Historical Account of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne Including the Borough of Gateshead. Originally published by Mackenzie and Dent, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1827.
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THE FIFTEEN BYE-TRADES.
MASTERS AND MARINERS, CALLED ALSO THE TRINITY HOUSE.
It is very difficult to trace the origin of those marine establishments called Trinity Houses, though they are not very ancient. They probably arose from the mutual formation of Masters and Mariners into a society, for the promotion of their interests, and the relief of their indigent and distressed brethren and widows, at a time when all charitable institutions assumed a religious character. They afterwards, by royal grants, or the powers conferred by the Lord High Admiral of England, rose into consequence, and have tended to promote and protect the navigation and commerce of the kingdom. (fn. 1)
"The Guild or Fraternity of the Blessed Trinity of Newcastle upon Tyne" first occurs as a corporate body, purchasing by their feoffees the scite of their present house, on January 4, 1492, of Ralph Hebborn, Esq. of Hebborn, for which a red rose, if demanded, was to be paid yearly at Midsummer for ever. It was then called "Dalton Place;" and by a resolution of the house in writing, still preserved, and dated January 4, 1505, a hall, chapel, and lodgings for their brethren, were ordered to be erected.
Robert Hebborn, Esq. son of their former benefactor, by a deed dated September 9, 1525, conveyed to this fraternity some additional buildings on the north side of Dalton Place, for which they were to pay yearly, on the vigil of St. Peter and Paul, if demanded, a pottle of wine. (fn. 2) At this time, it appears, they had an altar or chantry called Trinity Altar in All Saints' church, which they had probably founded long before. About 1530, they had either confirmed or granted to them the duty of primage and pilotage.
King Henry VIII. on October 5, 1536, granted a new charter of incorporation to this guild, consisting of men and women, to have a common seal, implead and be impleaded, with licence to build and imbattle two towers, the one at the entrance of the haven of Tyne, and the other on the hill adjoining, in each of which a light was to be maintained every night, for the support of which they were empowered to receive 4d. for every foreign ship, and 2d. for every English vessel entering the port of Tyne. This charter was confirmed by Edward VI. in 1548, and by Queen Mary in 1553.
Queen Elizabeth, in 1584, by charter, refounded this society by the name of the Master, Pilots, and Seamen of the Trinity House of Newcastle upon Tyne. Another charter was granted by King James I. dated January 18, 1606, constituting this society, under the above name, a body politic, and appointing a master, twelve elder brethren, two elder wardens with their two assistants, and two younger wardens with the like number of assistants. They were to have a common seal. Their jurisdiction was extended to Blyth, Sunderland, Hartlepool, Whitby, and Staithes—power is given them to impose fines on their offending brethren, and to appoint pilots for the river Tyne, with its creeks and members, who are to have for conducting every laden vessel 12d, for every foot it shall draw, and for every foot a light ship shall draw 8d. The duty of primage was confirmed to them from vessels from beyond the seas coming into the river, or its creeks and members: 2d. per ton of wine, oil, and other things sold by the ton (fish killed and brought in by Englishmen excepted), and 3d. per last of flax, hemp, pitch, tar, or other things sold by the last. Aliens are to pay this duty before they leave the port, and free merchants and inhabitants of Newcastle within ten days after their landing: all this to go to the support of twelve poor brethren, or their wives, or shipwrecked mariners. Lightage was also confirmed to them: of every owner's ship, English born, 4d. each time; and of every owner's ship that is an alien, 12d. The buoying, canning, marking, and beaconing of the river Tyne was also confirmed to them; for which they are to receive of each ship, whose owner is English, and burthen above 20 chaldron of coals, 4d.; of the same when under 20 chaldron, 2d.: and of every alien, 6d. They were also impowered to hold lands and tenements under £30 per annum clear value.
In 1607, the officers of the port of Newcastle were empowered by the Privy Council to enforce the duties of buoyage and lightage; and in 1617, the council ordered that the merchants of Newcastle should pay only 1½d. primage for every last of corn brought into that port. In 1618, the Trinity House ordered a gallery to be built in All Saints' church.
King Charles I. in June, 1633, was escorted to Tynemouth by this society. In the following year, they completed the purchase of a parcel of waste ground at PowPans, near North Shields, of George Ward, Esq. and which formerly belonged to Tynemouth monastry. About the same time, the present chapel of the Trinity House was fitted up and beautified; and in 1636, the bishop granted a warrant permitting the vicars of Newcastle to preach in this chapel for ever,
The Scots, under General Lesley, had possession of this house in 1640. In 1642, the society paid £100 to Sir John. Marley, for the maintenance of the garrison of Newcastle; and, in the same year, £66, 13s. 4d. in plate and money, for the same purpose. When the town was taken in 1644, this house was plundered by the Scots.
In 1645, the solemn league and covenant was administered in the chapel of this house; and in 1655, the brethren suggested to the council of trade the necessity of erecting two light-houses on the Fern Islands, with the owner of which they had been treating concerning such erection. This appears to have been approved of, as the agreement was signed the following year. In 1661, this house made a voluntary gift of £100 to the king; and, on October 21, 1664, his majesty, by a new charter, confirmed the privileges formerly granted to the house, with an exemption to the brethren thereof from serving in the trained bands, juries, and all other land-services, and as the members of the Trinity House at Deptford Strand are exempted; laying also an additional duty of 2d. upon every ship, towards the maintenance of the lighthouses, and the like sum in addition to what was formerly paid for buoys; as also an addition of 6d. and 4d. to the former duty of pilotage, to be paid by strangers only.
MASTERS AND MARINERS.
When Clifford's Fort, at the entrance of the Tyne, was built in 1672, the government enclosed about 509 yards of ground, including the light-house, belonging to the Trinity House, with a high wall towards the land, and a breast-work towards the sea, leaving a little door for the keeper of the light-house to go out at to mark the time of the tide; but even this door was afterwards built up, against which assumption of power the house remonstrated in the year 1725.
In 1675, this society induced Mr. Angel, of London, merchant, to erect the Spurnlights, though opposed by the Trinity Houses of Deptford Strand and Hull. Mr. Angel agreed to pay them £40 per annum for 1000 years. A halfpenny per ton was laid on English, and one penny per ton on all foreign vessels, for the support of these lights. This house, in 1680, opposed an attempt made by Sir E. Villars to obtain an additional toll for the support of Tynemouth light-house. In 1687, King James II. granted a new charter to this fraternity, with an addition of pilotage.
On February 24, 1728, this house gave public notice that Tynemouth bar, which had of late been much altered, was become so very good again, that ships might pass it with as much, or rather more water than ever; and that the light-houses, being rebuilt, would be lighted on the 25th of March following. In 1765, this fraternity petitioned parliament that all ballast should be laid upon the land; and in 1769, they petitioned the Lords of the Admiralty against the projected canal from Coventry to Oxford. In 1770, they offered a reward to such seamen as should, within four weeks, volunteer into the royal navy. In the following year, they transmitted an address of thanks to the Lord Mayor of London and Alderman Oliver, "for the supporting, with a patriotic, manly firmness and dignity, the freedom and privileges of their fellow citizens of London, and the natural rights of their fellow subjects in general."
In 1800, the master and brethren of the Trinity House of Newcastle, assisted by a committee of 15 ship-owners, applied to parliament for an act for the increase of their dues, the confirmation of their rights, and such new regulations as would promote the public good. They represented that the pilotage fixed by the charter of James II. had become an insufficient compensation for the labour, peril, and industry of the pilots. The toll was also proposed to be levied upon vessels sailing northwards, for the maintenance of beacons and buoys at Holy Island. In the session of 1801, a bill passed, authorising the house to augment their lightage, buoyage, and pilotage, and to make several necessary regulations.
The framers of this act had neglected to introduce a clause to compel the sale of scites; and when the house endeavoured, in 1805, to procure a proper place for building the Low Light-house, they were involved in great difficulties. They then petitioned the Board of Ordnance and the Duke of Northumberland for a lease or grant of part of the shore or sand-bank south of Clifford's Fort. After much altercation, a scite was procured at the Low Light Quay from Lord Collingwood and Co. containing 194 yards at five guineas a yard. Having, in digging the foundation, gone a foot or two beyond the quay, the duke's agent ordered the workmen to desist; but at last a compromise took place, and 20 guineas were paid for the encroachment upon the shore. The light-house was finished and lighted in May, 1810.
The premises belonging to this corporation, at the head of Trinity Chare, are, considering the situation, remarkably light, airy, and clean. The south yard contains, on the east, an alms-house, built in 1782, and, on the south, another, built in 1820. The school-house forms the north side of the yard. The alms-houses in the low and high yard are also very neat and convenient. The Trinity Hall is spacious, and ornamented with the portraits of King William and Queen Mary; the Bombardment of Algiers, painted by Carmichael, in a rich frame; and several other naval subjects. The Board-room is very neat, and adjoins a convenient office for the secretary. The vestibule of the chapel is very handsome, and adorned by several curiosities. Several marine monsters are suspended from the roof. A glass-case contains a complete model of the Ville de Paris, taken from the French. In another is a neat model of the Victory, made of bone, a model of the life-boat, &c. This entrance is separated from the chapel by a beautiful wainscot screen. The chapel, which is 37 feet by 25, contains 23 pews, capable of accommodating 100 persons, and are ornamented with carved work, probably as finished in 1636. The aisle between the pews is 7 feet 3 inches wide. There is a pulpit and a reading-desk, a stove in the centre, and, on the north side, an elevated seat for the master. (fn. 3)
This fraternity at present support, within their house, twelve men and thirteen widow pensioners, each having an allowance of 28s. per month, a coat and hat to the men, and a gown and petticoat to the women, once in two years. They are provided with coals, and have the gratuitous advice of the surgeon of the establishment when necessary. When sick, they are allowed wine, &c. if judged proper; and on all occasions they are treated with attention and kindness. There are also two classes of out-pensioners. Of the first, or Master's class, there are 60 upon the list, which is the number to which it is limited: each receives £7 per annum, and 20s. extra for each child under 14 years of age. The second class is limited to 40 pensioners, of which 23 are now upon the list, each receiving £5 per annum, and 20s. extra for children under 14. The summoner and the matron have apartments within the house. The total number of the brethren of this society is 340. The officers on July 2, 1827, were as follow, viz.—
Master, Fenwick John Shadforth, Esq. Deputy Master, Mr. Thomas Smith. Elder Brethren, Mr. John Anderson, Mr. John Ostle, Mr. Valentine Hutchinson, Mr. Rowland Hodge, Mr. George Fothergill, Mr. James Harle, Mr. William Burnett, Mr. Robert Airey, Mr. Charles Jackson, Mr. John Currie, Mr. John Thomas Carr, Mr. George Hodge. Younger Electors, Mr. William Helmsley, Mr. John Carr, Mr. Christopher Heymers, Mr. William Benson, Mr. Joseph French, Mr. Robert Clay. Younger Wardens, Mr. Thomas Shadforth, Mr. Henry Liddell. Younger Assistants, Mr. John Fram, Mr. Francis Archibald Pattison.
The following is the summary of receipts of the Trinity House for the years specified, extracted from the society's books: (fn. 4) —
Specialties.—Thursday, January 8, 1818.
An estimate of the value of the property belonging to the Trinity House, adjoining the same:—
J. Davison, Surveyor.
Secretaries to the Trinity House, with their Salaries.
The old ordinary of this society, the original of which is still in their possession, is dated the last day of August, 1527. By the authority of the mayor, sheriff, and aldermen, justices of the peace, with the consent of their own body, it enjoins them to assemble yearly at the feast of Corpus Christi, go together in procession, and play their play and pageant of "The Bearing of the Cross," at their own expense; each brother to be at the procession when his hour is assigned, on pain of forfeiting 6d. To take no Scotsman born to apprentice, nor set any to work under a penalty of 40s. for each default, whereof half to go to the fellowship, and half to the work of Tyne Bridge, without any forgiveness; to admit any person who had served an apprenticeship with a brother of the society, a member thereof, on the payment of 13s. 4d. and 12d. for a pot of ale; as also any man of that craft, being the king's liege man, and desirous to be of the fellowship, a brother thereof, with power to set up shop on the payment of £20, and 12d. for a pot of ale. The searchers to search four times a year at least. That any brother falling into poverty should be supplied out of the common box, at the discretion of the stewards and the twelve; and that any brother misbehaving at meetings, should forfeit six pounds of wax for every default; and that any brother lying in wait to beat, slay, or murder any of his brethren, should be put out of the society for ever; that any brother calling another "Scot," or "mansworn," in malice, should forfeit 6s. 8d. without any forgiveness; that every apprentice should serve seven years, and pay at his entrance a pound of wax; that they should settle their accounts every year, on the Monday after Corpus Christi day, and choose their stewards in manner following: the whole society first to choose four discreet brethren, who, after being sworn, should choose other four, which eight, being all sworn, should choose the stewards and searchers for the year: that every brother should be "at the Sante Augustine's" in the day of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, and go "the none of the same day to the dirige and sowle masses to be done for the brederes and susters" of the fellowship, on pain of forfeiting 6d. for each default; that every brother take for the working of a dozen broad cloth 4s.; for a dozen "strates wollene" 20d. to be measured by the long wand; for a dozen lyn-cloth, yard broad, bleeched, 12d.; also "sise and brood-lynn and hardone," 10d. a dozen "sanclothe," 12d.; a dozen "karsais," 18d.; for a dozen lyn-cloth, five quarters broad, 18d. &c.
Another ordinary, having the sanction of the mayor and burgesses of Newcastle, in Guildhall assembled, dated August 12, 1608, and inrolled in the books of the corporation, confirmed to them that no foreigner or person not free of the fellowship, living in or about the High Castle, near the liberties of that town, should take any work in prejudice of this society, on pain of forfeiting £5 for each default. And that none should buy any linen or hardone yarn, to carry out of the precincts of the said town, under a penalty of 40s. This society has a warrant renewed yearly from the mayor of Newcastle, to seize bad yarn, &c. and still continue to receive annual contributions from the pedlars, who keep booths on the Sandhill.
In 1682, Carliol Tower was repaired by this society for a meeting-house. It was again repaired and beautified in 1821; when the company paid £50 towards the expense, and the corporation the remainder. There are 13 members in the company, They possess no property except the tower.
BARBER-CHIRURGEONS, WITH CHANDLERS.
The ancient ordinary of this society, dated October 10, 1442, (fn. 5) enjoined that they should go together in procession on Corpus Christi day, in a livery, and afterwards play the "Baptizing of Christ" at their own expense. Every man to be at the procession when his hour is assigned him, at the New Gate, on pain of forfeiting a pound of wax; to go also with their pageant, when it should be played in a livery, on the like pain; that no alien born should be taken apprentice, or allowed to work within the town, or without, under a penalty of 20s.; that the society should uphold the light of St. John the Baptist, in St. Nicholas' church, as long as they were of ability; that no barber, apprentice, nor servant should shave on a Sunday, neither within the town nor without, by a mile's space.
There is another ordinary of this society, dated September 25, 1671, confirming the former, and making them a body politic by the name of the Barber-Chirurgeons, and Wax and Tallow Chandlers, ordering them to meet yearly, and choose two wardens, who were to be sworn; that apprentices should serve seven years; and that when any brother had taken a cure in hand, no other should meddle with it till it was completed, on pain of forfeiting 20s. for the first, 30s. for the second, and 40s. for the third default, half of which to go to the brother who first dressed the patient. It further enjoined, that none should wash, dress, or trim on a Sunday, on pain of forfeiting 2s. for every offence, giving the company power to make bye-laws, and to choose annually two searchers, who were to be sworn.
In 1648, this society petitioned the corporation for a scite whereon to build a Meeting-house, with land for a garden, to be planted with medicinal herbs; when a portion of the Austin Friars' garden was granted them for 61 years, at the annual rent of 6s. 8d. This lease was renewed on November 4, 1771, for the like period of 61 years from the expiration of the old one. Their present hall, which was built in 1730, stands upon piazzas, having a grass plot in front, with gravel walks adorned with statues. The company consists of 45 members. Their only property, exclusive of the Hall, is an adjoining house, which yields a yearly rental of £17. A benefitsociety has been formed by many of the members of the fraternity; but no benefits are to be paid until a stock of £500 be accumulated. Three-fifths of this sum has been subscribed. (fn. 6)
The ordinary of this society, dated August 8, 1636, signed the day following by the judges of assize, who certify their having perused and ratified the same, enjoins them to meet yearly on the 27th of December, to choose two wardens, and the like number of overseers; prohibiting them from working on Sundays and holidays observed by the church, giving them power to make bye-laws, and restricting apprentices from working tide-work till they had served three years.
Another order of this society, dated August 6, 1674, was also confirmed by the judges; as was another also, dated July 26, 1689. Besides the above, this fraternity have since made many additional orders by their own authority.
This society, which consists of 22 members, have no property except their hall in the Wall Knoll, or Carpenter's Tower, and which was built in the year 1716. They suffered a severe loss lately, and at present not more than five or six members attend. (fn. 7)
The ancient ordinary of this society, dated January 20, 1426, enjoined them to go together yearly at the feast of Corpus Christi in procession, as other crafts did, and play their play at their own charge; each brother to attend at the hour assigned him at the procession, on pain of forfeiting a pound of wax; that none should take a Scotsman born to apprentice, nor set any such to work, under the penalty of 40s. whereof 26s. 8d. to go to the fraternity, and 13s. 4d. to "Sente Nicholas Kyrkwarke." No brother to take any more than one apprentice in seven years. All turners and pulley-makers coming to Newcastle, to be bound by the same ordinary. An after clause forbade the employing of any Dutchman; and, by another after clause, the company of ropers was united with this society.
By an ordinance of the corporation of Newcastle (17th of Elizabeth) which consolidates the companies of coopers, pulley-makers, turners, and rope-makers, it is ordained, "That none of these companies shall take any apprentice but one in four years, except the children of brethren;" and by a bye-law of this consolidated company, in the year 1786, it was enacted, "that for the enrolment of every apprentice so taken, a brother shall pay £10, or any apprentice at all during the servitude of another, £5." (fn. 8)
January 30, 1650, the corporation of Newcastle ordered this company a lease for seven years of a place in the Manors, to be a meeting-house. The company of Plasterers appear to have met with this society soon after the restoration. The following entry occurs in their books:—"June 5, 1667, received of the Plaisterers for their part of the plaistering of the new meeting-house, £1, 4s. 6d." October 7, 1699, a warrant was granted to this society by the mayor of Newcastle, to search all herrings, &c. a power which is still continued in their hands. In 1725, a legacy of £20 was left by Mrs. Margaret Stephenson to this society, to be divided, and let out to two brethren for a certain number of years, without interest. The company consists of 70 members. Previous to 1791, they met in a room above the Water Gate, on the Sandhill. At present, they hold their meetings at a tavern, but have petitioned for Pink Tower, which it is expected will soon be converted into a handsome meetinghouse.
HOUSE CARPENTERS, ANCIENTLY CALLED WRIGHTS.
An ordinary of this society, dated July 3, 1579, constituted the House Carpenters and Joiners a body corporate of themselves, with perpetual succession and power to sue and be sued, &c. in the courts of Newcastle; ordered that they should meet yearly, and choose three wardens, two of whom were to be House Carpenters, and the third a Joiner; and that whenever the general plays of the town, called Corpus Christi plays, should be played, they should play the "Burial of Christ," which anciently belonged to their fellowship: that no apprentice should serve less than seven years; no Scotsman to be taken as such under penalty of 40s. nor to be made free on any account. It further enacted, that the Joiners should work at the sealing of houses within, the making "dorments and windows," "drawn tables of frame-work, and tables with turnposts," "buffet-stools," "forms," "cupboards," "almeries," "pressers," "chairs, and sconces of frame-work," "Casements," "trellising of windows," "buttries of framed work," "framed chists," and all others pinned with wood, "as also every other kind of joiner's work." That the two trades should occupy in common the making of buttries, or any other kind of work with "sealing linck," i. e. one board growen in another, and nailed with iron nails; "chists for corpses, and all other chists not pinned with wood;" "removing of beds, cupboards, and draw-tables, together with making of doors and windows mulder work." And that half of their fines should go to the maintenance of the great bridge, and the other half to the fellowship. (fn. 9)
George Collingwood, House-Carpenter, departed this life the 23d December, 1698, who, by his last will, devised to the stewards and society of this house 40s. to be paid on the 1st of May yearly for ever, and to be employed towards the putting out an apprentice to one of this company of House-Carpenters yearly.
Sir Fenwick Bulmer, Knt. a free burgess of this town, presented to the incorporated company of House-Carpenters, April 19, 1824, the sum of 100 guineas; the interest to be divided amongst the poor widows of this company at Christmas annually for ever. (fn. 10)
In consequence of the intended removal of the West Gate, over which they formerly had their hall, a plan for a new meeting-house was laid before the company, May 27, 1805, and approved. The new building, which is of stone, was finished in 1812: it is a handsome structure, situated nearly on the scite of the old gate, and was estimated to cost upwards of £1000. The company consists of 114 members.
The ordinary of this society, dated September 1, 1581, constituted them a body incorporated of themselves, with perpetual succession; enjoined them to meet yearly to choose two wardens, who might sue and be sued in the courts of Newcastle, make bye-laws, &c. That whenever the general plays of the town, anciently called Corpus Christi plays, should be played, they should play "The Burial of our Lady St. Mary the Virgin;" every absent brother to forfeit 2s. 6d.: that no Scotsman should be taken apprentice, under a penalty of 40s. nor ever be admitted into the company on any account whatever; each brother to be sworn; that apprentices should serve seven years; that at the marriages and burials of brethren, and their wives, the company should attend to the church such persons to be married or buried; that one half of their fines should go to the maintenance of the great bridge, and the other half to the said fellowship. July 1, 1674, the society appear to have met in the White Friar Tower, with the Wallers, or Bricklayers, and Metters.
George Maxwell, Mason, who died September 14, 1732, bequeathed the rental of five messuages in Newcastle to this society, for the relief of brethren reduced to poverty by sickness, and of their necessitous widows. May 19, 1742, this fraternity, on their petition, obtained of the corporation of Newcastle a grant of the Cutler's Tower, in the Carliol Croft, which they have since repaired in a handsome manner. The company consists of 15 members. They possess part of the public house in the Close known by the sign of the Waggon, and some property at the foot of the Tuthill Stairs.
The ordinary of this society, dated March 28, 1589, separated them from the House-Carpenters, and constituted them a fellowship of themselves, with perpetual succession. It enjoined them also to elect two wardens, who might sue and be sued, &c. in the courts of Newcastle, make laws, &c. and that whenever the mayor, aldermen, and sheriff of Newcastle, commanded any general play to be set forth, or martial exercise to be performed, they should appear, and perform such parts in them as should be respectively assigned them, on pain of forfeiting 2s. 6d. for every time they were absent; that apprentices should serve seven years, five of which to elapse before a second could be taken; that no Scot should be taken apprentice, or ever admitted into the fellowship. It enjoined also the appointment of two triers of work, as expressly and particularly named in the joint ordinary of the House-Carpenters and Joiners. (fn. 11).
MILNERS OR MILLERS.
This fraternity formerly had their meeting-house over Pilgrim Street Gate, in which there was an escutcheon with this inscription:—"Mrs. Margaret Stephenson, relict of Mr. John Stephenson, merchant of Newcastle, departed this life August 23, 1729, and, by her last will and testament, gave to the company of Joiners of Newcastle aforesaid, twenty pounds, to be lent to two such brethren of the said fellowship, as shall want stock to set up with, for four years without interest, and so to be transferred to other two such brethren of the said Joiners at the end of every four years for ever." On another ibid.—"Barbara Farbridge, relict of Charles Farbridge, a brother of the company, died April 13, 1743, aged 60, bequeathed to the poor widows of deceased brethren twenty pounds, the use of which to be paid by the stewards on St. Peter's day, yearly, for ever." (See page 113.)
The present hall of the society, built at their charge, is situated in High Friar Street. It is a handsome and commodious structure of brick. On the front of the building is this inscription, "Joiners Hall, erected 1802." The society consists of 48 members.
MILNERS OR MILLERS.
The ordinary of this society, dated September 20, 1578, citing another of older date, constituted 20 free millers a fellowship, with perpetual succession, and enjoined them to choose two wardens every year, who might sue and be sued, &c. in the courts of the town; and that when the general plays should be performed, they should play the ancient one of the society, called "The Deliverance of the Children of Isrell out of the Thraldome, Bondage, and Servitude of King Pharo," on pain of forfeiting 20s. for absence; that no stranger or alien born should be taken apprentice, or set to work, on pain of 6s. 8d.; and that apprentices should serve seven years; that no corn should be ground upon Sundays; that each miller in the counties of Northumberland or Durham, who brought corn from Newcastle market, should pay them an acknowledgment of 6d. per annum, and pay 2s. 6d. every time he should be found in the wheat or malt market before two o'clock in the afternoon on market days, unless to fetch away the corn which his customers had bought there; and that none such foreign millers should buy corn there, under a penalty of 2s. 6d. for each default. It further enjoined, that the wardens of this society should make oath in the town-chamber concerning the fines, half whereof to go to the support of the Newcastle part of Tyne Bridge. April 8, 1672, a singular order occurs in the books of this fraternity, that if any brother should attend the burial of another with a black hat, he should be fined 6d. for every such default. This society at present consists of 14 members. They have no hall, but hold their meetings at a tavern,
FELT-MAKERS, CURRIERS, AND ARMOURERS.
The ordinary of this society, dated October 1, 1546, enjoined them to go together in procession at the feast of Corpus Christi, bear the charges of the lights, pageants, and play, and be there at the hour assigned them, on pain of forfeiting a pound of wax. It further enjoined, that none born out of the king's dominion should work with them, unless he were denizen, or for urgent causes to be admitted by the mayor and justices of the peace, on pain of paying £40 sterling; that they should not work on holidays, or on Saturdays longer than five o'clock at afternoon, on pain of forfeiting a pound of wax; that each brother should be sworn on admission; and that the Armourers, Curriers, and Hatters, should not interfere in each others occupations. March 27, 1671, order for the seizure of French hats, except such as were sold by those of the company. In 1719, this society made an order, that no Quaker should be taken apprentice, on pain of forfeiting £100. July 3, 1620, they made an agreement to repair Herber Tower for a meeting-house. There are at present 15 members.
COLLIERS, PAVIORS, AND CARRIAGE-MEN.
The ordinary of this society, dated July 30, 1656, appears to have been a mutual agreement signed and sealed by themselves, to remain in force till they should obtain one under the authority of the magistrates of Newcastle. (fn. 12) It ordered that no stranger, not having duly served an apprenticeship to their calling, should be set to work, on pain of forfeiting the sum of 40s.; and that any brother working a day's work privately, should forfeit 6s. 8d. for each default; and that they should choose a warden yearly, on the feast of St. Mark, who should keep the books of the fraternity, and do all other offices belonging to a steward, as in other companies. In their old books their officers are styled "a box-master, and two key-keepers." They have at present two stewards. The society consists of about 10 meeting members. The tower near St. Andrew's church, where they meet, appears to have been rebuilt about April, 1707. In 1771, it was thoroughly repaired and beautified at the expense of the society.
The ancient ordinary of this society, dated March 12, 1451, enjoined them to go together in a livery, yearly, at the feast of Corpus Christi, and play their play at their own expense; each to be at the procession when his hour was assigned him, on pain of forfeiting a pound of wax: that no apprentice should serve less that seven years, nor a second be taken till the first had served six; that no brother should take a Scot to apprentice, on pain of forfeiting 40s.; that if any brother had taken a slate quarry, or any place to cover with slates, none should undermine him, under a penalty of 13s. 4d.; that none should work upon St. Catherine's day, on pain of forfeiting a pound of wax. An order was added, December 28, 1460, that no brother should take less than 6s. 8d. for handling a rood of slate covering.
Another ordinary, dated September 28, 1579, cited an agreement between the Slaters and Bricklayers, and incorporated the societies with perpetual succession, enjoined them to choose two wardens annually, who might sue and be sued, make byelaws, &c.; that at the general Corpus Christi plays, they should play "The Offering of Isaac by Abraham," where every brother was to attend, on pain of forfeiting 2s. 6d.
Another ordinary of this society, dated March 16, 1677, separated them from the company of Wallers, Bricklayers, and Dawbers, alias Plasterers; and made them in deed and name a fellowship, by the name of Slaters and Tylers; ordered them to meet yearly on St. Catherine's day; to work no kind of black mortar or clay, but to make ovens and chimneys, or funnels. March 30, 1619, the Joiners appear to have granted the use of their hall to this society. November 11, 1654, they appear to have met with the Coopers in the Manors. (fn. 13)
In 1821, Gunner Tower, a little to the south of Forth Lane, was converted into a meeting-house for this society, which at present consists of 35 members.
PLUMBERS, PEWTERERS, AND GLAZIERS.
The ordinary of this society, anciently consisting of Goldsmiths, Plumbers, Glaziers, Pewterers, and Painters, and dated September 1, 1536, enjoined them to go together on the feast of Corpus Christi, and maintain their play of "The Three Kings of Coleyn;" to have four wardens, one Goldsmith, one Plumber, one Glazier, and one Pewterer or Painter; to be sworn on admission not to interfere with each other's occupation; that no Scotsman born should be taken apprentice, or suffered to work in Newcastle, on pain of forfeiting 3s. 4d. one half of which to go to the upholding of Tyne Bridge, and the other to the society. Among other orders in the old books of the society, the following occurs: "September 7, 1730, no brother to lend his diamond, except to a free brother of this company, on pain of forfeiting 6s. 8d." (fn. 14) This society, which consists of 50 members, hold their meetings in Morden Tower. (See page 110.)