Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries. Originally published by Longmans, Green, London, 1868.
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Punishment of the Pillory, for pretending to be a Summoner from the King and the Archbishop of Canterbury.
38 Edward III. A.D. 1365. Letter-Book G. fol. cxlviii. (Latin.)
John De Alleford, of the County of Surrey, was attached on the 8th day of January in the 38th year etc., to make answer as well unto our Lord the King as to the Archbishop of Canterbury, in a plea of contempt and trespass. And as to which, Henry Shakel, who makes plaint for our Lord the King and the said Archbishop, says that the said John went to the Prioress of the House of St. Mary at Clerkenwell, bearing a white wand in his hand, as a token of his office etc. And he then told the said Prioress, that Simon, (fn. 1) by Divine permission, Archbishop of Canterbury, had now become so stricken with old age, and afflicted with divers other infirmities, that he could not make visitation in person throughout his Province. Wherefore, our Lord the King, with the assent of the said Archbishop, had ordered that Sir William de Wykeham (fn. 2) and Sir William de Mulsho, clerks of him, the King, and Master John de Cantebrugge, together with other clerks, should make visitation upon the Prioress aforesaid. And thereupon, he assigned to the said Prioress a certain day for their so coming. And also, he makes plaint, that the same John pretended to be a purveyor of our Lord the King, to take carpenters to the use of the King, in order to work in the Castle of Wyndesore, without any warranty for the same etc.
And the same John de Alleford, being questioned hereupon etc., says that as to pretending to be a purveyor for the King, he is not guilty, and he makes offer to prove the same. And as to all the other things imputed to him, he admits that he is guilty thereof; and he puts himself upon the favour of our Lord the King, and of his Court. And he was asked by the Court for what reason he so went to the Prioress as aforesaid; whereupon he said, for the sake of getting some money from her. And as it seemed to the Mayor and Aldermen, that the things aforesaid were done in contempt of our Lord the King, and to the injury of the estate of the said Lord Archbishop, so worthy a prelate, and him too, the Primate of all England etc., it was adjudged that the said John should have the punishment of the pillory, to stand two hours thereon, the reason for such punishment being there publicly proclaimed. And after judgment should have been so executed, the same John was to be taken back to the Prison of Newgate, until our Lord the King should of his grace give precept for his release.
Ordinances of the Plumbers.
38 Edward III. A.D. 1365. Letter-Book E. fol. cxlix. (Norman French.)
"May it please the honourable men, and wise, the Mayor, Recorder, and Aldermen, of the City of London, to grant unto the Plumbers of the same city the points that here follow.—
"In the first place,—that no one of the trade of Plumbers shall meddle with works touching such trade within the said city, or take house or apprentices, or other workmen, in the same, if he be not made free of the City; and that, by assent of the best and most skilled men in the said trade, testifying that he knows how well and lawfully to work, and to do his work; that so, the said trade may not be scandalized, or the commonalty damaged and deceived, by folks who do not know their trade.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall take an apprentice for less than seven years; and that he shall have him enrolled within the first year, and at the end of his term shall make him take up his freedom, according to the usage of the said city.
"Also,—that every one of the trade shall do his work well and lawfully, and shall use lawful weights, as well in selling as in buying, without any deceit or evil intent against any one; and that for working a clove of lead for gutters, or for roofs of houses, he shall only take one halfpenny; and for working a clove for furnaces, tappetroghes, belfreys, and conduit-pipes, one penny; and for the waste of a wey of lead when newly molten [he shall have an allowance of] two cloves, (fn. 3) as has been the usage heretofore.
"Also,—that no one for any singular profit shall engross lead coming to the said city for sale, to the damage of the commonalty; but that all persons of the said trade, as well poor as rich, who may wish, shall be partners therein, at their desire. And that no one, himself or by another, shall buy old lead that is on sale, or shall be, within the said city or without, to sell it again to the folks of the said trade, and enhance the price of lead, to the damage of all the commonalty.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall buy stripped lead of the assistants to tilers, laggers, (fn. 4) or masons, or of women who cannot find warranty for the same. And if any one shall do so, himself or by his servants, or if any one of them shall be found stealing lead, tin, or nails, in the place where he works, he shall be ousted from the said trade for ever, at the will and ordinance of the good folks of such trade.
"Also,— that no one of the said trade shall oust another from his work undertaken or begun, or shall take away his customers or his employers, to his damage, by enticement through carpenters, masons, tilers, or other persons; as he would answer for the damage so inflicted, by good consideration of the Masters of the said trade.
"And if any one shall be found guilty under any one of the Articles aforesaid, let him pay to the Chamber of the Guildhall in London, for the first offence, 40 pence; for the second, half a mark; for the third, 20 shillings; and for the fourth, 10 pounds, or else forswear the trade." (fn. 5)
Ordinances as to the sale by Hostelers and Herbergeours of bread and horse-bread; and as to the sale of old furs and clothes within the City.
39 Edward III. A.D. 1365. Letter-Book G. fol. cxxxv. (Norman French.)
"Whereas many grievances and damages have been done heretofore unto divers folks repairing to the City of London, for that the hostelers and herbergeours of the same city have made horse-bread, to sell in their houses, at their pleasure; the which has been of no assize, and not of the value that it ought to be. And also, some hostelers and herbergeours do go into Southwerk and elsewhere, where they please, to buy horse-bread, and there buy it dry, and at the rate of 18 loaves for 12, and then sell it to their guests at one halfpenny the loaf, whereas four such loaves are really not worth a penny; to the great scandal of the said city, and to the great damage of the common people.—Therefore, the Mayor and Aldermen thereof, with the assent of the Commons, have ordained due remedy for the same, in form as follows.—
"It is ordered, that no hosteler or herbergeour shall make any manner of bread in his own house, for sale to his guests: but he shall buy bread for such guests, and for their horses, of the common bakers of the said city, each loaf being stamped with the mark of the baker of whom the same was bought; that so, every one may see that the bread is of right assize, and of the real value that it ought to be; and the hostelers and herbergeours may be able to vouch as to the sale of their bread by the baker's mark. And if any bread shall be found in the houses of hostelers and herbergeours for sale, in any other manner than according to the form aforesaid, they shall have the same punishment for it as the bakers would have had. And all huksters who shall be convicted of doing the same, (fn. 6) shall have the punishment of the thewe.
"Also,—it is ordered that all the hostelers and herbergeours who keep hostellrys and herbergerys in the City of London, and in the suburbs thereof, shall sell hay and oats at a reasonable price; that is to say, they shall not take more than two pence for finding hay for one horse for a day and a night. And if they sell their hay by boteles, (fn. 7) they are to make their boteles in proportion to the same price. And on the sale of a quarter of oats they are to gain 8 pence, and no more.
"It is also ordered that, as to all manner of folks who expose cloths for sale not fully milled, in deceit of the common people, the same cloths shall be forfeited to the Chamber; and further, they shall make fine to the Chamber, at the discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen, for the contempt so shown for the common people.
"Also,— that if the default be found in the shearman, when the cloth is not fully milled in due manner, then such shearman shall forfeit his shears, with which the cloth was sheared; and further, shall be imprisoned for eight days at least, at the will of the Mayor, according to the extent of his offence.
"Also,—that phelipers (fn. 8) who buy old clothes or budge, furs, linen lined, or other furred phelperye, (fn. 9) shall sell the same budge and linings with the collars on, when repaired; the furs and linen being attached to the same budge and lined garments, in the same manner that they have bought them; that so, people may have full knowledge that the same things are old budge and linings, and not new; on pain of forfeiting them to the use of the Chamber.
"Also,—if any one shall cause such manner of clothes to be dubbed or fulled, in order to sell them for new, in deceit of the common people, the same are to be forfeited to the use of the Chamber, such forfeiture thereof being incurred by the vendor. And further, he is to pay a fine for the contempt, and his body to be committed to prison, in form aforesaid."
Inquisition as to a murderous assault by certain Fishmongers upon Giles Pykeman, Fishmonger.
39 Edward III. A.D. 1365. Letter-Book G. fol. cli. (Latin.)
"Inquisition taken before Adam de Bury, Mayor of the City of London, and Simon de Mordone and John de Mitford, Sheriffs, on the 19th day of March in the 39th year etc., to enquire what misdoers and disturbers of the peace of our Lord the King committed a certain enormous affray, in the Parish of St. Magnus, in the Ward of Bruggestrete, in London, on the 18th day of March in the year aforesaid, and how and in what manner divers other mischiefs were there perpetrated; upon the oath of Richard atte Dane and eleven others.—
"Who say upon their oath, that on the 18th day of March in the 39th year aforesaid, William de Stachysdene, Robert Littele son of John, Thomas Palmere, Richard Edythe, William Thursway, Geoffrey de Fulham, apprentice of William de Fulham, and Thomas Gaunt, with other offenders unknown, met Giles Pykeman, (fn. 10) citizen and fishmonger of London, in the Parish of St. Magnus, in Bruggestrete, and there by force and arms, with swords, knives, staves, and divers other arms, made assault upon the same Giles, and beat, wounded, and maltreated him, against the peace of our Lord the King, so that his life was despaired of; and there left the same Giles half dead, to the great affray of the whole city. They say also, that the aforesaid offence and affray were committed by the procuring, abettal, and counsel, of Robert de Rameseye, John de Hedone, William Fourneux, and Nicholas (fn. 11) de Extone. In witness whereof, the jurors aforesaid have to this inquisition set their seals. Given at London, on the said 19th day of March, in the 39th year aforesaid."
Letter from Johanna, Princess of Wales, announcing the birth of a Son.
39 Edward III. A.D. 1365. Letter-Book D. fol. clxviii. (Norman French.)
(fn. 12) Be it remembered, that a certain letter was delivered to Adam de Bury, Mayor, and the Aldermen, by Janian de Sharnefeld, on the last day of March, in the 39th year of the reign of King Edward etc., as to the birth of the first-born son of Edward, Prince of Gascoigne and of Wales, in the following words:—
"By the Princess of Gascoigne and Wales.—Dear and well beloved. Forasmuch as we do well know that you desire right earnestly to hear good tidings of us and of our estate, be pleased to know that on this Monday, the 27th day of January, we were delivered of a son, (fn. 13) with safety to ourselves and to the infant, for the which may God be thanked for His might; and may He always have you in His keeping. Given under our seal, at the Castle of Engolesme, the 4th day of February."
Transfer of debts and property belonging to Gyles de Molyn, deceased, with the custody of his children.
39 Edward III. A.D. 1365. Letter-Book G. fol. cliii. (Latin.)
"This indenture, made at London, the first day of April in the year of Grace 1365, and the 39th year etc., between Reynald Neuport, of the one part, and John de Boune, (fn. 14) saddler, of London, of the other part, witnesseth that the aforesaid Reynald has received of the said John payment of a sum of money of England, 72 pounds sterling, to the use and support of Walter, John, and Jaconine, sons and daughter of Gyles de Molyn, late lorimer of London, and Isabel, his wife, sister of the said Reynald;—that is to say, certain debts to be levied, and divers necessaries by him to be received, in form as follow.—From my Lady the Queen (fn. 15) of England:—for arrears of payment for a lyter (fn. 16) made for the use of my said Lady the Queen, 20 marks; for a tablet, 8 marks; for 24 buttons, gilt and enamelled, and two cloths of silk and silver, 20 marks. And also, the said Reynald has received charge of the said children, together with two whole cloths of scarlet vermail, (fn. 17) the one short and the other long, 25 marks in value; and one cloth, 7 marks in value; one horse, 2 marks in value, one hanap, with a covercle, 12 spoons, agarnishment for a knife, (fn. 18) and 4 silver rings, 54s. 2d. in value; also, a silk girdle, garnished with silver, 40 shillings in value; a silk girdle, garnished with silver, 24 shillings in value; a nouche of gold, with three rubies and nine pearls, 20 shillings in value; a pair of paternosters of aumber, 10 shillings in value; eight silver buttons, gilt and enamelled, 33s. 4d. in value; and in money, 7l. 4s. 8d.— the which sum the aforesaid John Boune was bound to pay. So that the aforesaid Reynald doth acknowledge hereby, in behalf of the said children, that, together with the said children, he has received the sum above-mentioned, and that the aforesaid John Boune, his heirs and his executors, both on this side of the sea and beyond sea, are quit and discharged of the aforesaid sum, and of the said children, for ever. In witness whereof, the aforesaid Reynald and John to this indenture have interchangeably set their seals; these being witnesses hereto, William Courtray, Walter Eweyn, Richard Stokes, William atte Vyne, Godefrey Nemay, Robert Payn, William Thomere, Ulryke Sadelere, and others. Given at London, the first day of April, in the year aforesaid."
yal order for taking surety to ensure Giles Pykeman from further molestation.
39 Edward III. A.D. 1365. Letter-Book G. fol. clv. (Latin.)
Edward, by the grace of God etc., to the Mayor and Sheriffs of London, and the keepers of the peace in the same city, greeting. Giles (fn. 19) Pykeman has entreated us that, whereas he is greatly and manifestly in fear for life and limb from the threats of the following persons,—John Litle, Robert Raumesseye, William Forneux, Nicholas Extone, John Horn of Northflete, John Hedone, John Horn the Black, Robert Litle, William Mordene, William Chevenyngge, John Hanekyn, Richard atte Soylle, William Courtay, John Rous, John Ledrede, William Ledrede, Henry Haunsard, Thomas Mokkyng, (fn. 20) John Stokynbery, Hugh Denny, William Folham, John Pancregge, and Thomas Rammeseye, we would provide for the safety of the said Giles against the malice of the persons aforesaid:— We therefore, granting the prayer aforesaid, do command you, strictly enjoining that, immediately on seeing these presents, you cause the persons aforesaid bodily to appear before you, and to find, each of them, sufficient surety that they, neither themselves nor by their procuring, will inflict, or procure to be inflicted, any injury of his body upon the same Giles in any way. And if the said persons shall refuse to find such surety, then you are to commit them to our prison until they shall be willing of their own accord to do the same. Witness myself, at Westminster, the 28th day of April, in the 39th year of our reign."
Punishment of the Pillory, for selling putrid pigeons.
39 Edward III. A.D. 1365. Letter-Book G. fol. cxxxviii. (Latin.)
John Russelle, of Abyndone, poulterer, was attached to make answer to the Commonalty of the City of London in a plea of contempt and trespass. As to which, John de Briclesworthe, who prosecutes for the Commonalty aforesaid, says that the same John Russelle, on the 15th day of September in the 39th year etc., at Billyngesgate, exposed 37 pigeons for sale, putrid, rotten, stinking, and abominable to the human race, to the scandal; contempt, and disgrace of all the City. And this for the Commonalty he makes offers to prove etc. And the said John Russelle says that the same pigeons are good and proper for sale to mankind, and he offers to prove the same etc.
And hereupon, John Vygerous, Thomas de Wynchestre, pyebakeres, John Wenge, Geoffrey Colman, John Lowe, Thomas Colman, and Richard de Daventre, cooks, being sworn to inspect and examine whether the said pigeons are good and proper or not etc.; say upon their oath, that the said pigeons are not good or wholesome for mankind, but rather to the corruption of man etc. Therefore he is to have judgment of the pillory, and the said pigeons are to be burnt beneath the pillory, and the cause of his punishment is to be there proclaimed.
Ordinances of the Pelterers, or Pellipers.
39 Edward III. A.D. 1365. Letter-Book G. fol. clxii. (Norman French.)
"These are the Articles and Ordinances touching the trade of Pelterers (fn. 21) of London, made by the same good folks; the which are granted and confirmed by Adam de Bury, now Mayor of London, and the Aldermen of the City, in the 39th year etc.
"In the first place,— it is ordained that no one of the said trade shall work together old and new materials of his own.
"Also,—that no one working at new werk (fn. 22) shall sell or buy old furs, or any manner of old budge; as those who do so, are held suspected of mixing old and new together.
"Also, —that no one shall mingle roskyn (fn. 26) with populle.
"Also, —that no one shall make furs of calabre of whole skins, seasoned and unseasoned mixed together.
"Also,— that no one shall make furs of grey calabre, seasoned and unseasoned mixed together.
"Also, — that no one shall make up bellies of calabre, except in their natural way; that is to say, the belly must have its black side; so that people may not be taken (fn. 27) in by any falsity in the furs.
"Also, — that whensoever any one of the trade aforesaid shall act against any of the Ordinances before-mentioned, he shall lose the furs to the use of the Chamber, in which default shall be found; and the person so forfeiting shall be imprisoned bodily in Neugate for 14 days; and, on coming out of prison, he shall pay by way of fine, to the Chamber of the Guildhall, 13s. 4d., and 6s. 8d. to the trade.
"Also,—whensoever any man or woman shall be aggrieved or taken in by any of the deceits aforesaid, and shall wish to complain to the rulers of the trade, the person in whom such default shall be found shall stand to the loss and punishment aforesaid; and the rulers shall give to the complainant a fur that is good and avowable, (fn. 28) in place of the fur forfeited, whether it be put upon cloth or not. And if the person making such deceit is a stranger, and dwells out of the franchise of the City, he shall have the same punishment, and shall make the same restitution, if he can be taken within the franchise, by intervention of the said rulers.
"Also,—that no one of the trade shall cause any furs or skins to be beaten in the streets of the City, on pain of losing half a mark, one half to be paid to the Chamber, and the other half to the trade; and he who so beats them shall be imprisoned for four days.
"Also,—it is ordained that no one of the trade, and no one of the felmongeres, shall carry, or cause to be carried, any furs of wildewerk (fn. 29) out of the said city, unto any place of the realm for sale, before that the rulers of the trade have surveyed them, and seen whether they are avowable or not; on pain of forfeiting the furs, and of paying 5 shillings to the Chamber, and 20 pence to the trade.
"Also,—that no persons bringing furs of greywerk (fn. 30) from Flanders, or from any other country, to the City, shall sell such furs before that the rulers of the trade have surveyed them, as to whether they are lawful or not; on pain of forfeiture of the furs, and of paying 5 shillings to the Chamber, and 20 pence to the trade. For the furs of grey that are brought from Flanders, are for the most part so stuffed with chalk, that persons can hardly know them.
"Also,—it is ordained that if any dealer, native or stranger, selling ermyns, lettis, (fn. 31) or werk, in the City, shall make any other pakkure (fn. 32) than what is good and lawful, and be convicted thereof, the same pakkure shall be under arrest and sequestration until the default shall be redressed, according to the discretion of four good men of the trade. And if the dealer be an alien, then four men of the trade and four men of his own nation shall take charge of the matter, for dealing with the offender.
"Also,—it is ordained that all the freemen of the said trade shall dwell in Walbrok, Cornhulle, and Bogerowe, (fn. 33) and not in other foreign (fn. 34) streets in the City; that so, the overseers of the trade may be able to oversee them. For if they do not dwell together in the said streets, the overseers cannot duly do their duty, or visit them; and then those dwelling elsewhere in foreign streets may make deceits in the said trade, against the Ordinances aforesaid, and without any punishment for the same."
Ordinances of the Tawyers.
39 Edward III. A.D. 1365. Letter-Book G. fol. clxiii. (Norman French.)
"These are the Ordinances, provided and made by the servingmen called 'Tawyers,' (fn. 35) in the City, as to how they shall serve the Pelterers, and how much they shall take for their labour, under the penalty that follows.—
"In the first place,—it is ordained that no one of the tawyers shall do any work in his trade for Easterlings, Flemings, or any other person, of whatsoever place or trade he may be; but only for the folks who are pelterers, freemen of London, and who keep open shop in the trade; on pain of paying 6s. 8d. to the Chamber, and 40d. to the trade of pelterers, every time that any one of them shall be found doing to the contrary thereof.
"Also,—if any one of them shall do his work otherwise than well and befittingly, he shall be adjudged upon, and the default redressed, by award and discretion of the rulers of the trade of Pelterers.
"Also,—it is ordained that no one of the tawyers shall take more for his labour than was ordained by Thomas Leggy, (fn. 36) in the time of his Mayoralty; that is to say, for the thousand of calabre, 8s.; for the thousand of polan, 8s.; for the thousand of herewerke, (fn. 37) 6s. 8d.; for any other manner of werk, 6s.; on pain of paying to the Chamber, every time that any one of them shall do to the contrary thereof, half a mark, and of paying the surplus to the party complainant of that which he shall have so received, against the Ordinance aforesaid.
"Also,—that it shall not be lawful for any one of them to buy any manner of wares of peltry, on pain of forfeiting the things so bought or sold; that is to say, two thirds to the Chamber, and the other third to the trade; and also, of being imprisoned for 14 days.
"Also,—that no tawyer shall cut off any head of any manner of werk, on pain of imprisonment for 14 days; and of making restitution to the party complainant, according to the award and discretion of the rulers of the trade of Pelterers.
"Also,—that no tawyer shall make old budge (fn. 38) in to new leather, on pain of imprisonment for ten days, and of paying to the Chamber half a mark; and so, every time that he offends by such default, he shall have such penalty for the same.
"Also,—that no tawyer shall act as broker between dealer and dealer, on pain of imprisonment for ten days, and of paying, as a fine to the Chamber, half a mark."