Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries. Originally published by Longmans, Green, London, 1868.
This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.
Regulations for the sale of Poultry, at the Leaden Hall and elsewhere.
19 Edward III. A.D. 1345. Letter-Book F. fol. cii. (Norman French.)
Proclamation made at the Leaden Hall, for men of the poultry trade, on the Saturday next before Palm Sunday.—
"Whereas heretofore folks bringing poultry to the City have sold their poultry in lanes, in the hostels of their hosts, and elsewhere in secret, to the great loss and grievance of the citizens, and at extortionate prices, and to the enhancement of the said poultry;—we do command, on behalf of our Lord the King, that all strange folks bringing poultry to the City, shall bring the same to the Leaden Hall, and there sell it, and nowhere else; " on pain of forfeiting the poultry, and going bodily to prison, " there, at the discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen, to remain.
" Also,—that no person resident in the City who sells poultry, " shall be so daring as to come to the Leaden Hall, to sell or buy " poultry there among the strangers, on pain of imprisonment; but " let such persons sell their poultry at the stalls, (fn. 1) as of old they " were wont to do.
" Also,—that no cook or regrator shall buy any manner of " poultry at the Leaden Hall, nor yet at the stalls, before Prime " rung at the Church of St. Paul; on pain of forfeiting the poultry " bought, and going bodily to prison."
Further Regulations for the sale of Poultry.
19 Edward III. A.D. 1345. Letter-Book F. fol.ccii. (Latin.)
AT a congregation of the Mayor and Aldermen, holden on the Friday next before the Feast of St. George the Martyr [23 April], in the 19th year of the reign of King Edward the Third, etc., it was ordered, for the common advantage of all the citizens dwelling in the same city, and of others resorting to the same, that no poulterer of the City should in future presume to sell any poultry on the East side of the Tun on Cornhulle, on pain of forfeiting the poultry there exposed for sale.
Also,—that all foreign poulterers bringing poultry to the city, should take it to the Leaden Hall, and sell it there, between Matins (fn. 2) and the hour of Prime, to the reputable men of the City, and their servants, for their own eating; and after the hour of Prime, the rest of their poultry that should remain unsold, they might sell to cooks, regratresses, and such other persons as they might please; it being understood that they were to take no portion of their poultry out of the market to their hostels, (fn. 3) on pain of losing the same.
Trial and punishment for theft, by hanging.
19 Edward III. A.D. 1345. Letter-Book F. fol. ccxx. (Latin.)
DELIVERY of Infangthef, before John Hamond, Mayor, the Aldermen and Sheriffs, and Coroner, of London, on Saturday the Feast of St. George the Martyr [23 April], in the 19th year of the reign of King Edward the Third, etc.—
Byndo of Florence, a Lombard, was taken at the suit of John de Croydone, servant of John atte Belle, (fn. 4) vintner, with the mainour of six silver cups, and half of a broken silver cup, value 4l., belonging to the said John atte Belle, his master, and in his custody being, and out of his custody feloniously stolen, in Berchernerslane (fn. 5) in the Ward of Langebourne, in London, on the Thursday next before the Feast of St. George the Martyr, in the 19th year aforesaid; of which he accuses him. And he finds sureties that he will prosecute him for felony, John de Draytone, tailor, and Nicholas de Harwedone, clerk.
The jury appears, by Robert de Stratforde and eleven others; who say upon their oath, that the said Byndo is guilty of the felony aforesaid. Therefore he is to be hanged. Chattels he has none.
Regulations for the sale of butcher's meat and fish in the vicinity of the Stokkes and the Conduit in Chepe; and for cleansing the dock at Douuegate.
19 Edward III. A.D. 1345. Letter-Book F. fol. cii. (Latin.)
A Congregation of the Mayor and Aldermen in the Guildhall of London, on Monday the morrow of the Holy Trinity, in the 19th year of the reign of King Edward the Third, etc.:—and there were present, John Hamond, Mayor, Henry Darci, Andrew Aubrey, Simon Fraunceys, Roger de Depham, Richard Lacer, Walter Turk, John de Northhalle, William de Poumfreyt, Richard de Berkynge, Thomas Leggy, and John Syward, Aldermen, and Geoffrey de Wychyngham, Sheriff; Henry Wymond, William de Elsynge, Richard de Lincoln, and very many other Commoners.—
At this congregation, on behalf of the Commonalty of the City of London, it was shown by William de Iford, Common Serjeant of the same city, that the King's highway between the place called the "Stokkes" and the Conduit, in the Ward of Chepe, in London, was so occupied on flesh-days by butchers and poulterers with their wares for sale, and on fish-days by fishmongers with their their wares for sale, and on fish-days by fishmongers with their wares, that persons going that way, and returning, could not pass through without great hindrance; and he asked, for the Commonalty, that some remedy might be applied thereto.
And conference having been held hereon between the Mayor, Aldermen, Sheriff, and Commoners, then present, it was agreed that the poulterers from thenceforth should sell their poultry in their houses and shops adjoining, and not in the King's highway, on pain of forfeiting their wares so exposed for sale in the highway. And that for the future the butchers should sell their meat on flesh days within the enclosed place called the "Stokkes," and not in the King's highway; and that for the future the fishmongers should sell their fish on fish-days within the same enclosure, and not in the King's highway; it being provided that when flesh-days come, the butchers should sell their meat within the said enclosed place called the "Stokkes," and at such times the fishmongers should sell their fish beneath the pent-houses adjoining such enclosure, without hindrance to persons passing there in the King's highway. And that when fish-days come, the fishmongers should sell their fish within the said enclosed place called the "Stokkes," and at such times the butchers should sell their meat beneath the pent-houses adjoining such enclosure, without hindrance to persons passing there in the King's highway, as before mentioned. And that no butcher or fishmonger should in future expose his wares for sale otherwise, or in other places than those mentioned, on pain of forfeiting the things so exposed for sale.
At the same congregation it was shown by the same William de Iford, that the water of Thames in the dock (fn. 6) of Douuegate has become so corrupted by dung and other filth thrown into the same dock, that the carters who carry water from the Thames at the said dock to different places in the City, are no longer able to serve the commonalty; to the great loss and disparagement of the same commonalty; and in behalf of the same he demanded that in like manner a remedy should be applied thereto.
And it was agreed by the said Mayor, Aldermen, and Commoners, for the cleansing of the said dock, that carters, taking timber, firewood, coals, stone, chalk, avoirs-du-pois, (fn. 7) or other wares whatsoever, from laden ships, shouts, (fn. 8) and boats, in the same dock into the City, should pay for every ship one penny, for every shout one penny, and for every boat one penny. And that every cart bringing wares from the City to the said dock, or from the said dock to the City, should pay one farthing. And that if carts at the time when the tide is out, should pass on to another landing-place, to fetch firewood therefrom, and then return by the dock at Douuegate, every such cart should pay one farthing for each hundred of firewood. And that every cart carrying one tun of wine from the said dock to the City should pay one halfpenny.
At the same congregation, John de Chastone, William Billerica, Roger Reson, Geoffrey Pendehore, and John Siward, carters, were chosen and sworn to cleanse the said dock of dung and other filth, and to keep the same so cleansed in future, they receiving for their labour, from every ship, shout, boat, and cart, as above stated. And if the said dock, by default of the said John de Chastone and the others so sworn, should be found to be unclean, they were to be committed to prison, there, at the discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen, to remain. And if any carters should neglect to pay to the persons so chosen and sworn, as aforesaid, to keep the said dock free from dung and filth, any sum as above ordained, they were to be committed to prison, there, at the discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen, to remain.
Letter to the Dean and Chapter, complaining of the deficiency of Chaplains in the Church of St. Paul.
19 Edward III. A.D. 1345. Letter-Book F.fol. ciii. (Latin and Norman French.)
(fn. 9) On the 8th day of July, in the 19th year of the reign of King Edward the Third etc., a certain letter, sealed with the Seal of the Mayoralty, was sent to the Dean and Chapter of the Church of St. Paul, in London, in these words.—
(fn. 10) "To the Dean and Chapter of the Church of St. Paul in London, shew the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty, of the same city, that whereas it is well known that many men and women of the City have devised in their testaments, and given in other ways, to the Dean and Chapter of the same church, and to their successors, many tenements and rents in the said city, for founding and maintaining divers Chantries in the same church, and for offering up prayers and other devotions perpetually for their souls; as to the which many memorials remain with you, and also with ourselves, in our treasury at the Guildhall; and whereas we have fully understood, and also, do see it daily with our own eyes, when we pass by your Church of St. Paul,—the which we do hold to be our Mother Church,—that there are but few Chaplains to sing there, in proportion to the Chantries which in the said church have been founded; to the great peril of your souls, who ought to oversee the said Chantries, maintain, and support the same; we do pray and request you, to the honour of God, and for the profit of the said church, and of yourselves and your successors, and the salvation of your souls, that you will cause such defaults to be amended and redressed in your time, that so the Chantries may be maintained, according to the wishes of the testators and donors thereof; you not having regard to "the words of any person who shall wish to gainsay the said matter, but only for the honour of God and the salvation of your souls. And to the end that persons may have the greater feelings of devotion, and may bestow alms, honours, and other bounty, upon your church aforesaid, let no person who holds a benefice or Chantry elsewhere, hold any Chantry in the same church; and then, only a single Chantry, at the which he may be personally in attendance, to do what shall thereunto pertain."
Ordinance that Brewers shall not waste the water of the Conduit in Chepe.
19 Edward III. A.D. 1345. Letter-Book F. fol. cvii. (Latin.)
At a Husting of Pleas of Land, holden on the Monday next before the Feast of St. Margaret the Virgin [20 July], in the 19th year of the reign of King Edward the Third etc., it was shown by William de Iford, the Common Serjeant, on behalf of the Commonalty, that whereas of old a certain Conduit was built in the midst of the City of London, that so the rich and middling persons therein might there have water for preparing their food, and the poor for their drink; the water aforesaid was now so wasted by brewers, and persons keeping brewhouses, and making malt, that in these modern times it will no longer suffice for the rich and middling, or for the poor; to the common loss of the whole community.
And for avoiding such common loss, it was by the Mayor and Aldermen agreed, with the assent of the Commonalty thereto, that such brewers, or persons keeping brewhouses, or making malt, shall in future no longer presume to brew or make malt with the water of the Conduit. And if any one shall hereafter presume to make ale with the water of the Conduit, or to make malt with the same, he is to lose the tankard (fn. 11) or tyne with which he shall have carried the water from the Conduit, and 40d., the first time, to the use of the Commonalty; the tankard or tyne, and half a mark, the second time; and the third time he is to lose the tankard or tyne, and 10s.; and further, he is to be committed to prison, at the discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen there to remain.
It was also agreed at the same Husting, that the fishmongers at the Stokkes, who wash their fish therewith, shall incur the same penalty.
Meat forfeited by Butchers, for obstructing the street of the Poultry.
19 Edward III. A.D. 1345. Letter-Book F. fol. ciii. (Latin.)
Be it remembered, that on the Saturday next after the Feast of St. Mary Magdalene [22 July], in the 19th year of the reign of King Edward the Third etc., the meat of Thomas de Caxtone, Thomas Andreu, Walter Cobbe, and Gerard Andreu, was taken and forfeited, because that they obstructed the street of the Poultry with their benches, placed there for selling their meat, against the Ordinance (fn. 12) made thereon by the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty.
And be it known, that by John Soudan, Henry Soudan, Richard Goldeneghe, John de Kereswelle, and John atte Grene, butchers sworn thereto, the meat of the said Thomas was appraised at 3s., of Robert Andreu at 2s. 5d., of Walter Cobbe at 3s. 8d., and of Gerard Andreu at 5d., making 9s. 6d. in all: which meat was sold forthwith by Simon Snellynge, serjeant of the Chamber, to Giles de Westmelle, tailor, at the price aforesaid; and the money was delivered to Thomas de Maryns, the Chamberlain, for the use of the Commonalty.
Articles of the Spurriers.
19 Edward III. A.D. 1345. Letter-Book F. fol. cvii. (Latin and Norman French.)
(fn. 13) Be it remembered, that on Tuesday, the morrow of St. Peter's Chains [1 August], in the 19th year of the reign of King Edward the Third etc., the Articles underwritten were read before John Hamond, Mayor, Roger de Depham, Recorder, and the other Aldermen; and seeing that the same were deemed befitting, they were accepted and enrolled, in these words.—
(fn. 14) "In the first place,—that no one of the trade of Spurriers shall work longer than from the beginning of the day until curfew rung out at the Church of St. Sepulchre, without Neugate; by reason that no man can work so neatly by night as by day. And many persons of the said trade, who compass how to practise deception in their work, desire to work by night rather than by day: and then they introduce false iron, and iron that has been cracked, for tin, and also, they put gilt on false copper, and cracked. And further,—many of the said trade are wandering about all day, without working at all at their trade; and then, when they have become drunk and frantic, (fn. 15) they take to their work, to the annoyance of the sick and of all their neighbourhood, as well as by reason of the broils that arise between them "and the strange folks (fn. 16) who are dwelling among them. And then they blow up their fires so vigorously, that their forges begin all at once to blaze; to the great peril of themselves and of all the neighbourhood around. And then too, all the neighbours are much in dread of the sparks, which so vigorously issue forth in all directions from the mouths of the chimneys in their forges. By reason whereof, it seems unto them that working by night [should be put an end to,] in order such false work and such perils to avoid; and therefore, the Mayor and Aldermen do will, by assent of the good folks of the said trade, and for the common profit, that from henceforth such time for working, and such false work made in the trade, shall be forbidden. And if any person shall be found in the said trade to do to the contrary hereof, let him be amerced, the first time in 40d., one half thereof to go to the use of the Chamber of the Guildhall of London, and the other half to the use of the said trade; the second time, in half a mark, and the third time, in 10s., to the use of the same Chamber and trade; and the fourth time, let him forswear the trade for ever.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall hang his spurs out on Sunday, or on other days that are Double Feasts; (fn. 17) but only a sign indicating his business: and such spurs as they shall so sell, they are to shew and sell within their shops, without exposing them without, or opening the doors or windows of their shops, on the pain aforesaid.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall keep a house or shop to carry on his business, unless he is free of the City; and that no one shall cause to be sold, or exposed for sale, any manner of old spurs for new ones; or shall garnish them, or change them for new ones.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall take an apprentice for a less term than seven years; and such apprentice shall be enrolled, according to the usages of the said city.
"Also,—that if any one of the said trade, who is not a freeman, shall take an apprentice for a term of years, he shall be amerced, as aforesaid.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall receive the apprentice, serving-man, or journeyman, of another in the same trade, during the term agreed upon between his master and him; on the pain aforesaid.
"Also,—that no alien of another country, or foreigner of this country, shall follow or use the said trade, unless he is enfran chised before the Mayor, Aldermen, and Chamberlain; and that, by witness and surety of the good folks of the said trade, who will undertake for him as to his loyalty and his good behaviour.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall work on Saturdays, after None has been rung out in the City; and not from that hour until the Monday morning following."
Petition of the Gardeners, and Order made thereon.
19 Edward III. A.D. 1345. Letter-Book F. fol. cxi. (Latin and Norman French.)
(fn. 18) Be it remembered, that on the Wednesday next before the Feast of St. Bartholomew the Apostle [24 August], in the 19th year of the reign of King Edward, now reigning, a certain petition was presented to John Hamond, Mayor of the City of London, in these words.—
(fn. 19) "Unto the Mayor of London shew and pray the Gardeners of the Earls, Barons, and Bishops, and of the citizens of the same city. May it please you, Sire, seeing that you are the chief guardian of the said city, and of the ancient usages therein established, to suffer and to maintain that the said gardeners may stand in peace in the same place where they have been wont in times of old; in front of the Church of St. Austin, at the side of the gate of St. Paul's Churchyard, in London; there to sell the garden produce of their said masters, and make their profit, as heretofore they have been wont to do; seeing that they have never heretofore been in their said place molested, and that, as they assert, they cannot serve the commonalty, nor yet their masters, as they were wont to do:—as to the which they pray for redress."
(fn. 20) By reason of which petition, on the Friday next after the Feast of St. Bartholomew, there were assembled in the Chamber of the Guildhall of London, John Hamond, the Mayor, Roger de Depham, Simon Fraunceys, John de Caustone, and certain others of the Aldermen; which Mayor and Aldermen seeing that the place aforesaid, opposite to the said church of St. Austin, near the gate of St. Paul's Churchyard, is such a nuisance to the priests who are singing Matins and Mass in the church of St.Austin, and to of St. Paul's Churchyard, is such a nuisance to the priests who are singing Matins and Mass in the church of St. Austin, and to God, as also, to other persons passing there both on foot and horseothers, both clerks and laymen, in prayers and orisons there serving back; as well as to the people dwelling in the houses of reputable persons there, who by the scurrility, clamour, and nuisance of the gardeners and their servants, there selling pulse, (fn. 21) cherries, vegetables, and other wares to their trade pertaining, are daily disturbed; order was given to the said gardeners and their servants, that they should no longer expose their wares aforesaid for sale in that place, on the peril which awaits the same.
And after conference had been held between the said Mayor and Aldermen, as to a place in which the gardeners might sell their wares, it was agreed that all gardeners of the City, as well aliens as freemen, who sell their pulse, cherries, vegetables, and other their wares aforesaid, in the City, should have, as their place, the space between the South gate of the Churchyard of the said church and the garden-wall of the Friars Preachers (fn. 22) at Baynard's Castle, in the said city: that so they should sell their wares aforesaid in the place by the said Mayor and Aldermen thus appointed for them, and nowhere else.
Trial and punishment for highway robbery; and claim of Benefit of Clergy.
19 Edward III. A.D. 1345. Letter-Book F. fol. ccxx. (Latin.)
Delivery of Infangthef before John Hamond, Mayor, the Aldermen, Sheriffs, and Coroner, of London, on the Wednesday next before the Feast of the Nativity of St. Mary [8 September], in the 19th year of King Edward the Third etc.
Thomas Harmere of Sussex, and Thomas de Blurtone of Roberdsbrigge, were taken at the suit of Stephen de Popiltone, servant of John Fynche, of Wynchelse, with the mainour of one grey horse and a bridle, with a saddle, value 10s., one male, (fn. 23) with divers surcoats furred, and coats, and five hoods of divers colours, and one lavatory, (fn. 24) value 20s.; from him, Stephen, by them feloniously stolen, without Bisshopesgate, in the suburbs of London, on the Friday next after the Feast of the Decollation of St. John the Baptist [29 August], in the 19th year etc.; together with two other horses, value 4 pounds, (fn. 25) 156 shield florins, fermails, rings, and other jewels of gold and silver, and other goods and chattels, to the value of 20l., belonging to John Fynche aforesaid, his master, in his custody being, and from his custody feloniously stolen: of which he accuses them. And he finds sureties that he will prosecute them for felony, John Whitheued and Vincent Fynche.
And in like manner, the said Thomas and Thomas were taken at the suit of John Whitheued, of Wynchelse, with the mainour of one bay horse, with saddle and bridle, value 10s., from him, John, by them feloniously stolen, without Bisshopesgate, in the suburb of London, the day and year aforesaid; together with one male, with 4 pounds in silver, and one set of vestments, value 6 pounds, in the same being, and other goods and chattels of him, John Whitheued, to the value of 10 pounds; of which he accuses them. And he finds sureties that he will prosecute them for felony, Stephen de Popletone and Vincent Fynche.
And hereupon, the said Thomas and Thomas being asked, as to that felony, how they will acquit themselves, the aforesaid Thomas Harmere says that he is a clerk etc.; (fn. 26) wherefore he is sent back to the prison of our Lord the King at Neugate, until etc. (fn. 27) And the said Thomas de Blurtone says that he is in no way guilty thereof, etc.
The jury appears, by John de Waltham and eleven others; who say upon their oath, that the said Thomas is guilty thereof. Therefore he is to be hanged. Chattels he has none.
[In the next folio, ccxxi., Simon de Berdesdale is condemned to be hanged for stealing a woman's surcoat of brounmedle, value 14s. 4d., and a man's surcoat of cloth of bluet, value 10s., in the Parish of St. John Zachary, in the Ward of Aldresgate; and Thomas de Donyngtone, for stealing one furred surcoat and two double hoods, value 4s., and two linen sheets, value 40d., in Sholane near Holbourne, is sentenced to the same punishment. In folio ccxxii. Henry Van Tene is similarly sentenced for stealing a piece of red cloth, value 5 marks, in Cordewanerestrete.]