Memorials of London and London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries. Originally published by Longmans, Green, London, 1868.
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Exchange of the Craft and Livery of the Ironmongers for that of the Fishmongers, by Richard Merlawe, Alderman.
3 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Letter-Book I. fol. clxiv. (Latin.)
Be it remembered, that whereas on the 13th day of May, in the 3rd year of King Henry, after the Conquest the Fifth, it was by Thomas Fauconer, the then Mayor, and the Aldermen of London, ordained (fn. 1) and agreed that from thenceforth no Mayor, Alderman, Sheriff, or other officer or servant of the City of London, should take any livery or vestment from any craft or fraternity within the liberty of the said city, save of one craft only etc., under the heavy penalty and perils in the Ordinance aforesaid contained and specified; and whereas Richard Merlawe, (fn. 2) Alderman, who was first admitted to the freedom of the city in the craft of the Ironmongers, had notwithstanding in times past commonly and usually followed, and still did follow, as well the trade of the Fishmongers as of the Ironmongers in the City aforesaid, and had had and received yearly, and at different times, liveries or vestments from the same trades, as the Court did recollect; the said Richard Merlawe, wishing for the future by no means to offend against the Ordinance aforesaid, but only to adopt one of the vestments or liveries of the trades aforesaid, did therefore, on the 10th day of the month of March, in the 3rd year etc., together with many other good and sufficient men of the trade of Fishmongers aforesaid, come before Nicholas Wottone, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, in the Chamber of the Guildhall of London, and entreat them with all due urgency, that they would deign to admit him, the said Richard, to the freedom and the vesture, or livery, of the trade of Fishmongers aforesaid.
Whereupon, the Mayor and Aldermen, wishing to grant their prayer in this behalf, as being just and consonant with reason, did admit Richard Merlawe aforesaid, according to his desire, to the freedom and the livery, or vesture, of the trade of Fishmongers aforesaid.
Ordinances of the Brasiers.
3 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Letter-Book I. fol. clxiii. (Latin and Norman French.)
(fn. 3) On the 20th day of the month of March, in the 3rd year etc., came here, into the Chamber of the Guildhall of the City of London, before Nicholas Wottone, the Mayor, and the Aldermen of the same city, the reputable men of the trade of Brasiers of London and presented a certain bill, or petition, containing words as follow.—
(fn. 4) "Unto the honourable Lords, the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London, very humbly make prayer the good folks following the trade of Brasiers, and free of the same city, that whereas in the same trade divers works are deceitfully made, as well in the mixing of the metal as in other matters touching the same trade, so that they cannot last for one third the time that of old they were wont to last, to the great scandal of all the good folks of the said trade, and to the common damage of all the realm; and this, because that the same trade has not yearly appointed wardens, or governors, chosen and sworn to govern and rule the same, in manner as other trades of the said city do have, use, and enjoy the same; in order to eschew the common damages aforesaid, may it please your very wise discreetnesses to grant unto the said suppliants, and their successors, freemen of the said city, following the said trade, that they may yearly elect two or four persons of the same trade, as their Wardens and governors for one whole year then next to come. And that the same Wardens and governors, before you and your successors yearly presented, chosen, and sworn, may have full power to make search upon all manner of persons working at, and following, the said trade, within the said city, and the suburbs thereof; and to present all manner of defaults found in the same trade, unto the Chamberlain of the said city for the time being; and also, to govern and do other things touching the said trade, in manner as, according to the usage and custom of the said city, in other trades in the same is usual and accustomed. Provided always, that at least one of the said Masters or governors, so chosen and accepted, shall be a worker in the trade, and the others, chapmen; to the end that they may the more wisely and rightfully make their search and proof, and execute their office in all points. And further,—to grant unto your said suppliants, and their successors, certain necessary Articles touching the good rule and governance of the said trade; the which may it please you to have entered of record, and enrolled, in order to avoid the evils before mentioned.—
"In the first place,—that no one of the trade shall make any manner of work touching the trade, of any but good and sufficient metal, well and sufficiently mingled and tempered, so as to last, for the common profit of all the people; on pain of paying, on the first default 3s. 4d., on the second default 6s. 8d., on the third default 10s., and so, on every default after the first, an increase of 3s. 4d. each time; one half always to go to the Chamber of the Guildhall of London, and the other half to the use and profit of the said trade.
"Also,—that every one of the trade, himself or by his people, making any new work touching the trade, [shall have] a certain mark, different from that of any other maker in the trade; with which mark all work made by him and his people shall be marked, as aforesaid, on the pain above-written, and in form before mentioned.
"Also,—that no one of the trade shall use or employ any manner of weight in scales within the same city, or at fairs or markets without the City, of less weight than the standard of our Lord the King, on the pain above-written.
"Also,—that no one of the said trade shall carry, or cause to be carried, any manner of work of the trade to fairs or markets for sale, out of the said city, before that all such work, so intended and disposed for sale, shall have been justly proved and properly adjudged upon by the Wardens of the same trade; on pain of forfeiting the same, one half to go to the Chamber aforesaid, and the other half to the said trade.
"Also,—that no one of the trade shall receive or take any manner of journeyman to work in the said trade, before that he be proved by the Wardens thereof, for the time being, to be able and sufficient to follow the trade,—under the same penalty.
"Also,—that no one of the trade shall take or receive the serving-man or journeyman of any other person of the trade, away from the service of his master, before that such serving-man or journeyman shall have completed and finished his service, on the pain aforesaid.
"Also,—if any one of the trade shall be at enmity or variance in any manner with his serving-man or journeyman, that no one of the trade shall receive or set to work any such serving-man or journeyman, before that he shall have come to terms and agreement with his master; on pain of paying 40s., to be divided as aforesaid.
"Also,—if any person, workman, serving-man, journeyman, or apprentice, of the said trade, shall be found to be refractory, or rebellious, against the said Wardens, for the time being, as to their rule and governance touching the trade, or will not come on their summons, made by themselves or by the bedel of the same trade, duly to ensure the good governance and rule thereof, let him incur the pain from of old for such rebellious persons in other trades ordained, and entered of record."
(fn. 5) Which petition having been read before the Mayor and Aldermen, and by them more fully understood, because that it appeared to them that all the Articles therein contained were consonant with reason, and redounding to the public honour, and to the advantage of the common weal, they did ordain, determine, and pronounce, that the Articles aforesaid should here among other matters be entered of record, in manner and form as requested, for the future strictly to be observed.
Proclamation enjoining attendance upon the King, at Lambhithe.
4 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Letter-Book I. fol. clxxviii. (Norman French.)
"Let proclamation be made, that every lord, knight, esquire, and gentleman, be ready in attendance upon our most dread and most sovereign Lord the King, at Lambhithe, (fn. 6) in his best array, on horseback, on the morrow, between 8 and 9 in the morning, to do and fulfil his honourable will and command; as they would avoid his (fn. 7) most gracious indignation." (fn. 8)
Proclamation enjoining attendance upon the King.
4 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Letter-Book I. fol. clxxviii. (Norman French.)
Proclamation as to not departing from attendance upon the King.—
"Let proclamation be made, that no person, lord, knight, esquire, or any other, of whatsoever estate or degree he be, shall depart from attendance upon, and service of, our most dread Lord the King, between now and the end of the solemn Feast of St. George (fn. 9) [23 April]; nor yet at any time after that, without especial leave or permission of our most gracious and most sovereign Lord aforesaid; as they wish to avoid his most gracious indignation."
Proclamation for ensuring a supply of stores and merchandize at Harfleur.
4 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Letter-Book I. fol. clxxviii. (Old English.)
A Crye made for comune passage toward Hareflieu.—
(fn. 10) "Be ther proclamacioun made, that alle manere of men, marchauntz, artificers, or other of what estat, degre, or condicioun, that euere theye be, that willen toward oure lige Lorde the Kyng, beyng atte Harflewe in the costes of Normandye, that God him spede, with corne, brede, mele, or floure, wyne, ale, or biere, fysshe, flesshe, or any other viteille, clothe, lynnen, wollene, or eny merchaundise, sheytys, breches, doublettys, hosene, shone, or eny other manere ware of armure, artilrye, or of othere stuffe; lette him apparaille (fn. 11) and make redy betwen this and to day sevenyght their bodyes, goodes, merchaundyses, ware, stoffure, viteilles, what that euer it be; and in the mene while come to the Mair, and he shalle dispose and assigne theym redy shippyng and passage vnto the forseid costes."
Proclamation made on the 8th day of June.
4 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Letter-Book I. fol. clxvi. (Old English.)
"Alle maner of lordes, knyghtys, and squyers, that ben (fn. 12) y poynted to goo with oure liege Lord the Kyng in this present viage, drawe hem (fn. 13) home in to here contrees, (fn. 13) and make hem redy to be with oure liege Lord the Kyng atte Hamptone, (fn. 14) the Munday afor Myssomeresday (fn. 15) next to come." (fn. 16)
Proclamation that Shipmen and Soldiers shall be in readiness to sail for Southampton.
4 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Letter-Book I. fol. clxxviii. (Old English.)
"Oure lige Lorde the Kyng hotith (fn. 17) and commaundeth, that alle manere of shipmen that beth ordeyned to passe in any shippe here in Themse with oure forseid liege Lorde in this present viage, be this nyght with ynne shippebord, redye for to sayle towards Hamptone, (fn. 14) on peyne of enprisonement, who so be founde to morwe doynge contrarye. And also, that alle maner of soudyours, of what estat or condicioun so they be, that haue receyued ony wages or outher gold of oure forseide liege Lorde, to passe with him in thes forseide shippes atte this present viage, be redy this same nyght with ynne shippebord, to passe in the same shippes, in strengthyng of hem, to Hamptone aforesaide, on the peine aboue saide."
Proclamation made on the 29th day of June.
4 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Letter-Book I. fol. clxvi. (Old English.)
"Oure liege Lord the Kyng hot (fn. 18) and comaundeth, that alle maner of mariners, as welle maistres as other, that benth (fn. 19) assignyd to passe in this present viage of oure lige Lord aforsaid, be this same day be (fn. 20) tweyne aftir none withynne here shippis, here yn Temse, (fn. 21) to here what shal be declared to hem on the be halve of oure forsaid lige Lord, be his Consaille, (fn. 22) on peyne of enprisunement, and all that may be falle etc."
Repudiation by a Master of the acts and deeds of a runaway Apprentice.
4 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Letter-Book I. fol. clxxii. (Latin.)
On the first day of July, in the 4th year etc., by Robert Arnold and other trustworthy persons, Nicholas Wottone, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, were given to understand that one William Bolecley, son of the late John Bolecley, of Delbury, in the County of Salop, who, on the 28th day of March in the 12th year of the reign of the late King Henry, after the Conquest the Fourth, had put himself apprentice to the aforesaid Robert, and who, on behalf of the said Robert, his master, had heretofore been on business for trading in divers parts, as well on this side of the sea as beyond, had of late without leave, and without reasonable cause, unlawfully withdrawn himself from the service of his master, and departed; to the no small loss and grievance of his said master.
And whereas the said Robert feared that he might very possibly be damnified by the same William, if he should appear under the feigned colour of being the factor and attorney of his said master, while so living at large; as he might in the name of such master receive divers quantities of things and merchandizes, and various sums of money: therefore, on the 4th day of July, in the 4th year etc. aforesaid, the said Robert Arnold came here, before the Mayor and Aldermen, and in full Court repudiated and renounced whatever the same apprentice should have done, as being his factor and attorney, from the time that he so withdrew himself and departed, or should in any parts whatsoever in future do for him, or in his name.
Sentence of the Pillory for slandering an Alderman, and flight of the Offender to the Sanctuary at Westminster; and Confession finally made by him.
4 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Letter-Book I. fol. cxcv. (Latin and Old English.)
John Russell, wolpakker, of London, was attached, according to the custom of the City of London, to make answer to Thomas Fauconer, (fn. 23) citizen and mercer of the said city, in a plea of contempt and trespass. As to the which, by John Westone, his attorney, he made plaint that the same John Russell, maliciously imagining to aggrieve and falsely slander the said Thomas, at divers times between the 4th day of July in the 4th year of the King now reigning and the 20th day of July then next ensuing, did go about in the Parish of St. Mary le Bow, in the Ward of Chepe, in London, and in divers other places, as well within the City aforesaid as without, falsely saying, and maliciously lying therein against the same Thomas Fauconer, and telling many persons;—that, whereas one Richard Surmyn, (fn. 24) late of London, bakere, who, according to the canonical sanctions, was declared to be a manifest heretic, and delivered to the secular arm, had certain Letters Patent of grace and pardon from our Lord the King, granted to him, to have as well his life as his goods and chattels, if by reason of any decree, declaration, or commission, as aforesaid, the same should become forfeited, he, the said Thomas Fauconer, Alderman, late Mayor and Escheator of our Lord the King in the City aforesaid, of his own malice aforethought, did cause as well the said Richard as the Letters Patent aforesaid to be burnt and destroyed by fire in the open place of West Smythfeld, in the suburb of the said city; in manifest contempt of our Lord the King. Which same our Lord the King, as the same John Russell asserted, seeing that the said Richard was so burnt against the tenor of his Letters Patent, to the very great contempt of himself, ordered the same Thomas Fauconer for the said matters to be taken to the Tower of his City of London aforesaid, there in safe custody to be kept, until, with the advice of his Council, as to his liberation he should have been otherwise advised. And that the same Thomas Fauconer remained imprisoned in the Tower, until he had made fine and ransom to our Lord the King, in the sum of one thousand pounds sterling, for his trespasses and contempt aforesaid; to the great scandal and disgrace of the same Thomas, and of the dignities which he had hitherto held in the City aforesaid: and as to the which the same Thomas, by the said John Westone, asked for redress, and that the said John Russell might be chastised, according to the custom of the said city hitherto prevailing, and approved in the same; to the end that such liars and detractors might fear in future to slander undeservedly any reputable persons.
By reason of which declaration, the said John Russell being then and there in person brought and interrogated as to all and singular the matters aforesaid, he said that he was a layman, (fn. 25) and did not well understand the said declaration: wherefore he duly asked the said Mayor and Aldermen, that by the advice of his counsel upon the same he might make answer upon a certain day, by the same Mayor and Aldermen for him to be named. Whereupon, the Mayor and Aldermen, being unwilling that the said John Russell should in any way be put to his answer without counsel, appointed a day for him, namely, the 30th day of July then next ensuing, to make answer, with counsel, to each of the matters aforesaid: and the same day was given to Thomas Fauconer before mentioned.
And upon this, then and there came William Waryn tailor, Ralph Spayne tapicer, Thomas Warde fuller, Alexander Carpenter fuller, Richard Wellys barbour, Richard Priour capper, Edmund Mille scryvaner, John Wellyng tapicer, John Westone capper, John atte Wode capper, John Randolf, peautrer, and Thomas Spayne tapicer, citizens of London, and made mainprise (fn. 26) to have him ready before the Mayor and Aldermen on the said 30th day of July, under a penalty of 100 pounds to be paid unto John Hille, Chamberlain, and his successors, Chamberlains, by way of recognizance.
On which 30th day of July appeared here as well the said Thomas Fauconer as John Russell, in their proper persons; and the said John Russell, then and there being again interrogated as to the matters aforesaid, how he would acquit himself thereof, by advice of his counsel said that he was guilty of no one of the things so imputed to him, as above declared; and this he was ready to prove etc. And the aforesaid Thomas Fauconer said that he, the same John Russell, was guilty of the trespasses and offences aforesaid etc.; and asked that inquisition might be made by the country; and the aforesaid John Russell likewise. And hereupon, precept was given by the said Mayor and Aldermen to John Uptone, one of the serjeants of the said Mayor, to bring to the Chamber of the Guildhall of the said city, on the last day of July then next ensuing, twelve of the best and most substantial men of the Ward of Chepe in the same city, to make a jury thereupon. And the same day was given to the parties aforesaid; and the said John was put upon the same mainprise.
Upon which last day of July the said Thomas Fauconer presented himself before the Mayor and Aldermen in the Chamber aforesaid, as against the said John Russell in all and singular the matters before stated. And the said John Russell, being then and there solemnly called, did not come, but made default; by reason of which default, according to the custom of the said city theretofore followed and used, by the Mayor and Aldermen it was adjudged that they should proceed to take the inquisition aforesaid. And thereupon, the jurors appeared, by virtue of a summons made to them in this behalf, namely, William Olyver, and eleven others; who, being charged and sworn as to the matters aforesaid, upon their oath pronounced the same John Russell to be guilty of all and singular the matters before stated. And thereupon, it was then and there adjudged by the said Mayor and Aldermen, according to the custom of the City, that the same John Russell should be put upon the pillory of the City on three several and distinct market-days, and that, for one whole hour each day, he having a whetstone, in token of his being a liar, hung from his neck; and that the reason for such judgment being given should on each day be publicly proclaimed. And precept was given to the Sheriffs of London to do execution of the judgment aforesaid, so soon as they should be able to take the said John Russell within the liberty of the City.
And forasmuch as the mainpernors before named had not the said John Russell ready upon the said last day of July, as they were bound to do by their recognizance aforesaid, therefore precept was given by the said Mayor and Aldermen to John Charletone, one of the serjeants of the Chamber of the said city, to arrest the said mainpernors, and have them taken to the prison of our Lord the King, in the custody of the Sheriffs of the said city; there to be kept until they should have satisfied John Hille, the Chamberlain, in the sum of one hundred pounds, in which they had made recognizance to him in manner and form aforesaid. By reason of which mandate the same serjeant arrested the mainpernors aforesaid, and took them to prison, as ordered. And afterwards, on the same day, the mainpernors sent here, in moneys and in goods, to the value of 100 pounds aforesaid, most humbly entreating the Mayor and Aldermen, that, taking their poverty into consideration, they would deign benignly to shew favour and mercy unto them. And thereupon, they were set at large, and released from prison. And they were told, that in the meantime they must diligently endeavour to take and bring hither the said John Russell, to stand his judgment in this behalf.
(fn. 27) Which same John Russell afterwards betook himself to the Sanctuary of St. Peter at Westminster, and stayed in that place for three quarters of a year, without going forth therefrom. And the said poor (fn. 28) mainpernors in the meantime made many searches, and incurred many expenses, for the purpose of taking him, and bringing him hither, but could not do so; until the same John, induced thereto by deep contrition and grief, as well for his own misdeed, as for the impoverishment and loss of property suffered by his said friends who had mainprised him, voluntarily and of his own accord left the Sanctuary aforesaid, and came before the Mayor and Aldermen, in full Court, on the 26th day of April, in the 5th year etc.; and humbly bowed (fn. 29) himself before the Mayor and Aldermen, presenting a written confession of his offence, in the English tongue, in these words.—
"I, John Russell, citezyn and wolpakker of Londone, knowleche (fn. 30) well here in this present Court, before the Worsshippfull estates of the Maire and Aldermen of Londone, that I spak and noysed en diuerses places of Londone diuerses wordes and matiers sclaunderous of Thomas Fauconer, now Alderman, and late Meire, of Londone, of diuerses thinges which he shuld haue y do in his office of Meiralte; whiche wordes I seyde be enformacioun of vntrewe men, (fn. 31) and wich wordes (fn. 32) I wote well and knowleche well now that I seyde hem and noised hem vntrewly be the forseid Thomas Fauconer, in to gret disclaunder of this worshipfull estat, and to grete displesauns of alle the Aldermen, (fn. 33) and of alle the worshipfull estates of the forsayd Cite of Londone. Whereof I now, mekely and as lowely as I can or may, I aske and byseche the forseid Thomas Fauconer foryifnesse of that I haue offended and aggrelted (fn. 34) hem in the forme forseyd; and also, my Lord the Meire that now is, and alle my worthi Maystres the Aldermen, and alle the estates of Londone, of that I haue displesed or offeneded hem in this matir." (fn. 35)
Petition of the Stringers, and Order made thereon.
4 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Letter-Book I. fol. clxxii. (Latin and Norman French.)
On the 2nd day of August, (fn. 36) in the 4th year etc., the reputable men of the trade of Strengers, (fn. 37) of the City of London, came here, in the Chamber of the Guildhall of the said city, and presented unto Nicholas Wottone, Mayor, and the Aldermen, of the said city, a certain petition, containing words as follow.—
"Unto the honourable Lords, (fn. 38) the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London, shew the good folks of the trade of Strengers of the said city, that whereas great destruction of the people of the realm, and many other mischiefs, have oftentimes occurred in divers combats and battles, as well in the times of the most noble progenitors of our Lord the King now reigning—whom may God preserve—as in his own time, and in other combats of divers lords, captains and lieges of his realm, waged on this side of the sea or beyond; because of the great defaults found in the said trade, on the occasion of such combats as aforesaid; as to the which there has oftentimes been made very grievous complaint unto the said suppliants, as well by officers of the King as by officers of other lords, and many other persons who have been present at the same: they charging the same suppliants, on such peril as may befall them, from thenceforth to correct and remedy said defaults, to the utmost of their power:—may it please your very wise discreetnesses, in redress of the said default, and the better to avoid the great mischiefs that are likely to happen by reason of such default—the which may God forbid—to grant unto the said suppliants that they may have Wardens, and power to inspect all work unto the same trade pertaining, like unto other trades of the said city.
"Also,—that if any person who is a workman, serving-man, journeyman, or apprentice, of the same trade, shall be found to be contentious or rebellious against the said Wardens, for the time being, as to their rule and governance touching the same trade, he shall incur the penalty from of old for such rebellious persons in other trades ordained, and entered of record."
(fn. 39) Which petition having been thus read before the said Mayor and Aldermen, and by them more fully understood, as it seemed to them that the prayer in the same contained was just, and consonant with reason, it was by them ordained and agreed, then and there, that from thenceforth the good men of the trade aforesaid should have Wardens among them, to rule them in their trade, and to make scrutiny therein, as to all manner of work pertaining and belonging to the trade.
Proclamation enjoining attendance upon the King at Dover.
4 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Letter-Book I. fol. clxxx. (Old English.)
Proclamation made, that all manere of men, of what degree that thei ben of, to be redy with the Kynge atte Dover.—
"Be there a proclamacioun made, that alle maner of men, of what degree or estat that they ben of, that are with holde with oure souerain liege Lorde the Kynge, or any other lorde, knigt, or squyer, of his roialme, apparaille and make them redy for to be with oure souerain Lorde the Kyng aboue sayde, in ther best aray, atte Douer, (fn. 40) on Sonday that nexte cometh, for to passe forthe in this present viage purposed and ordeyned, up on peyne of enprisonement and forfaiture of alle that they may lese anens oure souerain Lorde the Kynge aboue seyde."
Enactment that no one shall hold meetings, or form parties, in order to avoid serving the office of Mayor or Sheriff.
4 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Letter-Book I. fol. clxxvi. (Latin.)
(fn. 41) "Forasmuch as it is not consonant with reason that those who for their own purposes dwell within a city, and there enjoy many advantages in so doing, should refuse the charge of the offices of such city when they devolve upon them: and then besides, as it is the fact that many citizens of the City of London, who are blessed with affluence and sufficiency of property and means, not at all bearing in mind the oaths which they have taken in the Chamber of the Guildhall of the said city, with a secret malignity, do not fear at present to infringe upon the good peace and concord of the City; and in this way more particularly, that, whereas according to the custom of the said city, laudably prescribed and followed for the healthful rule thereof, the Mayor and Sheriffs ought each year to be freely and indifferently elected by the more sufficient and more discreet men thereof, in the usual manner specially summoned to Common Council for making such elections, and for treating of other business of the said city; at the present day, a thing to be lamented, some who are citizens thereof, although themselves deemed worthy, upon faithful testimony, to bear the offices aforesaid, still, striving manifestly against the tenor of their said oath, before the time for the election of such officers, as well in their own persons as through others interposed, do diligently go round to many other citizens and other persons in the said city, and influence them, and prevail upon them to come to the Guildhall of the City, together with their apprentices and serving-men, and, there collecting a great crowd, to shout and make an uproar, to the effect that such or such a one must be Mayor or Sheriff, about whom perhaps there has been but little or no mention made before; it being their own end and object that by the prevalence of such shouting they may gain exemption from such offices for themselves.
"By reason of which crowding also, and division into parties, various dissensions and contumelies are daily occurring and arising; and to a much greater extent in future will arise, unless there be a speedy stop put thereto: in consequence whereof, not only the general peace of the people dwelling within the said city, and the true and free election of the Mayor and Sheriffs, have been oftentimes disturbed, but also, sudden destruction, it is feared, will overtake the same people, a thing that must result in still greater mischief, beyond a doubt; seeing that such partisanships and meetings must tend manifestly as well to the contempt of our Lord the King, as to the desolation, division, and destruction, of the said city, if upheld.—
"Therefore, on Thursday, the 24th day of September, in the 4th year etc., Nicholas Wottone, now Mayor, and the Aldermen, with the assent and consent of very many of the more reputable and more sufficient men of the said city, in Common Council of the same city, in usual manner, for the consideration of these and of other matters, especially assembled, for augmenting the quietude of the said city, which with especial zeal they desire, and in order to defeat the malicious covin of parties and confederacies of this nature, and of the adherents thereof, have ordained and established that no one of the said city in future, upon whom the election to the office of Mayor or Sheriff is likely to fall, shall form any parties or hold any meetings for the purpose of avoiding such office; seeing that through such meetings or parties a real and free election of such officers may be disturbed or impeded; and this, under a penalty of 100 pounds, to the use of the Chamber of the Guildhall to be paid, so often as and when any one may be lawfully convicted of the same, etc. And that no other person than a freeman (fn. 42) of the City, and one especially summoned to such election by the custom of the said city, of whatsoever estate or condition he may be, shall presume to hold such meetings or to make such parties, or to do other things which redound to the breach or disturbance of the peace, or of the free election of such officers; on pain of imprisonment, and of making fine, at the discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen, so often as and when any such person shall be lawfully convicted of the same."
Order made that the Court of Husting shall no longer be closed for the month ensuing after the Feast of St. Botolph.
4 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Letter-Book I. fol. clxxvi. (Latin.)
"Also, at the same congregation of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commoners, then and there sitting, it was shown to the said Mayor and Aldermen, on behalf of the Commonalty, that, whereas from of old it had been the custom in the said city every year for one month after the Feast of St. Botolph the Abbot [17 June] to hold no Husting therein; for the reason that very many persons, as well citizens of the said city as others, who had suits and pleas pending at the Husting, resorted every year to the Market or Fair of St. Botolph, then being held at Bostone, (fn. 43) for the purpose of trading there; now for many years past, the holding of such Fair, which was the cause of so putting off the Husting, as before stated, had entirely ceased; though still in each year no Husting was held for one month after the Feast of St. Botolph aforesaid, to the manifest retarding of law and justice.
"Therefore, by the said Commonalty, then and there, the Mayor and Aldermen were entreated that, for the profit of our Lord the King, and for expediting the poor and others, who have or shall have suits at such Husting, they would deign to hold such Husting each year in future on the said Feast of St. Botolph, as well as during the month after it, just as at other times of the year was done, and had been wont to be done, or should in future be done. Whereupon, the said Mayor and Aldermen, assenting to the prayer before stated, as being just and consonant with reason, with the assent and consent of the Commonalty aforesaid, have ordained, determined, and established, that in future in every year the Husting shall be held within the City aforesaid upon the said Feast of St. Botolph, and during the month after it, the same as at other times of the year is done, and has hitherto been wont to be done, or shall be, any usage or ordinance to the contrary notwithstanding."
Inquisition upon charges of Treason and Felony; and final Judgment thereon.
4 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Letter-Book I. fol. clxxx. (Latin.)
"Inquisition taken then and there, before Nicholas Wottone, Mayor of the City of London, Robert Hylle, John Cokayn, William Cheyne, John Bartone the Elder, and John Martyn, at the Gaol of Neugate, on the Monday next before the Feast of St. Michael the Archangel [29 September], on the oath of Robert Erneldryk, John Bekke, John Bealamy, John Trumpyngtone, and eight others etc.; who present upon their oath, that Benedict Wolman, (fn. 44) of London, hostiller, late under-marshal of the Marshalsea of the household of our Lord the King, and Thomas Bekeryng, of Bekeryng, (fn. 45) in the County of Lincoln, gentilman, on the 18th day of April, in the 4th year etc., at London, in the Parish of St. Dunstan West, in Fletestrete, in the Ward of Farndone Without, falsely and traitorously compassing and imagining the death of our Lord the King, against their allegiance did inter-ally and confederate together, and, in order to bring Thomas Warde, in like manner, called 'Trumpyngtone,' whom they asserted to be King Richard, late King of England, after the Conquest the Second, from the kingdom of Scotland (fn. 46) into the kingdom of England, with the intent and purpose to depose our Lord the King now reigning from the estate of his royalty, and to disinherit him and his heirs of the realm of England aforesaid etc., the said day and year, did meet in the Parish and Ward aforesaid, and there continuing falsely and traitorously their false intent and treason aforesaid, and imagining to excite the most illustrious and most serene Prince, the Lord Sigismund, by the grace of God, King of the Romans, against our said Lord the King, now reigning, that he might assist them in their false and traitorous purpose aforesaid, falsely and traitorously did make and write a certain petition, (fn. 47) directed to the same King of the Romans, and by a certain servant of the said King of the Romans, to the jurors aforesaid unknown, unto such king then and there present the same; expressly containing to the effect that the said Richard the Second, late King of England, was in full life, in the parts of Scotland, in the custody of the Duke of Albany, by consent of our said Lord the King, now reigning; who, by consent of the said Duke of Albany, wrongfully, as they asserted, has detained and kept the King of Scotland (fn. 48) out of his realm of Scotland aforesaid, and within the realm of England; asking the King of the Romans with a strong hand and powerful arm to bring back the said Thomas Trumpyngtone, whom they so assert to be the said late King Richard, as being such late King, into the realm of England, and raise him to the kingly power in that realm, and to depose our said Lord the King, now reigning, from his regal estate, and so disinherit him and his heirs aforesaid of such realm of England; to the end and effect that the said Benedict and John might carry out their traitorous purpose to compass the death of our said Lord the King. Which King of the Romans, after receiving and understanding the petition aforesaid, did cause it to be sent unto our said Lord the King, now reigning; whereby the treasons aforesaid were disclosed to him, our Lord the King, etc.
"The jurors aforesaid also present that William Cratfeld, (fn. 49) late Rector of the Church of Wortham, in the County of Norfolk, and Thomas Tepyrtone, late of London, hosyer, on the 28th day of May, in the 4th year etc., in the Parish of St. Leonard, in the Ward of Faryndone Within, in London, did feloniously rob one William Botoner, of London, goldsmyth, of 12 pounds in gold and silver, ready money of him, William Botoner, then and there being. The jurors aforesaid also say that the said William Cratfeld, late Rector, and Thomas Tepyrtone, are common and notorious thieves, and lurkers on the roads, and murderers and slayers of the people of our Lord the King, and aiders and abettors of divers traitors of our said Lord the King."
And the said Benedict and John Bekeryng, having been before taken as suspected of the treason aforesaid, now came before the Justiciars before-named, being brought in the custody of the Sheriffs; and the presentment having been read to them, so presented against them as aforesaid, they were severally asked how they would acquit themselves of the same. Who severally said that they were in no way guilty thereof, and for good and for bad put themselves upon the country as to the same. Whereupon, precept was given to the Sheriffs of London, to have before the Justiciars aforesaid, at the Gaol of Neugate in the said city, on the Day of St. Michael the Archangel [29 September] then next ensuing, twenty-four as well citizens as other good and lawful men of the venue of the Parish of St. Dunstan aforesaid etc. And in the meantime the same Benedict was sent back to prison, in custody of the Sheriffs; and the said John Bekeryng likewise. Which John Bekeryng, for certain reasons specially moving the Justiciars aforesaid thereto, had a day named by the Court for taking a jury as between him and our Lord the King as to the matters aforesaid, namely, the morrow of St. Martin [11 November] then next ensuing. Before which day, the same John Bekeryng died in the Prison of Neugate, of his rightful death etc.; as by the Sheriffs and Coroner etc., who had view of his body, was certified unto the Justiciars aforesaid.
Upon which Day of St. Michael, at the gaol aforesaid, came the aforesaid Benedict, brought by the Sheriffs, before the said Justiciars; and likewise a Jury of the venue aforesaid, namely, John Fulthorpe, Richard Walworth, and ten others; who, being chosen thereto, tried, and sworn, upon their oath pronounced the said Benedict guilty of the treason aforesaid etc. Therefore, by the Justiciars it was adjudged, that the same Benedict should be taken from the gaol aforesaid to the Tower of the said city, and from thence be drawn through the middle of the City, in the high streets of Cornhille and Westchepe, to the gallows at Tyburne, there to be hanged and beheaded, his head to be set upon London Bridge, at the place called "Le Drawebrugge" etc. And precept was given to the Sheriffs to do execution of the judgment aforesaid.
The Jury being further asked on their oath as to the lands, tenements, goods, and chattels, of the said Benedict, said that there were no lands or tenements of the said Benedict; but they said that he then had certain goods and chattels in his dwelling-house, in the Parish of St. Dunstan aforesaid, to the value of 4l. 10s.; as to which sum of money the same Nicholas Wottone, Mayor and Escheator for our Lord the King in the same city, was to make answer in the Exchequer.
And precept was further given to the said Sheriffs, to take the aforesaid William Cratfeld, late Rector of the Church of Wortham, in the County of Norfolk, and Thomas Tepyrtone, late of London, hosyer, if found in their bailiwick etc. (fn. 50)
Inquisition held as to an Accomplice in the treason of Sir John Oldecastelle; and Trial and Sentence thereon.
4 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Letter-Book I. fol. clxxxi. (Latin.)
Pleas of the Crown of our Lord the King, holden at the Gaol of Neugate, before Nicholas Wottone, John Cokayn, William Cheyne, and John Bartone the Elder, Justiciars of our Lord the King, on the Monday next after the Feast of St. Michael the Archangel [29 September], in the 4th year of the reign of King Henry the Fifth.—
"Inquisition taken then and there, before the Justiciars aforesaid, upon the oath of Robert Eneldryk and eleven others; who make presentment, that whereas one John Oldecastelle, Knight, for divers treasons and felonies of his was detained in the prison of our Lord the King, within the Tower of the City of London, one William Parchemyner, otherwise called 'William Fyssher,' of London, parchemyner, (fn. 51) on the 19th day of October in the first year (fn. 52) of the reign of King Henry, after the Conquest the Fifth, in the Parish of St. Sepulchre, in Smythfeld, in the suburb of London, in the Ward of Faryndone Without, in the City aforesaid, together with other traitors of our Lord the King, whose names to the said jurors are unknown, did go privily to the Tower aforesaid, and break into that prison, (fn. 53) and falsely and traitorously withdraw the said John Oldecastelle therefrom, and take him from thence to his own dwelling-house, in the Parish of St. Sepulchre in Smythfeld, etc., and did falsely and traitorously harbour him in such dwelling-house, knowing that he, the same John Oldecastelle, was a traitor of our said Lord the King; and there did keep the said John Oldecastelle in secret, until the Wednesday next after the Feast of our Lord's Epiphany [6 January], then next ensuing. Upon which Wednesday the aforesaid William, together with the said John Oldecastelle and other traitors aforesaid, there compassing and imagining how to slay our said Lord the King, as also, the brothers and heirs of the same our Lord the King, and to destroy and disherison other nobles of the realm of England, and to make the aforesaid John Oldecastelle regent of the realm, on the same Wednesday, in the year, Parish, and Ward aforesaid, armed and arrayed in warlike guise, falsely and traitorously, against his allegiance, did arise; and from thence, and then and there, did proceed towards a certain great field in the Parish of St. Giles, without the Bar of the Old Temple of London; (fn. 54) there to carry out and finally to fulfil his false, nefarious, and traitorous purpose aforesaid."
And the said William Parchemyner, being before taken as suspected of the treason aforesaid, now appeared before the said Justiciars, being brought here by the Sheriffs; and the said presentment having been read to him, he was asked how he would acquit himself as to the same; whereupon, he said that he was in no way guilty thereof, and put himself upon the country, for good and for bad, as to the same. Precept was therefore given to the Sheriffs of London to have here, before the Justiciars aforesaid, on Thursday, the 7th day of the month then next ensuing, twenty-four as well citizens as other good and lawful men of the venue of the Parish of St. Sepulchre aforesaid etc.
Upon which Thursday came here, before the Justiciars aforesaid, the said William, being brought by the Sheriffs; and likewise a Jury of the venue before mentioned, namely, Richard Strengham, Richard Walworth, John Shirlok, John Russell, and eight others; who etc., upon their oath, pronounced the said William to be guilty of the treason aforesaid. Therefore, by the said Justiciars it was adjudged that the same William should be taken from the gaol aforesaid to the Tower of the said city, and from thence be drawn through the middle of the City, in the high streets of Cornhille and Westchepe, to the gallows at Tybourne, there to be hanged and beheaded, his head to be set and fixed upon London Bridge, at the place called "Le Drawebrigge." And precept was given to the Sheriffs of London, to do execution of the judgment aforesaid.
Chattels, lands, or tenements of the same William there were none.
Women committed to prison, for selling game contrary to the Mayor's Ordinance.
4 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Journal (fn. 55) 1 fols. 2, 3. (Latin.)
Friday, the 13th day of November, in the 4th year etc.; present, the Mayor, Recorder, and Wedyngtone, (fn. 56) Sheriff.—
The wife of Hildy, the poulterer, and the wife of John Mede, were committed to prison, for that, against the proclamation of the Mayor, the wife of Hildy sold four wodecokes for 20 pence, and the wife of John Mede refused to take 12 pence for two partridges.
On Saturday, the 14th day of November, the wife of Hildy and the wife of Mede were released from prison; and they were enjoined that in future they must sell their fowl according to the assize, on pain of imprisonment; from which without great chastisement they should not escape. (fn. 57)
Regulations for the sale of Rushes, and of Geese, within the City.
4 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Letter-Book I. fol. clxxxv. (Latin.)
On the 14th day of November, in the 4th year etc., to avoid divers damages which had before befallen and happened to the said city, as well by water as on land, it was provided and ordered that all rushes in future, laden in boats or skiffs, (fn. 58) and brought here for sale, should be sold by the cart-load, as from of old had been wont to be done. And that the same cart-loads were to be made up within the boats and skiffs in which the said rushes are brought to the City, and not upon the ground, or upon the wharves, walls, or embankments, of the water of Thames, near or adjacent to such boats or skiffs; under a heavy penalty upon the owner or owners of such boats, skiffs, and rushes, at the discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen, to be levied.
Also, the same day and year, it was agreed by the said Mayor and Aldermen, that geese should in future be sold in the Poultry, and elsewhere within the City of London, whole, together with the heads, feet, and intestines, without the poulterers or sellers thereof keeping back any such heads, feet, or intestines, as aforesaid; and this, under a heavy penalty, upon the poulterers and sellers of such poultry to be levied, at the discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen, for the time being, so often as they should happen to do otherwise.
Presentment made by the Searchers of wines.
4 Henry V. A.D. 1416. Journal 1 fol. 5. (Latin.)
Monday, the 7th day of December, in the 4th year etc.: present, the Mayor, the Recorder, Walderne, Knolles, Merlow, Crowmer, Fauconer, Sevenoke, Thomas Aleyn, Caumbrigge, Penne, Richard Bartone.—
On this day came the searchers of wines, and made presentment that they had found within the City, (fn. 59) on the East side, (fn. 60) of white and red wine 154 tuns, and on the West side of the said city, 124 tuns. And they presented the following unsound wines, namely,—in the dwelling-house of William Culver, in Lumbardstrete, one pipe of red wine. In the dwelling-house of Thomas Symound, in the same street, one pipe of red wine. In the dwelling-house of Charltone, (fn. 61) in Fridaystrete, one pipe of red wine. At the corner of St. Magnus, at Le Coroun, (fn. 62) one pipe of red wine.
And they presented of sweet wines, (fn. 63) on the East side of the City, 587 butts, and on the West side, 113 butts.