Historical Gazetteer of London Before the Great Fire Cheapside; Parishes of All Hallows Honey Lane, St Martin Pomary, St Mary Le Bow, St Mary Colechurch and St Pancras Soper Lane. Originally published by Centre for Metropolitan History, London, 1987.
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In this section
- Twelfth to fifteenth century
- Sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
- After the great fire
This property lay in Cheapside, bounded to the W. by 8 and 9 and to the E. by 11, and stretching some 160-170 ft. (48.77 m.-51.82 m.) N. to the boundary with the parish of St. Lawrence Jewry. 9B, a shop and solar originally part of 8-9 but acquired by the owners of 10 in the 16th century, may have occupied part of the Cheapside frontage of 10, though there is also evidence suggesting that it lay at least partly to the S. of 9A. In the early 16th century 10 was let as 2 units, 10A, on the Cheapside frontage, and 10B, the main part to the back, but the parts may have been occupied separately for many years before then.
The property corresponded approximately to part of no. 103 and nos. 104-5 Cheapside in 1858.
Twelfth to fifteenth century
By the end of the 12th century Adam le Mercer had given 10 to the priory of St. Mary Overy, Southwark, in free alms. At about that time the priory was paying John son of Terricus a quit-rent of either 1s. 8d. or 8s. 4d. from the same, which might have originated in an earlier tenure. The property, described as a seld, lay in Cheapside; on the frontage between it and 8-9 to the W., lay a shop or small property (9B) in which the leper hospital of St. Giles Holborn had an interest. (fn. 1)
Adam Bacheler held 10 of the priory, and between 1191 and 1212 granted half of it to Hugh the mercer, son of Ernold de Curtune, for a gersum of £2. 18s. 4d. and £2 yearly rent. The grant concerned the moiety of the seld which Adam held in foro of the church and convent of St. Mary of Southwark, and of the rent of the seld, the moiety of the site (solia) and of the land belonging to the seld, and the shop near to the seld of Adam de Gepeswic (11). Hugh was not to alienate to Jews or religious, and Adam acquitted him of all services for the £2 rent. Probably not long after, Adam Bacheler granted the other half, described as the moiety of his seld which he held of the canons of St. Mary of Southwark in All Hallows Honey Lane, with whatever he had in the moiety in shops, courts (curia), in lands, wood, and stone, to Thomas de Colecestre, linen-draper (lineus draperius). The seld lay between the land late of Adam de Gipeswic (11) and the land of William son of Sabelina (8-9). Thomas gave 10s. as a gersum to Adam and a gold balance (bilancium aureum; possibly a gold bezant is intended) to his wife Alice, and was to pay Adam £2. 10s. rent. Adam warranted the tenement and promised not to dispossess Thomas. (fn. 2)
The moieties granted by Adam to Hugh and Thomas may at first have been undivided shares in the whole rather than physically separate halves. In an undated indenture Thomas lingedraperius (presumably Thomas de Colecestre) and Hugh de Curtan' came to an agreement over the seld, shops, and land they held of Adam de Bacheler in Cheapside. Thomas granted to Hugh his share in the seld and shops to hold of him and his heirs for £2 rent; they measured 24 3/4 ells (74 ft. 3 in.; 22.63 m.) by 5 3/4 ells (17 ft. 3 in.; 5.26 m.) and Thomas was to keep a place there 6 ells (18 ft.; 5.49 m.) long near the entry, on the W., to put 3 chests, paying Hugh 7s. for this. Hugh granted to Thomas his share in the land behind the seld to the N., 30 ells (90 ft.; 27.43 m.) in length; if Hugh wanted to enlarge the seld beyond its 19 3/4 ells (59 ft. 3 in.; 18.06 m.), the profit from the enlargement was to go to Thomas, but he was still to hold of Hugh. Hugh, his heirs, and their family were to have access by way of Thomas's land to the privy, which would be 2 ft. 6 in. (760 mm.) wide, to be made and repaired at their costs. (fn. 3)
In another undated deed, later than the preceding, Hugh de Curtune sold and quitclaimed to Alan son of Peter 10s. quit-rent from the land and shop beside Cheapside which Hugh de Winton held of him. The shop lay between the door (ostium) of the seld Hugh de Curtune held of the church of St. Mary of Southwark, and the shop of Anger de la Barra, which seems to have been part of 10. Alan could distrain on Hugh de Curtune's chattels if he were disturbed or impleaded by the chief lords of the fee. (fn. 4) These 2 deeds give an unusually good picture of the arrangement of the property, though later deeds relating to the same suggest that some of the dimensions may be half an ell (18 in.; 460 mm.) out: two shops and an entry, measuring some 12 ft. to 15 ft. (3.66 m. to 4.57 m.) in depth; behind them a seld some 60 ft. (18.29 m.) long; behind that a piece of land 90 ft. (27.43 m.) long, as yet unbuilt on apart from a privy. The width of the property varied from 17 ft. 3 in. to 20 ft. 3 in. (5.26 m. to 6.17 m.) at different points (see below).
In the reign of Henry III, probably in the earlier part, the prior and convent of Southwark made an agreement with David Linchedraper, apparently the tenant of 11 to the E., that they would make a gutter (stillicidium) between them, from their selds to Cheapside, and repair it as necessary. If either should pull down or raise his part of the wall between them, the water was still to be carried off without harming the other. The parties granted one another power to distrain for non-performance of the covenants. The tenant of 10 at this time is not named; the agreement may date from the 1220s, as Richard Renger (mayor 1222-6) was the first witness, but it could be later, possibly later than the following two grants. (fn. 5)
The priory of St. Mary Overy evidently regained seisin of the S. half of the property, which Hugh de Curtan had held: between 1225 and 1243 they granted to Anger de la Barr, mercer, a plot of land and a seld in foro, between the seld of Andrew the mercer (?8-9) and that late of Adam de Gippeswic (11), measuring in width at the S. end by Cheapside 6 3/4 ells (20 ft. 3 in.; 6.17 m.) and at the N. towards the land of Thomas Lingedraper 6 1/4 ells (18 ft. 9 in.; 5.72 m.) and in length 25 1/4 ells of the king's iron ell (75 ft. 9 in.; 23.09 m.), with free access to the privata camera to the N. Anger was to pay £4 rent for all services, and the priory promised not to dispossess him; Anger swore not to let the seld to Jews or religious, nor to divide it without the priory's consent, and gave £8 as a gersum. (fn. 6) Anger may already have held one of the shops on the Cheapside frontage (see above). At about this time (between 1222 and 1248) Geoffrey de Frowyc granted to the prior and canons of Holy Trinity Aldgate 1s. 8d. quit-rent out of the 8s. 4d. rent he received from St. Mary Overy for a seld which they held of him in foro; he had bought the 1s. 8d. rent from John son of Terricus. Geoffrey subsequently devised the whole of the rent to Holy Trinity. (fn. 7)
In 1246 the prior of St. Mary Overy was said to have raised a pentice, encroaching on the highway. (fn. 8) In 1256-7 St. Mary Overy priory granted and demised to Geoffrey de Wynton, civis Londoniarum de foro, certain land with houses on it in foro in the parish of All Hallows Honey Lane, lying between the land sometime of Ralph Eswy to the W. and N. (probably 8-9 to the W. and property in St. Lawrence Jewry parish to the N.) and the land of St. Bartholomew's priory to the E. (11), to hold for ever at £4 rent. The priory reserved from the grant 2 shops to the S. of the seld by the entry to it, under a certain solar; one shop, held by Hugh de Wynton', was 4 1/4 ells (12 ft. 9 in.; 3.89 m.) in length from the highway to the seld, and 1 1/4 ells 2 in. of King Henry's iron ell (3 ft. 11 in.; 1.19m.) in width; the other shop, to the E. of Hugh's shop, measured the same but the tenant is not named. The priory also stipulated that Hugh de Wynton should have a place in the seld, with access to it, measuring 2 1/4 ells and 2 in. by 1 1/4 ells (6 ft. 11 in. by 3 ft. 9 in.; 2.11 m. by 1.14 m.) to put a chest (archa). They granted Geoffrey 22 chests, price £2. 4s., which he was to keep in good repair and not to remove without replacing with better. Geoffrey was not to alienate to Jews or religious without consent, and was to pay 6s. 8d. silver if he wished to sell or demise. If he failed to maintain or rebuild the premises as necessary, the priory could reclaim it or distrain in it; Geoffrey swore fealty to the priory, and to pay the rent. This grant probably concerned the whole property as it had been held by Adam (le) Bacheler. (fn. 9)
Geoffrey de Wynton', pepperer (piperarius), granted the land with houses which he held by demise of St. Mary Overy in All Hallows Honey Lane to John Moton, citizen and pepperer, for a rose at midsummer, Moton to perform all services. Geoffrey's son Lawrence confirmed the grant in 1275 after his father's death. In 1291 the prior of Southwark had £5. 11s. 8d. rent in the parish of All Hallows Honey Lane, which may represent a £6 rent with 8s. 4d. deducted for the quit-rent due to Holy Trinity Priory. John Moton was in arrears for the 8s. 4d. quit-rent in 1299, when the priory distrained, but he acknowledged the rent and was acquitted for the arrears. William de Creye, his wife Isabel, and Richard Hutgoh were tenants of St. Mary Southwark in Westcheap in 1300, and £3. 12s. in arrears with rent, but this could have been for a tenement in some other parish. The interest of the priory in 10 after the late 13th century was only in the rent. (fn. 10)
By his will made in 1315, William de Bosenham left his term of 60 years in a certain seld which was of John Motoun, which he had acquired by an extent made before the Barons of the Exchequer for a certain recognizance made there, to his son Gilbert. It is not certain that this was 11/10 but it seems probable. In 1328 10 was held by John Pointel, who also paid the rent to Holy Trinity Priory; he may have been a tenant of the Motoun family. By 1336 the property was held by Margery, daughter of John Motoun late citizen and pepperer, and her husband Roger de Medefeld, leather merchant (mercator allute). In July of that year they granted to Robert de Hareberghe, chaplain, the tenement with houses on it and a shop in the front part sometime of John Motoun, between 8 and 9 to the W., 11 to the E., Cheapside to the S. and John de Oxenford's tenement and garden (in St. Lawrence Jewry) to the N. He granted it back to them a week later. In 1337 Roger and Margery leased to Edmund de Wike, tailor, the solaria precedentia (?the front rooms) over the tavern called le Got in Cheapside, except for 2 chambers from the shop of the said Edmund to the N., for 4 years from 1337, to hold with free access as before, for a certain sum paid. The solars lay between 9 to the W., 11 to the E., and extended towards Cheapside to the S. in front. The landlords were to repair. (fn. 11) This is the first reference to 10 as a tavern or as the Goat, a name which it kept until the 17th century. It was held by a succession of vintners and brewers until c. 1434, which suggests that it continued in use as a tavern until then, possibly for ale or wine at different times. There was evidently still a wine tavern there in 1512-13 and later in the sixteenth century (see below).
Roger de Medefeld bound himself to William de Stanes, citizen and pepperer, in £60 by a statute merchant, which he failed to pay; his tenements in All Hallows Honey Lane were delivered by the sheriffs in 1338-9 to de Stanes, to hold as free tenement until the debt and all costs were paid. The tenements were extended at £3. 13s. 4d. In 1340 de Stanes granted his term to Thomas de Waldene, citizen and apothecary. Roger de Medefeld brought a plea of intrusion against William de Stanes, apothecary, Thomas de Waldene, apothecary, Walter atte Got, and Richard Lugardyn, apothecary, of his free tenement in All Hallows Honey Lane in 1342, but did not proceed with it. In 1346 de Stanes granted the reversion of the tenement called taberna atte Goth with houses built on it and a shop in front, after the end of de Waldene's term, to Gilbert de Bruera, dean of St. Paul's. (fn. 12)
Gilbert de Bruera sold his reversion of the tavern atte Goot with houses, shops, etc., to Thomas Leggy, citizen and at that time mayor, in 1348, appointing William Reymond his attorney to deliver seisin. Thomas de Waldene quitclaimed in the lands etc. he had of de Stanes' grant to Leggy in 1352. (fn. 13) Thomas Leggy, citizen and skinner (pelliparius), died in 1357, leaving the tavern atte Goot in Westcheap for sale. Ralph de Cauntebrugge and Walter Forster, his executors, sold it in 1358 to William Brangwayn, citizen and vintner, describing it as a tavern with houses over, shops adjacent and appurtenances, between 8 and 9 to the W., 11 to the E., and the tenement or garden of John de Oxenford to the N. Alice, widow of Thomas Leggy, quitclaimed in the same to Porangwayn in 1358. (fn. 14)
Leggy's executors had satisfied all arrears of the 8s. 4d. quit-rent to Holy Trinity Aldgate in 1357, but in 1360 the prior distrained in Brangwayn's tenement for 1 1/2 years' arrears, taking nam worth £2. Brangwayn denied that the tenement was so charged but afterwards failed to prosecute his plea of nam and the prior recovered the rent. (fn. 15) There is no reference to the rent due to St. Mary Overy, Southwark, at this date, but it was still being paid in the 15th century and later. At the same time Brangwayn was involved, as plaintiff and defendant, in two pleas of nuisance with his neighbour to the E., the prior of St. Bartholomew, but neither case was prosecuted. (fn. 16)
Brangwayn died in 1361, leaving the Goat for sale, and his executors Nicholas Hotot and Richard de Claveryngg sold it to John Couk of Hallingbury (Essex), citizen and brewer (braciator), and his wife Katharine. Possibly from this time 10 was an ale-tavern not a wine-tavern. In 1363 John Cook, brewer and citizen, granted a rent of £3. 6s. 8d. from his tenement called le Got atte hope in All Hallows Honey Lane to Elias Catesby, chaplain, John de Berwe, John Oliver senior, John Oliver junior, Henry Caucy, Thomas de Benchesham, Richard Haselmere, Richard Kene, Brice Tanner, John Scory senior, Robert Lenard, Robert Dunmill(?), and John Totyng; this grant was only conditional, however, and if Cook paid the grantees a rent of the same amount from a tenement and shops demised by them to him for 100 years in the parish of St. Michael Cornhill, the grant relating to the Goat was to be void. (fn. 17)
In 1366 John atte Harpe, brewer, (identical with John Cook) and the prior of St. Bartholomew's brought pleas of nuisance against one another. In 1367 the matter was settled by an agreement reciting a 13th-century indenture between the prior and convent of Southwark and David Linchedraper (presumably then occupying 11), concerning party gutters (see above). In the 1367 agreement, the prior of St. Bartholomew's and John atte Harpe and his wife Katharine confirmed the earlier agreement; the prior granted that the rainwater from John and Katharine's houses should be led over his land during their lives, and that they should also have the light of a window situated between a newly-built house of the prior, so long as it was glazed or covered in woollen cloth or canvas, unless and until the prior wanted to build up against their tenement, after which they could not sell the easement. John and Katharine promised to be always goodwilling and faithful to the prior. The agreement suggests that the walls of the buildings on 10 came up to the site-boundary with 11, but that parts of that property adjoining the boundary were not at that time built over. (fn. 18)
John atte Harpe was recorded as paying 6s. 8d. quit-rent to Holy Trinity Priory c. 1368 for property in All Hallows Honey Lane Parish, but it was as John Couke or Cook that he granted the tavern of the Goat on the Hoop to Sir Thomas, rector of St. Christopher, and John Lependen of Dunmow, Essex, in 1373. Later that year these grantees granted it back to him and his wife Joan and their heirs, with remainer to his heirs. In 1380 John Cook, brewer, and his wife Joan complained of intrusion against the prior of St. Bartholomew's (cf. 11) but did not prosecute the plea. In 1386 John atte Harpe alias John Cook of Hallingbury (Essex) granted a £10 rent from the tavern now called le Tonne but formerly atte Gote, with houses built over, and shops, to Sir Simon de Burleye, Sir John Clenvowe, Sir John de Burleye, Sir Nicholas Sarnesfeld, Sir Thomas Adderbury, knights, William More, citizen and vintner, and William Venour, citizen and grocer; the grant was to be effective only if a transaction relating to a tenement in Lime Street was thwarted, and in the event this did not happen. (fn. 19)
John Cook, brewer, died in 1387 or 1388; in 1389 John atte Park, chaplain of the chantry at the altar of St. Mary in the Church of Croydon, Surrey, John Olyver, and John Scory senior, quitclaimed to John Cook his son and heir all their right in the Goat on the Hoop, between 9 to the W., 11 to the E., John Blaunch's tenement (in St. Lawrence Jewry) to the N. and Cheapside to the S.; their interest was in the £3. 6s. 8d. rent which John Cook the father had conditionally granted to them and others in 1363. John Cook the younger granted the tenement called the Goat on the Hoop, with houses, shops, solar(s), and cellar(s), to Sir William Ghenow, rector of St. Edmund Lombard Street, and William Fromond, chaplain, in 1390; they granted it back to him and his wife Joan and their heirs, with remainder to his heirs, in 1396. John Harp, presumably identical either with John Cook the younger or with John his son, brought a plea of intrusion in 1410 against the warden of the hospital of St. Giles Holborn and John Westeneys, draper, touching his free tenement in All Hallows Honey Lane. St. Giles' had an interest in 9B (q.v.), which in some way adjoined or was intermixed with 10; the plea was not prosecuted. (fn. 20)
John Cook or John atte Harp the younger was dead by 1413 when his widow Margaret, now the wife of William Ribode, skinner, brought a plea of dower against John son of John atte Harp for a third of the messuage with one shop and appurtenances in All Hallows Honey Lane. In 1415 John Harpe, citizen and vintner, granted the tenement called the Goat on the Hoop in All Hallows Honey Lane, between 8 and 9 to the W., 11 to the E., the tenement late of John Bosam to the N. (Blossoms Inn in St. Lawrence Jewry parish), and Cheapside to the S., to Richard Jepe, rector of All Hallows Honey Lane, John Barynton of Hatfield (Essex), and John Crouchere, citizen and vintner. Jepe and Barynton quitclaimed in the tenement to Crouchere in 1424. (fn. 21)
In 1426 John Crouchere granted the Goat on the Hoop to Robert Cok, glover, and Richard Rowe, vintner, citizens, with all houses, shops, cellar(s), solar(s), etc.; Cok and Rowe granted it back to Crouchere, his wife Alice, and their heirs and assigns later that year. John and Alice thereupon granted it to Nicholas Bolthorp, citizen and vintner, and his wife Elizabeth and their heirs in tail. In 1434 Nicholas Bolthorp and Elizabeth granted the Goat on the Hoop, with all houses, etc., as before, to John Norman and John Stonton, citizens and drapers, Robert Oppy, clerk, and Thomas Stokdale. Robert Bolthorp, Nicholas' brother, quitclaimed in the tenement to them in 1437. The priory of St. Mary Overy claimed their £6 rent from the Goat on the Hoop from Norman, Stonton, Oppy, and Stokdale; in 1440, after arbitration, Norman and the rest acknowledged the priory's title, and in consideration of this and of Norman's 'great new buildings' the priory reduced the rent to £4. (fn. 22)
Stonton died and Stokdale quitclaimed to Norman and Oppy in 1451. Later that year Norman and Oppy granted the Goat on the Hoop, described and located as before, to Edmund, lord Grey of Ruthyn, Thomas Billing senior, Thomas Scotte, William Hulyn, John Pury, John Nedeham, Thomas Burgoyn, Thomas Portaleyn, John Say, Alexander Haysand, Philip Botiller, William Hendeston, John Ratheby, Roger Spicer, John Billyng, William Chedworth, Simon Reyham, Robert Emote(?), John Berston, clerk, Thomas Billyng junior, Richard Norman, Thomas Bacheler, and John Chipnall; the grantees were clearly to hold to John Norman's use, as the grant included a proviso for his re- enfeoffment on request, failure to do which would void the charter. Seisin was delivered in Cheapside to Thomas Billyng (senior), then recorder of London. John Bolthorp, son of Nicholas and Elizabeth, quitclaimed in the tenement to John Pury, esquire, John Nedeham, serjeant at law, Thomas Burgoyn and Thomas Porthalyn in 1454. (fn. 23)
By his will dated 1467 and proved 1468, John Norman (alderman of Cheap, and formerly mayor) instructed his feoffees of the Goat on the Hoop to convey it to Thomas Rigby, gentleman, Richard Norman the testator's brother, and John Berston, chaplain, whom he made his executors; they were to sell it, and distribute the profit at their discretion. In 1469 Richard Norman and John Berston released the tenement to Edmund (now earl of Kent), Thomas Billyng, and their other surviving co-feoffees, who thereupon granted and confirmed the Goat to Norman, Berston, and Rigby as executors. (fn. 24)
Richard Norman, citizen and draper and keeper of Blackwell Hall, appears to have acquired the Goat on the Hoop for himself, and to have intended to devise it as an endowment worth £16 p.a. to the Drapers' Company. In fact the Goat was valued at no more than £10 yearly; Robert Olney, esquire, offered to grant the company another £6 rent, on condition that he had the keeping of Blackwell Hall after Richard Norman's death. Olney also seems to have acquired the Goat on the Hoop, which he granted in 1482 to Henry Assheborn, gentleman, Mr. Thomas Aleyn, Mr. Robert Greteham, Mr. William Sampson, clerks, and William Broke, yeoman, to hold to his use and to the fulfilment of his will. In 1482 he directed in his will that if he held Blackwell Hall for life, and if after his death Assheborn and his co-feoffees assured a rent of £2 from the premises to Robert Rasy for life, then after his death Assheborn, etc., were to allow the issues from the Goat (after Rasy's rent) to Sir Thomas Stalbroke, knight, John Fynkell, John Tutsam, William Isaake, Richard Batte, William Whyte, Robert Godewyn, Edmund Rygon, John Jakes, William Sybson, Robert Fabyan, and Thomas Langrygge, citizens and drapers, by whose 'labour and means' Olney now had the keepership of Blackwell Hall. After Rasy's death Assheborn and his co-feoffees were to hold to the use of Stalbroke and the rest, and to convey it to them. This will, the provisions of which are recorded in an indenture, does not survive. (fn. 25) Another will, made by Olney in 1487 and proved in the Commissary Court of London later that year, seems to have supplemented not superseded the previous will. In it, Olney left £2 p.a. from 'my tenement in London called the Goote in Chepe' to Rasy for life, to pray for his soul and others including Richard Norman. Olney's executors were Aleyn, Rasy (described as Sir Robert Rasy, priest) and Assheborn. In 1490, possibly after Rasy's death, Asshborne, Aleyn, and Greteham, the surviving feoffees, granted the Goat on the Hoop, with houses, etc., to Henry Eburton, citizen and draper, probably with the intent that Eburton should devise the tenement to the Drapers' Company by will. This Eburton did, by a will dated 1490, 2 days after the grant to him, but not proved until 1500. In the same testament he also devised Drapers' Hall in the parishes of St. Swithin and St. Mary Abchurch, and other properties elsewhere. (fn. 26)
Sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
The Drapers' Company received rent from 10 from 1506 at least (no earlier 16th century accounts survive). In 1508 the company was in dispute with the hospital of St. Giles Holborn over the title to a messuage or house with 2 solars over in the parish of All Hallows Honey Lane, annexed to the W. part of the Goat on the Hoop. This could have been 9B (q.v.) in which the hospital had had an interest since the 13th century, but it is not certain whether this was still an identifiable unit, and the hospital may have been making a claim, based on the memory of its interest in 9B, to property that had always been part of 10. The matter was settled by arbitration, the hospital quitclaimed to the Drapers, and granted the tenement to William Calley, citizen and draper. By his will of 1513, proved 1516, Calley left the Goat on the Hoop, of which part formerly belonged to Eburton and part to the hospital, to the Drapers, with other premises. (fn. 27) From the early 16th century the Drapers let 10 as 2 units. 10A at the front incorporated the land conceded by St. Giles' hospital, and 10B at the back was a much larger property, which continued to be known as the Goat and seems to have included the tavern premises.
10A, the south part
There had been shops on the frontage of 10 held separately from the seld and land behind as early as the 13th century, when Hugh de Wynton and Anger de (la) Barra held them of St. Mary Overy (see above). Possibly the £4. 13s. 4d. rent received by the Drapers from 1506-9 from Thomas Rothwood for a tenement in Cheapside was for 10A. The settlement of the dispute with St. Giles' Hospital in 1509, by which they conveyed a shop and 2 solars to William Calley who subsequently devised them to the company, secured the company's title to the whole of the property to the S. of 10B. In 1510 there was a 'variance' between the Drapers and the Skinners (owners of 9) over a certain void ground in Cheapside in All Hallows Honey Lane. The viewers judged that it belonged to the Drapers. It lay on Cheapside, measuring 20 ft. 5 in. (6.22 m.) between the Skinners (9) and Mrs. Rigby (tenant of 11); on the W. side it measured 15 ft. (4.57 m.) northwards to a principal post of the Skinners, 13 ft. 2 in. (4.01 m.) further to another principal, and 9 ft. 10 in. (3 m.) to a post of the Drapers, and on the E. side 38 ft. 7 in. (11.76 m.). It was 18 ft. 9 in. (5.72 m.) wide at the first principal and 18 ft. 3 in. (5.56 m.) at the N. end. Since in the grant of 9B by St. Giles' that property was said to be a shop and 2 solars it appears that the Drapers had since then pulled all the buildings down, presumably in order to rebuild as one. (fn. 28)
In 1509-12 the tenant of the Goat (10B) was allowed £6. 13s. 4d. against his rent for troubles in building 'the forehouse where Soper dwells', and the substantial works noted for the Goat in 1509-11 probably relate to this rebuilding. From 1510 Robert Soper paid a new rent; this was £9 until 1513 and £8 thereafter. The company paved the street before Mr. Soper's house in 1515-16. Thomas Godye paid the £8 rent from 1518 to 1522, followed by Mr. Gowge (1522-4). This was probably John Gowge, mercer, who was assessed for subsidy c. 1522-4 in this parish. Roger Chaundeler paid the £8 rent from 1524. Chaundeler paid a quarter's rent at £8 in 1523-4 and £6. 13s. 4d. rent from 1524-5 until 1530. In 1530-1 the rent went up to £7, and remained there; Chandler paid it until 1536. The reason for these fluctuations in the rent is not known; possibly the Drapers set too high a rent on the new property and had to reduce it to keep it occupied. The company repaired the tenement, making or mending a pentice over the shop in 1529-30 and a gallery on the street side in 1531-2, and repairing the hall and kitchen chimneys in 1535-6. Weatherboarding is mentioned twice. (fn. 29)
Parnell Bysshopp, widow, paid the £7 rent in 1536-8, followed in 1538 by John Valyaunt, who paid the rent until 1545. Valyaunt had a 20-year lease from 1537, at £20 fine and the old rent. In 1541 £10 of the fine was still unpaid; Valyaunt alleged he had given £5 of it to William Hartwell, but that had not come to the company's use. He agreed therefore to pay £5 and to allow certain household furniture ('hustilments') he had bought of Robert Bysshope then tenant at his entrance to the tenement to remain as landlord's fixtures at the end of his term. The goods, which were valued by William Vere, leatherseller, and Robert Johnson, tallow-chandler, were mostly shelves, boards and iron racks, in the countinghouse, kitchen, buttery, the little warehouse by the kitchen, the chamber, garret, cellar, and shop; there was also an aumbry in the hall and a portal at the stairhead. Two pentices over the leads next to the tavern were made or repaired 'at Valyaunts next Goat' in 1539-40. (fn. 30)
Valyaunt paid the rent from 1538 to 1545. In 1544 he was assessed for subsidy in this parish. He was followed by Robert Harryson, who paid the rent from 1545 to 1558; the company did some repairs during his tenancy but none after 1553-4. Richard Smyth paid the £7 rent from 1558 to 1560, followed by William Smyth, grocer, from 1560 to 1587, widow Smyth in 1587-8, and William Smyth from 1588 to 1592. Richard Hall paid the rent from 1592 to 1604, and John Aubrey, citizen and girdler, his assign, from 1604 to 1632. Aubrey occupied 10A, known as the Broad Arrowhead, in 1612. He paid a fine of £350 for a new lease in 1616-17 and 1621-2; the lease was for 30 years from 1624. The tenement was referred to as the Three Broad Arrowheads in 1625-6 and again as the Broad Arrowhead later. (fn. 31)
Aubrey assigned his lease to William Geere in 1632-3; Geere surrendered the lease, asking at first for a new one in his own name for the remainder of Aubrey's term, but then changing this request to one for a new lease for 31 years at a fine of £66. 13s. 4d., which was granted. In 1637 John Legingham lived at the Broad Arrowhead in Cheapside, and the tithe-payer for 10A in 1638 was Mr. Ledingham, for a house worth £50 p.a. Geere at that time occupied 11/1. In 1647 Geere was licensed to assign his term to Thomas Howe of Gray's Inn, but he continued to pay the rent until 1651. Howe as Geere's executor, paid from 1652 to 1655, and as Geere's assign from 1655 to 1663. In 1661 Thomas Speed, citizen and draper, was granted a 21- year lease of the Broad Arrow in Cheapside from 1664, at the old rent and £350 fine, with the usual covenants. He was occupying the house, which had 7 hearths, in 1662-3. He paid the rent in 1663-4, and his executors paid from 1664 to 1666. Shortly before the Fire the house was occupied in two parts, the larger, with 5 hearths, by Daniel Holloway, and the smaller, 2 hearths, by Hannah Speed, widow. She paid the rent for the whole house in 1666-7. (fn. 32)
10B, the north part
The main part of 10, to the rear, hereafter described as 10B, continued to be known as the Goat. Miles Browne paid £9 rent in 1506-7, 1507-8, and for half of 1508-9 for the Goat or the Goat and Boar's Head; it was vacant for a quarter, then let at £10 yearly rent to Walter ap Rice, who was allowed £6. 13s. 4d. in 1510-11 for the trouble in building the 'forehouse' (10A) wherein Soper lived. As well as new building at the front, repairs were done to the tavern, especially its cellar; repairs to the tavern floor and 'the door where the wine goes down' were done in 1512-13, and other repairs to the kitchen, gutters and roofs of the Goat from 1506. A bay window in the 'Goat chamber' was glazed in 1507-8. (fn. 33) Though the Goat had not been described as a tavern in deeds since 1409, (fn. 34) it was clearly still or again being used as one at this time.
Walter ap Rice paid the £10 rent until 1513, followed by Roger Hawe(s) from 1513 to 1518; William Dudd or Dode, living there in 1517-18, paid the rent from 1518 to 1523 and William Hancock from 1523 to 1544. The company repaired the tenement from time to time and paved the street in front in 1513-14 and 1529-30. Since 1506, and probably earlier, the Drapers had been renting a shed and watercourse in Trump Alley, part of 11/11, at £1. 6s. 8d. a year. They paid this rent to William or John Rigby, probably the tenants of 11, from 1506 to 1513, and to St. Bartholomew's Priory, the owners of 11, thereafter. In 1534-5 building works included breaking down a stone wall into Trump Alley, and in 1536-7 paving in Trump Alley next to the Goat, and blocking a door into Chandler's house (10A). Repairs in 1539-40 included laying 2 'pieces' in 2 parlours next to Trump Alley, boarding a jakes and making a tunnel for the 'drawghte'. Substantial repairs were done in 1544-5, probably at the end of Hancock's tenancy, costing over £40: they included structural works in timber and brick, work on the cellar stairs and the gallery chimney, and tables and settles for the tavern. (fn. 35)
The Drapers were also still paying the £4 quit-rent to St. Mary Overy. After the dissolution of the priory this was paid to the Crown's receiver or collector, and so continued through the 16th and 17th centuries; during the Interregnum the rent was sold, but was resumed at the Restoration. (fn. 36) The rent of 8s. 4d. due to Holy Trinity Priory was said to be long in arrears at the time that house was dissolved; John Norman (d. 1467 or 1468) was the last recorded payer. (fn. 37)
A new lease for 38 years was granted to Robert Gardener, citizen and draper, in 1544, at the £10 rent. He was probably expected to repair, but a few small repairs were done at the company's cost between 1544 and 1561. In 1553 the Goat in Cheap was one of 40 taverns licensed, and in the same year Thomas (sic) Gardener, draper, was licensed to sell wines by retail there, in place of John Harrison, vintner. Robert Gardener paid the rent until 1556, Mrs. Gardener 1556-9, and Mr. Gardener's executors 1559-61. Anthony Caige, citizen and salter, took over the lease in 1561 and paid the rent thereafter; he surrendered the lease in 1565 and was granted a new lease of the Goat, with all cellars, solars, lights, alleyways, entries and passages (saving the lights, easements, watercourses, etc. used with 10A), for 99 years at £100 fine (paid in 1567) and the old rent of £10. (fn. 38)
The shed and watercourse, part of 11, which the Drapers held at will at £1. 6s. 8d. rent, passed with the rest of 11 from St. Bartholomew's Priory to the Crown and then to Sir George Barne, kt. and alderman, and George Barne his son. In 1566 George and John Barne, sons of Sir George, sold the shed and watercourse to John Huckinge, citizen and draper, on behalf of the Drapers' Company, for £40 which the company paid. Hucking made a will devising the shed to the company, and entered into a bond of £100 not to revoke this. He was also a party to Caige's lease in 1565, so the negotiations may have been going on for some time before the sale. The shed, described as an edificium et sheda in Trump Alley, adjoined the E. side of the Drapers' tenement called the Goat in Cheap or the Goat on the Hoop, and measured 29 ft. 5 in. N.-S. and 8 ft. 3 in. E.-W. (8.97 m. by 2.51 m.). The grant included the gutter in Trump Alley and access to and from Cheapside by way of the alley. A late-17th-century plan of the Drapers' property shows that the S. wall of the shed or building was some 54 ft. (16.46 m.) back from Cheapside. (fn. 39)
Anthony Caige or Cage paid the rent from 1561 to 1583. In his will of 1581, he left the messuage in Westcheap he had bought of Henry Potkin to his son Nicholas in tail male, with a proviso that his wife Anne might continue to live there, with a maidservant and a manservant, and with liberty to use the garden of another of Caige's messuages in Grub Street to dry washing. Henry Potkin, otherwise unidentified, was perhaps one of Gardener's executors. John Cage, possibly Anthony Cage's son, paid the rent from 1583 to 1596, followed by Richard Farington as assign to John Cage from 1596 to 1610, Mrs. Mary Farington, widow, from 1610 to 1626, John Gibbes, assign to Mr(s). Farington from 1626 to 1632, and Thomas Gippes from 1632 to 1649. Mr. Gipps was the tithe-payer in 1638, for a house worth £60 p.a. Gippes assigned to Francis Knight, citizen and fishmonger, who surrendered the lease in 1649 for a new one in his own name for the remaining 14 1/2 years of Anthony Cage's term. In 1652 Knight surrendered the new lease, and paid £350 for a further lease of 41 years from 1652, at the old rent. He remained the tenant to the Fire and beyond. (fn. 40)
The new lease described the property as a messuage or tenement sometime long since a tavern called the Goat, and all cellars, solars, yards, rooms, lights, etc. now or late occupied by Knight (see Fig. 5). It comprised an entry 5 ft. wide and 26 ft. long (1.52 m. by 7.92 m.) from Cheapside (this appears to have run through 10A, on the E. side of the property) leading to a void room 23 ft. in depth from the entry and 10 ft. 9 in. wide (7.01 m. by 3.28 m.). Beyond that was a shop 28 ft. long and 18 ft. 6 in. broad (8.53 m. by 5.64 m.), with 'gallories' round about, and an entry towards the W. side of the shop leading into the yard and back house. There was a cellar under the shop and part of the void room. Behind that was a paved yard 23 ft. 6 in. (7.16 m) broad by 14 ft. 3 in. (4.34 m.) at one end and 15 ft. 6 in. (4.72 m.) at the other, with a passage and door leading into Trump Alley, and a vault under part of that yard. The main house or building lay beyond the shop and yard and measured 73 ft. 6 in. (22.40 m.) in depth by 25 ft. 6 in. (7.77 m.) in width at the S. end and 16 ft. (4.88 m.) at the far N. end; in it were a warehouse with cellar under, a kitchen behind the warehouse, and above them '3 fair rooms.' Over these were 3 chambers, over these 3 more chambers with 'studdies' at every end above over the paved yard. Above the chambers were 'gallories' covered with lead and two houses of office. Two small yards were contained in the measurements given above. Knight was to hold the premises with all the lights, easements, etc., as before, except for the lights and easements belonging to the adjoining messuage, the Broad Arrowhead (10A). Knight paid the rent up till the Great Fire. 10B seems to have been occupied in 1662-3 by Charles Owine, linen draper; it had 10 hearths. Francis Knight, esquire, occupied the same house in 1666. (fn. 41)
After the great fire
A foundation was surveyed for Mr. John Desmaretts in November 1668; he was probably an executor or assign of Thomas Speed. This consisted of a plot 22 ft. 6 in. (6.86 m.) deep from Cheapside, between Lovell (9) to the W. and Tench (11) to the E., measuring 18 ft. 3 in. (5.56 m.) wide at the N. end. Behind that plot was an area 18 ft. 6 in. (5.64 m.) deep; on the E. side of this was the entry to the Bull Head, 5 ft. (1.52 m.) wide (which must also have run through the front part, though it is not marked there); on the W. side was an area 5 ft. 9 in. wide and 18 ft. 6 in. deep (1.75 m. by 5.64 m.), and 'all upright' on this belonged to Desmaretts. In the middle, in an area some 7 ft. 6 in. (2.29 m.) wide, was a cellar belonging to Desmaretts; nothing above it belonged to him. (fn. 42)
This survey suggests that there was some intermixture between 10A and 10B, and that this was retained after the Fire is confirmed by the lease of the new building made in 1670. John Drigay, broad weaver, had surrendered Speed's lease, and rebuilt the house at his own cost; he was given an 81-year lease from 1667 at the old rent. The new messuage contained a cellar, 20 ft. wide and 22 ft. 10 in. deep (6.1 m. by 6.96 m.) with an extension to the N. 5 ft. wide and 15 ft. long (1.52 m. by 4.57 m.). Over part of the cellar was a shop, 13 ft. wide and 22 ft. 10 in. long (3.96 m. by 6.96 m.), the narrower width allowing about 7 ft. (2.13 m.) for the passage back to 10A, and with an extension 5 ft. wide and 15 ft. long (1.52 m. by 4.57 m.), presumably over the cellar extension. On the 'second story' (first floor) and above the house measured 13 ft. 7 in. wide and 38 ft. 8 in. in depth (4.14 m. by 11.79 m.). (fn. 43)
No foundation-survey seems to have been made for 10B and none of it was required for the new market-place. Knight had rebuilt by 1670, when he was granted a lease of 71 years from 1667. The sketch-plan accompanying the lease and the plan-book of 1698 suggest that the tenement had been rebuilt on similar lines to its layout in 1652; even some of the intermixture with 10A remained. The property was affected by the post-Fire alterations, however, in that its west wall became the E. wall of the new market place, and a small area 9 ft. or 10ft. (2.74 m. to 3.05 m.) wide at the N. end was cut off for the new passageway from the market into St. Lawrence Lane, later known as Trump Alley. Francis Knight was paid £100 compensation for the ground cut off, but was allowed to build 'such ornamental building or superstructure as shall be thought fit' over the passageway. He was also excused from paying for the improvement or amelioration to his tenement by the opening-up of the market, because he allowed the City to 'employ' the party wall to a height of 12 ft. (3.66 m.) 'for the accommodation of the market', probably for the erection of the piazzas or arcades shown on Leybourn's survey. Knight also was allowed to make a doorway from his yard into the S.E. corner of the market place; later this became a way through into Bull Head Passage or yard, to which Knight's yard also had access. One factor causing confusion at this time was that the name of 'the Bull Head' was in the process of migrating from 11 and 12 to 10B: thus the Drapers referred to Knight as 'our tenant of the Bull Head' and the door at the S.E. corner of the market was shown as 'Bullhead Door' in a City plan of 1698. (fn. 44)
In 1671 the City leased to Daniel Man, keeper of the Guildhall, a small shop at the N.W. corner of the Bull Head (10B), for 61 years at £60 fine and £1 rent (having originally offered the same at £8 rent and no fine). The shop was only 7 ft. 9 in. E.-W. and 12 ft. 3 in. N.-S. (2.36 m. by 3.73 m.), but had cellars below and extending under the market-place and rooms above over the piazza. It is not clear whether this plot was cut off from 10B or, probably more likely, represents part of 8B which the Grocers' Company had surrendered. The shop is shown as 'butchers shop' in Leybourn's plan of 1677. (fn. 45)