Generally called "Ralph de Alegate."

1296 (fn. 2)

(Elected October 8).

Stephen Eswy [Cheap]

William de Hereford [Aldgate]

1298 (fn. 3)

(Writ dated April 10).

Walter de Finchingfeld [Cripplegate]

Adam de Foleham [Bridge]

1299 (fn. 4)

(Elected March 25).

William de Leyre [Castle Baynard]

William de Betoyne [Queenhithe]

Adam de Rokesle [Dowgate]

Walter de Finchingfeld [Cripplegate]

1300 (fn. 5)

(Return dated February 28).

Geoffrey de Norton, Recorder [Candlewick]

William de Betoyne [Queenhithe]

[John de Bancker and William de Red (Skinner), appear to have been also nominated in conjunction with the above on February 3, but only the two Aldermen were returned]

1301, 1302.

No return extant.

1305 (fn. 6)

(Return dated March 4).

Walter de Finchingfeld [Cripplegate]

William de Combemartyn [Tower]

1306, 1307 (January).

(Writs dated April 5, and November 3, 1306).

No return extant.

1307, October (fn. 7)

Return dated October 9.

William de Combemartyn [Tower]

Henry de Durham [Bread Street]


(Writ dated January 19).

No return extant.

1309 (fn. 8)

(Return dated April 28).

Henry de Durham [Bread Street]

William Servat [Walbrook]


(Writ dated June 16).

No return extant.

1312 (fn. 9)

Nicholas de Farndone [Ludgate and Neugate]

John de Wengrave, Recorder [Cheap]

*Robert de Kelesye.

[A Parliament was originally summoned to meet at Lincoln, July 23 and on July 1, the three named above were elected with John de Sellyng or David de Cotesbrok. Afterwards the place and date of meeting were changed to London, August 20, and only the three named above were returned, the return being dated August 19; the writ was for two only]

1313, March; 1313, July.

(Writs dated January 28, and May 23).

No returns extant.

1313, September (fn. 10)

(Writ dated July 26).

Nicholas de Farndone [Ludgate and Neugate]

William de Leyre [Castle Baynard]

William Servat [Walbrook]

Stephen de Abyndone [Dowgate]

[The writ was for two only]

1314, April.

No return extant.

1314, September (fn. 11)

(Elected August 12).

John de Gisors [Vintry]

William de Leyre [Castle Baynard]

*Robert de Kelesye.

Richer de Refham, Vintner.

[Three Aldermen and four Commoners were chosen, two from each to be selected. The other Alderman was John de Wengrave (Cheap), and the Commoners, William de Gartone and Matthew de Essex. The four named above "or two of them" were returned. Only the two Aldermen attended the Parliament]

1315 (fn. 12)

(Return dated January 18).

William de Leyre [Castle Baynard]

Henry de Durham [Bread Street]

1316 (fn. 13)

Robert de Kelesye [Billingsgate]

William Trente [Broad Street]

John de la Chambre [Candlewick]

Hamo de Chigwell [Queenhithe]

Matthew de Essex, Apothecary.

*Simon de Abyndon.

*Roger le Palmer.

William de Combemartyn [Tower]

*John de Bureford.

Ralph de Walcote, Draper.

William de Flete, Mercer.

*Simon de Abyndone.

[A writ was issued, October 16, 1315, for the election of "two of the more discreet and laborious citizens" to attend the parliament at Lincoln in January, 1316. The seven first named were elected, apparently in return to this writ, November 19. A further writ, dated December 16, 1315, required "two or three discreet merchants" to attend the parliament at Lincoln, to consider the question of establishing a woolstaple at Calais, and in response to this writ the five last named were chosen]

1318, January.

No return extant.

1318, October (fn. 14)

(Return dated October 16).

John de Cherleton, Mercer. "or two of them."

William de Flete.

*Roger le Palmer.

[The attendance of Cherleton and Palmer is recorded in Letter Book E, fo. 84 b]

1319 (fn. 15)

(Return dated May 7).

William de Leyre [Castle Baynard]

William de Flete.

[These are the names endorsed on the writ, but a commission dated May 7, 1319, nominated Hugh de Waltham (Clerk of the City), W. de Flete, William de Hacford, Michael Mynot and John Waldeshef or three of them; the writ was for two]

1320 (fn. 16)

(Elected September 21).

Nicholas de Farndone [Ludgate and Neugate).

Anketin de Gisors [Aldgate]

Henry Monquoi, Fishmonger.

Roger Hosebonde, Blader.

1321 (fn. 17)

(Writ dated May 15, delivered July 8).

Nicholas de Farndone [Ludgate and Neugate]

Hamo Godchep [Bread Street]

John Sterre, Fishmonger.

Thomas Prentiz, Woolmonger.

[The writ was for two only, the return named the above four, "all, three or two of them." Sterre was one of the Wardens of London Bridge, an office which Prentiz had previously held]

1322, May (fn. 18)

(Commission dated April 18).

Robert de Swalclyve, Recorder [Candlewick]

Reginald de Conduit [Cheap]

William de Hakford, Mercer.

*Gregory de Norton.

[The writ was for two; return named four, "all, three or two of them"]

1322, November (fn. 19)

(Commission dated November 4).

*Walter Crepyn.

Thomas de Chetyngdone.

1324 (fn. 20) (writ dated November 20, 1323).

1325 (fn. 21) (Commission dated Nov. 16, 1325).

Anketin de Gisors [Aldgate]

Henry de Seccheford [Aldersgate]

1327, January (fn. 22)

(Writ dated December 3, 1326).

Anketin de Gisors [Vintry]

Henry de Seccheford [Aldersgate]

Reginald de Conduit [Cheap]

Thomas de Leyre [Cripplegate]

Edmund Cosyn, Vintner.

John Sterre, Fishmonger.

[Six names returned, 'so that two shall always be ready' to serve]

1327, September (fn. 23)

(Writ dated August 7).

Benedict de Folesham [Langbourn]

† Robert de Kelesye.

1328, February (fn. 24)

Richard de Betoyne [Bread Street]

John de Grantham [Cordwainer]

† Robert de Kelesye.

John Priour, Junr.

1328, April (fn. 25)

(Writ dated March 5).

Richard de Betoyne [Bread Street]

†Robert de Kelesye.

1328, July.

(Writ dated June 15).

No return extant.

1328, October (fn. 26)

(Writ dated August 28).

† Stephen de Abyndone.

† Robert de Kelesye.

1330, March (fn. 27)

(Return dated March 8).

† Stephen de Abyndone.

John de Caustone [Lime Street]

1330, November (fn. 28)

John de Grantham [Cordwainer]

Reginald de Conduit [Cheap]

† Stephen de Abyndone.

[Or two of them]

1331, April; 1331, September.

(Writs dated February 18, and July 16).

No return extant.

1332, March (fn. 29)

(Writ dated January 27).

Anketin de Gisors [Vintry]

John de Caustone [Lime Street]

John Priour, Junr.

Thomas de Chetyngdone.

[Three or two of them]

1332, September (fn. 30)

(Writ dated July 20).

Reginald de Conduit [Cheap]

John de Caustone [Lime Street]

Anketin de Gisors [Vintry]

Thomas de Chetyngdone.

[Three or two of them]

1332, December (fn. 31)

(Return dated November 27).

Richard de la Pole [Bishopsgate]

Thomas de Chetyngdone.

Henry de Monquoi.

[Or two of them]

De la Pole's name is omitted in the Blue Book.

1334, February (fn. 32)

(Writ dated January 20).

Reginald de Conduit [Cheap]

John de Caustone [Lime Street]

*Roger de Depeham.

1334, September.

(Writ dated July 24).

No return extant.

1335 (fn. 33)

(Return dated May 18).

Richard de Rothyng [Queenhithe]

Richard le Lacer [Farringdon]

*Roger de Forsham.

[Or two of them]

1336, March (fn. 34)

(Return dated March 9).

Henry de Seccheford [Cripplegate]

Thomas de Chetyngdone.

John Priour.

[Priour's name is given in the Blue Book, but omitted from the record in Letter Book E, fo. 245 b]

1336, September (fn. 35)

(Return dated September 18).

John de Caustone [Lime Street]

Richard de Hakeneye [Billingsgate]

[To this Parliament the City was directed to send also four of the more discreet and sufficient wool-merchants, and the names returned were those of John de Oxenford (Castle Baynard), Richard de Hakeneye (Billingsgate), Henry Wymond and *William de Bricklesworth]

1337 January (fn. 36)

(Writ dated November 29, 1336).

Reginald de Conduit [Cheap]

John de Caustone [Lime Street]

1337 September (fn. 37)

(Writ dated August 18).

Reginald de Conduit [Cheap]

Benedict de Folesham [Broad Street]

[At the same time four citizens were elected to attend a Council, viz.: Henry Darci (Walbrook), Simon Fraunceys (Langbourn), William Haunsard (Fishmonger) and *Walter Turke]

1338, February (fn. 38)

(Writ dated December 20, 1337).

John de Grantham [Cordwainer]

Andrew Aubrey [Bread Street]

Ralph de Uptone [Coleman Street]

Richard de Rothyng [Queenhithe]

1338, July (fn. 39)

(Writ dated June 15).

Ralph de Uptone [Coleman Street]

*Bartholomew Deumars.

1339, January (fn. 40)

(Writs dated Nov. 15, and Dec. 26, 1338).

Simon Fraunceys [Langbourn]

*John de Northalle.

1339, October (fn. 41)

(Writ dated August 25).

Simon Fraunceys [Cheap]

John de Northalle [Langbourn]

1340, January (fn. 42)

(Writ dated November 6, 1339).

William de Bricklesworth [Tower]

John de Mockynge [Bridge]

Adam Lucas, Stock-fishmonger.

[Writ for two; three elected]

1340, March (fn. 43)

(Writ dated February 21).

William de Bricklesworth [Tower]

Richard de Rothyng [Queenhithe]

Richard de Berkynge [Aldgate]

1340, July (fn. 44)

(Writ dated May 30).

No return extant.

1340, October (a Council) (fn. 45)

(Writ dated September 15).

Andrew Aubrey, Mayor [Bread Street]

Simon Fraunceys [Cheap]

William de Bricklesworth [Tower]

†* Walter de Mordone.

John de Dallyng, Mercer]

1341 (fn. 46)

(Writ dated March 3).

Simon Fraunceys [Cheap]

William de Bricklesworth [Tower]

1343 (fn. 47)

(Writ dated February 24).

No return extant.

1344 (fn. 48)

(Writ dated April 20).

John de Northalle [Langbourn]

*John Lovekyn.

1346 (fn. 49)

(Writ dated July 30).

Geoffrey de Wychingham [Aldersgate]

Thomas Leggy [Broad Street]

*John Lovekyn.

Thomas de Walden, Apothecary.

[Four, three or two of them].

1348, January (fn. 50)
1348, March

(Writs dated Nov. 13, 1347, Feb. 14, 1348).

John Lovekyn [Bridge]

Richard de Berkynge [Aldgate]

William de Iford, Common Serjeant.

Richard de Wycombe, Corder.

[Three or two of them]


No return extant.

1350 (a Council) (fn. 51)

(Writ dated September 8).

Simon Fraunceys [Cheap]

*Thomas Dolseley.

1351 (fn. 52)

(Writ dated November 25, 1350).

Thomas Leggy [Broad Street]

William de Iford, Common Serjeant.

1352, January (fn. 53)

(Elected December 19, 1351).

Simon Fraunceys [Cheap]

Simon de Bedyngton, Draper.

1352, August (fn. 54)

(Elected August 6).

Adam Fraunceys [Queenhithe]

*John Lytle.

1353 (fn. 55)

(Writ dated July 15).

Thomas Leggy [Broad Street]

*Thomas Dolseley.

1354 (fn. 56)

(Elected March 24).

John de Stodeye [Vintry]

*Thomas Dolseley.

1355 (fn. 57)

(Writ dated October 22).

Adam Fraunceys [Queenhithe]

John de Stodeye [Vintry]

Simon de Bedyngton.

Adam de Acres, Common Serjeant.

1357 (fn. 58)

(Writ dated February 15).

Adam Fraunceys [Lime Street]

John Stodeye [Vintry]

Simon de Bedyngton, Draper.

William de Essex, Mercer.

1358 (fn. 59)

(Writ dated December 15, 1357).

Thomas Dolseley [Cordwainer]

William de Welde [Coleman Street]

William de Essex, Mercer.

Richard Toky, Pepperer.

1360 (fn. 60)

(Writ dated April 10).

Bartholomew Frestlyng [Dowgate]

Stephen Cavendish [Bread Street]

*Walter de Berneye.

Richard Toky.

1361 (fn. 61)

(Writ dated November 20, 1360).

Adam Fraunceys [Lime Street]

John Pecche [Walbrook]

Simon de Benyngton.

*John Pyel.

1362 (fn. 62)

(Writ dated August 14).

Bartholomew Frestlyng [Dowgate]

John Lytle [Queenhithe]

John Hiltoft, Goldsmith

*John Tornegold.

[These names are given in the Blue Book, but the Record in Letter Book G, fo. 101, substitutes for Frestlyng

Adam de Bury (Langbourn)]

1363 (fn. 63)

(Writ dated June 1).

William Holbech [Cheap]

John de St. Albans [Cornhill]

Simon de Benyngton.

*John Tornegold.

[The Blue Book gives two other names for the Aldermen but with the mark ? and a note that the names are doubtful. The above are correct]

1365 (fn. 64)

(Writ dated December 4, 1364).

Adam Fraunceys, [Lime Street]

John Lovekyn [Bridge]

Simon de Benyngton.

*Richard de Preston.

1366 (fn. 65)

(Writ dated January 20).

Adam Fraunceys [Lime Street]

John Wroth [Billingsgate]

Simon de Benyngton.

John de Worstede, Mercer.

1368 (fn. 66)

(Writ dated February 24).

John Wroth [Billingsgate]

Bartholomew Frestlyng [Dowgate]

*John Aubrey.

*John Organ.

1369, June (fn. 67)

(Writ dated April 6).

John Pecche [Walbrook]

John Tornegold [Queenhithe]

*Nicholas Exton.

*John Hadle.

1369, November (a Council) (fn. 68)

(Writ dated October 26).

Adam Fraunceys [Lime Street]

John Stodeye [Vintry]

*John Aubrey.

*John Philipot.

1371, January (A Council) (fn. 69)

(Writ dated December 2, 1370).

John Pecche [Walbrook]

William Walworth [Bridge]

Fulk Horewood.

*John Fyfhide]

1371, February (fn. 70)

(Writ dated January 8).

John Tornegold [Queenhithe]

Bartholomew Frestlyng [Dowgate]

*John Philipot.

William Essex, Draper.

1371, June (fn. 71)

(Writ dated April 27).

Bartholomew Frestlyng [Dowgate]

*John Philipot.

1372 (fn. 72)

(Writ dated September 1).

John Wroth [Billingsgate]

John Pecche [Walbrook]

*William Venour.

William de Kelshull, Fishmonger.

1373 (fn. 73)

(Writ dated October 4).

Adam Stable [Coleman Street]

John Warde [Aldgate]

John Birlyngham, Mercer.

*Adam Karlill.

1376 (fn. 74)

(Writ dated December 28, 1375).

John Pyel [Castle Baynard]

William Walworth [Bridge]

William Essex.

*Adam Karlill.

1377, January (fn. 75)

(Writ dated December, 1376).

John Hadle [Tower]

John Organ [Broad Street]

*William Venour.

*William Tonge.

1377, October (fn. 76)

(Elected September 28).

Adam Karlill [Bishopsgate]

Walter Sibyle [Lime Street]

†*William Walworth.

†*John Philipot.

1378 (fn. 77)

(Writ dated September 3).

John Hadle [Tower]

Geoffrey Neuton (or Newenton) [Dowgate]

†*John de Northampton.

*William Venour.

1379 (fn. 78)

(Writ dated February 16).

Adam Karlill [Broad Street]

Walter Sibyle [Bridge]

†*John Hadle.

*William More.

1380, January (fn. 79)

(Writ dated October 20, 1379).

John Boseham [Cheap]

Thomas Cornwaleys [Vintry]

†*John Philipot.

†*Robert Launde.

1380, November (fn. 80)

(Writ dated August 26).

John Organ [Broad Street]

John Rote [Walbrook]

†*Thomas Welford

†*William Tonge

1381 (fn. 81)

(Writ dated August 22).

Hugh Fastolf [Tower]

William Baret [Walbrook]

†*Sir John Philipot

†*John Hadle

1382, May.

(Writ dated March 24).

No return extant.

1382, October (fn. 82)

(Writ dated August 9).

John More [Cordwainer]

Thomas Carleton [Cripplegate]

William Essex

*Richard Norbury

1383, February (fn. 83)

(Elected February 18).

Sir Nicholas Brembre [Bread Street]

John More [Cordwainer]

William Essex

*Richard Norbury

1383, October (fn. 84)

(Writ dated August 20).

William Baret [Cornhill]

Henry Vanner [Queenhithe]

†*Sir William Walworth

†*Sir John Philipot

1384, April (fn. 85)

(Writ dated March 3).

John Hadle [Lime Street]

John Organ [Coleman Street]

†*John Rote

Henry Herbury, Vintner

1384, November (fn. 86)

(Writ dated September 28).

John Hadle [Lime Street]

John Organ [Coleman Street]

†Thomas Rolf

Henry Herbury

1385 (fn. 87)

(Writ dated September 3).

John Hadle [Lime Street]

Nicholas Exton [Billingsgate]

†William Anecroft

Henry Herbury

1386 (fn. 88)

(Writ dated August 8).

John Hadle [Lime Street]

John Organ [Langbourn]

*†Adam Karlill

Thomas Girdelere, Fishmonger.

1388, February (fn. 89)

(Writ dated December 17, 1387).

William More [Castle Baynard]

John Shadworth [Bassishaw]

†*William Baret

†*John Walcote

1388, September (fn. 90)

(Writ dated July 28)

Adam Bamme [Cheap]

Henry Vanner [Vintry]

†William Tonge

John Clenhand

1390, January (fn. 91)

(Writ dated December 6, 1389).

William More [Vintry]

John Shadworth [Bassishaw]

†*Adam Karlill

*William Brampton

1390, November (fn. 92)

(Writ dated September 12).

John Hadle [Lime Street]

William More [Vintry]

*Thomas Newenton (or Newton)

†John Botesham (or Boseham)

[The above names are given as of those elected on October 13 in Letter Book H, fo. 255, but at fo. 253, the name of John Loveye (Cripplegate) is substituted for that of More]

1391 (fn. 93)

(Writ dated September 7).

William Shiryngham [Bread Street]

William Brampton [Bridge]

†*William Staundon

†*John Walcote


(Writ dated November 23, 1392).

No return extant.

1394 (fn. 94)

(Writ dated November, 13, 1393).

William Staundon [Cheap]

John Fresshe [Cordwainer]

Thomas Exton, Goldsmith

*John Wade

1395 (fn. 95)

(Writ dated November 20, 1394).

Adam Karlill [Cornhill]

Drew Barantyn [Farringdon Within]

Geoffrey Walderne

*William Askham

1397, January (fn. 96)

(Writ dated November 30, 1396)

William Staundon [Cheap]

William Brampton [Bridge]

*William Hyde

*Hugh Short

1397, September (fn. 97)

(Writ dated July 18).

Andrew Neuport [Aldersgate]

Drew Barantyn [Farringdon Within]

Robert Asshecombe, Broderer.

*William Chichele.

1399 (fn. 98)

(Writ dated August 19).

John Shadworth [Bassishaw]

William Brampton [Bridge]

*Richard Merlawe

William Sonyngwell, Mercer.

1401 1402, January

(Writs dated October 3, 1400, December 2, 1401).

No return extant.

1402, September (fn. 99)

(Writ dated August 14th).

John Hadle [Tower]

William Parker, [Bishopsgate]

John Prophete (or Profyt), Fishmonger.

*William Norton.

1403 (fn. 100)

(Writ dated November 24).

William Staundon [Cheap]

Drew Barantyn [Aldersgate]

William Marcheford, Mercer.

John Profyt.


(Writ dated August 25).

No return extant.

1406 (fn. 101)

(Writ dated February 9).

William Staundon [Cheap]

Nicholas Wotton [Broad Street]

John Sudbury, Grocer.

Hugh Ryebrede.

1407 (fn. 102)

(Elected September 21).

William Askham [Bridge]

William Crowmere [Billingsgate]

William Marcheford.

John Bryan, Fishmonger.

1410 (fn. 103)

(Writ dated October 26, 1409).

Drew Barantyn [Aldersgate]

Henry Halton [Langbourn]

*John Reinwell.

Walter Gawtron, Draper.

1411 (fn. 104)

(Writ dated September 21).

Richard Merlawe [Queenhithe]

Thomas Fauconer [Coleman Street]

John Sutton, Grocer.

*John Michell.

1413, February (fn. 105)

(Writ dated December 1, 1412).

1413, May (fn. 106)

(Elected March 27).

Drew Barantyn [Aldersgate]

William Askham [Bridge]

William Marcheford.

Walter Gawtron.

1414, January (fn. 107)

(Writ dated December 1, 1413).

Richard Merlawe [Queenhithe]

Robert Chichele [Vintry]

William Burton, Grocer.

*Alan Everard.

1414, November (fn. 108)

(Elected October 15).

William Walderne [Bassishaw or Bread Street]

Nicholas Wotton [Dowgate]

William Olyver, Grocer.

*John Gedney.

1415 (fn. 109)

(Elected October 14).

Robert Chichele [Vintry]

William Walderne [Bassishaw]

*John Reinwell.

William Michell, Grocer.

1416, March (fn. 110)

(Writ dated January 21).

Richard Merlawe [Queenhithe]

Thomas Fauconer [Cheap]

William Weston, Draper.

*Nicholas Jamys.

1416, October (fn. 111)

(Writ dated September 3).

Richard Whitington [Lime Street]

Thomas Knolles [Cordwainer]

*John Perneys.

*Robert Whityngham.

1417 (fn. 112)

(Return dated October 25).

William Crowmere [Billingsgate]

William Sevenok [Tower]

*John Welles.

*John Boteler, Jun., Mercer.

1419 (fn. 113)

(Elected September 19 and 21).

Nicholas Wotton [Dowgate]

Henry Barton [Cornhill]

Richard Meryvale, Vintner.

Simon Sewale, Saddler.

1420 (fn. 114)

(Return dated November 11).

Thomas Fauconer [Cheap]

John Michell [Bridge]

Salamon Oxneye, Goldsmith.

John Higham, Draper.

1421, May (fn. 115)

(Elected April 14).

William Walderne [Bassishaw]

William Crowmere [Candlewick]

William Burton, Grocer.

*Richard Gosselyn.

1421, December (fn. 116)

(Return dated November 3).

Thomas Fauconer [Cheap]

Nicholas Wotton [Dowgate]

John Whatele, Mercer.

*John Brockle.

1422 (fn. 117)

(Return dated October 19).

Thomas Fauconer [Cheap]

John Michell [Bridge]

*Henry Frowyk.

Thomas Mayneld, Grocer.

1423 (fn. 118)

(Elected October 11).

Thomas Fauconer [Cheap]

John Welles [Langbourn]

*Henry Frowyk.

Thomas Boteler, Fishmonger.

1425 (fn. 119)

(Elected March 19).

Nicholas Wotton [Dowgate]

John Welles [Langbourn]

Everard Flete, Mercer.

*Thomas Bernewell.

1426 (fn. 120)

(Elected January 14).

John Michell [Bridge]

John Welles [Langbourn]

Everard Flete.

John Higham, Draper.

1427 (fn. 121)

(Elected September 11).

John Michell [Bridge]

John Welles [Langbourn]

*William Melreth.

Walter Gawtron.

1429 (fn. 122)

(Elected August 29).

Nicholas Wotton [Dowgate]

Nicholas James [Queenhithe]

*William Melreth.

Walter Gawtron.

1431 (fn. 123)

(Return dated December 11, 1430).

William Estfeld [Cripplegate]

Nicholas James [Queenhithe]

John Higham.

John Abbot, Mercer.

1432 (fn. 124)

(Return dated March 10).

John Gedney [Coleman Street]

William Melreth [Broad Street]

John Levyng, Ironmonger.

*Philip Malpas.

1433 (fn. 125)

(Return dated June 22).

John Reynwell [Billingsgate]

John Welles [Langbourn]

*John Hatherle.

*Thomas Catteworth.

1435 (fn. 126)

(Elected August 29).

John Michell [Bridge]

Robert Large [Castle Baynard]

John Bederenden, Draper.

*Stephen Forster.

1437 (fn. 127)

(Elected November 19th, 1436).

Henry Frowyk [Bassishaw]

Thomas Catteworth [Tower]

John Carpenter, Junr., Town Clerk.

*Nicholas Yeo (or Yoo).

1439 (fn. 128)

(Elected October 21 and 23).

Sir William Estfeld [Cripplegate]

Robert Clopton [Lime Street]

John Carpenter ("nuper clericus"—i.e. late Town Clerk.)

*Geoffrey Feldynge.

1442 (fn. 129)

(Elected January 15).

Sir William Estfeld [Cripplegate]

John Bowys, Recorder.

*Philip Malpas.

William Cottesbroke, Grocer.

1445 (fn. 130)

(Elected January 27).

John Reynwell [Bishopsgate]

Thomas Catteworth [Tower]

Thomas Burgoyne (Judge of the Sheriffs' Court).

John Sturgeon, Mercer.

1447 (fn. 131)

(Elected January 16).

Henry Frowyk [Bassishaw]

William Combes [Farringdon Without]

*Hugh Wyche.

*William Marowe.

1449, February (fn. 132)

(Elected January 24).

Thomas Catteworth [Tower]

John Norman [Cheap]

*Geoffrey Boleyn.

Thomas Billyng, Common Serjeant.

1449, November (fn. 133)

(Return dated October 6).

Stephen Broun [Billingsgate]

John Norman [Cheap]

John Nedham, Common Serjeant.

John Harewe, Mercer.

1450 (fn. 134)

(Elected October 2).

Henry Frowyk [Bassishaw]

William Marowe [Broad Street]

John Harewe.

*Richard Lee.

1453 (fn. 135)

(Elected February 15).

Stephen Broun [Billingsgate]

William Cantelowe [Cripplegate]

*John Middleton.

*John Walderne.

1455 (fn. 136)

(Elected June 9)

Geoffrey Feldynge [Farringdon Within]

William Cantelowe [Cripplegate]

John Harewe.

*John Yonge.

1458 (A Council) (fn. 137)

(Elected June 10).

William Marowe [Tower]

John Middleton [Bread Street]

*John Stokker.

Thomas Dounton, Mercer]

1459 (fn. 138)

(Elected November 5).

Thomas Canynges [Aldgate]

Ralph Verney [Castle Baynard]

*Richard Flemyng.

*John Bromer.

1460 (fn. 139)

(Elected September 22).

William Marowe [Tower]

Thomas Cook [Broad Street]

Richard Nedeham, Mercer.

*Robert Bassett.


(Writ dated June 13).

No return extant.

1463 (fn. 140)

(Elected February 8).

William Marowe [Tower]

Thomas Urswyk, Recorder.

Thomas Wynselowe, Draper.

*John Bromer.

1467 (fn. 141)

(Elected April 13).

Sir Ralph Josselyn [Cornhill]

Thomas Urswyk, Recorder.

*John Warde, Mercer.

*John Crosby.

1469 (fn. 142)

(Elected August 29).

Ralph Verney [Bassishaw]

George Irlond [Cordwainer]

†Stephen Fabyan.

Thomas Staughton, Fishmonger.

1470 (fn. 143)

(Elected November 6).

Sir Thomas Cook [Bread Street]

Thomas Urswyk, Recorder.

John Marchall, Mercer.

†Stephen Fabyan.

1472 (fn. 144)

(Elected August 31).

Sir Ralph Verney [Bassishaw]

Sir George Irlond [Cordwainer]

John Brampton, Stock-fishmonger.

†Stephen Fabyan.

1478 (fn. 145)

(Return dated December 1, 1477).

Sir William Hampton [Vintry]

Richard Gardyner [Queenhithe]

William Bracebridge, Draper.

*John Warde, Grocer.

1483, January (fn. 146)

(Elected November 26, 1482).

Sir William Taillour [Cheap]

Robert Tate [Queenhithe]

*John Fenkyll.

*Hugh Clopton.

1483, June (fn. 147)

(Elected June 3).

Sir William Heriot [Broad Street]

Robert Tate [Queenhithe]

John Marchall, Mercer.

William Bracebrigge, Draper.

1483, November (fn. 148)

(Elected October 9).

Sir William Heriot [Broad Street]

Thomas FitzWilliam, Recorder.

William Bracebrigge.

John Pekeryng, Mercer.

1484 (fn. 149)

(Elected January 13).

Sir William Heriot [Broad Street]

Thomas FitzWilliam, Recorder.

John Pekeryng.

*John Fenkyll.

1485 (fn. 150)

(Elected October 25) (fn. 151)

John Warde, Mayor [Bishopsgate]

Thomas FitzWilliam, Recorder.

John Pekeryng.

William Spark, Draper.

1487 (fn. 152)

(Elected October 9).

Sir Henry Colet, Mayor [Cornhill]

Sir Thomas FitzWilliam, Recorder.

*Hugh Pemberton.

John Pekeryng.

1489 (fn. 153)

(Elected December 2, 1488).

Sir Henry Colet [Cornhill]

Sir Thomas FitzWilliam, Recorder.

Richard Nunneley, Grocer.

John Pykering [sic].

1489, January 7 (fn. 154)

Vice Fitzwilliam (elected for Lincolnshire).

William White [Coleman Street]

1491 (fn. 155)

(Elected October 7).

Robert Tate [Queenhithe]

William Capel [Walbrook]

*Nicholas Ailwyn.

Thomas Bullesdon, Skinner.

1495 (fn. 156)

(Elected September 24).

John Warde [Bishopsgate]

Robert Sheffield, Recorder.

*John Shaa.

*Thomas Bradbury.

1497 (fn. 157)

(Elected December 13, 1496).

Richard Chawry [Caudlewick]

Sir Robert Sheffield, Recorder.

*Thomas Wyndout.

Richard Nunneley.

[A previous election is recorded in Journal 10, fo. 79 b, under date October 19, 1496, at which, in addition to the above, John Warde (Bishopsgate) was also chosen. Possibly this was only a preliminary nomination of candidates, or Warde may have declined to serve]

1504 (fn. 158)

(Elected December 14, 1503).

Sir John Shaa [Bread Street]

Sir Robert Sheffield, Recorder.

Thomas Cremour, Draper.

John Paynter, Grocer.

Shaa died before Parliament met, and on December 29, 1503 (fn. 159), he was succeeded by Sir John Tate [Langbourn]

1510 (fn. 160)

(Elected November 19, 1509).

Sir John Tate [Langbourn]

John Chaloner, Recorder.

*James Yarford.

*John Brugge.

Yarford having been elected Alderman of Candlewick on December 4, 1509, before the meeting of Parliament, he was succeeded on December 13 (fn. 161), by Thomas More, Mercer.

1512 (fn. 162) (Elected January 15, 1512).

1515 (fn. 163) (Elected December 12, 1514).

Sir William Capel [Walbrook]

Richard Broke, Recorder.

William Calley, Draper. (Died about May or June, 1515).

*John Kyme.

1523 (fn. 164)

(Elected March 3).

George Monoux [Bassishaw]

William Shelley, Recorder.

John Hewster, Mercer.

*William Roche.

1529 (fn. 165)

(Elected October 5).

Sir Thomas Seymour (or Semer) [Dowgate]

John Baker, Recorder.

John Petyt, Common Pleader. (Died 1532).

†Paul Wythypool.

1532 (fn. 166)

Vice Petyt, deceased.

*William Bowyer.

[He is named as one of the members under date January 13, 1534, in Rep. 9, fo. 41 b]

1534, October 27 (fn. 166)

Vice Bowyer, elected Alderman of Aldgate on September 3.

Robert Pakynton, Mercer.

[Sir T. Seymour applied for leave to resign his seat on the ground of ill-health, December 2, 1535 (Rep. 9, fo. 141 b), and died on the 11th of the same month. There is no record of the election of a successor in this Parliament which was not dissolved till April 4, 1536]

1536, June.

No return extant. Noorthouck, in his History of London, gives—

William Roche [Langbourn]

Roger Cholmley, Recorder.

Robert Pakynton.

[The fourth member may possibly have been †Paul Wythypool.

1539, April.

No return extant: it is almost certain that two of the members were—

William Roche [Langbourn]

Roger Cholmley, Recorder.

1542 (fn. 167)

(Return dated December 12, 1541).

Sir William Roche [Bassishaw]

Sir Roger Cholmley, Recorder.

John Sturgeon, Haberdasher.

Nicholas Wylford, Merchant Taylor.

1545 (fn. 168)

(Elected January 20).

Sir William Roche [Bassishaw]

Sir Roger Cholmley, Recorder.

John Sturgeon.

†Paul Wythypool.

1545, February 9 (fn. 169)

Vice Roche (incapable of serving, being a prisoner in the Fleet).

Sir William Forman [Cripplegate]

1545, November 10 (fn. 170)

Vice Forman (resigned on account of ill-health).

Sir Richard Gresham [Cheap]

1545, November 17 (fn. 171)

Vice Cholmley (resigned the Recordership on becoming King's Serjeant)

Robert Broke, Recorder.

1547 (fn. 172)

(Return dated October 4)

Sir Martin Bowes [Langbourn]

Robert Broke, Recorder.

*Thomas Curtes.

[Elected Alderman of Farringdon Within, April, 1551]

Thomas Bacon, Salter.

1551, April (fn. 173)

Vice Curtes (elected an Alderman).

John Blundell, Mercer.

1553, March (fn. 174)

(Return dated January 16).

Sir Martin Bowes [Langbourn]

Robert Broke, Recorder.

John Marshe, Common Serjeant.

John Blundell.

1553, October (fn. 175)

(Writ dated August 14).

Sir Rowland Hill [Walbrook]

Robert Broke, Recorder.

John Marshe, Common Serjeant.

John Blundell.

1554, April (fn. 176)

(Writ dated February 17).

Sir Martin Bowes [Langbourn].

Robert Broke, Recorder.

John Marshe, Common Serjeant.

John Blundell.

1554, November (fn. 177)

(Writ dated October 3).

Sir Martin Bowes [Langbourn]

Ranulph Cholmley, Recorder.

Richard Grafton, Grocer.

Richard Burnell, Common Pleader.

1555 (fn. 178)

(Elected September 24).

Sir Martin Bowes [Langbourn]

Ranulph Cholmley, Recorder.

Philip Bold, Clothworker.

Nicholas Chune (or Choyne), Haberdasher.

1558 (fn. 179)

(Return dated December 15, 1557).

Sir William Garrard [Lime Street]

Ranulph Cholmley, Recorder.

John Marshe, Common Serjeant.

Richard Grafton, Grocer.

1559 (fn. 180)

(Elected January 9).

Sir Martin Bowes [Langbourn]

Ranulph Cholmley, Recorder.

John Marshe, Common Serjeant.

Richard Hill, Merchant Taylor.

The name is erroneously given as Hyde in the Blue Book]

1563 (fn. 181)

(Elected in December, 1562).

Sir William Chester [Bassishaw]

Ranulph Cholmley, Recorder. [Died April 25, 1563]

†Lawrence Wythers.

John Marshe, Judge of the Sheriff's Court.

1563 (fn. 182)

(Vice Cholmley).

Richard Onslow, Recorder.

[Resigned the membership and his seat on becoming Solicitor-General, June, 1566. This election was really void, as he was already sitting for Steyning, but parliament was not in session after the prorogation on April 10, 1563 until September 30, 1566, so that no notice was taken of the irregularity]

1566 (fn. 183)

(Vice Onslow).

Thomas Bromley, Recorder.

[He was already a member of the House sitting for Guildford, and this election, like the preceding, was void. The House resolved on October 3, 1566, that "Mr. Bromley, Burgess for Guldeford and elected one of the Knights for London shall stand Burgess for Guldeford and another person to be elected for London" (Commons' Journals, i., 73)]

1566, October (fn. 184)

Vice Bromley (new Writ October 3).

Sir John Whyte [Broad Street]

1571 (fn. 185)

(Elected in March).

Sir John Whyte [Cornhill]

Thomas Wilbraham, Recorder.

John Marshe.

Thomas Norton, Remembrancer.

1572 (fn. 186)

(Elected in April).

Sir Rowland Heywarde [Lime Street]

William Fletewood, Recorder.

John Marshe, Mercer.

Thomas Norton, Remembrancer.

[Marshe died in 1579, and a writ was issued for a new election, September 28. Journal 20 (ii.) fo. 516 b: Rep. 19, fo. 493. There is no return extant, but it is practically certain that his successor was Thomas Aldersey who is named on several Committees of the House of Commons in the session of JanuaryMarch 1581]

1584 (fn. 187)

(Elected October 22).

Sir Nicholas Woodroffe [Dowgate]

William Fletewood, Recorder.

Walter Fisshe, Merchant Taylor. [Died 1585]

Thomas Aldersey, Haberdasher.

1585, September 29 (fn. 188)

(Vice Fisshe).

*Henry Billingsley.

1586 (fn. 189)

(Elected October 3).

Sir Edward Osborne [Candlewick]

William Fletewood, Recorder.

Thomas Aldersey.

*Richard Saltonstall.

1588 (fn. 190)

(Return dated October 1).

Sir George Barne [Bassishaw]

William Fletewood, Recorder.

Thomas Aldersey.

Andrew Palmer, Goldsmith.

1593 (fn. 191)

(Elected November 27, 1592).

Sir John Harte [Cornhill]

Edward Drewe, Recorder.

Andrew Palmer.

George Sotherton, Merchant Taylor.

1597 (fn. 192)

(Elected October 3).

Sir John Harte [Lime Street]

John Croke, Recorder.

George Sotherton.

Thomas Fettiplace, Ironmonger.

1601 (fn. 193)

(Return dated October 6).

Sir Stephen Soame [Cheap]

John Croke, Recorder.

Thomas Fettiplace.

John Pynder, Vintner.

1604 (fn. 194)

(Elected February 13).

Sir Henry Billingsley [Candlewick]

Sir Henry Montague, Recorder.

Nicholas Fuller, Common Pleader.

Richard Gore, Merchant Taylor. [Billingsley died November 22, 1606]

1606, December 2 (fn. 195)

Vice Billingsley (new writ November 27).

Sir Thomas Lowe [Billingsgate]

1614, April (fn. 196)

Sir Thomas Lowe [Broad Street]

Sir Henry Montague, Recorder.

Nicholas Fuller.

Robert Middleton, Skinner.

1621 (fn. 197)

(Elected November 20, 1620).

Sir Thomas Lowe [Broad Street]

Robert Heath, Recorder.

*Robert Bateman.

William Towerson, Skinner.

1624 (fn. 198) (return dated January 13).

1625 (fn. 199) (elected in April).

Sir Thomas Middleton [Coleman Street]

Sir Heneage Finch, Recorder.

*Robert Bateman.

Martin Bend, Haberdasher.

1626 (fn. 200)

(Elected in January).

Sir Thomas Middleton [Coleman Street]

Sir Heneage Finch, Recorder.

*Sir Maurice Abbot.

*Robert Bateman.

1628 (fn. 201)

(Return dated February 19).

Thomas Moulson [Broad Street]

Christopher Clitherow [Billingsgate]

Henry Waller, Clothworker.

James Bunce, Leatherseller.

1640, April (fn. 202) (Return dated March 2).

1640, Nov. (fn. 203) (Return dated Oct. 20).

Thomas Soame [Vintry]

Isaac Penington [Bridge Without]

Matthew Cradock, Skinner.

Samuel Vassall, Clothworker.

[Cradock died May 27, 1641. Soame and Vassail were among the Presbyterian members excluded by Pride's Purge, December 6, 1648]

1641, June 1 (fn. 203)

(New writ May 28, vice Cradock).

John Venn, Merchant Taylor.

[Venn died June 28, 1650, and his place not being filled up, Penington remained the sole representative of the City until the forcible ejectment of the Rump by Cromwell, April 30, 1653]

1653 [Barebone's Parliament]

[Not elected, but nominated in June by a Council of Officers, seven members being assigned to the City of London]

Robert Tichborne [Farringdon Within]

John Ireton [Bread Street]

†Samuel Moyer.

†John Langley.

†John Stone.

Henry Barton.

Praise-God Barbon, Leatherseller.


(Elected June 14).

Thomas Foot [Coleman Street]

William Steele, Recorder.

†*Thomas Adams.

†*John Langham.

†Samuel Avery.

†Andrew Riccard.

[There is an account of this election in Harleian MS. 6810, fo. 64]


(Elected in August).

Thomas Foot [Coleman Street]

Sir Christopher Pack [Bassishaw]

[Made a member of Cromwell's Upper House, Dec., 1657]

†*Thomas Adams.

†*Richard Browne.

†Theophilus Biddulph.

John Jones.


(Elected in January).

William Thompson [Walbrook]

†Theophilus Biddulph.

John Jones.

†*Richard Browne.

[In May, 1659 the "Rump" of the Long Parliament was restored, ex-Alderman Penington alone representing the City. In February, 1660, the excluded Presbyterian members (the victims of "Pride's Purge") were readmitted to their seats, amongst whom were Alderman Sir Thomas Soame (Cheap) and S. Vassall, who had been Penington's colleagues from 1640 to 1648. The Long Parliament finally dissolved itself March 21, 1660]


(Elected in April).

John Robinson [Cripplegate]

[Knighted, May, 1660; created a Baronet, June, 1660]

William Wilde, Recorder.

[Knighted, June, 1660; created a Baronet, Sept., 1660]

*Richard Browne.

Knighted, May, 1660; created a Baronet, July, 1660]

†William Vincent.


(Return dated March 19).

John Fowke [Tower]

[Died April 22, 1662]

Sir William Thompson [Walbrook]

William Love [Portsoken]

John Jones.

[Thompson was discharged from his Aldermanry, Sept., 1661. and Love was ejected by the Corporation Commissioners in May, 1662]

1663, March 10.

Vice Fowke (new writ February 18).

Sir John Frederick [Coleman Street]

1679, February (elected Feb. 10).

1679, October (elected Sept. 29).

Sir Robert Clayton [Cheap]

Sir Thomas Player, Chamberlain.

†William Love.

*Thomas Pilkington.

[Elected Alderman of Farringdon Without October, 1680]

All four members belonged to the "Country" or Opposition party.


(Elected January 31).

Sir Robert Clayton [Cheap], Whig.

Thomas Pilkington [Farringdon Without], Whig.

Sir Thomas Player, Chamberlain, Whig.

†William Love, Whig.


(Return dated May 15).

Sir John Moore [Walbrook], Tory.

Sir William Prichard [Bridge Without], Tory.

Sir Samuel Dashwood [Cheap], Tory,

Sir Peter Rich [Aldersgate], Tory.


(Elected January 9).

Sir Patience Ward (Farringdon Within), Whig.

†*Sir Robert Clayton, Whig.

†*Thomas Pilkington, Whig. [Knighted April 10, 1689]

†William Love, Whig.

[Died April, 1689]

[Pilkington was elected Alderman of Vintry, February 26, 1689, and Clayton of Cheap in October following]

1689, May 13.

Vice Love (new writ April 26).

Sir William Ashhurst [Billingsgate], Whig.

Note. The returns and particulars as to the elections to the parliaments after the Long Parliament (1611–1653) being taken from contemporary lists and newspapers, I have not thought it necessary to continue giving references beyond that date. The names of members elected in the parliaments from 1661 to 1895 are recorded in the Blue Books, as also those for the Parliament of 1654, in which, however, one name (that of Avery) is omitted owing to the original return being torn.


[Poll declared March 4]

†*Sir William Turner, Tory, 3,131.

Sir Samuel Dashwood [Aldgate], Tory, 3,117.

Sir William Prichard [Broad Street], Tory, 3,026.

Sir Thomas Vernon, Haberdasher, Tory, 2,942.

Sir Thomas Pilkington, Lord Mayor [Vintry], Whig, 2,519.

Sir Robert Clayton [Cheap], Whig, 2,368.

Sir William Ashhurst [Billingsgate], Whig, 2,326.

Sir Patience Ward [Farringdon Within], Whig, 2,289.

[Turner, who was restored to the Aldermanry of Castle Baynard in May, 1690, died February 9, 1693]

1693, March 2.

Vice Turner (new writ February 10).

Sir John Fleet, Lord Mayor [Langbourn] Tory, 1,925.

Sir William Ashhurst [Billingsgate], Whig, 1,741.


[Poll 4 days; Closed October 25]

Sir John Fleet [Langbourn], Tory, 4,876.

Sir William Ashhurst [Billingsgate], Whig, 2,821.

Sir Robert Clayton [Cheap] Whig, 2,619.

†Thomas Papillon, Whig, 2,612.

Sir William Prichard [Broad Street], Tory, 2,334.

Sir William Russell, Tory, 2,287.

Sir Thomas Vernon, Tory, 2,276.

[Fleet was apparently supported by both parties]


[Poll 3 days; Closed August 2]

Sir John Fleet [Langbourn], Tory, 3,595.

Sir William Ashhurst [Billingsgate], Whig, 3,505.

Sir James Houblon [Aldersgate], Whig, 2,684.

†Thomas Papillon, Whig, 2,260.

*Gilbert Heathcote, Whig, 2,161.

Samuel Shepheard, Vintner, Whig, 2,121.

[Sir W. Prichard (Broad Street) was nominated in the Tory interest, but withdrew before the poll. Heathcote and Shepheard represented the New East India Company, Fleet the original East India Company, and Houblon the Bank of England. The last-named died October 25, 1700, and no successor was elected, the parliament being dissolved in December]

1701, February.

[Poll 4 days; Closed January 23]

Sir William Ashhurst [Billingsgate], Whig, 3,291.

*Gilbert Heathcote, Whig, 3,182.

Sir Robert Clayton [Cheap], Whig, 3,124.

Sir William Withers [Farringdon Within], Tory, 2,798.

Sir Charles Duncombe [Bridge], Tory, 2,714.

Sir John Fleet [Langbourn], Tory, 2,544.

Sir Francis Child [Farringdon Without], Tory, 2,255.

Sir William Prichard [Broad Street], Tory, 2,126.

[On a scrutiny, which closed February 1, the numbers were reduced to 3,245, 3,135, 3,088, 2,758, 2,631, 2,480, 2,189, 2,068.

Withers, though a Tory, was supported by the Whigs, probably as being one of the Committee of the New East India Company.

Heathcote was "expelled the House," Feb. 22, 1701, as being ineligible through holding the office of a Trustee of Exchequer Bills]


[Poll 3 days; Closed March 19]

Vice Heathcote (new writ February 26).

Sir John Fleet [Langbourn], Tory, 2,356.

Sir Thomas Stampe [Cripplegate], Whig, 2,089.

1701, November.

[Poll 4 days; Closed November 28]

*Gilbert Heathcote, Whig, 2,769.

[Elected Alderman of Walbrook, June 30, 1702]

Sir William Ashhurst [Billingsgate], Whig, 2,759.

Sir Thomas Abney [Vintry], Whig, 2,647.

Sir Robert Clayton [Cheap], Whig, 2,602.

Sir Charles Duncombe [Bridge], Tory, 1,490.

Sir John Fleet [Langbourn], Tory, 1,428.

Sir John Houblon [Cornhill], Whig, 995.

Sir Richard Levett [Bridge Without], Tory, 945.

Sir John Parsons [Bassishaw], Tory, 137.

[Sir William Gore, Lord Mayor [Coleman Street], was originally one of the Tory candidates with Fleet, Duncombe and Levett: he withdrew after the nomination, and many of the Tories gave their votes to Houblon, who was standing independently of the four official Whig candidates]


[Poll 4 days; Closed July 25]

Sir John Fleet [Langbourn], Tory, 3,177.

Gilbert Heathcote [Walbrook], Whig, 3,038.

[Knighted October 29, 1702]

Sir William Prichard [Broad Street], Tory, 2,993.

Sir Francis Child [Farringdon Without], Tory, 2,849.

Sir Robert Clayton [Cheap], Whig, 2,791.

Sir Charles Duncombe [Bridge], Tory, 2,777.

Sir William Ashhurst [Billingsgate], Whig, 2,738.

Sir Thomas Abney [Vintry], Whig, 2,713.

[There was a scrutiny which closed August 18 the final numbers are not recorded. Prichard died February 18, 1705: no successor was elected, Parliament being dissolved April 5]


[Poll 4 days; Closed May 17]

Sir Gilbert Heathcote [Walbrook], Whig, 3,346.

Samuel Shepheard, Whig, 3,013.

Sir William Ashhurst [Billingsgate], Whig, 2,961.

Sir Robert Clayton [Cheap], Whig, 2,919.

[Died July 16, 1707]

Sir Richard Hoare [Bread Street] Tory, 2,195.

Sir John Fleet [Langbourn] Tory, 2,187.

Sir William Withers [Farringdon Within] Tory, 1964.

Sir John Parsons [Bassishaw] Tory, 1,709.


Vice Clayton (new writ November 10).

[Poll 5 days; Closed November 22]

Sir William Withers, Lord Mayor [Farringdon Within] Tory, 3,146.

Sir John Buckworth, Bart., Fishmonger, Whig, 2,893.

[There was a scrutiny which closed December 18; the final numbers not recorded]


[Poll 4 days; Closed May 14]

*John Ward, Tory, 3,353.

[Elected Alderman of Candlewick, April 7, 1709]

Sir Gilbert Heathcote [Walbrook], Whig, 3,216.

Sir William Ashhurst [Billingsgate], Whig, 3,209.

Sir William Withers, Lord Mayor [Farringdon Within] Tory, 3,189.

Sir Samuel Stanier [Aldgate] Whig, 3,012.

Sir John Buckworth, Bart., Whig, 2,284.

Sir Richard Hoare [Bread Street] Tory, 2,245.

Sir Francis Child [Farringdon Without] Tory, 2,026.

[Buckworth retired on the third day of the poll, when he was above Stanier. Ward went over to the Whigs during this Parliament, and supported the impeachment of Sacheverell]


[Poll 5 days; Closed October 14]

Sir William Withers [Farringdon Within], Tory, 3,629.

Sir Richard Hoare [Bread Street], Tory, 3,572.

Sir George Newland, Joiner, Tory, 3,385.

*John Cass, Tory, 3,240.

[Elected Alderman of Portsoken, January 23, 1711; Knighted June 14, 1712]

John Ward [Candlewick], Whig, 3,224.

Sir Gilbert Heathcote, Lord Mayor elect [Walbrook], Whig, 3,185.

Sir James Bateman [Coleman Street], Whig, 3,104.

Sir William Ashhurst [Billingsgate], Whig, 3,048.

[There was a scrutiny which closed on November 16, the final numbers are not recorded.

All the members, except Withers, voted with the Whigs against the Tory government on the French Commercial Treaty in 1713]


[Poll 11 days; Closed October 24]

Sir Richard Hoare, Lord Mayor [Bread Street], Tory, 3,842.

Sir George Newland, Tory, 3,826.

[Died by suicide, March 26, 1714]

Sir John Cass [Portsoken], Tory, 3,802.

Sir William Withers [Farringdon Within], Tory, 3,763.

John Ward [Candlewick], Whig, 3,730.

Robert Heysham, Whig, 3,688.

Peter Godfrey, Mercer, Whig, 3,657.

Thomas Scawen [Cornhill], Whig, 3,625.

[There was a scrutiny which was closed, though not completed, November 12, this being the day on which the writ was returnable; the final numbers are not recorded. The defeated candidates petitioned, but parliament was dissolved before the case was heard: owing to the petition being undecided, no new writ was issued on Newland's death.

At this election, Sir Peter King, Recorder (afterwards Lord Chancellor), was one of the original Whig candidates: on his withdrawal, Godfrey was substituted. Heysham had previously sat for Lancaster as a Hanoverian Tory]


[Poll 6 days; Closed January 29]

*Robert Heysham, Whig, 3,499.

[Elected Alderman of Billingsgate, January 14, 1720]

Sir John Ward [Candlewick], Whig, 3,475.

Peter Godfrey, Whig, 3,471.

Sir Thomas Scawen [Cornhill], Whig, 3,439.

Sir John Cass [Portsoken], Tory, 2,884.

Sir William Withers [Farringdon Within], Tory, 2,879.

Sir William Stewart [Cripplegate], Tory, 2,828.

Sir George Mertinns [Bridge], Tory, 2,774.

[Godfrey and Heysham voted with the Tories in opposition to the Septennial Bill, the Peerage Bill and the Bill for repealing the Occasional Conformity Act. Their colleagues also opposed the Septennial Bill]


[Poll 5 days; Closed April 14]

Richard Lockwood, Mercer, Tory, 4,235.

*John Barnard, Whig, 3,980.

Peter Godfrey, Whig, 3,853.

[Died November 10, 1724]

Francis Child [Farringdon Without], Tory, 3,784

Humphrey Parsons [Portsoken], Tory, 3,593.

Robert Heysham [Billingsgate], Whig, 3,573.

[There was a scrutiny which closed May 8, when the final numbers stood: 4,025, 3,840, 3,723, 3,575, 3,393, 3,441, Heysham being thus placed above Parsons. Richard Brocas [Farringdon Within], was one of the original Tory candidates with Child and Lockwood: on his withdrawal, Parsons was adopted in his place. Barnard, though nominally a Whig, was a strong opponent of Walpole, and was supported by the Tories at subsequent elections]


Vice Godfrey (new writ, November 16).

[Poll 6 days; closed November 28]

Sir Richard Hopkins [Lime Street], Whig, 3,332.

Charles Goodfellow, Mercer, Tory, 2,911.

[There was a scrutiny which was abandoned December 9; the final numbers were not recorded]


[Poll 6 days; closed October 18]

Sir John Eyles, Bart., Lord Mayor [Vintry], Whig, 3,643.

*John Barnard, Opposition Whig, 3,620.

[Elected Alderman of Dowgate, January 4, 1728; Knighted September 28, 1732]

*Micajah Perry, Whig, 3,494.

[Elected Alderman of Aldgate, February 24, 1728]

Humphrey Parsons [Portsoken], Tory, 3,370.

Sir John Thompson [Candlewick], Whig, 3,340.

Richard Lockwood, Tory, 3,086.

Sir John Williams [Cripplegate], Tory, 3,017.

Sir Richard Hopkins [Lime Street], Whig, 3,010.

[There was a scrutiny which closed November 20, when the final numbers stood: 3,539, 3,514, 3,396, 3,255, 3,244, 2,977, 2,914, 2,921; Hopkins being thus placed above Williams]


[Poll 7 days; Closed May 8]

Humphrey Parsons [Portsoken] Tory, 3,932.

Sir John Barnard [Dowgate], Opposition Whig, 3,841.

Micajah Perry [Aldgate], Whig, 3,725.

*Robert Willimott, Whig, 2,984.

[Elected Alderman of Lime Street, Jan. 28, 1736]

John Barber [Castle Baynard], Tory, 2,381.

Robert Godschall [Bishopsgate], Tory, 1,078.

[Parsons, Barnard, Perry and Godschall issued a joint address: Perry, who was a Whig, had opposed Walpole's Excise Scheme. Barber, who was an avowed Jacobite, polled 577 plumpers. Willimott and Perry received the support of the Dissenters. Godschall, who was ahead of Perry and Willimott on the first three days' poll, fell behind on the fourth day and retired on the fifth in favour of Barber.

Parsons died March 21, 1741: no new writ was issued, Parliament being dissolved on April 27, following]


[Poll 7 days; Closed May 12]

Sir John Barnard [Dowgate], Opposition Whig, 3,769.

George Heathcote [Walbrook], Opposition Whig, 3,322.

Daniel Lambert, Lord Mayor [Tower], Tory, 3,217.

[Knighted February 18, 1744]

Sir Robert Godschall [Bishopsgate], Tory, 3143.

[Died June 26, 1742]

Micajah Perry [Aldgate], Whig, 1,713.

Sir Edward Bellamy [Billingsgate], Whig, 1,311.

Edward Vernon, Admiral, Opposition Whig, 1,175.

[Vernon, who was a strong opponent of Walpole, was proposed by the Walpole party (in the hope that his popularity might aid the candidates associated with him), without his knowledge, being absent on service abroad, although he was at the same time the Opposition candidate for Westminster]

1742, July 13.

Vice Godschall (new writ July 1).

William Calvert [Portsoken], antiWalpole Whig.

[Knighted February 18, 1744]


[Poll 7 days; Closed July 8]

Sir William Calvert [Portsoken], independent Whig, 3,806.

Sir John Barnard [Dowgate], independent Whig, 3,781.

*Slingsby Bethell, Whig, 3,146.

[Elected Alderman of Walbrook, January 19, 1749]

*Stephen Theodore Jannsen, Whig, 3,008.

[Elected Alderman of Bread Street, Nov. 23, 1748]

Sir Daniel Lambert [Tower], Tory, 2,530.

Sir Robert Ladbroke [Castle Baynard], independent Whig, 1,986.

Sir Henry Marshall [Farringdon Within], Tory, 73.

[This was not a political contest. Bethell and Jannsen were nominated on behalf of the London Merchants in opposition to the four Aldermen, but both of them, after securing their elections on the anti-Aldermanic interest, became Aldermen themselves within two years. Marshall retired after the first day's poll. Many of Bethell and Jannsen's supporters voted also for Barnard and Calvert]


[Poll 7 days; Closed May 7]

Sir John Barnard [Bridge Without], Whig, 3,553.

[Resigned his Aldermanry, July, 1758]

Slingsby Bethell [Walbrook], Whig, 3,547.

[Died November 1,1758]

Sir Robert Ladbroke [Castle Baynard], Whig, 3,390.

William Beckford [Billingsgate], Whig, 2,941.

Sir Richard Glyn [Dowgate], Whig, 2,655.

Sir William Calvert [Portsoken], Whig, 2,650.

[This was not a party contest, Toryism being practically dormant at this time. Calvert lost his election mainly on account of his support of the Jews' Naturalization Bill in the preceding Parliament. Bethell, Glyn and Beckford issued a joint address]

1758, November 30.

Vice Bethell (new writ November 23).

Sir Richard Glyn, Lord Mayor [Dowgate], Whig.

[Created a Baronet, September, 1759]


[Poll 7 days; closed April 2]

Sir Robert Ladbroke [Bridge Without], Whig, 4,306.

Hon. Thomas Harley, Tory, 3,983.

[Elected Alderman of Portsoken May 5, 1761]

William Beckford [Billingsgate], Whig, 3,663.

Sir Richard Glyn, Bart. [Dowgate], Whig, 3,285.

Sir Samuel Fludyer, Bart. [Cheap], Tory, 3,193.

[This was not a party contest. Harley was brought forward by a Committee of merchants under the chairmanship of Richard Glover, the poet, and having been afterwards nominated in conjunction with Beckford, Glyn and Fludyer, at a meeting presided over by Deputy Paterson, signed a joint address with them. He did not call himself a Tory, but usually voted with the Court]


[Poll 7 days; closed March 23]

Hon. Thomas Harley, Lord Mayor [Portsoken], Tory, 3,729.

[Sworn a Privy Councillor, May 27, 1768]

Sir Robert Ladbroke [Bridge Without], Whig, 3,678.

[Died October 31, 1773]

William Beckford [Billingsgate], Whig, 3,402.

[Died June 21, 1770]

Barlow Trecothick [Vintry], Whig, 2,957.

Sir Richard Glyn, Bart. [Dowgate], Whig, 2,823.

John Paterson, Whig, 1,769.

John Wilkes, Whig, 1,247.

1770, July 11.

Vice Beckford (new writ July 7).

Richard Oliver [Billingsgate], Whig.


Vice Ladbroke (new writ November 20].

[Poll 7 days; Closed December 4]

Frederick Bull, Lord Mayor [Queenhithe], Whig, 2,695.

John Roberts, Brewer, Tory, 2,481.

[There was a scrutiny, which was abandoned December 23; the final numbers were not recorded]


[Poll 7 days: Closed October 15]

John Sawbridge [Langbourn], Whig, 3,456.

George Hayley [Cordwainer], Whig, 3,390.

Richard Oliver [Billingsgate], Whig, 3,354.

Frederick Bull, Lord Mayor [Queenhithe], Whig, 3,096.

William Baker, Weaver, Whig, 2,802.

Brass Crosby [Bread Street], Whig, 1,913.

John Roberts, Tory, 1,398.

[Sawbridge, Hayley, Bull and Crosby were supported by Wilkes and his party. though many voted for Baker, who was also a Wilkite. Oliver represented the personal opponents of Wilkes amongst the City Whigs and received many Tory votes]


[Poll 7 days; Closed September 15]

George Hayley [Cordwainer], Whig, 4,062.

[Died August 30, 1781]

John Kirkman [Cheap], Whig, 3,804.

[Died September 15, 1780]

Frederick Bull [Queenhithe], Whig, 3,150.

[Died January 10, 1784]

Nathaniel Newnham [Vintry], Whig, 3,036.

John Sawbridge [Langbourn], Whig, 2,957.

Richard Clark [Broad Street], Tory, 1,774.

[Hayley, Bull and Sawbridge stood jointly. Kirkman died on the last day of the poll]

1780, November 28.

Vice Kirkman (new writ, November 21).

John Sawbridge [Langbourn] Whig.


Vice Hayley (new writ, September 15).

[Poll 7 days; Closed September 29]

Sir Watkin Lewes, Lord Mayor [Lime Street], Whig, 2,685.

Richard Clark [Broad Street], Tory, 2,387.


Vice Bull (new writ, January 12).

[Poll 3 days; Closed January 26].

Brook Watson, Whig (Pittite), 2,097.

Brass Crosby [Bread Street], Whig, 1,043


[Poll 7 days; Closed April 6].

*Brook Watson, Pittite, 4,789.

[Elected Alderman of Cordwainer, June 17, 1784]

Sir Watkin Lewes [Lime Street], Pittite, 4,554.

Nathaniel Newnham [Vintry], Whig, 4,479.

John Sawbridge [Langbourn], Whig, 2,823.

*Richard Atkinson, Tory, 2,816.

Samuel Smith, Jun., Pittite, 287.

Right Hon. William Pitt, 56.

[Pitt, the Prime Minister, was nominated without his consent, and both he and Smith were withdrawn on the second day of the poll. Sawbridge and Newnham, who were Foxites, stood independently of each other. There was a scrutiny which closed on May 14, when the numbers were reduced to 4,776, 4,541, 4,467, 2,812, 2,803, 286]


[Poll 7 days; Closed June 24]

William Curtis [Tower], Tory, 4,346.

Brook Watson [Cordwainer], Tory, 4,101.

Sir Watkin Lewes [Lime Street], Pittite, 3,747.

John Sawbridge [Langbourn], Whig, 3,586.

[Died February 21, 1795]

Nathaniel Newnham [Vintry], Whig, 2,670.

William Pickett, Lord Mayor [Cornhill], Whig, 1,064.

[Lewes, though nominally a Whig, had voted for Pitt's Regency Bill and continued to support the Government. Watson was appointed Commissary-General to the British forces on the Continent in 1793 and thereupon vacated his seat by accepting the Stewardship of East Hendred]

1793, March 6.

Vice Watson (new writ, February 25).

John William Anderson [Aldersgate], Tory.

[Alderman Newnham was nominated by the Whigs, but declined to demand a poll]


Vice Sawbridge (new writ, February 23).

[Poll 3 days; Closed March 5]

*William Lushington, Tory, 2,334.

[Elected Alderman of Billingsgate, May 20, 1795]

Harvey Christian Combe [Aldgate], Whig, 1,560.


[Poll 7 days; Closed June 1]

William Lushington [Billingsgate], Tory, 4,369.

[Resigned his Aldermanry, May, 1799]

William Curtis, Lord Mayor [Tower], Tory, 4,313.

Harvey Christian Combe [Aldgate], Whig, 3,865.

John William Anderson [Aldersgate], Tory, 3,170.

[Created a Baronet, May, 1798]

William Pickett [Cornhill], Whig, 2,795.

Sir Watkin Lewes [Lime Street], Tory, 2,356.


[Poll 7 days; Closed July 13]

Harvey Christian Combe [Aldgate], Whig, 3,377.

Charles Price [Farringdon Without], Tory, 3,236.

[Created a Baronet, January, 1804]

William Curtis [Tower], Tory, 2,989.

[Created a Baronet, November 1802]

Sir John William Anderson, Bart., [Aldersgate], Tory, 2,387.

Benjamin Travers, Fishmonger, Whig, 1,371.

Sir Watkin Lewes [Lime Street], Tory, 652.

William Lushington, Tory, 113.

[Travers retired on the fourth day of the poll, and Lushington declined election on the nomination day]


[Poll 7 days; Closed November 7]

Harvey Christian Combe [Aldgate], Whig, 2,294.

James Shaw, Lord Mayor [Portsoken], Tory, 2,275.

Sir Charles Price, Bart. [Farringdon Without], Tory, 2,254.

Sir William Curtis, Bart. [Tower], Tory, 2,213.

*John Atkins, Whig, 314.

John Peter Hankey [Candlewick], Whig, 164.

[Atkins retired on the third day of the poll, and Hankey was voted for without his consent]


[Poll 7 days; Closed May 13]

Sir Charles Price, Bart. [Farringdon Without], Tory, 3,117.

Sir William Curtis, Bart. [Tower], Tory, 3,059.

James Shaw [Portsoken], Tory, 2,863.

[Created a Baronet, September 1809]

Harvey Christian Combe [Aldgate], Whig, 2,533.

John Peter Hankey [Candlewick], Whig, 226.

[Hankey died on May 6, the first day of the poll, which was kept open unnecessarily for 7 days to determine the order of the members elected]


[Poll 7 days; Closed October 12]

Harvey Christian Combe [Aldgate], Whig, 5,125.

Sir William Curtis, Bart. [Tower], Tory, 4,577.

Sir James Shaw, Bart. [Portsoken], Tory, 4,082.

John Atkins [Walbrook], Tory, 3, 645.

*Robert Waithman, Whig, 2,622.

Matthew Wood [Cripplegate], Whig, 2,373.

Claudius Stephen Hunter, Lord Mayor [Bassishaw] Tory 8.

[Combe, in accordance with a request from the liverymen at a meeting of Common Hall on May 30, 1817 resigned his seat, accepting the Stewardship of the Chiltern Hundreds. Atkins had contested the City as a Whig in 1806]

1817, June 10.

Vice Combe (new writ, June 3).

Matthew Wood, Lord Mayor [Cripplegate] Whig.

[William Heygate (Coleman Street), declined an invitation to stand as a moderate Whig]


[Poll 7 days; Closed June 23]

Matthew Wood [Cripplegate], Whig, 5,715.

Thomas Wilson, Spectacle Maker, Tory, 4,846.

*Robert Waithman, Whig, 4,617.

[Elected Alderman of Farringdon Without, July 24, 1818]

John Thomas Thorp [Aldgate], Whig, 4,349.

Sir William Curtis, Bart. [Tower], Tory, 4,224.

John Atkins [Walbrook], Tory, 1,688.


Poll 7 days; Closed March 14.

Matthew Wood [Cripplegate] Whig, 5,370.

Thomas Wilson, Tory, 5,358.

Sir William Curtis, Bart. [Tower], Tory, 4,908.

George Bridges, Lord Mayor [Lime Street], Tory, 4,259.

Robert Waithman [Farringdon Without], Whig, 4,119.

John Thomas Thorp [Aldgate], Whig, 3,921.


Poll 7 days; Closed June 16.

William Thompson [Cheap], Whig antiCatholic, 6,483.

Robert Waithman [Farringdon Without], Whig, 5,042.

William Ward, Musician, Tory, 4,991.

Matthew Wood [Cripplegate], Whig, 4,880.

William Venables, Lord Mayor [Queenhithe], Whig, 4,514.

John Gurratt [Bridge Within], Tory, 330.

[Alderman Garratt, who was proposed by Alderman Brown without his consent, retired after the first day's poll]


(Elected July 30).

Matthew Wood [Cripplegate], Whig.

Robert Waithman [Farringdon Without], Whig.

William Thompson [Cheap], Whig.

William Ward, Tory.


(Elected April 29).

Matthew Wood [Cripplegate], Whig.

Robert Waithman [Farringdon Without], Whig.

William Thompson [Cheap], Whig.

William Venables [Queenhithe], Whig.

[Mr. Ward, the late Tory member, withdrew on the nomination day]


[Poll 2 days; Closed December 12]

George Grote, Needlemaker, Radical, 8,412.

Matthew Wood [Cripplegate], Whig, 7,488.

Robert Waithman [Farringdon Without], Whig, 7,452.

[Died February 6, 1833]

Sir John Key, Bart. [Langbourn], Whig, 6,136.

George Lyall, Tory, 5,112.

Michael Scales, Radical, 569.

[Key accepted the Stewardship of the Chiltern Hundreds, August, 1833]


Vice Waithman (new writ, Feb. 21).

[Poll 2 days; Closed March 1]

George Lyall, Broderer, Tory, 5,569.

William Venables [Queenhithe], Whig, 4,527.


Vice Key (new writ August 5).

[Poll 2 days; Closed August 15]

William Crawford, Spectacle Maker, Whig, 4,041.

Francis Kemble, Tory, 2,004.


[Poll 2 days; Closed January 7]

Matthew Wood [Cripplegate], Lib., 6,418.

James Pattison, Spectacle Maker, Lib., 6,050.

William Crawford, Lib., 5,961.

George Grote, Lib., 5,955.

George Lyall, Con., 4,599.

William Ward, Con., 4,559.

Thomas Wilson, Con., 4,514.


[Poll July 24]

Matthew Wood [Cripplegate], Lib., 6,517.

[Created a Baronet, November, 1837]

William Crawford, Lib., 6,071.

James Pattison, Lib., 6,070.

George Grote, Lib., 5,879.

John Horsley Palmer, Con., 5,873.


[Poll June 29]

John Masterman, Con., 6,339.

Sir Matthew Wood, Bart. [Cripplegate], Lib, 6,315.

Died September 25, 1843]

George Lyall, Con., 6,290.

Right Hon. Lord John Russell, Lib., 6,221.

Matthies Wolrerley, Attwood, Con., 6,212.

James Pattison, Lib., 6,070.

William Crawford, Lib., 6,065.

John Pair Cornhill, Con., 6,017.

Lord J. Russell became First Lord of the Treasury in 1846 and was re-elected July 8 (new writ, July 3.


Vice Wood (Notice of Writ September 28).

[Poll October 21]

James Pattison, Lib., 6,532.

Thomas Baring, Con., 6,367.


[Poll July 29]

Right Hon. Lord John Russell, Lib., 7,137.

James Pattison, Lib., 7,030.

[Died July 14, 1849]

Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild, Lib., 6,792.

John Masterman, Con., 6,722.

Sir George Gerard de Hochepied Larpent, Bart., Lib., 6,719.

Robert Cooper Lee Bevan, Con., 5,268.

John Johnson [Dowgate], Con., 5,069.

James William Freshfield, Con., 4,704.

William Payne, Lib., 518.

[Baron de Rothschild accepted the Chiltern Hundreds in June 1849, and stood again after the rejection of the Jewish Disabilities Bill]

1849, July 3.

Vice Rothschild (new Writ June 27).

Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild, Lib., 6,017.

Lord John James Robert Manners, Con., 2,814.

1849, July 27.

Vice Pattison (new Writ July 21).

Sir James Duke, Lord Mayor [Farringdon Without], Lib.

[Created a Baronet, October, 1849]


[Poll July 7]

John Masterman, Con., 6,195.

Right Hon. Lord John Russell, Lib., 5,537.

Sir James Duke, Bart. [Farringdon Without], Lib., 5,270.

Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild, Lib., 4,748.

Robert Wigram Crawford, Lib., 3,765.

[Lord J. Russell was re-elected January 3, 1853 (new Writ, December 27, 1852): June 14, 1854 (new Writ, June 9); March 3, 1855 (new Writ, February 26), on acceptance of office as Foreign Secretary, President of the Council and Colonial Secretary respectively]


[Poll March 28]

Sir James Duke, Bart. [Farringdon Without], Lib., 6,664.

Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild, Lib., 6,398.

Right Hon. Lord John Russell, Lib., 6,308.

Robert Wigram Crawford, Lib., 5,808.

Raikes Currie, Lib., 4,519.

[Baron de Rothschild accepted the Chiltern Hundreds in July 1857 on the rejection of the Jewish Disabilities Bill, and was re-elected July 28 (new writ, July 24) without a contest]


(Elected April 29).

Right Hon. Lord John Russell, Lib.

Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild, Lib.

Sir James Duke, Bart. [Farringdon Without] Lib.

Robert Wigram Crawford, Lib.

[Lord J. Russell was re-elected on taking office as Foreign Secretary, June 27, 1859 (new Writ, June 22), and vacated his seat by accepting the Stewardship of Northstead in July, 1861, previous to being raised to the Peerage]

1861, July 30.

Vice Russell (new Writ, July 24).

Western Wood, Lib., 5,747.

[Died May 17, 1863]

William Cubitt, Lord Mayor [Langbourn], Con., 5,241.

1863, June 2.

Vice Wood (new Writ, May 28).

George Joachim Göschcn, Lib.


[Poll July 11]

George Joachim Göschen, Lib., 7,102.

[Sworn a Privy Councillor November 29, 1865]

Robert Wigram Crawford, Lib., 7,086.

William Lawrence [Bread Street], Lib., 6,637.

Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild, Lib., 6,525.

George Lyall, Con. 4,197.

*Robert Nicholas Fowler, Con., 4,086.

[Mr. Göschen was appointed to the VicePresidency of the Board of Trade in Nov., 1865, and was re-elected February 26, 1866 (new writ February 21), having been in the interim transferred to the Chancellorship of the Duchy of Lancaster]


[Poll November 17].

Right Hon. George Joachim Göschen, Lib., 6,560.

William Lawrence [Bread Street], Lib., 6. 258.

Robert Wigram Crawford, Lib., 6, 215.

Charles Bell, Con., 6, 130.

[Died February 9, 1869]

Philip Twees, Con., 6, 099.

Sills John Gibbons [Castle Baynard], Con., 6, 013.

Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild, Lib., 5, 995.

[Mr. Göschen was re-elected on appointment to the Presidency of the Poor Law Board, December 21, 1868 (new Writ December 15)]

1869, February 22.

Vice Bell (new Writ February 17).

Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild, Lib.


[Poll February 5]

William James Richmond Cotton [Lime Street], Con., 8, 397.

Philip Twclls, Con., 8, 330.

John Gellibrand Hubbard, Con., 8, 210.

[Sworn a Privy Councillor, Aug. 6, 1874]

Right Hon. George Joachim Goschen, Lib., 6, 787.

William Lawrence [Bread Street], Lib., 6, 654.

Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild, Lib., 6, 490.


[Poll March 31]

William James Richmond Cotton [Lime Street], Con., 10, 326.

Robert Nicholas Fowler [Cornhill], Con., 10, 274.

[Created a Baronet, July, 1885]

Right Hon. John Gellibrand Hubbard, Con., 10, 256.

William La whence [Bread Street], Lib., 5, 950.

Richard Biddulph Martin, Lib., 5, 837.

Walter Morrison, Lib., 5, 743.


[Poll November 26]

Sir Robert Nicholas Fowler, Bart., [Cornhill], Con., 12, 827

Right Hon. John Gellibrand Hubbard, Con., 8, 802.

Stephen Philpot Low, Lib., 5, 817.

William James Richmond Cotton [Lime Street], Con., 5, 563.


(Elected July 1).

Sir Robert Nicholas Fowler, Bart. [Cornhill], Con.

[Died May 22, 1891]

Right Hon. John Gellibrand Hubbard, Con.

[Created a Peer as Lord Addington, July, 1887]

1887, July 27.

Vice Hubbard (new writ July 22).

Thomas Charles Baring, Con.

[Died April 2, 1891]

1891, April 18.

Vice Baring (new writ April 14).

Henry Hucks Gibbs, Con.

1891, June 3.

Vice Fowler (new writ May 28).

Sir Reginald Hanson, Bart. [Billingsgate], Con.


[Poll July 7]

Sir Reginald Hanson, Bart. [Billingsgate], Con., 10, 556.

Alban George Henry Gibbs, Con., 9, 258.

James Thornson Ritchie [Tower], Con., 4, 207.


(Elected July 12).

Sir Reginald Hanson, Bart. [Billingsgate] Con.

Alban George Henry Gibbs, Con.

[Styled " Hon." by courtesy on his father's elevation to the Peerage, Feb., 1896]


(Elected September 29).

Hon. Alban George Henry Gibbs, Con.

Sir Joseph Cockfield Dimsdale [Cornhill], Con.

[Created a Baronet, July, 1902, K.C.V.O., Nov., 1902, sworn a Privy Councillor, December 16, 1902, retired from the Court of Aldermen, December, 1902]

Mr. Gibbs was re-elected February 9, 1904 (new writ Feb. 3), having vacated his seat by acceptance of a Government contract]


[Poll January 16]

Sir Edward George Clarke, K.C., Con., 16, 019.

Hon. Alban George Henry Gibbs, Con., 15, 619.

Felix Otto Schuster, Lib., 5, 313.

Right Hon. Sir Joseph West Ridgeway, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., K.C.S.I., Lib., 5, 064.

[Mr. Gibbs vacated his seat by accepting the Stewardship of the Manor of Northstead, February 14, 1906, in order to secure the return to parliament of Mr. Balfour, who had been defeated at East Manchester at the General Election]

1906, February 27.

Vice Gibbs (new writ February 19)

Right Hon. Arthur James Balfour, Con., 15, 474.

Thomas Gibson Bowles, Free Trader, 4, 134.

[Mr. Bowles, who professed Conservatism in general politics, was the nominee of the Liberal party]


1316 Matthew de Essex.
Will enrolled June 3, 1325, [H.R. 53 (129)]
Ralph de Walcote.
Will enrolled January 30, 1318 [H.R. 46 (80)]
William de Flete.
Will dated April 5, 1349, enrolled May 4, 1349 [H.R. 76 (182)]
1318 John de Cherleton.
Perhaps identical with the person of that name who sat for Middlesex in the Parliaments of September, 1337 and July, 1338, but more probably his father.
1320 Roger Hosebonde.
Will dated September 25, 1329, enrolled April 22, 1331 [H.R. 59 (351)]
Henry Monquoi.
Will dated October 3, 1342, enrolled February 14, 1362 [H.R. 90 (11)]
1322 Thomas de Chetyngdone.
Will dated October 13, 1337, enrolled November 17, 1337 [H.R. 64 (121)]
1327 Edmund Cosyn.
A person of the same name sat for Norwich in the Parliaments of January, 1339 and January, 1348.
1337 William Haunsard was Sheriff 1333–1334.
Died 1349. Will dated August 5, 1349, enrolled November 9, 1349 [H.R. 77 (226)]
1340 January—Adam Lucas was Sheriff 1340–1341.
Will dated October 11, 1347, enrolled December 3, 1347 [H.R. 74 (164)]
1340 October—John de Dallyng.
Will dated April 6, 1349, enrolled November 16, 1349 [H.R. 77 (234)]
1346 Thomas de Walden was Chamberlain of the City 1349–1360.
Will dated June 23, 1361, enrolled October 17, 1362 [H.R. 90 (114)]
1348 William de Iford was Common Sergeant c. 1330–1351.
Will dated July 1, 1361, enrolled July 19, 1361 [H.R. 89 (114)]
Richard de Wycombe.
Will dated March 30, 1359, enrolled May 10, 1361 [H.R. 89 (67)]
1352 Simon de Bedyngton [sic]. The correct spelling is almost certainly Benyngton, as given in the later returns of 1361, 1363, 1365, 1366. He was Sheriff 1359– 1360, and died in 1368.
Will dated October 14, 1368, enrolled December 4, 1368 [H.R. 96 (214)]
1355 Adam de Acres was Common Sergeant 1351—c. 1362; he married the widow of Anketyn de Gisors, late Alderman and M.P.
1357 William de Essex was one of the City Auditors, 1373.
1358 Richard Toky.
Will dated October 20, 1390, enrolled June 12, 1391 [H.R. 119 (136)]
1362 John Hiltoft was Sheriff 1363–1364, died 1368.
Will dated May 15, 1368, proved July 17, 1368 [H.R. 96 (102)]
1366 John de Worstede.
Will dated August 10, 1368, enrolled October 16, 1368 [H.R. 96 (154)]
1372 William de Kelshull (or Kelleshull).
Will dated September 21, 1383, enrolled October 17, 1334 [H.R. 113 (28)]
1373 John Birlyngham was a stepson of Sir John Philipot (Alderman and ex-M.P. for the City).
1384 Henry Herbury was one of the Auditors 1380–1381, 1384–1385, 1386–1388.
Will dated September 6, 1396, enrolled January 22, 1397 [H.R. 125 (41)]
1386 Thomas Girdlere was Auditor 1384–1386.
1388 John Clenhand was Auditor 1387–1388.
Will dated June 14, 1390, proved November 5, 1390 [P.C C. 6 Rous]
1394 Thomas Exton was Auditor 1389–1390, 1398–1399.
Will dated May 20, 1420, proved December, 1420 [P.C.C. 50 Marche]
1395 Geoffrey Walderne was Auditor 1390–1391, 1394–1395.
1397 Robert Asshecombe was Auditor 1396–1397.
Will dated May 13, 1416, enrolled November 22, 1429 [H.R. 152 (27)]
1402 John Prophetc (or Profyt) was Auditor 1399–1400 and Chamberlain of the City, 1406–1416.
Will dated January 3, 1416, proved March 10, 1416 [P.C.C. 33 Marche]
1403 William Marcheford was Auditor 1395–1396.
Will dated December 1, 1413, proved January 3, 1414 [P.C.C. 30 Marche]
1406 John Sudbury was brother of the late Archbishop of Canterbury (Simon Sudbury) who was put to death by Wat Tyler's mob in 1381.
Will dated May 8, 1425, proved November 26, 1425 [P.C.C. 4 Luffenam]
1407 John Bryan was elected Sheriff in 1418, and was accidentally drowned October 10, in that year.
1410 Walter Gawtron was Auditor of the City 1410–1411, 1413–1414 and sat for Middlesex in the Parliaments of 1417, 1423, 1427 and 1429.
1411 John Sutton was Auditor 1390–1391 and Sheriff 1413–1414.
Will dated October 31, 1415, proved December 7, 1415 [P.C.C. 30 Marche]
1414 William Burton was Auditor 1411–1413, 1417–1419.
Will dated March 10, 1438, proved May 20, 1438 [P.C.C. 24 Luffenam]
1415 William Michell was Auditor 1420–1421.
Will dated May 14, 1426, proved May 27, 1426 [P.C.C. 6 Luffenam]
1416 William Weston was Auditor 1411–1413, 1425–1427 and Sheriff 1421–1422.
Will dated October 3, 1426, proved September 9, 1430 [P.C.C. 13 Luffenam]
1419 Richard Meryvale was Auditor 1418–1419.
Will dated April 5, 1437, enrolled June 8, 1439 [H.R. 167 (551)]
1420 Salamon Oxcneye.
Will dated June 18, 1433, proved July 25, 1433 [P.C.C. 17 Luffenam]
John Higham was Auditor 1420–1421, 1424–1426 and Sheriff 1426–1427.
1421 John Whatele was Warden of London Bridge, 1404–1416.
Will dated January 4, 1426, enrolled June 16, 1432 [H.R. 160 (51)]
1422 Thomas Mayneld was Auditor 1413–1414.
Will dated March 21, 1426, proved same year [P.C.C. 5 Luffenam]
1423 Thomas Boteler was Auditor 1423–1425.
1425 Everard Flete was Auditor 1426–1428.
1431 John Abbot was Auditor 1420–1421 and Sheriff 1428–1429.
Will dated February 27, 1444, proved March 5, 1444 [P.C.C. 34 Luffenam]
1435 John Bederenden was Auditor 1419–1420 and Chamberlain of the City 1420–1434.
1437 John Carpenter was Common Clerk [i.e. Town Clerk] 1417–1438.
1442 John Bowys was Recorder 1440–1442.
A John Bowys sat for Notts in the Parliaments of 1429, 1432, 1435.
William Cottesbrooke was Auditor 1442–1444.
1445 Thomas Burgoyne was one of the Under-Sheriffs [i.e. Judges of the Sheriffs' Court] 1441 till his death in 1471.
Will dated July 22, 1468, proved February 28, 1471 [P.C.C. 1 Watteys]. A Thomas Burgoyne sat for Bridgewater in the Parliament of 1447.
John Sturgeon was Auditor 1438–1442 and Chamberlain of the City 1450–1454.
1449 February—Thomas Billyng was Common Serjeant 1443–1449; one of the UnderSheriffs 1449–1450; Recorder 1450–1454.
He was made a Serjeant-at-Law 1453, a King's Sergeant 1458, was a Judge of the King's Bench 1464–1469 and Lord Chief Justice 1469 till his death May 5, 1481. He had sat for Midhurst in the preceding Parliament (February, 1449).
1449 November—John Nedham was Common Serjeant 1449–1453.
Sat for Newcastle-under-Lyme in the Parliaments of 1442, 1447, January, 1449. He was made a Sergeant-at-Law and King's Sergeant 1453; was a Judge of the Common Pleas 1457–1471 and of the King's Bench 1471 till his death; also Chief Justice of Chester 1461–1463; knighted October 9, 1470; died April 25, 1480.
John Harewe was Auditor 1447–1449, 1458–1460.
Probably identical with the John Harewe who sat for Horsham in 1460.
1458 Thomas Dounton.
Will dated June 3, 1460; proved July 9, 1460 [P.C.C. 19 Stokton]
1460 Richard Nedeham was Auditor 1455–1457 and Sheriff 1458–1459.
1463 Thomas Urswyk was Common Serjeant 1453–1454; Recorder 1454–1471.
M.P. for Midhurst 1449; Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer 1471 till his death in 1479. Knighted 1471.
Thomas Wynselowe was Auditor 1454–1456.
A person of this name sat for Worcestershire in 1449 and for Wiltshire and Lyme Regis in 1455.
1469 Thomas Staughton.
Will dated October 31, 1478 proved February 8, 1480, [P.C.C. 3 Logge]
1470 John Marchall.
Died January 14, 1499. Will dated January 12, 1499, proved February 9, 1499 [P.C.C. 28 Horne]
1478 William Bracebridge was Auditor 1479–1481.
Will dated July 28, 1498, proved August 31, 1499 [P.C.C. 37 Horne]
1483 Thomas Fitz William was Recorder 1483–1495.
M.P. for Lincolnshire and Speaker of the House of Commons in the Parliament of 1489, having previously represented that County in 1478; Knighted 1487; Will dated June 25, 1494, proved May 21, 1497 [P.C.C. 9 Horne]
John Pykering was Auditor 1485–1487.
He died November 29, 1498; Inq. Post Mort., June 27, 1499.
1485 William Spark was Auditor 1481–1483, 1486–1488, 1492–1494.
Will dated September 28, 1503, proved December 18, 1504 [P.C.C. 30 Blamyr]
1491 Thomas Bullesdon (or Billysdon) was Auditor 1487–1489.
Will dated October 24, 1501, proved November 24, 1501 [P.C.C. 13 Blamyr]
1495 Sir Robert Sheffield was Recorder 1495–1508.
Knighted 1497. Speaker in the Parliament of 1512 in which, as in that of 1515, he is said to have sat for Lincolnshire. Will dated August 8, 1518, proved February 28, 1519 [P.C.C. 15 Ayliffe]
1497 Richard Nonneley was Auditor 1493–1495.
Will dated September 18, 1497, proved December 15, 1497 [P.C.C. 15 Horne]
1504 Thomas Cremour.
Will dated September 15, 1526, proved October 7, 1526 [P.C.C. 11 Porch]
John Paynter was Auditor 1496–1498, 1505–1506.
Will dated September 16, 1506, proved January 9, 1507 [P.C.C. 17 Adeane]
1510 John Chaloner was Recorder 1508–1510.
Thomas More, the author of Utopia. He was one of the Under-Sheriffs (i.e. Judges of the Sheriffs' Court), September 1510-July 1518.
Appointed a Master of Requests and sworn a Privy Councillor 1518; Knighted 1521; Speaker of the House of Commons (probably M.P. for Middlesex) 1523; Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster 1525–1529; Lord Chancellor 1529–1532; High Steward of Cambridge University 1525. Executed for high treason (in denying the royal supremacyl, July 6, 1535.
1512 Richard Broke was one of the Under-Sheriffs 1502–1510, Recorder 1510–1520.
A judge of the Common Pleas 1520–1526; Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer 1526 till his death in 1529. Will dated May 6th, 1529, proved July 2, 1529 [P.C.C. 3 Jankyn]
William Calley died in May or June, 1515.
[Will dated April 26, 1515, proved June 15, 1515 [P.C.C. 7 Holder]
There is no record of any successor to him in this Parliament which was not dissolved till December 22, in the same year.
1523 William Shelley was one of the Under-Sheriffs 1514–1520, Recorder 1520–1525.
Made a Serjeant-at-Law 1521; a Judge of the Common Pleas 1526 till his death in 1549. Knighted 1529. Will dated November 6,1548, proved February 8, 1549 [P.C.C. 25 Populwell
John Hewster.
Will dated November 4, 1525, proved December 11, 1525 [P.C.C. 40 Bedfelde]
1529 John Baker was one of the Under-Sheriffs 1520–1526, Recorder 1526–1535.
Knighted October 18, 1537: Attorney-General 1536–1540; Chancellor of the Exchequer 1545 till his death in December, 1558. Will (Codicil) dated December 5, 1558, proved January 30. 1559 [P.C.C. 24 Welles] He sat for Guildford 1542; Lancaster 1545; Hunting donshire 1547 and March, 1553; Bramber October, 1553; Kent in both Parliament of 1554, and in those of 1555, 1558.
John Petyt was Auditor 1523–1525, 1529–1531, and one of the Common Pleaders 1526 till his death in 1532.
Will dated August 22, 1531, proved January 24, 1533 [P.C.C. 22 Thower]
1534 Robert Pakynton was Auditor 1534–1536.
Was assassinated by some one unknown, being shot in the street on his way from his house in Soper Lane to Mass at St. Thomas Acon Church, between 5 and 6 a.m., on November 13, 1536.
1536 Roger Cholmley was elected one of the Common Pleaders in 1518, made a Serjeantat-Law in 1531, a King's Serjeant 1544, and was Recorder 1535–1545.
Knighted October, 1536: Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer 1545–1552; Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench 1552–1553. M.P. for Middlesex in 1554 (second Parliament), 1555, 1558, 1559; died June 21, 1565. He was the founder of Highgate School. Will dated April 30, 1565, proved July 4, 1565 [P.C.C. 24 Morrison]
1542 John Sturgeon was Auditor 1537–1538, 1542–1544, and one of the Bridgemasters 1547–1548; Chamberlain 1550–1563.
He died in 1569. Will dated January 24, 1569, enrolled February 28, 1569 [H.R. 256 (30)]
Nicholas Wylford was Auditor 1545–1547.
Will dated August 3, 1551, proved August 24, 1551 [P.C.C. 22 Bucke]
1545 Robert Broke was Common Serjeant 1536–1545; Recorder 1545–1554.
Made Sergeant-at-Law, 1552. Speaker of the House of Commons April, 1554; Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas 1554, till his death, September 5, 1558; Knighted January 27, 1555.
1547 Thomas Bacon; probably the elder brother of Sir Nicholas Bacon, afterwards Lord Keeper (father of the philosopher, Francis Bacon), and of Alderman James Bacon. He was Auditor 1548–1550.
1551 John Blundell was Auditor 1549–1550.
Will dated February 21, 1558, proved October 29, 1559 [P.C.C. 49 Chaynay]
1553 John Marshe was Common Serjeant 1547–1563; one of the Under-Sheriffs (Judges of the Sheriffs' Court) 1563–1566.
Will dated January 7, 1578, proved July 9, 1579 [P.C.C. 2 Bakon] A person of the same name was M.P. for Reading in 1547 and for Old Sarum, 1555.
1554 Richard Burnell was one of the Common Pleaders 1547 till his death in 1558.
Will dated December 30, 1557, proved February 25, 1558 (P.C.C. 10 Noodes]
Ranulph Cholmley was one of the Under-Sheriffs 1553–1554; Recorder 1554 till his death, April 25, 1563.
Serjeant-at-Law, 1558. M.P. for St. Michael's, 1547; Bodmin, March, 1553; Boroughbridge, April, 1554.
Richard Grafton. The well-known printer and chronicler; Treasurer of Christ's Hospital 1553–1557.
M.P. for Coventry, 1559, 1562. King's Printer, 1547–1553; died May, 1575 (buried May 14).
1555 Nicholas Chowne was Auditor 1557–1559.
M.P. for Wilton, October, 1553. Died August 8, 1569. Will dated March 17, 1568, proved August 20, 1569 [P.C.C. 20 Sheffield]
1559 Richard Hill was Auditor 1565–1567.
Will dated June 2, 1564, proved September 16, 1568 [P.C.C. 21 Babyngton]
1563 Richard Onslow was Recorder 1563–1566.
Solicitor-General 1566–1569; M.P. for Steyning in the Parliaments of 1555, 1558, 1559, 1562; Speaker of the House of Commons 1566–1567; died April 2, 1571.
1566 Thomas Bromley was Recorder, 1566–1569.
Solicitor-General 1569–1579; Knighted 1579; Lord Chancellor 1579, till his death April 12, 1587. M.P. for Bridgenorth, 1558; Wigan, 1559; Guildford, 1562–1567.
1571 Thomas Wilbraham was a Common Pleader 1561–1569; Recorder 1569–1571.
Attorney of the Court of Wards, 1571; M.P. for Westminster, 1572 till his death, July 10, 1573.
Thomas Norton. The poet (joint-author, with Thomas Sackville, of Gorboduc, the first English tragedy). He was the first Remembrancer of the City (Feb. 6, 1571 till his death, March 10, 1584).
M.P. for Gatton, 1558; Berwick, 1562–1563.
1572 William Fletewood was a Common Pleader 1558–1563. Recorder 1571–1592.
Made Serjeant-at-Law, 1580; Queen's Serjeant, 1592; M.P. for Marlborough, 1558; Lancaster, 1559, 1563; St. Mawes, 1571. He died February 28, 1594.
1584 Walter Fisshe was Auditor 1578–1579.
Will dated September 10, 1578, proved November 27, 1585 [P.C.C. 53 Brudenell]
Thomas Aldersey was Auditor 1571–1572.
Will dated February 20, 1599, proved February 23, 1599 [P.C.C. 10 Kidd]
1588 Andrew Palmer was Auditor 1579–1581.
Comptroller of the Mint, 1595, till his death. Will dated August 14, 1599, proved August 30, 1599 [P.C.C. 67 Kidd]
1593 Edward Drewe was Recorder 1592–1594, resigning on being made a Queen's Serjeant.
M.P. for Lyme Regis in Parliament of 1584, and Exeter in those of 1586, 1589; made a Serjeant-at-Law, 1589. Will dated April 25, 1598, proved May 16, 1598 [P.C.C. 44 Lewyn]
George Sotherton was Auditor 1582–1584, 1588–1590, 1591–1593, 1595–1597. He died May 24, 1599.
1597 John Croke was Recorder 1595–1603, resigning on being made a King's Serjeant.
Knighted May 22, 1603; a Welsh Judge 1599–1607; Judge of the King's Bench 1607 till his death, January 23, 1620. M.P. for Windsor in the Parliament of 1584, and Speaker in that of 1601.
Thomas Fettiplace was Auditor 1599–1601.
Will dated August 22, 1618, proved September 8, 1618 [P.C.C. 82, Meade]
1601 John Pynder was Auditor 1595–1597.
1604 Sir Henry Montague was Recorder 1603–1616.
M.P. for Higham Ferrers in the Parliaments of 1592, 1597 and 1601; Knighted July 23, 1603; K.C. 1607; a King's Serjeant 1611; Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench 1616–1620; Lord High Treasurer 1620–1621; Lord President of the Council 1621–1628; Lord Privy Seal 1628 till his death, November 7, 1642. Created Viscount Mandeville, December, 1620; Earl of Manchester, February, 1626. His third wife was widow of Sir Leonard Halliday (Lord Mayor, 1605–6).
Nicholas Fuller was one of the Common Pleaders 1584–1611.
M.P. for St. Mawes in the Parliament of 1593; died Feb. 23, 1620.
1604 Richard Gore was Auditor 1601–1603, 1606–1608.
Brother to Aldermen Sir John Gore and William Gore. He died at Hamburg (where he had been resident for many years in connection with the Merchant Adventurers) in 1622. Will dated October, 1622, proved January 15, 1623 [P.C.C. 4, Swan]
1614 Robert Middleton.
M.P. for Weymouth, 1604–1611; died June, 1616 (buried June 13). Will dated June 15, 1613, proved June 25, 1616. He was on the Committee of the East India Company, 1607–1610, 1611–1612, 1613–1616. He was a brother of Alderman Sir Thomas Middleton.
1621 Robert Heath was Recorder 1618–1621.
Solicitor-General 1621–1625; Attorney-General 1625–1631; Knighted January 28, 1621; M.P. for East Grinstead in the Parliaments of 1624, 1625, 1626; Lord Chief Justice of Common Pleas 1631–1634; a King's Serjeant 1636–1641; Puisne Judge of King's Bench 1641–1642; Lord Chief Justice of King's Bench 1642–1645; died August 30, 1649.
William Towerson.
M.P. for Portsmouth 1628–1629, and had been the first Deputy-Governor of the Irish Society (1610–1613). He was on the Committee of the East India Company, 1619–1622. He died about 1631. Will dated May 7, 1630, proved January 15, 1631 [P.C.C. 3, St. John].
1624 Sir Heneage Finch was Recorder 1621 till his death December 5, 1631.
M.P. for Rye 1607–1611, West Looe 1621; Speaker in the Parliament of 1626; Knighted June 22, 1623; Serjeant-at-Law 1623.
Martin Bond was President of the Hon. Artillery Company in 1616, and Auditor 1609–1611, 1623–1625.
Treasurer of St. Bartholomew's Hospital 1620–1643; died May, 1643.
1628 James Bunce.
Father of Alderman Sir James Bunce; died January 26, 1632.
Henry Waller was Auditor 1630–1631.
Will dated July 20, 1630, proved December 1, 1631 [P.C.C. 132, St. John]
1640 Matthew Cradock was Auditor 1640–1641.
Was first Governor of the Massachusetts Company 1628–1629, and was on the Committee of the East India Company. 1629–1630 and 1634 till his death. [A person of this name who was M.P. for Stafford, of which town he was Recorder, in the Parliaments of 1620, 1624, 1625, 1628, was probably father of the City member and certainly not identical with him]
Samuel Vassall.
Was imprisoned in 1628 for refusing to pay tunnage and poundage. He died in America about 1667 (letters of administration September 24, 1667).
1641 John Venn was Auditor 1639–1641.
Was a Colonel in the Parliamentary army, Governor of Windsor Castle 1642–1645, and one of the regicides.
1653 Praise-God Barbon. A Baptist preacher, whose name (corrupted into "Barebone") is inseparably connected with and the permanent designation of the so-called Parliament of which he was a member.
He was buried January 5, 1680.
1654 William Steele was Recorder 1649–1655.
He had sat in the short Parliament of 1640 for Romney; was made Serjeant-at-Law 1654: Chief Baron of the Exchequer 1655–1656; Lord Chancellor of Ireland 1656–1660; a member of Cromwell's Upper House 1657; died October 2, 1680 (will dated September 17, proved October 19).
1660 William Wilde was Recorder 1659–1668.
Made a Serjeant-at-Law October, 1660; a King's Serjeant 1661; Judge of the Common Pleas 1668–1673; Judge of the King's Bench 1673-April, 1679; knighted May, 1660; created a Baronet, September, 1660; died November, 23, 1679.
1661 All the members elected were in opposition to the Court: Thompson and Love were Independents, and Fowke and Jones Presbyterians. The Court party nominated Sir Nicholas Crisp, Sir W. Wilde (the Recorder), and Aldermen Sir T. Adams (Cornhill) and Sir R. Ford (Farringdon Within) but they did not go to a poll.
1679 Sir Thomas Player was Colonel of the Orange Regiment of the Trained Bands and Leader of the Hon. Artillery Company 1669–1677; Chamberlain of the City (in succession to his father) 1672–1683. He was also for some time Deputy of Bassishaw Ward; the "railing Rabsheka" of Part II. of Absalom and Achitophel.
Knighted July 5, 1660; died January 19, 1686.
1690 Sir Thomas Vernon was an Auditor 1683–1684.
Knighted March 8, 1685; died February 10, 1711. He was for some years a Common Councilman for Coleman Street Ward, and was a Director of the New East India Company 1698–1700 and 1701–1703. One of his daughters married Alderman Sir Henry Furnese.
1705 Samuel Shepheard.
Was a leading promoter and one of the original Directors of the new East India Company, and had a seat at the Board of the United Companies after the Union 1709–1711. Was M.P. for Newport (Isle of Wight) in the first Parliament of 1701, but was unseated for bribery. He died January 4, 1719, having been Sub-Governor of the South Sea Company (of which he was an original Director) since the preceding December and previously Deputy-Governor since 1713.
1708 Sir John Buckworth (one of the Whig candidates) had been Sheriff 1704–1705.
Was son of the late Alderman Sir John Buckworth: knighted December 2, 1693; created a Baronet 1697; died June 12, 1709.
The Tory candidates (two of whom were Aldermen) were supported by the Lord Mayor (Sir S. Garrard) and Aldermen Sir J. Parsons, Sir C. Duncombe, Sir F. Child, and Sir R. Bedingfeld; the Whig candidates (all Aldermen) by Sir John Houblon, Sir R. Levett, Sir T. Abney, Sir O. Buckingham, Sir R. Beachcroft, Sir J. Wolfe, Sir S. Stanier, Sir W. Humfreys, and Sir C. Peers. The two Tory Aldermen who were candidates voted for their respective colleagues, omitting themselves. Sir W. Ashhurst, one of the Whigs, did the same, but the three other Whigs voted for themselves as well as for their colleagues.
Sir George Newland.
Son of the late Alderman Sir Benjamin Newland, had been M.P. for Gatton 1705–1710, and was knighted June 3, 1706. He was Auditor 1705–1707 and 1708–1710.
The Tory candidates were supported by Aldermen Sir J. Parsons, Sir S. Garrard, Sir W. Lewen, J. Lawrence and R. Child; the Whigs by Sir T. Abney, Sir G. Heathcote, Sir W. Humfreys, Sir C. Peers, J. Fryer, F. Eyles, G. Conyers and P. Delme. Sir John Cass voted for his three Tory colleagues, giving his fourth vote to Heysham. Sir R. Hoare voted for himself as well as his colleagues.
1715 Peter Godfrey.
Was nephew to Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, the Magistrate who received Oates' depositions concerning the Popish Plot. He was a Director of the Bank of England May-July, 1695 and 1696–1697, of the New East India Company, 1698–1699, and of the United Companies 1710–1714 and 1715–1718.
Heysham, Godfrey and Barnard, who stood jointly, received the support of the Whigs, including Aldermen Sir G. Heathcote, Sir J. Ward, Sir C. Peers, Sir J. Fryer, Sir P. Delmé, Sir F. Forbes, R. Baylis and L. Skinner, of whom Peers and Forbes gave a fourth vote to Child, and Skinner to Parsons. Alderman Becher voted for Heysham, Lockwood and Godfrey; Sir R. Knipe for two of each side (Heysham, Godfrey, Child and Lockwood). The three Tory candidates were supported by Aldermen Sir S. Garrard, Brocas, Levett and Barber, of whom all but Brocas voted also for Heysham. Sir G. Mertinns, one of the Tory candidates of 1715, plumped for Heysham. Eight Aldermen did not vote.
Richard Lockwood.
Had been M.P. for Hindon 1713–1715. After his defeat in the City in 1727 he sat for Worcester 1734–1741, having contested both that constituency and Hindon in 1715. He died August 30, 1756.
1724 Charles Goodfellow, the Tory candidate, was a Russia merchant, who had been one of the Consuls of the Russia Company. He was a son of Serjeant Goodfellow (formerly a Judge of the Sheriffs' Court), and brother of John Goodfellow (Town Clerk 1691–1700). He died October 25, 1728.
At this election he received the votes of the non-Aldermanio sitting members (Barnard and Lockwood) and of Aldermen Sir S. Garrard, H. Parsons, F. Child, R. Levett, J. Barber and Sir J. Williams. Hopkins was supported by Aldermen Sir G. Heathcote, Sir W. Humfreys, Sir C. Peers, Sir J. Ward, Sir G. Conyers, Sir T. Seawen, Sir P. Delmé, Sir John Eyles, Sir E. Becher, Sir H. Master, R. Baylis, Sir R. Knipe, W. Billers, E. Bellamy and F. Porten.
The Whig candidates (Eyles, Thompson, Perry and Hopkins), were supported by Aldermen Sir G. Heathcote, Sir W. Humfreys, Sir G. Conyers, Sir H. Master, Sir R. Baylis, Sir R. Knipe, Sir W. Billers, Sir E. Bellamy, Sir F. Porten and Sir J. Tash.
The voters for Parsons, Barnard, Lockwood and Williams included Aldermen Child, Levett, Barber and Alsop. Alderman Crowley voted for three only, omitting Parsons. Sir T. Scawen, who had been a Whig candidate in 1713, voted for Parsons and Barnard. Aldermen Sir E. Becher and Sir P. Delmé voted for Barnard and three of the Whig candidates, omitting Perry. Parsons, Barnard and Williams each voted for his three colleagues, omitting himself.
Alderman Sir J. Hankey acted as Chairman of the Committee of the defeated candidates, who were supported by most of the senior Aldermen; the junior Aldermen Westley, Benn and Ladbroke were prominent on behalf of the successful candidates.
Richard Glover, the poet (author of Leonidas) was Chairman of Calvert's Committee.
Ladbroke, who did not coalesce with any of the other candidates, was supported by Aldermen Sir R. Hoare, Alsop and Dickinson.
Ladbroke was supported by Aldermen Alsop, Sir T. Rawlinson, Dickinson, Sir C. Asgill, Sir T. Chitty, Nelson, Sir F. Gosling, N. Nash and Challenor. The claims of Beekford, who was a political ally of the elder Pitt, were advocated in the following rhyming advertisement:— London, awake; behold Pitt's generous friend, Whom all the Patriot Talents recommend; In choosing Beckford be your wisdom shown, Secure his Voice and Freedom is your own!
This was not a political contest. From the published poll book it appears that eight Aldermen did not vote and that the suffrages of those who took part in the election were divided thus: Ladbroke, 15; Harley, 14; Glyn, 13; Beckford, 12; Trecothick, 7; Paterson, 6; Wilkes, 2. Of the candidates, Harley and Ladbroke voted for Beckford, Glyn, Trecothick and Paterson; Glyn for Harley, Ladbroke, Beckford and Trecothick; Beckford for Harley, Ladbroke, Trecothick and Glyn (as also did Alderman Kennett); Trecothick for Harley, Ladbroke, Glyn and Paterson (as also did Alderman Alsop). Sir T. Rawlinson, Sir W. Stephenson, Sir R. Kite, Sir H. Bankes and Aldermen Crosby and Hallifax voted for Harley, Ladbroke, Glyn and Beckford; Alderman Shakspeare for Harley, Ladbroke and Beckford only; Sir W. Baker for Ladbroke, Trecothick and Wilkes; Sir C. Asgill for Harley, Ladbroke, Beckford and Paterson; Alderman Bridgen for Glyn, Beckford, Paterson and Wilkes; Alderman Turner for Harley, Ladbroke and Trecothick only.
John Paterson was Deputy of Farringdon Within 1759–1771, and was Auditor 1759–1761.
He was a grandson of Archbishop Paterson of Glasgow, and in the preceding parliament (1761– 1768), had sat for Ludgershall, having in 1765 succeeded Alderman Dickinson as Chairman of Committee of Ways and Means. He died December 3, 1789.
Bull was proposed by Alderman Wilkes and seconded by Alderman Crosby. The government candidate, John Roberts was a Director of the East India Company 1764–1768, 1769–1773, 1775–1779, 1780–1784, 1785–1789, 1790–1794, 1795–1799, 1800–1804 and 1805–1809. DeputyChairman 1775–1776 and 1803–1804. Chairman 1776–1777 and 1802–1803. He died February 5, 1810.
1774 William Baker was Sheriff 1770–1771 and a candidate for the Aldermanry of Aldgate, 1775.
Was son of Alderman Sir William Baker. He was M.P. for Plympton 1768–1774; Aldborough 1777–1780; Hertford 1780–1784; Hertfordshire 1790–1802. In 1802 he was defeated, having deserted his party, but he was re-elected for the county as a Tory in 1805 and sat till 1807. He died January 20, 1824, having been a Bencher of the Inner Temple since 1808.
At this election Oliver's chief supporter was Alderman Townsend, the leader of the anti-Wilkes section of the democratic party.
At the close of this Parliament Alderman Bull earned an unenviable distinction as one of the Protestant fanatics who supported Lord George Gordon. He seconded Lord George's motion to take the "Protestant" Petition into immediate consideration, which was rejected by 192 votes to 6.
Alderman Watson acted as Chairman for Kirkman and Alderman Sainsbury for Newnham.
Lewes' Chairman was Alderman Barnard Turner. Clark's Chairman was Alderman Peckham; one of his chief supporters was Alderman Alsop.
1784 Samuel Smith.
Was M.P. for Ilchester 1780–1784; Worcester 1784–1790; Ludgershall 1791 (defeating Alderman Newnham) till his death, June 15, 1793. He was a Director of the East India Company, 1783–1786.
At this election, Sawbridge was supported by the Whig Aldermen—Crosby, Wright, Pugh, Hopkins and Sainsbury as well as by Wilkes, who was a Pittite.
Alderman Macauley was Chairman for Curtis and Alderman Skinner for Sawbridge; Newnham's chief supporters were Aldermen Sainsbury and Combe; Alderman Sanderson was a leading supporter of Watson, and Alderman Hopkins of Lewes.
Alderman Harley was Chairman for Lushington and Alderman Macauley for Combe.
The Government Candidates (Curtis, Lushington, Anderson and Lewes), were supported by Aldermen Harley, Clark, Boydell, Watson, Le Mesurier, Glyn, Langstone and Sir J. Eamer; Wilkes substituted Combe for Anderson and Alderman Staines substituted Combe for Lewes. Sir W. Plomer and Aldermen Wright and Macauley voted for Curtis, Combe and Pickett, the two first-named giving their fourth vote to Lushington and the last his to Lewes. Alderman Newman voted for Combe and Pickett only, Alderman Skinner plumped for Combe and Sir J. Sanderson for Anderson. The total of the votes of the Aldermen was: Curtis 13, Lushington 12, Anderson 10, Lewes 10, Combe 7, Pickett 4. The six candidates and four other Aldermen did not vote.
1802 Benjamin Travers.
Was a sugar baker, and a leading member of the Fishmongers' Company, and took a prominent part on the Whig side in City politics. He died April 27, 1817.
At this election, Atkins (who afterwards sat as a Tory), was supported by the Radical, Robert Waithman; he retired on the third day, a poll had been demanded for Hankey without his own consent.
Alderman Ansley was Chairman for Sir C. Price and Alderman Lea for Shaw. Hankey was supported by ex-Alderman Lushington.
Alderman Domville was Chairman for Combe, the moderate Whig candidate. Wood and Waithman, who represented the more Radical element in the party, were supported by Alderman Goodbehere.
1818 Thomas Wilson.
Was a merchant of the firm of Wilson, Agassiz & Co. He died October 10, 1852.
Alderman Rowcroft was originally a candidate on the Tory side, but retired in favour of Wilson, who was proposed by Alderman Sir C. S. Hunter. Alderman Bridges was Chairman for Curtis, Alderman Goodbehere for Waithman and ex-Alderman Williams for Atkins, who retired on the fifth day of the poll. Curtis and Atkins lost their seats mainly through their support of the renewal of the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act.
Alderman Thomas Smith was Chairman for Waithman, Alderman Sir C. Hunter for Bridges and W. Manning (father of the Cardinal) for Curtis.
1826 William Ward.
Was son-in-law of the late Alderman Combe and father of the well-known Tractarian and Roman Catholic controversialist, William George Ward. He was a Director of the Bank of England, 1817–1819, 1820–1822, 1823–1825, 1826–1829, 1830–1831, 1832–1833, 1834–1836, and a Metropolitan Commissioner of Lunacy 1828–1831. He was considered the best gentleman cricketer of his time He died June 30, 1849.
12 Aldermen (Sir W. Curtis, Sir R. C. Glyn, Sir J. Perring, J. Ansley, Sir C. Flower, G. Scholey, S. Birch, C. Smith, J. Atkins, C. Magnay, R. A. Cox and M. P. Lucas) were on Thompson's Committee. Thompson, though nominally a Whig and moderate Reformer, received general Tory support on account of his opposition to the Catholic claims, which he afterwards (1829) supported Wellington and Peel in conceding. After the Reform Bill he joined the Conservative party.
George Grote was Chairman for the four Reform candidates.
Lyall was proposed by the former Tory member, William Ward, and was supported by Aldermen Sir C. Hunter, Brown, Lucas, Winchester, Farebrother and Copeland.
George Grote was the celebrated Historian of Greece; whilst in Parliament he was a prominent member of the group of philosophical Radicals and the chief advocate of vote by ballot.
He was a partner in the banking firm of Grote, Prescott, Grote & Co. He died June 18, 1871.
Michael Scales.
This personage was an aggressive and vociferous Radical butcher of dubious reputation, who had been elected to the Aldermanry of Portsoken (of which ward he had been a Common Councilman) in the preceding January and refused admission by the Court of Aldermen, with which he carried on a lengthy but unsuccessful litigation [see p. 188]. He died August 22, 1853.
1833 March—George Lyall.
Was a Director of the East India Company 1830–1834, 1835–1839, 1840–1844, 1845–1849, 1850–1851, (Deputy-Chairman 1840–1841, Chairman 1841–1842). He died September 1, 1853. At this election he was proposed by Mr. Horsley Palmer, who was himself a candidate in 1837.
1833 August—William Crawford.
Was an East India merchant; he contested Brighton in 1832 and died April 27, 1843.
F. Kemble, the Conservative candidate, was proposed by T. Wilson and seconded by Alderman Brown.
1835 James Pattison.
Was a Director of the Bank of England 1813–1815, 1816–1818, 1819–1821, 1822–1824, 1825–1828, 1829–April, 1832, and October, 1832 till his death July 14, 1849 (Deputy-Governor 1833–1834, Governor 1834–1837).
At this election Crawford was proposed by Alderman Harmer, Ward by Alderman Lucas, Wilson by Alderman Brown. J. Masterman (afterwards M.P.) seconded Wilson, and Raikes Currie (who was a candidate in 1857) seconded Grote.
1837 John Horsley Palmer.
Was a Director of the Bank of England 1811–1813, 1814–1816, 1817–1819, 1820–1822, 1823–1825, 1826–1841, 1843–1845 and 1846–1857, (Deputy-Governor 1828–1830, Governor 1830–1833). He contested Ashburton in 1835, and again in 1843, and died February 7, 1858. Mr. Palmer, who was proposed by Alderman Brown, received the support of Aldermen Sir C. Hunter, Scholey, Birch, Sir W. Heygate, Sir P. Laurie and T. Johnson, the last of whom gave a second vote to Pattison, whilst Hunter, Heygate, Scholey and Laurie voted also for Wood. The four Liberals were supported by Aldermen Venables, Harmer and Humphery. Wood voted for himself together with his three Liberal colleagues. Crawford was proposed by G. de H. Larpent, who was a candidate in 1847, and Grote by S. Jones Loyd, the banker, (afterwards Lord Overstone).
1841 Lord John Russell was at this time Colonial Secretary and had been the Liberal leader in the preceding as he was in the two succeeding Parliaments.
He had been M.P. for Tavistock 1813–1817, 1818–1820 and 1830–1831; Huntingdonshire 1820– 1826; Bandon 1826–1830; Devonshire 1831–1832; South Devon 1832–1835; Stroud 1835–1841. He was Paymaster-General 1830–1834; Home Secretary 1835–1839; Colonial Secretary 1839– 1841, and March-July 1855; First Lord of the Treasury and Prime Minister 1846–1852 and 1865–1866; Foreign Secretary 1852–1853 and 1859–1865; in the Cabinet without office 1853– 1854; Lord President of the Council 1854–1855; sworn a Privy Councillor 1830; created Earl Russell 1861, K.G. 1862, G.C.M.G. 1869; Lord Rector of Glasgow University 1846–1847. He died May 28, 1878.
1841 John Masterman was head of the banking firm of Masterman, Peters, Mildred, Masterman & Co.
He was a Director of the East India Company 1823–1826, 1827–1831, 1832–1836, 1837–1841, 1842–1846, 1847–1851, 1852–1854, and died January 23, 1862.
Matthias W. Attwood was of the banking firm of Spooner, Attwoods & Co.
He was son of Matthias Attwood, Conservative M.P. for Whitehaven, and nephew of Thomas Attwood, the well-known Radical agitator and M.P. for Birmingham. He sat for Greenwich (which he contested in 1835) 1837–1841, and stood for Kinsale in July, 1841, a few days after his defeat in the City, and for Sunderland in the autumn of the same year, when Alderman Thompson vacated that seat. He died September 17, 1865.
At this election Lyall was proposed by T. Baring (candidate in 1843), Lord J. Russell by S. Jones Loyd, Pirie by Alderman Lucas, Crawford by G. de H. Larpent, Attwood by T. Wilson.
1843 Thomas Baring was head of the financial house of Baring Brothers, and brother of Sir Francis Baring (afterwards Lord Northbrook) who had been Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Whig Ministry of Lord Melbourne.
He sat for Yarmouth 1835–1837 (contesting it in 1837, 1838 and 1841) and for Huntingdon 1844 till his death November 18, 1873. He was a Director of the Bank of England 1848–1850, 1851–1853, 1854–1856, 1857–1859, 1860–1862, 1863–April 1865 and December 1865–1867. He was proposed at this election by Alderman Brown.
1847 Baron Lionel N. de Rothschild was the head of the English branch of the Rothschild banking firm, and the first Jew elected to the House of Commons. He twice resigned his seat and was re-elected (1849 and 1857) on the rejection of bills for the removal of the Jewish disabilities, and was the first Jew to take his seat after the passing of the Relief Act (July 1858), the next being Alderman Salomons (M.P. for Greenwich).
He died June 3, 1879.
Sir George G. de H. Larpent.
Was M.P. for Nottingham 1841–1842, having contested Ludlow in 1840 and Nottingham in June, 1841. He was created a Baronet in 1841 and died March 8, 1855.
Robert C. L. Bevan.
Was a banker of the firm of Barclay, Bevan, Tritton & Co., and a prominent leader of the Evangelical party. He died July 22, 1890.
1847 James W. Freshfield.
Was Solicitor to the Bank of England. He sat for Penryn (which he contested in 1832) 1835– 1841 and 1852–1857, Boston 1851–1852, and was a candidate for Wycombe in 1841 and Derby 1848. He died June 27, 1864.
William Payne, who stood as an independent Radical, was Coroner of London 1829 till his death February 25, 1872. He was also High Steward of Southwark from 1850 till his death.
He was made a Serjeant-at-Law in 1858.
At this election Lord J. Russell was proposed by S. Jones Loyd, Masterman by T. Baring, and Johnson (the only Alderman among nine candidates), by J. Horsley Palmer. Freshfield was proposed and seconded by T. Wilson and Alderman Sir C. Marshall. On the committee of the four Conservative candidates were Aldermen Thompson, Farncombe, Sir W. Magnay, Gibbs and Sidney. There were 5,176 votes for the four official Liberal candidates, and 4,129 for the four Conservatives; 219 voted for Payne and three of the official Liberals.
1849 July 3—This election was fought entirely on the Jewish disabilities question.
Lord John Manners had been M.P. for Newark (being elected as Gladstone's colleague) 1841–1847; he afterwards sat for Colchester 1850–1857, North Leicestershire 1857–1885, and East Leicestershire 1885 till his accession to the Dukedom of Rutland March 4, 1888.
He contested Liverpool in 1847, was Chief Commissioner of Works Feb.-Dec. 1852, 1858–1859, 1866–1868; Postmaster-General 1874–1880, 1885–1886; Chancellor of Duchy of Lancaster, 1886–1892; sworn a Privy Councillor 1852, G.C.B. 1880, K.G. 1891.
Rothschild was proposed by Raikes Currie; Manners by T. Baring, being seconded by Alderman Sir P. Laurie.
1849 July 27.
Duke's nomination was seconded by Alderman W. Lawrence.
1852 Robert Wigram Crawford was son of W. Crawford (M.P. for the City 1833–1841), and a partner in the firm of Crawford, Colvin & Co., East India Merchants; he had sat for Harwich for a few weeks in 1851. At this election he was brought forward by the Dissenters, his proposer and seconder being respectively Charles Gilpin and Samuel Morley, afterwards leading Nonconformist members of Parliament.
He was a Director of the Bank of England 1850–1852, 1853–1855, 1856–1858, 1859–1861, 1862–1864 and 1865 till his death July 30, 1889 (Deputy-Governor 1867–1869, Governor 1869–1871). After the Home Rule split in 1886, he became a Liberal Unionist.
At this election Duke was seconded by Alderman Lawrence, Rothschild by Alderman Wire, and Lord J. Russell was proposed by Thomson Hankey, Governor of the Bank of England.
1857 Raikes Currie was brought forward in opposition to Lord John Russell, who had voted with the Conservatives and the Manchester Radicals against the Palmerston Government on the China question.
He was a member of the banking firm of Curries & Co., and had been M.P. for Northampton 1837–1857. He died October 16, 1881.
Alderman Rose issued an address as a moderate Conservative supporting the Government on the China question, but he retired to contest Newport.
Rothschild was proposed by Alderman Wire and seconded by T. Dakin (afterwards Alderman). Lord J. Russell was strongly supported by Aldermen Salomons and Humphery and by S. Morley.
Lord J. Russell was proposed by the Lord Mayor (Alderman Wire) and Crawford by Samuel Morley.
1861 Western Wood was a son of the late Alderman Sir M. Wood and brother of Sir W. Page Wood (afterwards Lord Chancellor Hatherley).
The Lord Mayor (Alderman Cubitt) who had resigned his seat for Andover to stand for the City was proposed by H. Hucks Gibbs, and was supported by Aldermen Rose, Gabriel, Wilson, Finnis, Conder and Carter. Wood was proposed by K. D. Hodgson, M.P., Deputy-Governor of the Bank of England.
1863 George J. Göschen (as the name, subsequently anglicised by the omission of the modification sign over the o, was then written) was then a partner in the firm of Frühling & Göschen; he was Vice-President of the Board of Trade 1865– 1866; Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster Jan.-July, 1866; President of the Poor Law Board 1868–1871; First Lord of the Admiralty 1871–1874 and 1895–1900; Chancellor of the Exchequer 1887–1892.
Sworn a Privy Councillor 1865, created Viscount Goschen 1900. He was M.P. for Ripon 1880– 1885; East Edinburgh 1885–1886; St. George's, Hanover Square, 1887–1890; contested East Edinburgh 1886; Liverpool (Exchange division) 1887: was elected Chancellor of Oxford University 1903. He was a Director of the Bank of England 1858–1860, 1861–1863 and 1864–1865; Lord Rector of Aberdeen University 1887–1890; of Edinburgh University 1890– 1893.
1865 George Lyall was son of G. Lyall, M.P. for the City 1833–1834, 1841–1847.
He sat for Whitehaven 1857–1865, and was a Director of the Bank of England 1848–1850, 1851– 1853, 1854–1856, 1857–1859, 1860–1862, 1863–1865 and 1866 till his death October 22, 1881, (Deputy-Governor 1868–1871, Governor 1871–1873). At this election he was proposed by T. Baring; Fowler was proposed by H. H. Gibbs and seconded by Alderman Finnis.
1868 At this election and those of 1874 and 1880 the "minority clause" was in operation, which prevented any elector voting for more than three candidates. The Liberals tried to carry all four seats and so nearly let in the three Conservatives, the lowest of whom was less than 500 votes below the highest Liberal and less than 200 below the lowest Liberal elected. Mr. Bell (who was a partner in the firm of Thomson, Bonar & Co., and contested Banbury in 1865) died soon after his election, and Baron Rothschild recovered his seat without a contest, but in 1874 and 1880, when each side ran three candidates, the Liberals secured the minority seat only, and in 1880 the Conservative majority was so large as to show that the fourth might easily have been carried by that party.
Baron Rothschild was proposed by Alderman Sir B. Phillips; Crawford was proposed and seconded by Aldermen Besley and Dakin.
1874 John Gellibrand Hubbard was partner in the firm of Hubbard & Co., Russia Merchants.
He had been M.P. for Buckingham 1859–1868, being defeated there in the latter year. He was a Director of the Bank of England 1838–1841, 1842–1844, 1845–April 1847, September 1847 till his death August 28, 1889; (Deputy-Governor 1851–1853; Governor 1853–1855); sworn a Privy Councillor 1874. Created Lord Addington 1887.
Philip Twells was a partner in the banking firm of Barclay, Bevan, Tritton & Co.
He died May 12, 1880. At this election Cotton was proposed by Alderman Sir F. Truscott, Goschen by R. W. Crawford (the late Liberal Member), and Rothschild by Alderman Sir B. Phillips; Hubbard was proposed and seconded by H. H. Gibbs and G. Lyall.
1880 Richard B. Martin was a partner in the banking firm of Martin & Co.
He afterwards contested Mid-Essex as a Liberal in 1885 and the Ashburton Division of Devonshire as a Liberal Unionist in 1886, and sat for Mid-Worcestershire 1892–1906. He was created a Baronet in 1905.
Walter Morrison.
Had been M.P. for Plymouth 1861–1874, and afterwards sat for the Skipton Division of the West Riding of Yorkshire (as a Liberal Unionist) 1886–1892 and 1895–1900, being defeated in 1892 and 1900. Cotton was proposed by the Lord Mayor (Sir F. Truscott), Hubbard by H. H. Gibbs; Fowler was seconded by Alderman Finnis.
1885 Stephen P. Low was a member of the banking firm of Grindlay & Co.
He afterwards became a Liberal Unionist and died February 1, 1895. Cotton was proposed and seconded by Aldermen Sir R. Carden and Stone.
Fowler was proposed by Sir R. Carden and seconded by R. C. L. Bevan (Candidate in 1847). Hubbard was proposed by R. W. Crawford (formerly M.P. for the City) on behalf of the Liberal Unionists and seconded by H. H. Gibbs.
1887 Thomas C. Baring was son of the late Bishop Baring of Durham, and nephew of T. Baring (Candidate in 1843). He endowed Hertford College, Oxford.
He had contested the Walthamstow Division of Essex in 1885. At this election he was proposed by H. H. Gibbs and seconded by R. W. Crawford.
1891 April. Henry Hucks Gibbs—the present Lord Aldenham (so created in 1896).
He was a Director of the Bank of England 1853–1855, 1856–1858, 1859–1861, 1862–1864, 1865–1867, 1868–1870, and 1871–1900, (Deputy-Governor 1873–1875, Governor 1875–1877). His proposer and seconder were W. Lidderdale and D. Powell, Governor and Deputy-Governor respectively of the Bank.
1891 June.
Sir R. Hanson was proposed by Alderman Sir F. Truscott and seconded by Alderman Evans. He also received the support of Aldermen Sir A Lusk, Sir W. Lawrence, Sir J. C. Lawrence and Gray (Liberal Unionists), Cowan, Knill, Davis and Wilkin.
1892 Alban G. H. Gibbs—eldest son of his predecessor, on whose elevation to the peerage in 1896 he became entitled to the courtesy prefix "Honourable."
Mr. Gibbs (who had contested Abingdon in 1880) was proposed by Alderman Dimsdale; also by Sir H. James (now Lord James of Hereford) and seconded by Sir J. Lubbock (now Lord Avebury) as representing the Liberal Unionists. Sir R. Hanson was proposed by H. H. Gibbs and seconded by Alderman Sir A. Lusk.
Sir R. Hanson was seconded by Alderman Sir D. Evans. Alderman Bell and Mr. (now Alderman) H. G. Smallman were among his assentors.
Mr. Gibbs was seconded by Alderman Sir D. Evans.
1906 Sir Edward G. Clarke had been M.P. for Southwark, February-April, 1880; Plymouth, June, 1880–February, 1900, when he retired from Parliament owing to differences with his party on the South African question.
He was made a Q C. in 1880, was Solicitor-General 1886–1892, and was knighted August 16, 1886.
Sir F. O. Schuster is a banker and Governor of the Union of London and Smiths Bank, an amalgamation representing the old London firms of Smith, Payne and Smith, Dimsdale, Fowler, Barnard and Dimsdales, and Prescott, Cave, Buxton, Loder & Co., as well as many well-known provincial banks at Bristol, Hull, Bath, Exeter, Manchester, Derby, etc. In March, 1906, he was appointed a member of the Council of the Secretary of State for India, and in the following June he was created a Baronet.
Sir West Ridgeway, a retired Colonel of the Indian Army, had been Under Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 1887–1893; Governor of the Isle of Man, 1893–1895; Governor of Ceylon, 1895–1903, was made a K.C.S.I., 1885; C.B., 1887; K.C.B., 1891; G.C.M.G., 1900; and was sworn an Irish Privy Councillor in 1889.
One of the nomination papers of Sir E. Clarke and Mr. Gibbs was signed exclusively by Aldermen, the proposer and seconder being Sir D. Evans and Sir G. Faudel-Phillips and the eight assentors the Lord Mayor (Alderman Vaughan Morgan), Sir H. Knight, Sir A. Newton, Sir J. Bell, Sir M. Samuel, Sir J. Renals, Sir W. Wilkin and Alderman F. S. Hanson. Sir W. P. Treloar was a seconder of Sir E. Clarke on another paper, and Sir J. Pound and the Chamberlain (Sir J. C. Dimsdale), were among the assentors to the Conservative nominations on others.
Sir J. Ritchie was among the nominators of Mr. Schuster.
1906 February. The Right Hon. A. J. Balfour was M.P. for Hertford, 1874–1885; East Manchester, 1885–1906. He had been President of the Local Government Board, 1885–1886; Secretary for Scotland, 1886–1887; Chief Secretary to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, 1887–1891; First Lord of the Treasury, 1891–1892 and 1895–1905, being Prime Minister, 1902–1905. He was also Lord Rector of St. Andrew's University, 1886–1889, and of Glasgow University 1890–1893, has been Chancellor of Edinburgh University since 1891, and was President of the British Association in 1904; Sworn a Privy Councillor in 1885.
Mr. T. Gibson Bowles sat for King's Lynn as a Conservative, 1892–1906, having previously contested Darlington, 1874; Banbury, 1880, and South Salford, 1885.
One of Mr. Balfour's nomination papers was signed by the Lord Mayor (Alderman Vaughan Morgan) as proposer, Sir H. Knight as seconder and eight other ex-Lord Mayors as assentors, viz., Sir J. Savory, Sir D. Evans, Sir J. Renals, Sir W. Wilkin, Sir G. FaudelPhillips, Sir A. Newton, Sir M. Samuel and Sir J. Pound. (fn. 204) Other papers presented on Mr. Balfour's behalf bore the names of Sir J. C. Dimsdale (Chamberlain) and the Hon. A. G. H. Gibbs, late members for the City, Aldermen Sir W. P. Treloar, Sir J. Bell, Crosby and Simmons, and ex-Sheriff Sir J. Lawrence.

[Addendum to page 285.]

Since page 285, which contains the completion of the record of elections for the City up to February, 1906, was printed, another election has taken place owing to Sir Edward Clarke having vacated his seat by acceptance of the Stewardship of Northstead; his resignation was due to ill-health. The following addendum is required to bring the list up to date:

1906, June 15.

Vice Clarke (new Writ, June 11).

Sir Frederick George Banbury, Bart., Con.,

1906 June—Sir F. Banbury was M.P. for the Peckham division of Camberwell, 1892–1906, and was created a Baronet in November, 1902, the formal creation of the Baronetcy dating from January, 1903.

Amongst Sir F. Banbury's proposers were Aldermen Sir D. Evans and T. B. Crosby.


  • 1. Chronicles Edward I. and II. (Rolls Series) pp. xxxiii., 92.
  • 2. Letter Book C, fo. 22 b. Palgrave i., 49.
  • 3. Letter Book B, fo. 93 b. Blue Book i., 9. Palgrave i., 72.
  • 4. Letter Book C, fo. 28.
  • 5. Letter Book C, fo. 41 b. Palgrave i., 85. Blue Book i., 11.
  • 6. Letter Book C, fo. 85 b, Palgrave i., 146. Blue Book i., 19.
  • 7. Letter Book C, fo. 92 b. Palgrave ii. (2) 19. Blue Book i., 28.
  • 8. Letter Book C, fo. 96 b. Palgrave ii. (2), 30. Blue Book, i., 30.
  • 9. Letter Book D, ff. 149 b. 151. Palgrave ii., (2), 74, (where the name "Sellyng" is misprinted "Selby").
  • 10. Letter Book E, fo. 6b. Palgrave ii. (2), 108. Blue Book i., 44.
  • 11. Letter Book E, ff, 20, 22. Palgrave ii. (2), 129. Blue Book i., 46.
  • 12. Letter Book E, fo. 27. Palgrave ii. (2), 144. Blue Book i., 49.
  • 13. Letter Book E, ff. 43, 46b. Palgrave ii. (2), 154.
  • 14. Letter Book E, fo. 84b. Palgrave ii. (2), 189. Blue Book i., 55.
  • 15. Letter Book E, ff. 88 b, 89. Palgrave ii. (2), 204.
  • 16. Letter Book E, fo. 111 b. Palgrave ii. (2), 224, Blue Book i., 60.
  • 17. Letter Book E, fo. 123 b.
  • 18. Letter Book E, fo. 137. Palgrave ii. (2), 252. Blue Book i., 65.
  • 19. Letter Book E, fo. 142. Palgrave ii. (2) 270. Blue Book i., 67.
  • 20. Letter Book E, fo. 148. Palgrave ii. (2) 283, 312. Blue Book i., 70.
  • 21. Letter Book E, fo. 163 b. Palgrave ii. (2) 339. Blue Book i., 74.
  • 22. Palgrave ii. (2) 359. Blue Book i., 76.
  • 23. Blue Book i., 78.
  • 24. Pleas and Memoranda, roll A1 memb., xvii. (20). Blue Book i., 81.
  • 25. Letter Book E, fo. 185 b. Pleas and Memoranda, roll A1 memb., xx. (dors). Blue Book i., 84.
  • 26. Pleas and Memoranda, roll A1 memb., xxiii. xxiv. Blue Book i., 87.
  • 27. Letter Book E, fo. 199. Blue Book i., 90.
  • 28. Blue Book i., 92.
  • 29. Blue Book i., 96.
  • 30. Pleas and Memoranda, roll A2 memb., i. Blue Book i, 99.
  • 31. Letter Book E, fo. 236. Blue Book i., 101.
  • 32. Blue Book i., 102.
  • 33. Letter Book E, fo. 236. Blue Book i., 107.
  • 34. Letter Book E, fo. 245 b. Blue Book i., 109.
  • 35. Letter Book E, ff. 249, 249 b. Blue Book i., 112.
  • 36. Blue Book Appx. x.
  • 37. Blue Book i., 117.
  • 38. Blue Book i., 120.
  • 39. Letter Book F, fo. 17. Blue Book i., 122.
  • 40. Letter Book F, ff. 20 b, 22. Blue Book i., 125.
  • 41. Letter Book F, fo. 26. Blue Book i., 126.
  • 42. Letter Book F, fo. 29 b.
  • 43. Letter Book F, fo. 31. Blue Book i., 131.
  • 44. Letter Book F, fo. 38.
  • 45. Letter Book F, fo. 40.
  • 46. Pleas and Memoranda, roll A3 memb., xxxiii. Blue Book i., 134.
  • 47. Letter Book F, fo. 67.
  • 48. Letter Book F, fo. 81. Blue Book i., 139.
  • 49. Letter Book F, fo. 120. Blue Book i., 141.
  • 50. Letter Book F, ff. 145b, 150. Blue Book i., ff. 144, 146.
  • 51. Letter Book F, fo. 191.
  • 52. Letter Book F, fo. 194. Blue Book i., fo. 148.
  • 53. Letter Book F, fo. 207.
  • 54. Letter Book F, fo. 215. Blue Book i., 152.
  • 55. Letter Book G, fo. 8 b. Blue Book i, 153.
  • 56. Letter Book G, fo. 18.
  • 57. Letter Book G, fo. 39.
  • 58. Letter Book G, fo. 58.
  • 59. Letter Book G, fo. 66. Blue Book i., 161.
  • 60. Letter Book G. fo. 84. Blue Book i., 164.
  • 61. Blue Book i., 167.
  • 62. Letter Book G, fo. 101. Blue Book i., 169.
  • 63. Letter Book G, fo. 112 b. Blue Book, i., 173.
  • 64. Letter Book G, fo. 147. Blue Book i., 175.
  • 65. Letter Book G, fo. 175.
  • 66. Letter Book G, fo. 202. Blue Book i., 180.
  • 67. Letter Book G, fo. 224. Blue Book i., 182.
  • 68. Letter Book G, fo. 238 b.
  • 69. Letter Book G, fo. 240.
  • 70. Letter Book G, fo. 262 b.
  • 71. Blue Book i., 186.
  • 72. Letter Book G, fo. 293 b. Blue Book i., 189.
  • 73. Letter Book G, fo. 308. Blue Book i., 191.
  • 74. Letter Book H, fo. 28.
  • 75. Letter Book H, fo. 54 b. Blue Book i., 196.
  • 76. Letter Book H, fo. 74. Blue Book Appx. xvi.
  • 77. Letter Book H, fo. 91 b. Blue Book i., 200.
  • 78. Letter Book H. fo. 105 b.
  • 79. Letter Book H, fo. 117.
  • 80. Letter Book H, fo. 125.
  • 81. Letter Book H, fo. 135 b. Blue Book i., 208.
  • 82. Letter Book H, fo. 155. Blue Book i., 212.
  • 83. Letter Book H, fo. 162. Blue Book i., 215.
  • 84. Letter Book H, fo. 168. Blue Book i., 218.
  • 85. Letter Book H, fo. 174. Blue Book i., 220.
  • 86. Letter Book H, fo. 183. Blue Book i., 223.
  • 87. Letter Book H, fo. 195. Blue Book i., 226.
  • 88. Letter Book H, fo. 201 b. Blue Book i., 229.
  • 89. Letter Book H, fo. 224. Blue Book i., 232.
  • 90. Letter Book H, fo. 228 b. Blue Book i., 235.
  • 91. Letter Book H, fo. 247. Blue Book i., 238.
  • 92. Letter Book H, fo. 253.
  • 93. Blue Book i., 242.
  • 94. Letter Book H, fo. 288 b.
  • 95. Letter Book H, fo. 298. Blue Book i., 250.
  • 96. Letter Book H, fo. 312. Blue Book i., 253.
  • 97. Letter Book H, fo. 314 b. Blue Book i., 256.
  • 98. Letter Book H. fo. 326 b. Blue Book i., 258.
  • 99. Letter Book I, fo. 18 b.
  • 100. Letter Book I, fo. 35 b.
  • 101. Letter Book I, fo. 47 b. Blue Book i., 269.
  • 102. Letter Book I, fo. 62. Blue Book i., 272.
  • 103. Letter Book I, fo. 88 b.
  • 104. Letter Book I, fo. 105 b.
  • 105. Letter Book I, fo. 119.
  • 106. Letter Book I, fo. 123. Blue Book i., 279.
  • 107. Letter Book I, fo. 130.
  • 108. Letter Book I, fo. 136. Blue Book i., 284.
  • 109. Letter Book I, fo. 154. Blue Book i., 286.
  • 110. Letter Book I, fo. 160 b.
  • 111. Letter Book I, fo. 172 b.
  • 112. Blue Book i., 290.
  • 113. Journal 1, ff. 60, 60 b. Blue Book i., 292.
  • 114. Letter Book I, fo. 261. Blue Book i., 295.
  • 115. Letter Book I, fo. 261. Blue Book i., 297.
  • 116. Letter Book I, fo. 273. Blue Book i., 300.
  • 117. Letter Book I, fo. 282 b. Blue Book i., 303.
  • 118. Letter Book K, fo. 8.
  • 119. Journal 2, fo. 40. Blue Book i., 309.
  • 120. Journal 2, fo. 62. Blue Book i., 311.
  • 121. Journal 2, fo. 99. Blue Book i., 313. Letter Book K, fo. 46 b.
  • 122. Journal 2, fo. 139. Blue Book i., 316. Letter Book K, fo. 67 b.
  • 123. Blue Book i., 319.
  • 124. Letter Book K, fo. 105. Blue Book i., 321.
  • 125. Letter Book K, fo. 128. Blue Book i., 324.
  • 126. Letter Book K, fo. 148 b. Blue Book i., 327.
  • 127. Journal 3, fo. 1. Blue Book i., 330. Letter Book K, fo. 165 b.
  • 128. Journal 3, fo. 25 b. Letter Book K, fo. 179 b.
  • 129. Journal 3, fo. 108 b. Blue Book i., 333. Letter Book K, fo. 199 b.
  • 130. Journal 4, ff. 59, 60.
  • 131. Journal 4, fo. 155 b. Blue Book i., 336.
  • 132. Journal 5, fo. 4 b. Blue Book i., 339.
  • 133. Journal 5, fo. 16 b. Blue Book i., 342.
  • 134. Journal 5, fo. 47 b. Blue Book i., 345.
  • 135. Journal 5, fo. 103 b. Blue Book i., 348.
  • 136. Journal 5, fo. 245 b. Blue Book i., 351.
  • 137. Journal 6, fo. 245.
  • 138. Journal 6, fo. 166.
  • 139. Journal 6, fo. 267.
  • 140. Journal 7, ff. 21, 23 b. Letter Book I., fo. 11 b.
  • 141. Journal 7, fo. 144 b. Blue Book i., 358.
  • 142. Journal 7, fo. 199.
  • 143. Journal 8, fo. 1.
  • 144. Journal 8, fo. 30. Blue Book i., 361.
  • 145. Journal 8, fo. 163. Blue Book i., 364.
  • 146. Journal 9, fo. 2.
  • 147. Journal 9, fo. 24.
  • 148. Journal 9, fo. 33 b.
  • 149. Journal 9, fo. 43.
  • 150. Journal 9, fo. 91 b.
  • 151. The date is erroneously given in the Journal as Tuesday, November 25, although the parliament was to meet on November 7. The true date is Tuesday, October 25. November 25 was a Friday that year.
  • 152. Journal 9, fo. 157 b.
  • 153. Journal 9, fo. 222.
  • 154. Journal 9, fo. 224.
  • 155. Journal 9, fo. 279.
  • 156. Journal 10, fo. 58 b.
  • 157. Rep. 1, fo. 10. Journal 10, fo. 83 b.
  • 158. Journal 10, fo. 301.
  • 159. Rep. 1, fo. 150.
  • 160. Rep. 2, fo. 77. Letter Book M, fo. 164 b.
  • 161. Journal 11, fo. 93. Letter Book M, fo. 166 b.
  • 162. Journal 11, fo. 147 b. Rep. 2, fo. 125 b. Letter Book M, fo. 186.
  • 163. Journal 11, fo. 204 b. Letter Book M, fo. 231 b.
  • 164. Journal 12, fo. 213 b. Letter Book N, fo. 222.
  • 165. Letter Book O, fo. 157. Blue Book i., 309.
  • 166. Rep. 9, fo. 79 b. Blue Book Appendix xxix.
  • 167. Blue Book i., 373.
  • 168. Blue Book Appendix xxxi.
  • 169. Blue Book Appendix xxxi.
  • 170. Rep. 11, fo. 244 (221).
  • 171. Wriothesley's Chronic'e i., 162.
  • 172. Letter Book Q, fo. 215 b. Blue Book i., 376.
  • 173. Willis Notit. Parl. iii., 12. Cecil MSS.
  • 174. Blue Book i., 379.
  • 175. Letter Book R, ff. 259 b, 270 b.
  • 176. Letter Book R, fo. 288. Blue Book i., 386.
  • 177. Letter Book R, fo. 312 b. Blue Book i, 390.
  • 178. Journal 16, fo. 344. Blue Book i., 393.
  • 179. Blue Book i., 397.
  • 180. Journal 17, fo. 161. Blue Book Appendix xxxiv.
  • 181. Blue Book i., 404.
  • 182. See Journal 18, fo. 265 b. [In Blue Book i., 404, the name is incorrectly printed Ousely.]
  • 183. Commons' Journals i., 73 (loc. cit.)
  • 184. See Journal 19, fo. 127.
  • 185. Journal 19, fo. 356 b.
  • 186. Blue Book i., 409.
  • 187. Journal 21, fo. 390. Letter Book Z, fo. 400.
  • 188. Journal 21, fo. 469. Letter Book, &c., fo. 60 b.
  • 189. Journal 22, fo. 57. Blue Book i., 418.
  • 190. Journal 22, fo. 216. Blue Book i., 424.
  • 191. Letter Book A B, fo. 129. Blue Book i., 429.
  • 192. Journal 24, fo. 239. Blue Book i., 434. Letter Book A B, fo. 141.
  • 193. Blue Book i., 438.
  • 194. Journal 26, fo. 171. Letter Book B B, fo. 226 b.
  • 195. Blue Book i., 444.
  • 196. Blue Book, Appendix xxxix.
  • 197. Journal 31, fo. 263. Blue Book i., 452.
  • 198. Blue Book i., 458.
  • 199. Blue Book i., 464.
  • 200. Blue Book i., 470.
  • 201. Blue Book i., 476.
  • 202. Blue Book i., 482.
  • 203. Blue Book i., 491.
  • 204. For the names of the nominator, seconder and assentors who signed this paper, I am indebted to the courtesy of Mr. Balfour himself and of the Secretary to the City of London Conservative Association. The information appears to have been withheld from the city newspapers (City Press and London Argus) and the Secondary professed himself unable to furnish me with it. As such details are published to the world in the local newspapers with regard to almost every constituency in the United Kingdom, it seems difficult to understand or justify this singular exhibition of official pedantry.