Memorials: 1371

Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries. Originally published by Longmans, Green, London, 1868.

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Citation:

, 'Memorials: 1371', in Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries, (London, 1868) pp. 347-361. British History Online https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/memorials-london-life/pp347-361 [accessed 29 May 2024].

. "Memorials: 1371", in Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries, (London, 1868) 347-361. British History Online, accessed May 29, 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/memorials-london-life/pp347-361.

. "Memorials: 1371", Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries, (London, 1868). 347-361. British History Online. Web. 29 May 2024, https://www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/memorials-london-life/pp347-361.

In this section

Proclamation as to the sale of victuals within the City.

45 Edward III. A.D. 1371. Letter-Book G. fol. cclv. (Norman French.)

"Forasmuch as the Peers of the realm, and a great number of other Lords and Commons, summoned to the Parliament of our Lord the King, for the common profit of all the land, are lodged within the City and the suburbs, and will there remain until the end of the same Parliament; the Mayor and Aldermen wishing, so far as unto them pertains, that they may not be subjected to outrageous demands for the price of victuals, do command, on behalf of our Lord the King, and on behalf of themselves also, that no hosteler or herbergeour shall take for hay for the feeding of one horse a day and a night, more than 2½d.

"Also,—that no hosteler or herbergeour, unless he be a common brewer, shall sell ale, save only to his stranger guests; and that he shall not charge for the gallon of best ale more than 2d.; and that, without fraud as to the same, in measure or in any other manner, on the peril which awaits the same.

"Also,—that no hucstere shall sell ale, either privily or openly, under double the penalty that has been proclaimed heretofore; and that no brewer shall sell ale to any hucstere for resale, or go beyond the assize that has been lately ordained, under the like double penalty.

"Also,—that no hosteler or herbergeour shall sell the bushel of oats to his guests for more than 8d., on pain of imprisonment at the will of the Mayor.

"Also,—that no hosteler or herbergeour shall make any manner of bread in his house for sale; but they shall buy the bread of the common bakers, which they sell, as well for horses as for their guests; and that such bread shall be stamped with the mark of the baker; on pain of having the same punishment as the baker would have had. And that all other victuals in the City shall be sold at a reasonable price; that so, the Mayor and Aldermen may not have cause to lay their hands thereon."

(fn. 1) This Ordinance was proclaimed on the Wednesday next after the Feast of St. Peter's Chair [22 February], in the 45th year.

Articles of the Bowyers and the Fletchers.

45 Edward III. A.D. 1371. Letter-Book G. fol. cclxvi. (Latin and Norman French.)

(fn. 1) On Friday, the Feast of Saints Perpetua and Felicitas [7 March], in the 45th year etc., came here the reputable men of the trade of Bowyers of London, and delivered to the Mayor and Aldermen a certain petition, in these words.—

(fn. 2) "To the Mayor, Recorder, and Aldermen of London, pray the Bowyers of the same City, that, whereas they have agreed, as well serving-men as masters, that none of them shall work at their said trade by night, by reason that bows cannot in any manner be made as well or as profitably, for the King and his people, by night as by day, it may please your honourable Lordship to enrol this point in the Chamber of the Guildhall;—that no bowyer of London shall work by night from henceforth, on pain of paying to the said Chamber for each offence half a mark.

(fn. 1) And in like manner, the reputable men of the trade aforesaid, and other reputable men of the trade of Fletchers of London, delivered to the Mayor, Recorder, and Aldermen aforesaid, a certain other petition, in these words.—

(fn. 2) To the honourable Lords, and wise, the Mayor, Recorder, and Aldermen, of the City of London, shew the good folks, with one assent and accord, of the trades of Bowyers and Fletchers of London; that, whereas it is finally ordained and agreed between the said persons of the one trade and the other, for the profit and ad vantage of all the commonalty, that no man of the one trade shall meddle with the other trade in any point; to keep the which covenants firm and established, and to perform the same, all the persons of the trades aforesaid have agreed; four men only excepted, whose names are, John Patyn, Robert atte Verne, Richard Prodhomme, and John Lyon, who unto the said ordinances will not assent:—all the good folks of the trades aforesaid do entreat you, that it will please your rightful Lordships to summon before you the four men already named, and to give judgment upon them according to the aforesaid Ordinance, to the advantage and common profit, as before mentioned. And that if any man of the one trade shall from henceforth meddle in any point with the other trade, he shall pay to the Chamber of the Guildhall, for the first default 40 shillings, for the second, four pounds, and so, double for each default, as the good folks aforesaid between them have agreed."

(fn. 3) Afterwards, the aforesaid John Patyn, Robert atte Verne, Richard Prodhomme, and John Lyon, came before the same Mayor and Aldermen, and agreed to observe the Ordinance aforesaid, and to do according to the same, as above ordained etc. And counsel having been held between the Mayor and Aldermen upon the matters aforesaid, it was agreed and granted by them that the Articles in the said two petitions contained should in future be observed, under the penalties aforesaid, for the common profit of all the people.

Afterwards, at a Husting of Common Pleas of Land, holden on the Monday next before the Feast of St. Gregory the Pope [12 March], in the 45th year etc., the aforesaid John Patyn, Robert atte Verne, Richard Prodhomme, and John Lyon, came before the said Mayor and Aldermen, and said that they then had divers things of each of those trades which they were working upon, and not completed, and that some of them had apprentices in both trades, and many bows and arrows finished, and for sale; and they asked for some respite, and for leave to complete the things aforesaid, belonging to either trade, that were not completed; and that they might expose the same for sale, together with the other bows and arrows which they then had finished, from the then present time, that is to say, to the close of Easter then next ensuing. So that they might be able to decide in the meantime, which of the said two trades they should elect to adopt and follow from thenceforth, in form in the said petitions contained. And the same was granted to them etc. They were also warned, that after the said Feast of Easter they must follow only one of the two trades aforesaid, whichever they might please, under the penalty in the said petitions contained.

Afterwards, on the Monday next after the Feast of St. Laurence [10 August], in the 45th year above-mentioned, the reputable men of the trade of Bowyers came here, and complained that the aforesaid Robert atte Verne had followed both trades since the said Feast of Easter, against the Ordinance aforesaid etc. Which Robert came here on the Tuesday after, and could not deny it; and he put himself upon the favour of the Mayor as to the same. And before the Mayor and Recorder, and the men of each of the trades aforesaid, he then elected, and asked to be admitted into, the trade of the Bowyers, in future to follow the same only, wholly renouncing the trade of the Fletchers. And the same was granted unto him; and he was also commanded in future not to follow the trade of the Fletchers, on the pain above-mentioned.

Particulars of Plate, bought as a present from the City to the Prince of Wales.

45 Edward III. A.D. 1371. Letter-Book G. fol. cclxxi. (Norman French.)

Parcels bought for a present to be made to our Lord the Prince, (fn. 4) on his return to London from the parts of Gascoigne, in the 45th year etc.; that is to say.—

In the first place,—bought of John de Chichestre, (fn. 5) 48 esqueles, (fn. 6) [and] 24 saltcellars, weighing by goldsmiths' weight, (fn. 7) 76l. 5s.; adding 6 shillings in the pound, with the making, total 109l. 0s. 9d. Also,—6 chargers, weight 14l. 18s. 9d.; which amounts, with the making, to 21l. 7s. 2d. Also,—6 chargers, weight 12l. 5s. 10d.; which amounts, with the making, to 17l. 11s. 4d. Also,—12 hanappes, (fn. 8) weight 7l. 14s. 4d.; which amounts, with the making, to 11l. 4s. 10d. Also,—4 silver basins, weight 14l. 4s.; which amounts, with the making, to 24l. 9s. 3d. Also,—6 lavers, weight 9l. 3s. 4d., which amounts, with the making, to 15l. 18s. 4d. Also,—8 pots, weight 24l. 10s. 5d.; which amounts, with the making, to 37l. 3s. 1d. Also,—2 gilded basins, weight 14l. 16s. 8d.; which amounts, with the making, to 38l. 11s. 4d. Also,—one gilded plate for spices, weight 4l. 9s. 4d.; which amounts, with the making, to 11l.12s. 8d.—Amount thereof, 286l. 19s. 9d.

Also,—2 silver basins in white enamel, weight 7l. 5s.; which amounts, with the making, to 12l. 8s. 6d. Also,—one gilded hanappe, in the form of an acorn, weight 55s.; which amounts, [with the making], to 7l. 3s. Also,—one pair of boteles, (fn. 9) of ivory, garnished and gilt, price 20l. Sum total,—326l. 11s. 3d.

Also,—parcels bought for a present to be made to our Lord the Prince, on his return to London from the parts of Gascoigne etc.; that is to say.—

In the first place,—bought of Nicholas Twyford, (fn. 10) two gilded basins, weighing by goldsmiths' weight, 15l. 5s.; amounting, at 6 shillings in the pound, with the double weight, (fn. 11) to 39l. 13s. Also,—3 gilded pots, weighing by goldsmiths' weight, 12l. 16s. 5d.; which amounts, with the double weight, to 33l. 6s. 8d. Also,—4 pots,white, (fn. 12) weight 11l. 9s. 5d.; which amounts, with the making, to Il. IIs. 9d. Also,—3 dozens of esqueles, weight 52l. 5s.; which amounts, with the making, to 74l. 14s. 4d. Also,—2 chargers, weight 4l. 18s. 9d.; which amounts, with the making, to 7l. 14d. Also,—12 hanappes, weight 8l. 14s. 9d.; which amounts, with the making, to 12l. 11s. 3d. Also,—6 saltcellars, weight 50s. 6d.; which amounts, with the making, to 3l. 12s.—Amount thereof, 188l. 10s. 2d.

Also,—bought of Thomas Reynham, (fn. 13) 3 dozens of esqueles, weighing by goldsmiths' weight, 49l. 12s. 7d.; adding 6 shillings in the pound, with the making, total 70l. 19s. 4d. Also,—30 saltcellars, weight 15l. 6s. 2d.; which amounts, with the making, to 21l. 17s. 8d. Also,—6 chargers, weight 12l. 7s. 9d.; which amounts, with the making, to 17l. 14s. 2d. Also,—12 hanappes, weight 8l. 12s.; which amounts, with the making, to 12l. 7s. 7d. Also,—one gallon pot, gilded, weight 8l. 15s. amounting to 22l. 15s. Also,—one potel pot, (fn. 14) gilded, weight 4l. 13s., amounting to 12l. 18d. Also,—one other gallon pot, gilded, weight 6l. 10d. amounting to 15l. 13s. 8d. Total, 173l. 8s.11d.

The number of each manner of vessel.—First, 6 pots, gilded; one plate for spices; 3 basins, gilded; 6 basins and 6 ewers of silver; 12 potel pots; 3 dozens of hanappes; 20 chargers; 10 dozens of esqueles; 5 dozens of saltcellars; one gilded hanappe in form of an acorne. One pair of botels of ivory.

Be it known, that John de Cauntebrigge, Chamberlain of the Guildhall of London, on the 16th day of December, in the (fn. 15) 45th year of the reign of our Lord King Edward, delivered all the plate aforesaid, by command of the Mayor and Aldermen, to Sir Peter Lacy, Clerk of our Lord the Prince, to the use of the same Prince, by him commissioned the said plate to receive.

(fn. 16) Also, the same Chamberlain paid, on the 19th day of April, in the 45th year of the reign of King Edward the Third, to Nicholas Holbourne, citizen of London, for the cost of minstrels, 16l. 13s. Also,—paid on the same day, for linen cloth bought for covering the vessels aforesaid, and for a horse hired for John Organ, (fn. 17) when riding to the Prince, one mark.

Punishment of the Pillory and Whetstone, for circulating lies.

45 Edward III. A.D. 1371. Letter-Book G. fol. cclxxii. (Latin.)

Nicholas Mollere, servant of John Toppesfeld, smythe, was brought before the Mayor and Aldermen, on the Saturday next after the Feast of the Holy Trinity, in the 45th year etc., to make answer for that, whereas by Statute it is ordained that no one shall presume to publish or spread false news, or to invent the same, whereby dissension, or tendency to dissension or scandal, may be produced between the King and the people, or other nobles of his realm, on pain of imprisonment etc., the same Nicholas, on the Friday last past, at the Guildhall of London, openly asserted that on the said Saturday it was to be publicly proclaimed throughout the whole of the city aforesaid, that all merchants alien might come to buy and sell all manner of merchandize in the same city, as freely as the freemen of the same. And that no pleas from henceforth were to be pleaded within the City before the Mayor, Aldermen, or Sheriffs, of the city aforesaid; but that all persons, as well those of the City as others, were in future to plead at Westminster before the Justiciars of our Lord the King. And that all the prisoners in Neugate were to be taken to the Tower of London, and there was no longer to be any prison at Neugate. Which news the same Nicholas published, to the injury of the franchise; and to the scandal of the city aforesaid, as it is alleged etc.

And the said Nicholas, being questioned hereupon, acknowledged that he did tell and publish the news aforesaid. And he said that he heard a certain esquire of our Lord the Prince telling the same in the shop of John, his master, before—mentioned. And afterwards, being diligently examined hereupon, as to whether he had any knowledge of this esquire, he said that he had no knowledge of his person, nor did he hear such esquire relate the said news, as he had before alleged. But he said that he heard one Alan Grygge, chaundeler, relating the said news in manner aforesaid, by the shop of the said John, his master, at Le Oldeiwherye. (fn. 18) Therefore precept was given to the Sheriffs, to have the said Alan here on the Tuesday following. And the said Nicholas was committed to prison in the meantime, until etc.

Upon which day, namely, Tuesday next before the Feast of St. Barnabas the Apostle [11 June] came here as well the said Nicholas as Alan aforesaid. And the said Nicholas alleged, as before, that he heard the same Alan relate the matters aforesaid at the shop of his said master at Le Holdiwerye; (fn. 19) and this he was ready to prove, so far as the Court etc., And the said Alan said that he did not relate or say as the aforesaid Nicholas imputed to him, and asked that inquisition might be made by the country thereon; and the said Nicholas in like manner. Therefore a jury was to be summoned thereon upon the Wednesday following etc.; and the said Nicholas was in the meantime committed to prison etc. And the aforesaid Alan was mainprised by William atte Castelle, armourer, Robert Horkesle, tailour, Henry Chaucer, vyntner, and Robert Grygge, saddler, such persons to have them here on the said day, at their peril.

Upon which Wednesday, namely, the Feast of St. Barnabas, came here Nicholas and Alan aforesaid. And the jury, by assent of the parties chosen, by John Rygge and eleven others, said upon their oath, that the said Alan Grygge did not utter the words aforesaid, or say as the said Nicholas above imputed to him. Therefore it was adjudged that the same Alan should go acquitted thereof; and that the said Nicholas, for the lie of which he was so convicted, and by him maliciously invented, should have the punishment of the pillory; to stand thereon for one hour of the day, and to have the whetstone hung from his neck, for such liars, according to the custom of the City, provided.

Articles of the Haberdashers.

45 Edward III. A.D. 1371. Letter-Book G. fol. cclxxii. (Latin and Norman French.

(fn. 20) On Friday next after the Feast of St. Barnabas the Apostle [11 June], in the 45th year etc., the reputable men of the trade of Haberdassheres came here before the Mayor and Aldermen, and asked that the Ordinances underwritten, made by common assent of the men of the same trade, for the common profit and advantage of the City, might be entered and in future observed etc. And the same was granted unto them.—

(fn. 21) "In the first place,— the good folks aforesaid have ordained that no one of the said trade, or following such trade, shall keep open shop or stall of the said trade, for selling his wares, anywhere within the franchise of London, on Sunday, or on any great Feast—day; and that no one of them shall sell his wares otherwise than in his own shop or stall. And that no one of them, after the Days of Christmas, Easter, and Pentecost, (fn. 22) shall open his shop or stall for common sale of his wares, until the day but one after each of those Feast—days.

"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall take a journeyman, or any other man, under colour of service or otherwise, to teach him the said trade, unless he take him as an apprentice, to serve him and to learn the said trade, in manner as an apprentice ought to do. And that no one of the said trade shall take an apprentice in the trade, if he be not himself a freeman of the said city; or shall take an apprentice for a less term than for seven years, according to the ancient usage of the City. And that no one shall follow the said trade within the franchise of the City, unless he be a freeman of the same; for many persons who are not free of the said city, do keep their shops and stalls open in such trade, and take great profit therefrom, and bear no charge within the city, to the great disparagement of the freemen of the said trade.

"Also,—that every one who shall be found acting against any one of the points aforesaid, shall pay to the Chamber of the Guildhall, upon the first default, half a mark; upon the second default, one mark; upon the third default, 20 shillings; and upon the fourth default, he shall keep neither shop nor stall open in such trade at any time, in any quarter, for one year next after such default; on pain of forfeiting all his wares, and of imprisonment of his body.

"Also,—that the good folks aforesaid of the said trade, and their successors in the trade, shall choose every year four good men of such trade to oversee the men of that trade; to rule the same, and to present the defaults therein to the Mayor and Aldermen of the said city, for the time being."

Complaint as to a melting—furnace leased by Plumbers in Estchepe, and decision given thereon.

45 Edward III. A.D. 1371. Letter-Book G. fol. cclxxiii. (Norman French and Latin.)

(fn. 23) " To the honourable men, and wise, the Mayor, Recorder, and Aldermen, of the City of London, shew and make plaint John Walkot, (fn. 24) Richard Scut, Thomas Clenche, and all the other good folks of Candelwykstrete and of St. Clement's Lane in Estchepe, together with other neighbours of other Parishes;—that whereas certain plumbers, namely, Robert Belcampe [and] Richard Diche, (fn. 25) do purpose to melt their solder in a vacant place called 'Wodhawe,' (fn. 26) in the said Parish of St. Clement; which place one Richard Godchild let to William de Camepedence, carpenter, who has sublet it to the said plumbers; to the great damage and peril of death of all who shall smell the smoke from such melting,—as may be proved by some of the same trade, and other good folks, and trustworthy, who bear witness that whosoever has smelt the smoke therefrom, has never escaped without mischief:— may it please your honourable and rightful Lordships, at the request of the said good folks, and for the saving of human life, to ordain a befitting remedy, as a work of charity, in such manner that such perilous work may not be done within the City; commanding, most honourable Sir, if so it please you, the said Richard and William not to let the said place to the plumbers aforesaid, for doing such work there."

(fn. 27) By reason of which petition, precept was given to John Chamberleyn, serjeant, to summon here, on the Thursday after the Feast of St. Dunstan[7 September] then next ensuing, the aforesaid Robert Beauchampe and Richard atte Diche, to make answer as to the matters aforesaid, and further, to do as the Court should direct. Upon which Thursday the parties appeared etc., and the said Robert and Richard asked to hear the said petition; which being read and heard, they said that they had hired the said vacant place, which had a furnace therein, for doing their melting and following their trade, there, as had been accustomed for about the last forty years there to be done; and they said that the said vacant place was not so noxious, as the said John Walcot and the others above alleged, and this they were ready to prove, so far as the Court should think proper etc.; and they asked that they might follow their trade, and do their melting in that place, in manner as before they had been there accustomed etc. And the said John Walcot and the others said that the shaft of the furnace was too low, and that the smell of the smoke issuing therefrom at the time of melting their lead was rendered all the more offensive thereby, to the nuisance etc. And they asked that the Mayor and Aldermen should find a remedy for the same.

And afterwards, conference being held by the Mayor and Aldermen thereupon, it having been testified unto them that the place aforesaid had for many years past been let to men of the trade of plumbers, and for melting and doing other things pertaining to such trade, as they now do; and that the place was not so prejudicial as the same John Walcot and others alleged; it was agreed and granted by the Mayor and Aldermen, that the same Robert Beauchampe and Richard atte Dyche, and others of their trade, might follow their trade at the place and furnace aforesaid, and do their melting in manner as theretofore they had been accustomed to do; provided however, that the shaft of the said furnace should be heightened, for the benefit of the neighbours there.

Royal order for the prevention of the slaughtering of beasts within the City.

45 Edward III. A.D. 1371. Letter-Book G. fol. cclxxxi. (Latin.)

"Edward, by the grace of God etc., to the Mayor and Sheriffs of London, greeting. Whereas of late, by reason of the slaughtering of great beasts in the city aforesaid, from the putrefied blood of which running in the streets, and the entrails thereof thrown into the water of Thames, the air in the same city has been greatly corrupted and infected, and whereby the worst of abominations and stenches have been generated, and sicknesses and many other maladies have befallen persons dwelling in the same city, and resorting thereto;— We, desiring to take precautions against such perils, and to provide for the decency of the said city, and the safety of the same our people, with the assent of our Council, in our Parliament holden at Westminster, had ordained that all oxen, sheep, swine, and other large animals, for the sustenance of our city aforesaid to be slaughtered, should be taken to the village of Stretteford, (fn. 28) on the one side, and the village of Knyghtebrugge, on the other side, of the said city, and there be slaughtered; and that the entrails of such beasts should there be cleansed; and that if any butcher in his rash daring should presume to do aught to the contrary thereof, he should incur forfeiture unto us of the flesh, and of the animals which on this side of the villages aforesaid he should have caused to be slaughtered, and the penalty of imprisonment for one year. And whereas we have ordered hereupon, that you should cause the Ordinance aforesaid to be publicly proclaimed in such places as you should deem expedient, and the same to be observed, and should chastise and punish all butchers doing to the contrary hereof; according to the form of the Ordinance aforesaid. And afterwards, upon the open information as well of our Justiciars and our clerks in our Chancery, and other our officers, as of other reputable men dwelling in Fletestret, Holbourne, and Smythfeld, in the suburbs of the city aforesaid, we have heard that certain butchers of the said city, giving no heed to the said Ordinance and proclamation, have after, and against, the Ordinance and proclamation aforesaid, slain large beasts within the said city, and have thrown the blood and entrails thereof in divers places near Holbournbrigge and elsewhere in the suburb aforesaid; from which abominations and stenches, and the air infected thereby, sicknesses and very many other maladies have befallen our officers aforesaid, and other persons there dwelling, and resorting thereto, and, as was feared, would thereafter befall them, unless some remedy should be speedily had thereto; we have oftentimes commanded you to cause the said Ordinance to be publicly proclaimed in the city aforesaid, and the suburbs thereof, in such places as you should deem expedient, and to be observed, and to chastise and punish all butchers offending against the said Ordinance, according to the form of the Ordinance aforesaid, or else to signify unto us the cause why you have neglected to obey our commands so often directed to you thereupon: and you, slighting our commands aforesaid, as we have heard, have not cared to do the things aforesaid, or even to signify unto us the cause why you would not do the same, or ought not, in manifest contempt of ourselves and of our commands aforesaid, and to the no small damage and grievance of the same our officers and others, as to the which we do greatly marvel, and are moved thereat;—We do further command you, so strictly as we may, and enjoin, that you will cause the said Ordinance to be publicly proclaimed in the city aforesaid, and in the suburbs thereof, in such places as you shall deem most expedient, and to be observed, and will punish all butchers doing to the contrary hereof, according to the tenor of our commands aforesaid to you before directed hereon; or else, yourselves, will appear before us three weeks from the Day of St. Michael next ensuing, wheresoever in England we shall then be, to shew why you have despised to obey our commands aforesaid, so often unto you directed hereupon. And have there this writ. Witness myself, at Westminster, the 26th day of September, in the 45th year of our reign in England, and in France the 32nd."

This writ was proclaimed on the Saturday (fn. 29) next after the Feast of the Apostles Simon and Jude [28 October], in the 45th year of the reign of King Edward the Third.

Articles for the regulation of the Trade of the Waxchandlers.

45 Edward III. A.D. 1371. Letter-Book G. fol. cclxxxiii. (Latin and Norman French.)

(fn. 30) On the Thursday next after the Feast of St. Martin the Bishop [11 November], in the 45th year etc., came here the reputable men of the trade of the Waxchandlers, and delivered to the Mayor and Aldermen a certain petition, in these words.—

(fn. 31) "To the honourable men, the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London, shew the good folks, the Wexchaundelers of the said city, that their trade has been badly ruled and governed heretofore, and there still is great scandal unto all the good folks of the said trade and of the City, because that they have not Masters chosen of the said trade, and sworn before you, the Mayor and Aldermen, as other trades have, to oversee the defaults that are committed in their said trade, and to present them to the Mayor and Aldermen of the said city. And for this reason, very good Sirs, the said good folks do supplicate your gracious Lordships, that you will be pleased to grant unto the said good folks, that they may choose from among them four good men of the said trade; and that they may be sworn before you, most honourable Sirs, to have surveillance of all the defaults in their said trade, and to present them before the Mayor and Aldermen for the time being; that so, the offenders may be punished according to their deserts. And that the points underwritten may be granted unto them, and enrolled in the Chamber, before you, for the common profit of the said City.—

"In the first place,—that no chandler of the said trade shall make any torches, cierges, (fn. 32) prikettz, (fn. 32) or other candles, of wax, mixed with rosin and code, (fn. 32) but only of good wax and wick. And that, if any chandler of the said trade in time to come shall make torches, cierges, prikettz, or other candles of wax, for sale, that is mixed as aforesaid, and that may be found and proved by the Masters of the said trade, before the Mayor and Aldermen, to be not proper wax or wick, (fn. 33) the person who shall be so convicted shall pay to the Chamber, the first time, 6s. 8d.; and the "second time, to the said Chamber, 13s. 4d.; and the third time, to the said Chamber, 20s.; and the fourth time, he shall forswear the trade for ever.

"Also,—that every chandler of the said trade, within the franchise of London, shall receive for the hire of roundcierges for funerals, one penny per pound; (fn. 34) the party also paying the chandler for the waste of the said candles, and a reasonable sum for the hire of the herces (fn. 35) and candlesticks requisite for the said cierges.

"Also,—for squared (fn. 36) cierges, within the said franchise, for every piece one penny; the party also paying the chandler for the waste.

"Also,— for the hire of torches, for every pound one penny; the party also paying the chandler for the waste.

"Also,— if any person shall bring wax to a chandler, to make torchez, tortiz, (fn. 37)prikettez or perchers, candles, or cierges for women at Candlemas, (fn. 38) the chandler shall take for every pound of wax one halfpenny for the making; and he who shall have it made, must bring the wyke, (fn. 39) or else pay for the wyke.

"Also,— if any man shall bring wax, to make round or squared cierges thereof, the chandler shall take for every pound one halfpenny, for his trouble.

"Also,— the said good folks do pray, that every chandler of the trade within the said city may have a mark, and that he put it upon the torches, tortiz, and cierges, which he makes; that so, if any default shall be found in the same, the person may be known in whose work the default is, and be chastised for his offence against this Ordinance; and that such torches, tortiz, and cierges, as are not impressed in manner aforesaid, may be forfeited to the Chamber." (fn. 40)

New Articles of the Pouchmakers.

45 Edward III. A.D. 1371. Letter-Book G. fol. cclxxxiv. (Latin and Norman French.)

(fn. 41) On Thursday next after the Feast of the Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary [8 December], in the 45th year etc., came the reputable men of the trade of Pouchemakers, and delivered unto the Mayor and Aldermen a certain petition, in these words:—

(fn. 42) "To the honourable the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London, pray the good folks, Pouchmakers of the same city, that whereas they have some Articles of their trade before you (fn. 43) enrolled; and some Articles of that trade which are very profitable, to the common profit of the people, are not as yet enrolled; it will please you to accept these Articles to be enrolled, for the common profit of the people; that is to say.—

"First,—that no one of the said trade shall sell (fn. 44)tasses or (fn. 45)curroies privily in hostels in the City, but only openly in their shops, and not by night; that the people may not be deceived by such private purchases in such hostels, as of late has been the case.

"Also, — that no serving-man in the said trade, by covenant or in any other way, shall serve under any person of another trade within the said city, or the suburb thereof, to teach him such trade of the pouchmakers.

"Also,— that no one of the said trade shall receive into his service, to work in such trade, any person who is a common brawler or rioter, or of ill fame, or who will not be ruled by the Masters of such trade; nor shall he deliver materials in this trade to any such person to work upon, until he shall have found surety for his good behaviour, and will conform to the Masters, by them to be ruled.

"And that every person in the trade who shall do to the contrary of any one of the points aforesaid, shall pay the same penalty that in their other Articles is comprised." (fn. 46)

Footnotes

  • 1. In Latin.
  • 2. In French.
  • 3. In Latin.
  • 4. Edward the Black Prince.
  • 5. Mayor in 1369.
  • 6. Porringers, or deep plates.
  • 7. The shilling representing three-fifths of an ounce. The 6 shillings per pound added, was probably for duty and other charges, exclusive (as stated) of the cost of making.
  • 8. Handled cups.
  • 9. Bottles.
  • 10. Mayor in 1388. Alderman of Coleman Street Ward.
  • 11. The "double-weight" evidently includes the cost for the metal, and the making and gilding.
  • 12. Probably, enamelled.
  • 13. Alderman of Aldersgate Ward, in 1379.
  • 14. Pottle, or two quarts.
  • 15. Qy. 44th, apparently.
  • 16. In Latin.
  • 17. Alderman of Broad Street.
  • 18. Qy. as to this locality. Possibly, it may mean a sign of the "Old Wherry," as almost every house had its sign in those days. Or perhaps, the "Old Ferry," is meant.
  • 19. So varied in the original.
  • 20. In Latin.
  • 21. In French.
  • 22. Or Whitsuntide.
  • 23. In French.
  • 24. Sheriff in 1389, Mayor in 1402.
  • 25. Or Beauchampe, as below.
  • 26. Wood Hawe, or Wood Yard.
  • 27. In Latin.
  • 28. Stratford le Bow, and Knightsbridge.
  • 29. But before this, the King had sent another writ, dated the 26th of October, stating that as none of the evils beforementioned had arisen from the slaying of cattle by the Butchers of Estchepe or the Stokkes, it was not his intention that it should in any way apply to them. It was no doubt aimed in particular at the Butchers of St. Nicholas Flesh Shambles; who seem to have been a source of great annoyance to the noble and opulent families dwelling in the vicinity of St. Paul's. See page 339 ante.
  • 30. In Latin.
  • 31. In French.
  • 32. See page 301ante,Notes and 2,4,and6.
  • 33. lymyoun.
  • 34. He was to pay this for the original weight of all the candles used; and to pay for the amount of wax consumed as well.
  • 35. The iron framework, like a harrow, (bercia) on which the candles, used at funerals, or before shrines, were arranged.
  • 36. Also used at funerals, and known as "quariers" or "quarions."
  • 37. Or torchettes. See page 301 ante, Note3.
  • 38. When wax tapers were hallowed, and borne by women to the Churches, in remembrance of the Purification, or Churching, of the Virgin Mary.
  • 39. Wick.
  • 40. In a sequel in Latin, it is added that Walter Rede and John Pope were chosen to be Overseers of the trade.
  • 41. In Latin.
  • 42. In French.
  • 43. The Articles of the Tassemakers (or Pouchmakers) entered in Letter-Book F. fol. 167; but of no interest whatever.
  • 44. Purses.
  • 45. Probably, straps or thongs of leather.
  • 46. A Note follows, to the effect that the proposed Articles were allowed.