Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries. Originally published by Longmans, Green, London, 1868.
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Ordinances of the Tapicers.
4 Edward III. A.D. 1331. Letter-Book E. fol. ccx. (Norman French and Latin.)
(fn. 1) These are the Ordinances of the trade of Tapicers, (fn. 2) made by the good folks of the same trade: the which Ordinances were approved and accepted before John de Pulteneye, Mayor, the Aldermen, and the Commonalty, in the Court of Common Pleas holden on Monday, the morrow of St. Hilary [13 January], in the 4th year of the reign of King Edward, after the Conquest the Third.—
"In the first place,—they have ordained, and they pray, that no thief or misdoer, acting against the peace of our Lord the King, may be sojourning among them; and if any such there be, they pray that he may be removed, and have his punishment, according as right demands.
"Also,—they have ordained that no tapice in the said trade shall be made, if it be not of the lawful assize used in ancient times; that is to say, of the common assize, every tapice being 4 ells in length, and 2 ells in breadth; and of the smaller assize, the tapice of 3 ells in length being one ell and a half in breadth: and that no such tapice be made with arms thereon, unless it be made wholly of wool; and that if any tapice be found in any other manner made against the form aforesaid, it shall be forfeited to the Chamber of the Guildhall of London.
"Also,—that no cushions be made with arms thereon, if they be not of wool, and half an ell square, and at least half a quarter. (fn. 3) And that this measure shall be observed in length and breadth. And that if any cushion be found, made in any other manner, it shall be forfeited to the said Chamber.
"Also,—that no banker (fn. 4) shall be made in the said trade, unless it be the size of the cushions aforesaid; and that if any banker be found made in any other manner, it shall be forfeited to the said Chamber.
" Also,—they have ordained that no man shall keep any manner of handwerke of the said trade, if he be not free of the City: and that if any such shall be found, it shall be forfeited to the said Chamber.
"And that no man of the said trade, other than a freeman, shall take an apprentice in such trade; and that every freeman of the said trade shall maintain his apprentice, according to the usages and the franchise of the City. And that if any other person than a freeman shall take an apprentice, the same must be done by permission of the Mayor and the Aldermen.
" And that from henceforth there shall be used in the said trade nothing but good wool of England and of Spain; and if any other wool shall be found in the said trade, the same shall be forfeited to the said Chamber.
"And that no chalon of ray, (fn. 5) or other chalon, shall be made, if it be not of the ancient lawful assize, ordained by the good folks of the trade; that is to say, 2 ells and half a quarter in length, and 5 quarters in breadth, and not less. And if any such shall be found, the same shall be forfeited to the said Chamber."
(fn. 6) The Articles before-written were shown unto the Mayor and Aldermen, in the full Husting aforesaid, by Walter de Stebenhuthe, Richard Merk, Richard Frere, Nicholas atte Forde, John de Bromholm, and Nicholas de Suthereye, men chosen of the trade aforesaid. And because it seemed that the Articles aforesaid had been made to the common advantage of the City, it was granted that from thenceforth they should be kept, and in their points strictly observed.
Petition of the Butchers of Stokkes Market.
5 Edward III. A.D. 1331. Letter-Book E. fol. ccxviii. (Norman French and Latin.)
(fn. 7) " Unto the Mayor, and to the Aldermen, of the City of London make prayer the Butchers of the Stokkes, that their trade may by your ordinance be amended, to the profit of the commonalty.
" In the first place,—that no butcher sell there his wares, after he has once or twice failed in his payment, until such time as he shall have fully paid up all that he is in arrear: this, in order to destroy the bad repute of the trade.
" And further,—that no foreigner sell his wares there by retail, any more than other foreigners do in other trades in the City.
" And further,—that no person take unto him another's man, until such man shall have accounted, and made payment to his master of his arrears, or have found good surety for the same. And that if any person in any manner shall take unto him such man, before he shall have made such payment, the person who so takes him, shall be bound to pay all the debts and damages for which such man shall be liable to his former master.
" And further,—whereas many of the butchers who have bought their freedom, and are sworn of the franchise, do rent their houses at Stratforde, and around Stratforde, and never come at any summons, nor bear their part in the franchise of the City; but shut out the (fn. 8) citizens in divers markets where they ought to buy their wares, so that through them no wares they can get, to the great undoing of the citizens;—that it may please you to ordain that such butchers must dwell within the City, and hold the franchise equally with the other citizens, or else wholly do the same as foreigners do.
" And further,—that if any person shall infringe any one of the points aforesaid, he shall be bound to pay 40 shillings sterling to the Chamber of the Guildhall of London."
(fn. 9) Before John de Pulteney, [Mayor], and Nicholas de Farndone, Gregory de Nortone, Thomas de Leyre, John de Caustone, and Henry de Seccheford, [Aldermen], this petition was delivered on the Monday next after the Feast of St. Gregory (fn. 10) the Pope, in the 5th year, by Nicholas Derman, William de Dullyngham, William le Redere, William atte Noke, Alexander Cowe, Walter Cowe, Thomas de Caxtone, John de Caxtone, and other butchers; who, in behalf of themselves and others, as well those present as absent, consented thereto.
Ordinance against the Bakers and Taverners; and resistance of the Taverners thereto.
5 Edward III. A.D. 1331. Letter-Book E. fol. ccxxi. (Latin and Norman French.)
(fn. 11) Be it remembered, that on the Tuesday next after the Feast of St. Peter and St. Paul [29 June], in the 5th year of the reign of King Edward, after the Conquest the Third, it was agreed by John de Pulteneye, Mayor of the City of London, John Hautayn, John de Caustone, John Priour, and Henry de Seccheford, Aldermen, and a great number of the Commonalty of the citizens in the Guildhall assembled, that by reason of the immense loss by the City in times past incurred through the malignity of bakers withdrawing themselves and hiding in their mills and elsewhere without the City, so that they cannot be brought to justice, as the custom is; and then placing and assigning their men and servants in their stead, to make loaves that are false, as well as to the dough as the weight thereof; such persons not having been wont to undergo punishment of the hurdle for their offences; and by reason whereof, as well the said master-bakers, as their men and servants aforesaid, so making false loaves have hitherto remained unpunished; to the immense loss of the common people, and to the retarding of the judgments thereon pronounced:—it was so agreed and ordained by the aforesaid Mayor, and Aldermen, and Commonalty, that from henceforth, so often as the master-bakers shall so absent themselves, and shall be unwilling to submit to judgment, and their men and servants shall be found to have so offended, such their men and servants shall have the same sentence as the master-bakers would have had, if they themselves had been present; and that all false loaves found in the hands of regratresses and elsewhere in the City shall be forfeited.
Also,—by reason of the multitude of the kinds of wines now brought to the said city, it was agreed and ordered by the same, that the gallon of best Gascon wine shall be sold from henceforth at 4d., and the gallon of Rhenish wine at 8d.; and that all taverners of the City shall keep the doors of their taverns and of their cellars open, that so, the buyers of their wines may be able to see where their wines are drawn. And cry was made thereupon in the City, in these words.—
(fn. 12) " Whereas the bakers of this city do withdraw themselves from the same, and hide in the mills and elsewhere in the foreign, (fn. 13) to escape the punishment which they ought to have for their false loaves; and do put in their place their men and others who so make the loaves, false as to the weight and as to the dough thereof, the which things have not been permitted heretofore,—to the great damage and in deceit of all the people; it is agreed by the Mayor, Aldermen, and the good folks of the Commonalty, that if a master-baker shall so absent himself, and cannot be found, then those who shall have made the bread otherwise than good and lawful, shall have the same punishment as the master-baker would have had, if he had been found; and that any false bread that shall be found in the hands of a regratress, shall be forfeited.
" It is also agreed, that the gallon of best wine of Gascoigne shall not be sold dearer than at 4d. the gallon, on (fn. 14) pain of imprisonment of him who shall sell or buy the same at a higher rate; and that every one who wishes to buy wine, shall be at liberty to see where his wine is drawn."
(fn. 15) And hereupon, the said Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriffs, were given to understand that all the taverners of the City, making a confederacy and alliance among them, had closed the doors of their taverns, and would not allow their wines to be sold; in contempt of our Lord the King, and to the annulment of the Ordinances aforesaid, and the common loss of all the people. Upon hearing which, the Mayor and Sheriffs went through the middle of the Vintry and of Chepe, and through other streets and lanes of the City, that they might know the truth as to the same; and they had the names of the taverners so closing their taverns written down, which were as follow:—
William de Croydone, John Fynche, William le Gaugeour, Robert de Lenne, John Osekyn, Alice atte Laneende, John atte Conduyt, John Blaunche, John Janyn, Agnes Ballard, Alan atte Conduyt, Geoffrey de Bodelee, Richard de Rothinge, John Reynfri, Roger de Thorpe, William de Shirbourne, Edward Cosyn, John de Oxenforde, Alexander de Burgoyne, John Wrothe, Adam de Burgoyne, Thomas Heyroun, Gilbert le Gaugeour, Simon atte Stockes, Richard de Boterwyke, Hugh le Bevere, Richard Sterre, Thomas de Seford, and Ralph Beauflour.
And forthwith, to put a check upon their malignancy, the same Mayor caused twelve of the best men to be summoned, of each Ward of the City, to be here at the Guildhall on the Thursday following; when it was agreed that inquisition should be held as to the matters aforesaid, and that it should be further done as to the same according to the discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen.
And on the same day four inquisitions were held, of the best men of the whole city, seeing that there was an immense congregation of citizens there; the first jury being made by John de Bixle, John de Denham, and ten others: who said, upon their oath, that all the taverners of the City, by common assent, had shut the doors of their taverns, and would not allow their wines to be sold; to the annulment of the Ordinances aforesaid, and to the common loss of all the people. And they said that Hikeman le Taverner, of Smethefeld, and Reynald de Thorp, had sold their wines against the assize made thereon, after the same had been prohibited, secretly within their taverns, their doors being closed, etc.
And Ralph de Prestone and eleven others, jurors on the second inquisition, said upon their oath, that John de Oxenforde, Alan atte Conduyt, Stephen atte Conduyt, Frank atte Brokenselde, (fn. 16) Simon le Taverner, near the Stockes, William Isamberd, John le Taverner, of Bredstretende, and twenty-six other taverners (fn. 17) —
Deposit of a Box in the safe-keeping of the Chamberlain, by Richard and William de la Pole.
5 Edward III. A.D. 1331. Letter-Book E. fol. ccxviii. (Norman French.)
In remembrance that on the Saturday next after the Feast of the Translation of St. Thomas [7 July], that is to say, the 13th day of July, in the year of Grace 1331, and in the 5th year of King Edward, after the Conquest the Third, Richard de la Pole, (fn. 18) and William de la Pole, his brother, delivered into the keeping of Henry de Seccheford, Chamberlain of the Guildhall, by the hand of Huwe de Waltham, clerk, a box sealed with the seals of the aforesaid Richard and William: and upon the box there is written in manner as follows.—
"In this box is an indenture, touching Richard de la Pole and William, his brother,—and it is to remain in the safe-keeping of the Chamberlains of the Guildhall of London; and is not to be delivered unto any one, unless it be in the presence of both the aforesaid Richard and William, or of him who shall live the longest, and of the executors of him whom God shall have taken unto himself."
This box was so delivered in presence of Sir John de Pulteneye, Mayor, Richard de Betoyne, and other Aldermen and other persons.
Conveyance of a Dwelling-house in Bradestrete.
5 Edward III. A.D. 1331. Letter-Book E. fol. ccxxviii. (Latin.)
"This indenture witnesseth, that whereas Edmund Crepin, son of Walter Crepin, late citizen of London, has given, and by his deed of feoffment has confirmed, unto John de Yakeslee, tentmaker to our Lord the King of England, all that principal dwelling-house (fn. 19) which he, the same Edmund, had in the Parishes of St. Peter Cornhulle, St. Benedict Fynke, and St. Martin de Oteswyche, in the Wards of Cornhulle and Bradestrete, (fn. 20) in the City of London, with the great gate of the same dwelling-house towards Cornhulle, and with the sollar above the same gate built; and also, with another great gate of the same dwelling-house, towards Bradestrete; together with ingress and egress to and from the dwelling aforesaid, as well by the said great gate towards Cornhulle, as by the said gate towards Bradestrete; and together with all other appurtenances to the same dwelling-house within the said two gates whatsoever pertaining: which dwelling-house aforesaid Sir Oliver de Ingham, Knight, has hitherto held of the aforesaid Edmund, and inhabited the same; it being situate, in breadth, between the tenement of William de Manhale, the tenement of Agnes Rikeman, the tenement of Sir Henry de Coventre, the late Rector of the Church of Saint Brigid (fn. 21) in Fletestrete, and the tenement which John de Totenham, carpenter, holds of the aforesaid Edmund, towards the East, the tenement of the said Edmund, the tenement of the Friars of St. Austin in London, which Thomas Lyoun holds for the term of his life, and the tenement of the late Henry de Shorne, towards the West; and extending lengthwise from the King's highway of Cornhulle, and from the tenements of the said Edmund, towards the South, as far as the tenement which the aforesaid John de Totenham, carpenter, holds of the said Edmund, and the King's high street of Bradestrete, towards the North: in such manner as the said principal dwelling-house, by boundaries now of late placed there, is divided and separated from the other tenements of the said Edmund, situate around the same.—To have and to hold the whole of the aforesaid principal dwelling-house, with the two gates aforesaid, and with the sollar above the said great gate built, towards Cornhulle, free ingress and egress by the two great gates aforesaid, and with all other appurtenances to the same dwelling-house within the same two gates in any manner belonging, to him, the said John de Yakeslee, his heirs and assigns, of the chief lords of that fee, by the services unto them due and accustomed for the same, for ever; as in the said deed of feoff ment, which the aforesaid Edmund has made unto the said John de Yakeslee, and sealed with his seal, is more fully contained, etc. (fn. 22) In witness whereof, as well the aforesaid Edmund, for himself, as the aforesaid John de Yakeslee, for himself, have interchangeably to this present indenture set their seals; John de Pulteneye then being Mayor of the City of London, John de Mockinge and Andrew Aubrei, Sheriffs of the same City, John Hauteyn, Alderman of the Ward of Bradestrete, and Henry de Gisorz, Alderman of the Ward of Cornhulle. These being witnesses hereto, Hugh de Waltham, John Poyntel, and others. Given at London, on the Sunday next after the Feast of St. John Port Latin [6 May], that is to say, on the 10th day of the month of May aforesaid."