Memorials: 1350

Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries. Originally published by Longmans, Green, London, 1868.

This free content was digitised by double rekeying. All rights reserved.

Citation:

'Memorials: 1350', Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries, (London, 1868), pp. 247-265. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/memorials-london-life/pp247-265 [accessed 17 June 2024].

. "Memorials: 1350", in Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries, (London, 1868) 247-265. British History Online, accessed June 17, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/memorials-london-life/pp247-265.

. "Memorials: 1350", Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries, (London, 1868). 247-265. British History Online. Web. 17 June 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/memorials-london-life/pp247-265.

In this section

Ordinances of the Shearmen.

24 Edward III. A.D. 1350. Letter-Book F. fol. clxxiii. (Norman French.)

"To the good and honourable men, the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London, shew the Shearmen (fn. 1) of the same city, that whereas many defaults have been made heretofore in the said trade, by reason of the defect that overseers were not chosen or ordained by the good folks of the said trade; to the great damage of the people, and to the great scandal of the good folks of the said trade;—therefore may it please them to hear and listen to the points under-written; and, if they see that they are good and proper, to grant and confirm them for always, to the great profit of the common people, and to the honour of their said trade.—

"In the first place,—that no one of this trade shall keep shop, unless he be a freeman of the City, and have testimony that he is a good workman, by the Wardens of the same trade.

"Also,—that no one of this trade shall receive any apprentice, if he be not a freeman of the City himself, and have been so for a term of seven years at the least.

"Also,—that no freeman shall take any foreigner in company with him to keep shop and be partner with him, under colour of his freedom.

"Also,—that no one of this trade shall be admitted to the freedom, without some of the Wardens of the said trade; to the end that he may be a person able and knowing his trade, for the service of the people.

"Also,—that no one of this trade shall take the serving-man or apprentice of another to serve himself, until the master of such person and himself shall have agreed, if there has been any dispute between them; on pain of [paying] half a mark to the use of the Chamber, if any one shall be convicted before the Mayor and Aldermen thereof, by the good folks of the said trade.

"Also,—whereas heretofore if there was any dispute between a master in the said trade and his man, (fn. 2) such man has been wont to go to all the men within the City of the same trade; and then, by covin and conspiracy between them made, they would order that no one among them should work, or serve his own master, until the said master and his servant, or man, had come to an agreement; by reason whereof the masters in the said trade have been in great trouble, and the people left unserved;—it is ordained, that from henceforth, if there be any dispute moved between any master and his man in the said trade, such dispute shall be settled by the Wardens of the trade. And if the man who shall have offended, or shall have badly behaved himself towards his master, will not submit to be tried before the said Wardens, then such man shall be arrested by a serjeant of the Chamber, at the suit of the said Wardens, and brought before the Mayor and Aldermen; and before them let him be punished, at their discretion."

Wardship of Isabel de Hakeneye; with Inventory of her plate and jewels.

24 Edward III. A.D. 1350. Letter-Book F. fol. clxxiii. (Latin.)

The wardship of Isabel, daughter of Richard de Hakeneye, late Alderman of London, was delivered and granted to Richard, son of the aforesaid Richard de Hakeneye, brother of the said Isabel, on the Monday next after the Feast of St. Valentine [14 February], in the 24th year of the reign of King Edward the Third etc., by Walter Turk, Mayor, the Aldermen, and Thomas de Waldene, Chamberlain; with divers silver plate and jewels, in weight and value to the amount of 20l. 10s. 3d. sterling, which had been left to the said Isabel by the will of Alice, (fn. 3) the wife of the aforesaid Richard de Hakeneye, and mother of the same Isabel; as also, with 43 pounds sterling in ready money; in full payment of the whole portion of the said Isabel, left to her as well by the will of the said Richard, her father, as by the said will of her mother, Alice aforesaid. Also, with one messuage and three shops in the Parish of St. Agnes within Aldresgate, in London, which are of no value beyond the reprises (fn. 4) upon them.—On the understanding that he shall answer unto the aforesaid Isabel, when she reaches full age, as to the silver plate aforesaid, [and jewels], 20l. 10s. 3d. in weight and value, and as to the said 43 pounds, where and when by the said Aldermen and Chamberlain he shall be summoned thereto; together with all the profit from the said 43 pounds in the meantime arising; saving to the aforesaid Richard his reasonable outlays and expenses, upon the maintenance of the said Isabel in the meantime disbursed. And further, it shall not be lawful for the said Richard to marry the aforesaid Isabel to any one in the meantime, without the assent of the Mayor and Aldermen for the time being.

And well and faithfully to do the same the said Richard bound himself, his heirs and executors, and all his goods, moveable and immoveable, wheresoever they might be. And for greater surety as to the same, John, son of John de Horwode, Gosselin, son of Gosselin de Cleve of London, Thomas, son of Robert de Hakeneye of London, present in Court, bound themselves, jointly and severally, in the same manner and form in which the aforesaid Richard had above bound himself.

The particulars as to the silver plate and jewels, left to the said Isabel in the will of Alice aforesaid, are set forth as follow, namely.—

First, two silver pots, in weight and value, 100s. One enamelled pot, with a covercle, weight 4l. 5s. One enamelled cup, with a covercle, weight and value, 68s. 4d. One other enamelled cup, weight and value, 100s. Three cups plated with silver, with three covercles, weight (fn. 5) and value, 38s. One silver, water-pot, weight and value, 28s. 4d. One silver foot for a cup, weight 10s. 7d. Twelve silver spoons, weight and value, 13s. Three silver fermails, (fn. 6) with two nouches, weight 12s. Five rings, value 5s. Sum total, 20l. 10s. 3d.

Afterwards, on the 16th day of August in the 36th year of the reign of King Edward the Third, William Olneye and the aforesaid Isabel, daughter of Richard de Hakeneye came here— (fn. 7)

False gloves, braels, and pouches, burnt in Chepe.

24 Edward III. A.D. 1350. Letter-Book F. fol. clxxv. (Latin.)

On Monday next after the Feast of St. Gregory the Pope [12 March], in the 24th year of the reign of King Edward the Third etc., the men of the trade of Glovers who had been sworn to keep the Articles of that trade, came and brought before Walter Turk, Mayor, and the Aldermen, 17 pairs of gloves found upon John Fraunceis of Norhamptone. The said men of the trade of glovers brought also 28 braels, called "bregirdles, (fn. 8) "found upon divers men whose names are under-written; namely, upon John de la Cusyn (fn. 9) 2 braels, John atte Feile one, Thomas de Wayllyhs one, (fn. 10) Richard le Pynnere 2, John de Astone 7, Richard de Salope 2, Alice Blake 3, William Tristram one, John Chapman 8, and John Ede one; asserting that the said gloves and braels were of false fashion, and vamped up of false materials, in deceit of all the people, and to the scandal of the whole trade.

And examination being made of the said gloves and braels, before the said Mayor and Aldermen, upon oath of the reputable men of the said trade, it was found that all the gloves and braels aforesaid were false, and vamped up in a false fashion, in deceit of the people, and to the scandal of all the trade. Therefore it was awarded that the said gloves and braels should be burnt in the high street of Chepe, near the Stone Cross there: and accordingly, on the same Monday they were there burnt, according to the award aforesaid.

On the same Monday also, at the suit of the men sworn of the trade of Pouchmakers, by award of the said Mayor and Aldermen, there were burnt 19 false pouches that had been found upon Peregrine de Lesschies, 12 false pouches found upon Handekyn Stompcost, 19 false pouches found upon Peregrine Johansone, and 4 false pouches found upon Agnes de Salesburi.

Petition of the Master Shearmen, as to the scale of wages.

24 Edward III. A.D. 1350. Letter-Book F. fol. clxxvi. (Norman French.)

"Unto the Mayor, Sheriffs, and Aldermen, of the City of London, shew the good folks, the Shearmen, freemen of the same city, that whereas of late they shewed unto you certain points (fn. 11) touching their trade, to the profit of the people of the City and of the same trade, the which are entered and confirmed in the Chamber; and since then, by command of our Lord the King, among other trades of the City, you have examined the said trade, and set down for certain what they shall take for each piece of work touching the said trade; the which Ordinance you have caused to be cried and published in the City, and they do hold themselves well contented therewith; save only, that they desire that they may have their servants and journeymen at the same wages that they used to have; for in old time they were wont to have a man to work between the Feast of Christmas and Easter at 3d. per day and his table; and between Easter and St. John [24 June] at 4d. and his table; and from St. John to the Feast of St. Bartholomew [24 August] at 3d. and his table; and from the Feast of St. Bartholomew to Christmas, in the case of a good workman, at 4d. and his table, for day and night. And now the said men will not work otherwise than by the cloth, and then do so greatly hurry over the same, that they do great damage to the folks to whom such cloths belong; by reason whereof, the masters in the said trade have great blame and abuse, and take less than they were wont to do. The masters in the said trade do therefore beg of you, that it will please you to order that the said men may be chastised, and commanded, under a certain penalty, to work according to the ancient usage, as before stated,—as matter of good feeling, (fn. 12) and for the profit of the people."

Petition addressed to Pope Clement the Sixth by the Mayor and Aldermen, that Brother John de Worthyn, and he only, may be empowered to grant absolution within the City.

24 Edward III. A.D. 1350. Letter-Book F. fol. clxxvii. (Latin.)

"To their most holy Father in Christ, and their lord, the Lord Clement the Sixth, by divine Providence, Pope, his humble and devout servants, Walter Turk, Mayor of the City of London, the Aldermen and elders, and the Commonalty, of the City, with their wishes that they may be worthy to kiss the holy feet. Among the various solicitudes of this life there are so many perils and stumblingblocks appearing in these days, that the creature, thus beset and agitated by doubtful contingencies, oftentimes where he thinks to stand, after fluctuating to and fro, overtaken by adversity, has to suffer a sudden fall. Hence it is, most holy Father, that the Council of our city, in providing remedies for the evils which weigh heavily upon us, for seeking aid therein, has determined by these presents to send and appeal to the clemency of your fatherly kindness,—it being a thing unheard of by the world, that anyone has been deemed deserving to experience a repulse therefrom.—May your Holiness therefore deign to know that, by permission of the most High, a dreadful mortality has so cut off our merchants, that our citizens who, as it were, usually dispense their services in all realms, are no longer able in person to visit your most Holy See, even though they should be involved in cases which are reserved for your Court, without a ruinous expense, while the present wars are going on. With one accord therefore, with weeping does your congregation here entreat the most exalted highness of your Holiness, that the same your Holiness will deign graciously to grant unto the venerable and religious man, Brother John de Worthyn, your Chaplain, a man of honour, of approved life, manners, and learning, sprung from the high blood of our realm, who alone, of all others, strengthens us with the word of Christ, and with whom, as we believe, nothing is wanting that could add to our profit, that in every case, as well cases reserved as others, (unless the enormity of the offence be such that your Holiness should of necessity have to be consulted thereon,) he, and he only within our city, may be able to absolve our people, being penitent; and to enjoin salutary penances upon them according to the nature of their fault. And further, if your Holiness might incline hereto, that, in case the said Brother John should depart this life, the Prior of the Convent of the Order of Preachers, (fn. 13) in London, with the counsel and assent of the Mayor of the City, might be enabled to appoint a brother of the same Order, there would at once be to us a fulfilment of our wishes; and whatsoever your most fatherly clemency might ordain as to the same, the whole of our people with bended knees would fulfil. To the honour of God and the singular profit of his Church, may the most High deign to preserve you safe at all hours. Written at London, on the 2nd day of April."

Letter of recommendation of Richard Cleaungre, a kinsman of Andrew Aubrey, then on a visit to Rome.

24 Edward III. A.D. 1350. Letter-Book F. fol. clxxviii. (Norman French.)

"To the honourable man, and wise, and their most dear friend, Master Nicholas de Hethe, Walter Turke, Mayor, the Aldermen, and the Commonalty, of the City of London, greeting and dear friendship. Seeing that our benign holy Father is gracious to all those who have laboured at their studies, of whom it has pleased God that our said holy Father should have knowledge; and whereas, most dear friend, according to what we have heard, you have good knowledge of a simple clerk, who has worked much in the Schools, and who is called 'Master Richard Cleaungre, (fn. 14) now present at the Court, and a cousin of our very dear fellowcitizen Andrew Aubrei; (fn. 15) in whose behalf we have written and requested of our most holy Father, that of his benign grace it may please him to let him partake in his works of charity; [we ask] that you will, if so it please you, recommend unto our said holy Father the same Master Richard, and the business that concerns him; and that this our request you will be pleased to have at heart, for love of ourselves, as we have heard through our dear and well-beloved brother, John Worthyn, (fn. 16) that you can avail him more than any one of your nation; for the which may God be praised. And know that in all things which you or any of your people shall have to do among us, we will be ready, without any pretext, as to the same. May the Holy Spirit give you health in body and soul, and increase you in honour. Written at London, on the first day of the month of May."

(fn. 17) Regulations as to wages and prices in the City.

24 Edward III. A.D. 1350. Letter-Book F. fol. clxxxi. (Norman French.)

"To amend and redress the damages and grievances which the good folks of the City, rich and poor, have suffered and received within the past year, by reason of masons, carpenters, plasterers, tilers, and all manner of labourers, who take immeasurably more than they have been wont to take, by assent of Walter Turk, Mayor, the Aldermen, and all the Commonalty of the City, the points under-written are ordained, to be held and firmly observed for ever; that is to say.—

"In the first place,—that the masons, between the Feasts of Easter and St. Michael [29 September], shall take no more by the working-day than 6d., without victuals or drink; and from the Feast of St. Michael to Easter, for the working-day, 5d. And upon Feast-days, when they do not work, they shall take nothing. And for the making or mending of their implements they shall take nothing.

"Also,—that the carpenters shall take, for the same time, in the same manner.

"Also,—that the plasterers shall take the same as the masons and carpenters take.

"Also,—that the tilers shall take for the working-day, from the Feast of Easter to St. Michael 5½d., and from the Feast of St. Michael to Easter 4½d.

"Also,—that the labourers (fn. 18) shall take in the first half year 3½d., and in the other half 3d.

"Also,—that the master daubers (fn. 19) shall take between the Feasts of Easter and St. Michael 5d., and in the other half year 4d.; and their labourers are to take the same as the labourers of the tilers.

"Also,—that the sawiers shall take in the same manner as the masons and carpenters take.

"Also,—that no one shall pay more to the workmen aforesaid, on pain of paying 40s. to the Commonalty, without any release therefrom; and he who shall take more than the above, shall go to prison for forty days.

"Also,—that the thousand of tiles shall be sold for 5s., at the very highest.

"Also,—that the hundred (fn. 20) of lime shall be sold at 5s., at the very highest.

"Also,—that a cart with sand, and with clay, that comes from Algate as far as the Conduit, (fn. 21) shall take 3d. for its hire; and if the cart shall pass the Conduit, let it take 3½d. And in the same manner, let the carts from Crepulgate to Chepe take 3d.; and if they pass that place, 3½d. And if the cart with sand, or with clay, shall not enter the City, but only bring it to serve folks who live in the suburbs without the Gates, let it take 2d.: and let the carts be of the capacity of one quarter, well heaped up, as they used to be.

"Also,—that the carters, called 'waterleders,' shall take for the cart, from Douuegate to Chepe, 1½d.; and from Castle Baynard to Chepe, in the same manner; and if they pass beyond Chepe, they are to take one penny [more]; and if they do not come so far as Chepe, 1¼d.

"Also,—that carts which bring wares coming from beyond sea shall take, from Wollewarfe to Chepe, 4d.

"Also,—that the cart which brings firewood, [for] talwode, (fn. 22) shall take for the hundred, at Crepulgate 6d., and for the hundred of fagates 4d.

"Also,—that the tailors shall take for making a gown, (fn. 23) garnished with say (fn. 24) and with sandel, (fn. 25) 18d.

"Also,—for a man's gown, garnished with linen thread and with bokeram, 14d.

"Also,—for a cote and hood, 10d.

"Also,—for a long gown for a woman, garnished with say or with sendal, 2s. 6d.

"Also,—for a pair of sleeves, to change, 4d.

"Also,—that the porters of the City shall not take more for their labour than they used to take in olden time, on pain of imprisonment.

"Also,—that no vintner shall be so daring as to sell the gallon of wine of Vernage (fn. 26) for more than 2s., and wine of Crete, (fn. 27) wine of the River, (fn. 28) Piement, (fn. 29) and Clare, and Malveisin, (fn. 30) at 16d.

"Also,—that one person of every company may see that the vessel into which their wine is drawn is clean, and from what tun their wine is drawn; on pain of imprisonment, and of paying to the Chamber, for the first time, half a mark; for the second time, one mark; for the third time, 20s.; and every other time that a person shall be found in like default, let his fine be increased by half a mark.

"Also,—that the measures shall be standing upright, and sealed with the seal of the Alderman of the Ward; and he who shall sell by other measures, let him go to prison, and further, be amerced in half a mark.

"Also,—that the pelterers shall make their furs according to the ancient ordinances, of olden time ordained, and according to the purport of their Charter; on pain of forfeiture and punishment for the same, as of old ordained.

"Also,—that no one shall go to meet those who are bringing victuals or other wares by land or by water to the City for sale, for the purpose of buying them or bargaining for them, before that they shall have come to certain places assigned thereto, where they ought to be sold; on pain of forfeiture of the victuals and other wares, and of their bodies being committed to prison, until they have been sufficiently punished, at the discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen.

"Also,—that the wheat and barley which come towards the City by land or by water, for sale, shall come wholly into the Markets, and shall there be sold to all folks by the hands of those who bring the same, for the support and sustenance of their households, and to the bakers for serving the people. And that no hosteler (fn. 31) shall demand to have any victuals, if they be not solely for the sustenance of his hostel, and that, for his money down, as other folks do.

"Also,—that the men of the serjeants who take cartage, shall not take more carts or more horses, than there is need, and then of the traventers, (fn. 32) and from such horses as are let on hire; and not those of poor folks who bring victuals and other wares to the City, while they spare the carts and horses that are on hire.

"Also,—that the hostelers of the City shall be good folks, proper, and sufficient, as regards serving their guests well and lawfully; that so every one who is lodged [with them] may be sure both as to body and to chattels.

"Also,—if any man or woman shall be dwelling in any Ward, who is notoriously known or convicted of being of bad repute, let the Alderman of the Ward be warned forthwith to remove the same.

"Also,—that a pair of shoes of cordwan shall be sold for 6d., and a pair of shoes of cow-leather for 6d., and a pair of boots of cordwan and of cow-leather for 3s. 6d.

"Also,—that a pair of spurs shall be sold for 6d., and a better pair for 8d., and the best at 10d. or 12d., at the very highest.

"Also,—that a pair of gloves of sheepskin shall be sold for one penny, and a better pair at 1½d., and a pair at 2d., so going on to the very highest.

"Also,—that the shearmen shall not take more than they were wont to take; that is to say, for a short cloth 12d., and for a long cloth 2s.; and for a cloth of rayed say, (fn. 33) for getting rid of the rays, and shearing the same, 2s.

"Also,—that the farriers shall not take more than they were wont to take before the time of the pestilence, on pain of imprisonment and heavy ransom; that is to say, for a horse-shoe of six nails 1½d., and for a horse-shoe of eight nails 2d.; and for taking off a horse-shoe of six nails or of eight, one halfpenny; and for the shoe of a courser 2½d., and the shoe of a charger 3d.; and for taking off the shoe of a courser or charger, one penny.

"Also,—if any workman or labourer will not work or labour as is above ordained, let him be taken and kept in prison until he shall have found good surety, and have been sworn to do that which is so ordained. And if any one shall absent himself, or go out of the City, because he does not wish to work and labour, as is before mentioned, and afterwards by chance be found within the City, let him have imprisonment for a quarter of a year, and forfeit his chattels which he has in the City, and then let him find surety, and make oath, as is before stated. And if he will not do this, let him forswear the City for ever.

"Also,—that the servants in the houses of good folks shall not take more than they were wont to take before the time of the pestilence; on pain of imprisonment and heavy ransom, and of paying to the City double that which they shall have taken in excess. And he who shall pay more than he used to pay before the time above-mentioned, shall pay to the City treble what he shall have so paid in excess.

"Also,—that no cook shall take more for putting a capon or rabbit in a pasty than one penny, on pain of imprisonment.

"Also,—that a quart of bren (fn. 34) shall be sold according to the value of a pound of wheat.

"Also,—that no cordwain or bazen shall be carried out of the City, on pain of forfeiture thereof; and he who can spy out the same, shall have half the thing so forfeited.

"Also,—that four good men, or two, of every Ward, shall be chosen to keep all these points; and if victuals or other wares coming towards the City by land or by water shall be sold in any other manner than is before mentioned, let the same be forfeited by award of the Mayor [and] Aldermen; and let one part thereof be delivered to the Chamberlain, to the use of the Commonalty, and a second part to the Sheriffs, if they or their officers are ready in aid of the wardens in seizing the said things; and the wardens shall have the third part for their trouble; saving always to the Sheriffs what shall appertain to their ferm, according to the purport of the Charters of the liberties of the City. And he who shall contravene any article above written, where no punishment has been before ordained thereon, shall pay to the Commonalty 40 shillings. And it shall be fully lawful for the Mayor, Aldermen, and good folks of the Wards sworn, or others in their places, if any of them have been taken by God unto himself, to increase or diminish, or make amendment in, the Articles aforesaid, for the common profit, according as the times shall shape themselves."

Articles of the Furbishers.

24 Edward III. A.D. 1350. Letter-Book F. fol. clxxxiv. (Norman French and Latin.)

(fn. 35) "These are the points and Ordinances which the good folks, the Furbishers of the City of London, ask to have and to hold firm and established for ever, to the honour and saving of their trade, and to the great profit of the commons of the realm.—

"In the first place,—that no stranger of the trade shall keep shop or follow the trade, or use the same, or sell or buy, if he be not a freeman of the City.

"Also,—that no one of this trade shall be admitted to the freedom of the said City without the assent of the Wardens of the same trade sworn, or of the greater part of them; they having regard to this, that no person who is proper to be a freeman shall through malice be kept out.

"Also,—that no one of this trade shall take or entice the servant of another away from the service of his master, so long as he is bound by covenant to serve him; on pain of paying 40 shillings to the use of the Chamber, if of this he shall before the Mayor and Aldermen by the folks of the said trade be convicted.

"Also,—if any one of the said trade shall have received an apprentice to serve him for a term of seven years or more, and shall not cause him to be enrolled in the Chamber within the first year of the term between the master and him agreed upon, by writing between them made; the master shall lose his freedom, until he shall have bought it anew, by assent of the Wardens of the said trade.

"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall take any manner of work for working at, from any great lord or other person, if he be not a man perfect, and a man knowing his trade, by testimony of the good [folks] of the same trade; by reason of the perils which may befall the lords of the land, and others among the people, through false workmanship, to the great scandal of the folks of the said trade.

"Also,—if any one of the said trade shall be found making false work, let him be attached by the Wardens of the trade, together with such false work, and brought before the Mayor and Aldermen; and before them let such work be adjudged to be such as it shall be found to be, on the oath of the folks of the said trade; and let the maker thereof be punished at the discretion of the said Mayor and Aldermen.

"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall make in his house, or allow to be made, pommels or hilts of swords, if they be not of good pattern and steel; and the scabbards must be made of good calf-leather: and if any one shall be found doing to the contrary thereof, let him lose such false work, and be punished at the discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen.

"Also,—that no one shall cause a sword that has been broken to be repaired or made up again, in conceit or subtlety, (fn. 36) to the deceiving of the people, on the pain aforesaid.

"Also,—that if any strange man of the said trade shall come into the City, to dwell therein, no one of the trade shall receive him to work, if he be not examined before the Mayor and Aldermen; and it be known that he is a good workman by the folks of the same trade.

(fn. 37) The Articles aforesaid were recited before Walter Turk, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, on the Monday next after the Feast of the Apostles Peter and Paul [29 June], in the 24th year.

False saltcellars and potels of pewter forfeited.

24 Edward III. A.D. 1350. Letter-Book F. fol. clxxxv. (Latin.)

On Monday next after the Feast of the Apostles Peter and Paul [29 June], in the 24th year of the reign of King Edward the Third etc., 23 measures called "potels," and 20 saltcellars, of pewter, were brought before Walter Turk, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, by the men of the trade of Pewterers; who said that the potels and saltcellars aforesaid were false, and made of false metal by John de Hiltone, peautrer, here present in Court, in deceit of the people, and to the disgrace of the whole trade. And the said John de Hiltone acknowledged that he had made the vessels aforesaid: and that it might be known whether the same vessels were of good and befitting metal or not, order was given to William de Greyngham, serjeant, to summon forthwith before the Mayor and Aldermen, Arnald de Shypwaysshe, Nicholas de Ludgate, John Syward, William de Uptone, John de Arlicheseye, and William de Greschirche, Wardens of the Articles of the trade of Pewterers, that they might certify the Mayor and Aldermen, as to the genuineness or falsity of the make of the vessels aforesaid.

Who, being sworn, after viewing and examining the vessels aforesaid, said upon oath, that the greater part of the metal of which the aforesaid potels and saltcellars were made was lead; whereas to one hundredweight of 112 pounds of tin there ought to be added no more than 16 pounds of lead. It was therefore adjudged that the said vessels should be forfeited to the use of the Commonalty.

(fn. 38) Afterwards, on the Thursday next after the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross [14 September] in the 26th year, the said vessels were sold for 19s. 8d., in the time of Andrew Aubrey, Mayor, as appears in the account of Thomas de Waldene, the Chamberlain, then next rendered.

False cushions, coverlet, and bankers, forfeited.

24 Edward III. A.D. 1350. Letter-Book F. fol. clxxxv. (Latin.)

On the Saturday next after the Feast of the Translation of St. Thomas [7 July], in the 24th year of King Edward the Third etc., 25 quissyns, (fn. 39) one coverlyt, and 3 bankers, (fn. 40) were brought before Walter Turk, Mayor, the Sheriffs, and the Aldermen, by the men of the trade of Tapicers; (fn. 41) who asserted that the said bankers, quissyns, and coverlyt, were false, and made against the Articles and Statutes of the said trade.

And immediately, oath being made before the said Mayor, Sheriffs, and Aldermen, by Thomas Andreu, John Bulloke, John de Wodegate, John Pyniel, Giles de Kelseye, and Thomas de Bysse, the persons sworn to keep the Articles of the trade aforesaid, it was found, upon their oath, that all the articles aforesaid, bankers, quissyns, and coverlit, were false, and made against the Articles of the said trade. Therefore it was awarded that they should be forfeited to the use of the Commonalty; and they were appraised, upon the oath of the jurors aforesaid, at 10s. 8d.

(fn. 38) Afterwards, in the 25th year, the said goods were sold by Thomas de Waldene, the Chamberlain, for 6s. 8d.

Proclamation against bathing in the Fosses, or the Thames, near the Tower, on pain of death.

24 Edward III. A.D. 1350. Letter-Book F. fol. clxxxvi. (Latin.)

"Edward, by the grace of God, King of England and France, and Lord of Ireland, to the Sheriffs of London, greeting. We do command you that, immediately on seeing these presents, you do cause public proclamation to be made in the city aforesaid, and in the suburbs thereof, in such places as you shall deem expedient, and it on our behalf strictly to be forbidden, that any person, on pain of forfeiture of life and limb, shall dare or presume to bathe in the Fosses of our Tower of London, or in the other Fosses near to the Tower, or in the water of Thames opposite to the same Tower, by day or by night, on pain of the forfeiture aforesaid: and this you are in no way to omit. Witness myself, at Westminster, the 13th day of July, in the 24th year of our reign in England, and in France the 11th."

Inventory and valuation of stores belonging to the works at London Bridge, delivered to the Wardens thereof by the outgoing Wardens.

24 Edward III. A.D. 1350. Letter-Book F. fol. cxcv. (Norman French.)

"This is an indenture, made on the Thursday next after the Feast of All Hallows [1 November], in the 24th year of the reign of King Edward, after the Conquest the Third, between Aleyn Gille and John de Hardingham, late Wardens of London Bridge, upon their surrender of such wardenship, of the one part, and John Litle and James Andreu, now Wardens of the same bridge, upon their entry on the same wardenship, of the other part; that is to say, as to the goods and chattels found in the court of the house (fn. 42) belonging to the said bridge in Suthwerk, and elsewhere, which have been appraised and delivered by this indenture unto the aforesaid John and James, to answer for the same to the Mayor and to the Commonalty of the said City at the fitting time, that is to say.—

"400 great pieces of oak timber, value 40d. by the piece, making 100 marks. Also, a pile of timber, lying in the garden close adjoining to the water of Thames, valued at 20 marks. Also, timber for 14 shops, fully wrought and framed for immediate building, 36l. Also, divers pieces of timber lying in various places in the said court, valued at 19l. 6s. 8d. Also, 120 pieces of elm for piles, at 2s. the piece, 12l. Also, in the grange 125 rakes, (fn. 43) at 5d. each, 52s. 1d. Also, divers boards of oak and of estrichesborde, (fn. 44) value 6l. 12s. 4d. Also, 57000 hertlathes, (fn. 45) value 4s. per thousand, 11l. 8s. Also, 30000 saplathes, (fn. 46) value 2s. per thousand, 3l. The total of the items before mentioned being 169l. 19s. 1d.

"Also, 690 feet of stone of Portelond, hand-worked and squared, as also, 1044 feet of stone of Portelond, not wrought, the total being 1734 pieces, value 5d. per piece, 36l. 3s. (fn. 47) 11d. Also, 600 of coynston, (fn. 48) value 5s. per hundred, 40s. (fn. 49) Also, 18 great stones of Bere, (fn. 50) weighing 18 tons, value 6s. 8d. per ton, 6l. Also, a heap of mixed mortar, value 4l. 8s. Also, 12000 tiles, value 8s. per thousand, 4l. 16s. Also, cement for the bridge, 3l. Also, 7 barrels of pitch, value 4s. per barrel, 28s. Also, two boatloads of ragston, value 23s. Also, one boatload of chalk, value 7s. 6d. The total of the stone and other items being 59l. 6s. 5d.

"Also, in the werkhous, 7½ weys of old lead, value 6s. 8d. per wey, 50s. Also, 12000 of plaunchenail (fn. 51) in the same house, value 4s. per thousand, 48s. Also, 3000 of dornail, (fn. 52) at 2s. 6d. per thousand, 7s. 6d. Also, 400 large nails for the draw-bridge, at 12d. per hundred, 4s. The total thereof being 5l. 9s.

"Also, one mazer, with a silver foot, value 10s. Also, 3000 great plaunchesnail and 7200 dornail, the total whereof is 10200, at 4s. the thousand, 40s. 10d. Also, 2600 of wyndounail, (fn. 53) at 2s. 6d. the thousand, 6s. 6d. Also, 23000 of rofnail, (fn. 54) at 12d. the thousand, 23s. Also, 9000 of traversnails, (fn. 55) at 8d. the thousand, 6s. Also, in the Chapel there, in apokete, (fn. 56) 2500 of wyndounail, at 2s. 6d. the thousand,6s. (fn. 57) 6d. Also, 500 grapes (fn. 58) of iron, at one penny each, 41s. 8d. Also, 18 pieces of new cord, weighing 1640 lb., at 8s. per hundred, 6l. 11s. Also, 110 irons for piles, value 4d. per iron, 36s. 8d. The total of which amounts to 16l. 2s. 2d.; the whole of the sums aforesaid being 250l. 18s. 2d.

There were also delivered unto the aforesaid John le Litle and James Andreu, Wardens of the bridge, the articles under-written, but not valued, belonging to the said bridge, that is to say;—one great boat, and one small boat, and one shoute; (fn. 59) also, two engines with three rammes, for ramming the piles of the said bridge; two cauldrons for melting pitch for cement; one presser for fixing; five pots of brass; and four posnets, old and worn out."

Inventory of articles in the Chapel on London Bridge, delivered to the Wardens thereof by the outgoing Wardens.

24 Edward III. A.D. 1350. Letter-Book F. fol. cxcvi. (Latin.)

This is an indenture made between Aleyn Gille and John de Hardyngham, late Wardens of London Bridge, of the one part, and John Litle and James Andreu, the present Wardens of the bridge aforesaid, of the other part; that is to say, as to the books, vestments, and other ornaments and goods in the Chapel thereof found, and to the same belonging, and to the aforesaid present Wardens by this indenture delivered, namely.—

In the first place, 3 Portifories (fn. 60) with notation, (fn. 61) two of which are covered with white, and one with red, leather. Also, 3 Legends of Saints, 4 Psalters, 3 Gradals (fn. 62) with notation, and one Tropary (fn. 63) with the Sequence (fn. 64) and other chaunts. Also, 2 Antiphonars, (fn. 65) of which one is in notation, without the Psalter. One quire, filled with hymns and Meritatories; (fn. 66) one Ordinal, (fn. 67) with a Martyrology of the Saints; two Missals, one of which is in notation, and the other without notation; one book, which is called an 'Epistolar.' Also, one Missal, well set to notation, with large letters well gilt.

"Also,—one veil (fn. 68) for Lent. Also, 2 linen cloths for covering the cross, and the image of St. Thomas (fn. 69) before the altar. Also, one towel (fn. 70) with an edging of samite, (fn. 71) with heads of the Apostles thereon. Also, 7 towels of the said cloth, for covering the altar. Also, 3 napkins, (fn. 72) and 4 sets of vestments for week-days, with the chasubles, amices, and other things pertaining thereto. Also, one set of vestments for Sundays, with all the appurtenances thereof; one set of vestments for Festivals, with the chasuble and other appurtenances. Also, 9 surplices. Also, 3 chalices with patens, one chalice of which is well gilt. Also, one silver cup for the body of Christ. Also, 5 choir copes, and 4 tunicles of silk and other materials, in divers colours: and one silver thurible, (fn. 73) with one silver boat for holding incense. Also, one paxbred (fn. 74)

covered with a silver plate, with a gilded image on it of the Holy Trinity. One cross of latten; 5 candlesticks, three of which are peautre, and two of latten; 2 corporals, (fn. 75) with their cases. Also, 5 phials of peautre, and one silk cloth for the altar. Also, divers relics of Saints; with two silver phials, which are shut up in a certain chest with an iron lock, the key of which is now in the custody of the aforesaid John and James, the present Wardens. Also, a cross, in which is set a portion of the Cross of Christ; and a vessel of crystal with a silver foot, and a ring with a tooth of St. Richard, (fn. 76) as it is said; together with divers relics within the said crystal; and with a purse, in like manner, with divers relics in it, which always stand upon the altar of St. Thomas, for pilgrims who resort thereto. Also, a small enamelled table, which stands upon the altar.

"Given in the aforesaid Chapel of St. Thomas, on the Thursday next after the Feast of All Hallows [1 November], in the 24th year of the reign of King Edward, after the Conquest the Third."

Account of the Keepers of the Conduit in Chepe.

24 Edward III. A.D. 1350. Letter-Book F. fol. ccxxxvii. (Latin and Norman French.)

(fn. 77) Account of Robert le Fundour and William de St. Alban's, keepers of the Conduit, for the time [of their office], (fn. 78) delivered before Richard de Kyslyngbury, Mayor, on the Thursday next after the Feast of St. Martin [11 November] in the 24th year of the reign of King Edward the Third etc.—

(fn. 79) Be it remembered, that Robert Fundour and William de St. Alban's, Masters of the Conduit, charge themselves with having received to the use of the said Conduit:—from the house of Cecily Foune, for 2 years, 11s. 8d.; from the house of Thomas Beater, for 2 years, 13s. 4d.; from the house of John Albon in the Poultry, for 2 years, 10s.; from Roger Brewere, atte (fn. 80) Mayden en la Hope, one year empty, 6s. 8d.; from the house of Simon the Founder, one year empty, 5s.; from the house of Maiot the Brewyfe, (fn. 81) one year empty, 6s.; from the house of John Goby in the Poultry, for one year, 6s. 8d.; from Roger atte Broke, for the first year, 6s. 8d.; from Patrike Leddred, for the first year, 6s. 8d.; from the house of Dame Cecily Wrastelyngworthe, for one year, 5s. Total, 3l. 17s. 8d. Also, received for tankards (fn. 82) of persons whose names are unknown, 11l. 15s. 4d.

These are the names of those who have not paid in the Poultry,—John Goby, for this year, Roger Wallocke, for this year, Simon Rasen. Names of those who have not paid in Chepe,—Thomas Newman, William le Brewere, Roger atte Broke.

The said masters also account for having expended;—for repairing the fountain-head, 33s. 6d.; spent another time, on examining the Conduit, when it was slandered (fn. 83) for poison, by command of the Mayor, 32s. 2d.; for bringing the pipe of the said Conduit into the Mews, (fn. 84) three men working for three days, each man receiving 8d. per day, 6s.; for ale given to them, 6d.; for mending the spurgail, (fn. 85) which was broken at Flete Bridge, 6s. 3½d.; for mending the pipe there, 6s. 8½d.; for mending the spurgail, which was broken between the Mews and the mill in the field, (fn. 86) five men working four days, each man receiving 8d. per day, 6s. (fn. 87) 8d.; paid them for drink (fn. 88) 5d. each day, 20d.; for cleansing and washing the fountain-head, twice each quarter, at 40d. each time, for the year 26s. 8d.; for mending and covering the pipe at the fountain-head, in the high road, four men working for two days, each man receiving 6d., 4s.; paid them 4d. each day for drink, (fn. 88) 8d.; for hire of a man and his cart for two days, at 2s. per day, 4s.; for closing and opening the Conduit, candles, and other expenses in our term, 10s. 6d.; for hire of two vadlets 24 days, to collect the money for the tankards, the vadlets receiving 6d. per day, 12s.; for hire of a house for putting the tankards in, for one year, 10s.; paid for two irons for stamping the tankards, 2s. 6d.; bought one fozer (fn. 89) of lead, which is now ready, for 8 marks and 12 pence. The said Masters account for ready money in their possession, 41s. 6d.

"Also, the said Masters ask for allowance and reward for their trouble, during the time that they have been Masters of the said Conduit."

Footnotes

  • 1. Shearers of the nap of cloth.
  • 2. vadlett.
  • 3. It is related by Stow that the body of this Alice de Hakeneye was found, in an uncorrupted state, A.D. 1497, in the Church of St. Mary at Hill, Billingsgate. Her husband, Alderman and fishmonger, was Sheriff in 1321.
  • 4. Deductions of a certain nature. See page 194 ante, Note 1.
  • 5. This is probably a mistake, their value in silver being of course less than their weight; unless they were of very elaborate workmanship.
  • 6. Buckles or clasps, and brooches.
  • 7. A later entry. Unfortunately it stops short at this point, and the page is left unfinished. Leave of marriage was perhaps the business that brought Isabel and William to the Chamber of the Guildhall: and we find this same William Olneye giving a release to the executors of Richard de Hakeneye in August 1362. See post, under that date. The family of Olneye appears to have been one of some opulence.
  • 8. Belts, or girdles. See page 134 ante, Note 1.
  • 9. at the Cushion.
  • 10. So in the MS., for "Waleys," or "Wallis."
  • 11. See page 247 ante.
  • 12. charitee.
  • 13. Dominicans, or Black Friars.
  • 14. From Clayhanger, near Tiverton, in Devon.
  • 15. Alderman, and former Mayor, of London.
  • 16. See page 252 ante.
  • 17. Promulgated after, and in consequence of, the great Pestilence of 1348, 9.
  • 18. garsons.
  • 19. Layers on, to a framework, of a mixture of straw and mud; like the Devonshire "cob" of the present day.
  • 20. Sacks, namely. See page 174 ante.
  • 21. In Chepe.
  • 22. Firewood cut into long billets; also known as talgwode and talsbide.
  • 23. robe.
  • 24. Fine serge, or woollen cloth. See page 145 ante, Note 5.
  • 25. Or cendale; see pages 74, Note 2,and 145, Note 4,ante.
  • 26. Wine of Vernaccia, a red Tuscan wine.
  • 27. Or wine of "Candy"; a sweet Greek wine.
  • 28. Probably a sweet wine, and not wine of the Garonne or the Rhine, is meant.
  • 29. This wine and Clare, or Clarry, were wines made with grapes, honey, and aromatic spices.
  • 30. Or malmsey; a sweet wine of Crete; also from the Morea.
  • 31. Host, or keeper of a hostel.
  • 32. Persons who let out carts on hire.
  • 33. A serge, or other woollen cloth, with rays, or stripes, on the surface.
  • 34. Bran; possibly meal may be meant under this name.
  • 35. In French.
  • 36. This word is almost illegible, and consequently doubtful.
  • 37. In Latin.
  • 38. An insertion of later date.
  • 39. Cushions.
  • 40. See page 179 ante, Note 1.
  • 41. See page 178 ante.
  • 42. The old Bridge House.
  • 43. For catching refuse carried down by the stream. See page 23 ante.
  • 44. Deal boards, from the Eastern countries, probably on the Baltic.
  • 45. Superior laths, made of the heart of wood.
  • 46. Laths, with the sap in the wood.
  • 47. Correctly, 2s. 6d.
  • 48. Corner-stone.
  • 49. Correctly, 30s.
  • 50. Perhaps stone from Bere Regis, in Dorset.
  • 51. Plank-nails.
  • 52. Door-nails.
  • 53. Window-nails.
  • 54. Roof-nails.
  • 55. Tree-nails.
  • 56. Pocket, poke, or bag.
  • 57. The value of the pokete, or bag, must be included here.
  • 58. Prongs.
  • 59. Or schuyt; a barge for timber is probably meant here. See p. 223 ante, Note 3.
  • 60. Or Breviaries, containing the daily Service of the Romish Church.
  • 61. Musical notes.
  • 62. Or Grailes, books containing the responses sung by the choir.
  • 63. A book of Tropes, or verses preceding the Introit, on Festivals.
  • 64. Or Prose, a Song of Exultation.
  • 65. Books of Antiphons, or Anthems.
  • 66. Probably, lists of Merita, or relics of Saints.
  • 67. A book of the Ritual.
  • 68. For covering the altar.
  • 69. A'Becket, to whom the Chapel was dedicated.
  • 70. tuellum.
  • 71. A rich texture of silk.
  • 72. manutergia.
  • 73. Or censer.
  • 74. Or paxborde, a tablet of wood or metal, ornamented with some sacred device, and used in the service of the Mass. See Way's prompt. Parv. p. 388.
  • 75. Cloths for covering the consccrated elements.
  • 76. Richard de Wiche, Bishop of Chichester, died A.D. 1253.
  • 77. In Latin.
  • 78. A few words have been cut away in the rebinding.
  • 79. In French.
  • 80. at the Maiden in the Hoop.
  • 81. Brewing-wife.
  • 82. See page 6 ante, Note 2.
  • 83. esclandre de poyson.
  • 84. The royal Stables near Charing Cross; where the King's falcons were also "mewed," or confined.
  • 85. Probably, a stopcock.
  • 86. On the site, not improbably, of Great Windmill Street, Haymarket.
  • 87. This total is incorrect.
  • 88. These donations for drink to workmen, are called in Letter-Book G. fol. iv. (27 Edw. III.) "nonechenche," probably "noon's quench," whence the later "nuncheon," or luncheon.
  • 89. Probably, for "fother," in London 19½ cwt.