A Survey of London. Reprinted From the Text of 1603. Originally published by Clarendon, Oxford, 1908.
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The Warde of Faringdon. Extra, or without
The warde of Faringdon without.
The farthest West Ward of this Cittie, being the 25. Warde of London, but without the Walles, is called Faringdon without, and was of old time part of the other Faringdon within, vntill the 17. of Richard the second, that it was diuided and made twaine by the names of Faringdon infra and Faringdon extra, as is afore shewed.
Gold lane.; Lither lane.
The boundes of which ward without Newgate and Ludgate are these. First on the east part thereof, is the whole precinct of the late priorie of saint Bartholomew, and a part of Long lane on the north, towardes Aldersgate streete and Ducke lane, with the hospitall of saint Bartholomew on the West, and all Smithfielde to the Barres in saint Iohn street. Then, out of Smithfield, Chicken lane toward Turmile brooke, and ouer that brooke by a bridge of timber into the field, then backe againe by the Pens (or folds) in Smithfield, by Smithfield pond to Cow lane, which turneth toward Oldborne: and then Hosiar lane out of Smithfield, also toward Oldborne, till it meete with a part of Cow lane. Then Cocke lane out of Smithfield, ouer against Pye corner, then also is Giltspur streete, out of Smithfield to Newgate, then from Newgate West by S. Sepulchres church to Turnagaine Lane: to Oldboorne Conduit, on Snor hill, to Oldboorne bridge, vp Oldboorne hill to the Barres on both sides. On the right hand or north side, at the bottome of Oldboorne hill, is Gold lane, sometime a filthy passage into the fields, now both sides builded with small tenementes. Then higher is Lither lane, turning also to the field, lately replenished with houses builded, and so to the Barre.
Old Bayly.; Limeburners lane or Seacole lane.; Windagaine lane.; Shooelane.; Fewtars lane.
Now on the left hand or south side from Newgate, lieth a street called the Old Bayly, or court of the Chamberlaine of this citty: this stretcheth downe by the wall of the Cittie vnto Ludgate: on the west side of which streete, breaketh out one other lane, called saint Georges lane, till ye come to the south end of Seacole lane: and then turning towardes Fleetstreete, it is called Fleete lane. The next out of the high street from Newgate turning down south, is called the little Bayly, and runneth downe to the East of saint Georges lane. Then is Seacole lane which turneth downe into Fleete lane: neare vnto this Seacole lane, in the turning towardes Oldboorn Conduit, is an other lane, called in record windagaine Lane, it turneth downe to Turnemill Brooke, and from thence back againe, for there is no way ouer. Then beyond Old boorn bridge to Shooe lane, which runneth out of Oldboorne vnto the Conduit in Fleetestreet. Then also is Fewtars lane, which likewise stretcheth south into Fleetstreete by the east end of saint Dunstons church, and from this lane to the Bars be the bounds without Newgate.
Now without Ludgate, this warde runneth vp from the sayd gate to Temple barre, and hath on the right hand or north side the south end of the old Bayly, then downe Ludgate hill, to the Fleet lane ouer Fleete bridge, and by Shooe lane, and Fewters lane, and so to New streete (or Chancery lane) and vp that Lane to the house of the Rolles, which house is also of this ward, and on the other side to a lane ouer against the Roules, which entereth Ficquets field.
Then hard by the Barre is one other lane called Shyre Lane, because it diuideth the Cittie from the Shire, and this turneth into Ficquets field.
From Ludgate againe on the left hand, or south side, to Fleetebridge, to bride lane, which runneth south by Bridewell, then to Water lane, which runneth down to the Thames.
Then by the White Fryers and by the Temple, euen to the Barre aforesaid, be the boundes of this Faringdon Warde without.
Giltspur or Knightriders streete.; Cocke lane.
Touching ornamentes and antiquities in this warde, first betwixt the said Newgate, and the parrish church of S. Sepulchers is a way towardes Smithfield, called Guilt spurre, or Knightriders streete, of the knightes and other riding that way into Smith fielde, replenished with buildings on both sides vp to Pie corner, a place so called of such a signe, sometimes a fayre Inne for receipte of trauellers, but now diuided into tenementes, and ouer against the said Pie corner lyeth Cocke lane, which runneth downe to Oldbourne Conduit.
West Smithfield.; Hospitall of S. Bartilmew.
Beyond this Pie corner lyeth west Smithfield, compassed about with buildinges, as first on the south side, following the right hand, standeth the large hospitall of S. Bartilmew, founded by Rahere the first Prior of S. Bartilmewes thereto neare adioyning, in the yeare 1102.
The first maister or Proctor of the Hospital of S. Bartilmew.; A recluse or ankorage by S. Bartilmewes Hospitall.
Alfune, that had not long before builded the parrish church of S. Giles without Criplegate, became the first Hospitelar, or Proctor for the poore of this house, and went himselfe dayly to the Shambles and other markets, where hee begged the charity of deuout people for their reliefe, promising to the liberall giuers (and that by alledging testimonies of the holy scripture) rewarde at the handes of God. Henry the third granted to Kantheren late wife to W. Hardell xx. foot of land in length & bredth in Smithfield next to the Chappell of the Hospitall of S. Bartilmew to builde her a recluse or ankorage, commaunding the Mayor & shiriffes of London, to assign the saide xx. foot to the sayd Katheren carta 11 of H. the 3. The foundation of this hospital for the poor & diseased, their speciall sustentation, was confirmed by E. the third, the 26. of his raigne, it was gouerned by a Maister, and 8. brethren being priestes, for the church and 4. sisters, to see the poore serued. The Executors of R. Whittington sometime Mayor of London, of his goodes repayred this hospitall, about the yeare, 1423.
Sir Iohn Wakering priest, Mayster of this house, in the year 1463. amongst other bookes gaue to their common Library the fayrest Bible, that I haue seene, written in large velame, by a brother of that house named Iohn Coke, at the age of 68. years, when he had been priest 43 yeares. Since the spoyle of that Library I haue seene this booke in the custody of my worshipfull frend, M. Walter Cope.
Monumentes in this church of the dead, Benefactors thereunto, be these, Elizabeth wife to Adam Hone Gentleman,
Bartilmew Bildington, Iane wife to Iohn Cooke, Dame Alis
wife to sir Richarde Isham, Alice wife to Nicholas Bayly, Iohn
Woodhouse Esquier, Robert Palmar Gentleman, Idona wife
to Iohn Waldenlying by her husband on the North side late
newly builded, 1424. Sir Thomas Malifant or Nanfant,
Baron of Winnow, Lord saint George in Glamorgan, and Lord
Ockeneton and Pile in the county of Pembroke, 1438. Dame
Margaret his wife, daughter to Thomas Astley Esquier,
with Edmond and Henry his children. William Markeby
Gentleman, 1438. Richard Shepley and Alice his wife, Thomas
Sauill, sargeant at Armes, Edward Beastby Gentleman and
Margaret his wife, Waltar Ingham and Alienar his wife,
Robert Warnar and Alice Lady Casne, Robert Caldset Iohan
and Agnes his wiues, Sir Robert Danuars and Dame
Agnes his wife, daughter to sir Richard Delaber, William
Brookes Esquier, Iohn Shirley Esquier and Margaret his
wife, hauing their pictures of brasse, in the habit of pilgrims,
on a fayre flat stone with an Epitaph thus,
Beholde how ended is our poore pilgrimage,
Of Iohn Shirley Esquier, with Margaret his wife,
That xii. children had together in marriage,
Eight sonnes and foure daughters withouten strife
That in honor, nurtur, and labour flowed in fame,
His pen reporteth his liues occupation,
Since Pier his life time, Iohn Shirley by name,
Of his degree, that was in Brutes Albion,
That in the yeare of grace deceased from hen,
Foureteene hundred winter, and sixe and fiftie,
In the yeare of his age, fourescore and ten,
Of October moneth, the day one and twenty.
This Gentleman, a great traueller in diuers countries, amongest other his labours, painefully collected the workes of Geffrey Chaucer, Iohn Lidgate and other learned writers, which workes hee wrote in sundry volumes to remayne for posterity. I haue seene them, and partly do possesse (fn. 1) them. Iane Lady Clinton gaue tenne pound to the poore of this house, was there buried, 1458. Agnes daughter to sir William S. George, Iohn Rogerbrooke Esquier, Richard Sturgeon, Tho: Burgan Gentleman, Elizabeth wife to Henry Skinard, daughter to Chincroft Esquier, William Mackley Gentleman, and Alice his wife, W. Fitzwater Gentleman, 1466.
Hospital of S. Bartilmew suppressed.
This Hospitall was valued at the suppression in the yeare 1539. the 31. of Henry the eight, to 35. pound sixe shillinges seauen pence yearely. The church remayneth a parrish church to the tenantes dwelling in the precinct of the Hospitall, but in the yeare 1546. on the 13. of Ianuary, the Bishoppe of Rochester, preaching at Powles Crosse, declared the gift of the said king to the Citizens for releeuing of the poore, which contayned the Church of the Gray Fryers, the church of S. Bartilmew with the Hospitall, the Messuages, and appurtenances in Giltspurre, alias Knightriders streete, Breton streete, Petar Kay, in the parrish of saint Mary Magdalen, in olde Fishstreete, and in the parrish of S. Benet Huda, Lymehurst, or Limehost in the parrish of Stebunheth &c. Then also were orders deuised for reliefe of the poore, the inhabitantes were all called to their parish churches, where, by sir Richard Dobbes then maior, their seuerall Aldermen, or other graue Cittizens, they were by eloquent orations perswaded how great and how many commodities would ensue vnto them and their Cittie, if the poore of diuers sorts which they named, were taken from out their streets, lanes and allyes, & were bestowed and prouided for in Hospitalles abroade, &c. therefore was euery man moued, liberally to graunt what they woulde impart, towardes the preparing and furnishing of such Hospitals, & also what they would contribute weekely towardes their maintenance for a time, which they said should not be past one yeare, or twaine, vntill they were better furnished of Endowment: to make short, euery man graunted liberally, according to his hability, bookes were drawne of the reliefe in euery Ward of the City, towardes the new Hospitalles, and were deliuered by the Mayor to the Kinges Commissioners, on the 17. of February, and order was taken therein, so as the 26. of Iuly, in the yeare 1552. the repayring of the Gray Fryers house, for poore fatherlesse children, was taken in hand, and also in the latter end of the same moneth, began the repayring of this Hospitall of saint Bartilmew, and was of new endowed, and furnished at the charges of the Cittizens.
Priory of Saint Bartilmew.
On the east side of this hospitall, lieth Duke lane, which runneth out of Smithfield south, to the north ende of little Britaine streete. On the east side of this Ducke lane, and also of Smithfield, lyeth the late dissolued priorie of S. Bartilmew founded also by Rahere, a pleasant witted Gentleman, and therefore in his time called the kinges Minstrell. About the yeare of Christ, 1102. he founded it in a part of the oft before named morish ground, which was theretofore a common lay stall of all filth, that was to be voyded out of the citie: he placed Canons there, himself became their first Prior, and so continued till his dying day, & was there buried in a fayre monument, of late renued by pryor Bolton.
Archbishop of Canterbury visiteth Saint Bartilmewes priorie with stripes.; Words of the Archbishop to the prior and canons. Suppriors cope rent and trod vender foote, himselfe almost slaine. The Archbishop armed & ouer throwne. The Cannons beaten and trod vnder foote. The Cannons complayned but could not be heard.; The whole cltie in an vprore against the Archbishop.
Amongst other memorable matters, touching this priorie, one is of an Archbishops Visitation, which Mathew Paris hath thus. Boniface (sayeth he) Archbishoppe of Canterbury, in his Visitation, came to this priorie, where being receiued with procession in the most solemne wise, hee saide that hee passed not vpon the honor, but came to visite them, to whome the Canons aunswered, that they hauing a learned Bishop, ought not in contempt of him to be visited by any other: which aunswere so much offended the Archbishop, that hee forthwith fell on the Supprior, and smote him on the face, saying indeed, indeede, dooth it become you English Traytors so to aunswere mee? Thus raging with oathes not to bee recited, hee rent in peeces the rich Cope of the supprior, and trode it vnder his feete, and thrust him against a pillar of the Chauncell with such violence, that hee had almost killed him: but the Canons seeing their supprior thus almost slayne, came and plucked off the Archbishoppe with such force that they ouerthrew him backwardes, whereby they might see that hee was armed and prepared to fight: the Archbishoppes men seeing theyr maister downe, being all strangers and their maisters countrimen born at Prouence, fell vpon the Canons, beat them, tare them, and trod them vnder feete, at length the Canons getting away as well as they could, ran bloody and myry, rent and torne, to the Bishoppe of London to complaine, who bad them goe to the king at Westminster, and tell him thereof, wherevpon foure of them went thether, the rest were not able, they were so sore hurt, but when they came to Westminster, the king would neither heare nor see them, so they returned without redresse. In the meane season the whole Citie was in an vprore, and ready to haue rung the common bell, and to haue hewed the Archbishop into small peeces, who was secretly crept to Lambhith, where they sought him and not knowing him by sight sayd to themselues, where is this Ruffian that cruell smiter, hee is no winner of soules, but an exactor of money, whome neyther God, nor any lawfull or free election, did bring to this promotion, but the king did vnlawfully intrude him, being vtterly vnlearned, a stranger borne, and hauing a wife, &c. But the Archbishop conueyed himselfe ouer, and went to the king with a great complaint against the Canons, whereas himselfe was guiltie. This priorie of Saint Bartholomew was again new builded, in the yeare 1410.
Bolton last prior of saint Bartlemew a great builder there.; Canonberie.; Edward Hall.
Bolton was the last prior of this house, a great builder there: for he repayred the priorie church with the parrish Church adioyning, the offices and lodgings to the said priorie belonging, & neare adioyning: he builded of new the Mannor of Canonbery at Islington, which belonged to the Canons of this house, and is situate in a lowe ground, somewhat North from the parrish church there, but hee buylded no house at Harrow on the hill, as Edwarde Hall hath written, following a fable then on foote. The people (sayeth hee) being feared by Prognostications, which declared that in the yeare of Christ 1524. there should be such Eclipses in watrie signes, and such coniunctions, that by waters and flouds many people shoulde perish, people victualed themselues, and went to high groundes for feare of drowning, and especially one Bolton, which was prior of Saint Bartholomewes in Smithfield, builded him a house vppon Harrow on the hill, onely for feare of this floud, thither he went and made prouision of all things necessarie within him for the space of two Moneths, &c. but this was not so indeed, as I haue beene credibly informed: true it is that this Bolton was also parson of Harrow, and therfore bestowed some small reparations on the parsonage house, and builded nothing there more then a Douehouse, to serue him when he had forgone his priorie.
Barilmew fair.; The forrens were licensed for three were licensed for three dayes, the freemen so long as they would, which was sixe or seuen dayes.; Court of Pie powdars.
To this priorie king Henrie the second granted the priuiledge of fayre to bee kept yearely at Bartholomew tide for three dayes, to wit, the Eue, the day, and next morrow, to the which the Clothiers of all England, and Drapers of London repayred, and had their Boothes and standings within the Churchyard of this priorie closed in with Walles and Gates locked euery night, and watched for safetie of mens goodes and wares, a Court of pie-powders was dayly during the Fayre holden for debts and contracts. But now notwithstanding all proclamations of the prince, and also the act of parliament, in place of Boothes within this Churchyarde (onely letten out in the Fayre time, and closed vp all the yeare after) bee many large houses builded, and the North Wall towardes Long lane taken downe, a number of Tenements are there erected, for such as will giue greate rents.
Monuments of the deade in this priorie are these of Rahere the first founder, Roger Walden Bishoppe of London, 1406. Iohn Warton Gentleman, and Elizabeth his wife, daughter to William Scot Esquire, Iohn Louth Gentleman, Robert Shikeld Gentleman, Sir — Bacon knight, Iohn Ludlow, and Alice his wife, W. Thirlewall Esquire, Richard Lancaster Heraulde at Armes, Thomas Torald, Iohn Royston, Iohn Watforde, Iohn Carleton, Robert, sonne to Sir Robert Willowby, Gilbert Halstocke, Elanor wife to Sir Hugh Fenne, mother to Margaret Lady Burgauenie, William Essex Esquire, Richarde Vancke Baron of the Exchequer, and Margaret his wife, daughter to William de la Riuar, Iohn Winderhall, Iohn Duram Esquire, and Elizabeth his wife, Iohn Malwaine, Alice wife to Balstred daughter to Kniffe, William Scarlet Esquire, Iohn Golding, Hugh Waltar Gentleman, and the late Sir Waltar Mildmay knight, Chancellor of the Exchequer, &c.
This priorie at the late surrender, the 30. of Henrie the eight, was valued at 653. li. 15. s. by yeare.
Long lane.; Chicken lane.; Cowbridge.; Pens in Smithfield.
This church hauing in the bell Tower sixe Belles in a tune, those bels were sold to the parish of Saint Sepulchres, and then the Church being pulled downe to the Quire, the Quire was by the kings order annexed for the enlarging of the olde parish church thereto adioyning, and so was vsed till the raigne of Queene Marie, who gaue the remnant of the priorie church to the Friers preachers, or black Friers, and was vsed as their couentual church vntill the first of our Soueraigne Ladie Queene Elizabeth, those Friers were put out, and all the saide church with the olde parrish church was wholy, as it stoode in the last yeare of Edwarde the sixt, giuen by parliament to remaine for euer a parrish Church to the inhabitants within the close called great S. Bartholomewes. Since the which time, that olde parish church is pulled downe, except the steeple of rotten Timber readie to fall of it selfe. I haue oft heard it reported, that a new steeple should bee builded with the stone, leade and tymber of the olde parish church, but no such thing was performed. The parish haue lately repayred the old woodden steeple to serue their turne. On the north side of this priorie, is the lane truly called Long, which reacheth from Smithfield to Aldersgate street. This lane is now lately builded on both the sides with tenements for brokers, tiplers, and such like: the rest of Smithfield from long lane end to the bars is inclosed with Innes, Brewhouses and large tenements, on the west side is Chicken lane downe to Cowbridge. Then be the pens or solds so called of sheep there parted, and penned vp to be sold on the market dayes.
Smithfielde pond somtime a poole.; The Elmes in Smithfield a place wherein trespassers were executed.
Then is Smithfield pond, which of olde time in Records was called Horse-poole, for that men watered horses there, and was a great water. In the sixt of Henrie the fift, a new building was made in this west part of Smithfield betwixt the said Poole and the Riuer of the Wels, or Turnemill brooke, in a place then called the Elmes, for that there grew many Elme trees, and this had beene the place of execution for Offendors: since the which time the building there hath beene so encreased, that now remaineth not one tree growing.
Amongst these new buildings is Cowbridge street, or Cow lane, which turneth toward Oldborne, in which lane, the Prior of Semperingham had his Inne, or London lodging.
Hosair lane.; Cocke lane.
The rest of that west side of Smithfield hath diuers fayre Innes and other comely buildings, vp to Hosiar lane, which also turneth downe to Oldborne, till it meete with Cowbridge streete. From this lane to Cocke lane, ouer against pie corner.
Iustinges in Smithfield.
And thus much for encrochments and inclosure of this Smithfield, whereby remaineth but a small portion for the old vses, to wit, for markets of horses and cattle, neither for Military exercises, as Iustings, Turnings, and great triumphes which haue been there performed before the princes and nobility both of this Realm and forraigne countries.
For example to note: In the yeare 1357. the 31. of Edward the third, great and royall Iustes were there holden in Smithfield, there being present the Kings of England, France, and Scotland, with many other nobles, and great estates of diuers lands.
1362. The 36. of Edward the third, on the first fiue dayes of May, in Smithfield were Iustes holden, the King and Queene being present, with the most part of the Chiualry of England, and of France, and of other Nations, to the which came Spaniards, Cyprians, and Arminians, knightly requesting (fn. 2) the King of England, against the Pagans that inuaded their confines.
Alice Perrers rode from the Tower to; Smithfield as Lady of the Sunne.
The 48. of Edward the third, Dame Alice Perrers (the kings Concubine) as Lady of the Sunne, rode from the Tower of London, through Cheape, accompanied of many Lords and Ladies, euery Lady leading a Lord by his horse bridle, till they came into west Smithfield, and then began a great Iust, which endured seuen dayes after.
Also the 9. of Richard the second, was the like great riding from the Tower to Westminster, and euery Lord led a Laydyes horse bridle, and on the morrow began the Iustes in Smithfield, which lasted two dayes: there bare them well, Henry of Darby, the Duke of Lankesters sonne, the Lord Beamount, sir Simon Burley, and sir Paris (fn. 3) Courtney.
In the 14. of Richard the second, after Frosart, royall Iustes and Turnements were proclaimed to be done in Smithfield, to begin on sunday next after the feast of saint Michael: many strangers came forth of other countries, namely Valarian Earle of S. Paul, that had maried King Richards sister, the Lady Maud Courtney, and William the young Earle of Ostaruant, sonne to Albart of Bauiere, Earle of Holland and Henault. At the day appoynted, there issued forth of the tower, about the third houre of the day, 60. coursers, apparrelled for the Iusts, and vpon euery one an Esquier of honour riding a soft pace: then came forth 60. Ladyes of honour mounted vpon palfraies, riding on the one side, richly apparelled, and euery Lady led a knight with a chayne of gold. Those knights being on the Kings party, had their Armour and apparell garnished with white Hartes and Crownes of gold about the Harts neckes, & so they came riding through the streetes of London to Smithfield, with a great number of trumpets and other instruments of musicke before them. The King and Queene who were lodged in the Bishops palace of London, were come from thence, with many great estates, and placed in chambers to see the Iustes: the Ladies that led the knights, were taken downe from their palfrayes, and went vp to chambers prepared for them. Then alighted the Esquiers of honour from their coursers, & the knights in good order mounted vpon them, and after their Helmets were set on their heads, and being ready in all points, proclamation made by the Haraults, the Iustes began, and many commendable courses were runne, to the great pleasure of the beholders: this Iustes continued many dayes, with great feasting, as ye may read in Frosard.
In the yeare 1393. the 17. of Richard the second, certaine Lords of Scotland came into England to get worship by force of Armes, the Earle of Mare chalenged the Earle of Notingham, to iust with him, and so they rode together certaine courses, but not the full chalenge, for the Earle of Mare was cast both horse and man, and two of his ribbes broken with the fall, so that he was conuaied out of Smithfield, and so towards Scotland, but dyed by the way at Yorke. sir William Darell knight, the Kings banner bearer of Scotland, chalenged sir Percie Courtney knight the Kings banner bearer of England, and when they had run certaine courses, gaue ouer without conclusion of victory. Then Cookeborne Esquier of Scotland, chalenged sir Nicholas Hawberke knight, and rode fiue courses, but Cookeborne was borne ouer horse and man, &c.
In the yeare 1409. the 10. of Henry the fourth, a great play was played at the Skinners Wel, which lasted eight daies: where were to see the same the most part of the Nobles and Gentles in England. And forthwith began a royall iusting in Smithfield, between the Earle of Somerset, and the Seneshall of Henalt, sir Io. Cornwall, sir Richard Arrundell, & the sonne of Sir Iohn Cheiney, against certaine French men. And the same yeare a battell was fought in Smithfield, betweene two Esquiers, the one called Glaucestar appellant, and the other Arthure Defendaunt, they fought valiantly, but the King tooke vp the quarrell into his hands, and pardoned them both.
In the yeare 1430. the 8. of Henry the 6. the 14 of Ianuary, a battell was done in Smithfield, within the listes, before the king betweene two men of Feuersham in kent, Iohn Vpton notary, Appellaunt, and Iohn Downe Gentleman, Defendaunt: Iohn Vpton put vpon Iohn Downe that he and his compiers should imagin the Kings death, the day of his Coronation. When these had fought long, the King tooke vp the matter and forgaue both the parties.
In the yeare 1442. the twentieth of Henry the sixt the thirteenth of Ianuary, a challenge was done in Smithfield, within listes, before the King, there being sir Phillip la Beaufe of Aragon knight, the other an Esquier of the kings house called Iohn Ansley or Anstley, they came to the field all armed, the knight with his sword drawne, and the Esquier with his speare, which speare he cast against the knight, but the knight auoyded it with his sword, & cast it to the ground, then the Esquier tooke his axe, & smote many blowes on the knight, and made him let fall his axe, and brake vp his vmber three times, and would haue smit him on the face with his dagger, for to haue slayne him, but then the king cried hold, and so they were departed: the king made Iohn Ansley knight, and the knight of Aragon offered his harnesse at Windsor.
Iohn Dauy a false accuser of his master: of him was raised the by word, if ye serue me so I wil cal you Dauy.
In the yeare 1446. the 24. of Henry the 6. I. Dauy appeached his Maister Wil. Catur of treason, and a day being assigned them to fight in Smithfield, the Master being well beloued was so cherished by his friends, and plied with wine, that being therewith ouercome, was also vnluckily slayne by his seruant: but that false seruant (for he falsely accused his Maister) liued not long vnpunished, for he was after hanged at Teyborne for fellony. Let such false accusers note this for example, and looke for no better end without speedy repentance.
The same yeare, Thomas Fitz-Thomas Prior of Kilmaine appeached sir Iames Butlar Earle of Ormond of treasons: which had a day assigned them to fight in Smithfield, the listes were made, and the field prepared, but when it came to the point, the king commaunded they should not fight, and tooke the quarrell into his hands.
In the yeare 1467. the seuenth of Edward the fourth, the bastard of Burgoigne chalenged the Lord Scales, brother to the Queene, to fight with him, both on horse backe and on foote: the King therefore caused listes to bee prepared in Smithfield, the length of 120 Taylors yardes, and 10. foote, and in breadth 80. yardes, and 20. foote, double barred, 5. foote betweene the barres, the timber worke whereof, cost 200. markes, besides the fayre and costly galories prepared for the Ladyes and other: at the which martiall enterprise the King and Nobility were present. The first day they ranne together with speares, and departed with equall honour. The next day they turneyed on horse backe, the Lord Scales horse hauing on his Chafron a long speare pike of steele, and as the two Champions coaped together, the same horse thrust his pike into the nostrilles of the Bastards horse, so that for very payne he mounted so high that he fell on the one side with his Master, and the Lord Scales rode about him with his sword drawne, till the King commaunded the Marshall to helpe vp the Bastard, who sayd, I cannot hold me by the clouds, for though my horse fayle me, I will not fayle an incounter companion: but the king would not suffer them to do any more that day.
The next morrow, they came into the listes on foote with two pole axes, and fought valiantly, but at the last, the point of the pole axe of the Lord Scales entered into the side of the Bastardes Helme, and by force might haue placed him on his knees: But the king cast downe his warder, and the Marshall seuered them. The Bastard required that he might performe his enterprise: but the king gaue iudgement, as the Bastard relinquished his chalenge, &c. And this may suffice for Iustes in Smithfield.
Now to returne through Giltspurre streete by Newgate, where I first began, there standeth the fayre parish church called Saint Sepulchers in the Bayly, or by Chamberlaine gate, in a fayre Church yarde, though not so large as of old time, for the same is letten out for buildings, and a garden plot.
Pophames builders of S. Sepulchers church.
This Church was newly reedified or builded, about the raigne of Henry the sixt, or of Edward the fourth: one of the Pophames was a great builder there, namely of one fayre chappell on the South side of the Quire, as appeareth by his Armes and other monuments in the Glasse windowes thereof, and also the fayre Porch of the same Church towardes the South: his Image faire grauen in stone, was fixed ouer the saide Porch, but defaced and beaten downe, his title by offices was this, Chancellor of Normandy, Captayne of Vernoyle, Pearch, Susan, and Bayon, and Treasurer of the kings houshold: he dyed rich, leauing great treasure of strange coynes, and was buried in the Charterhouse church, by west Smithfield: the first nobilitating of these Pophames was by Mathil<d> the Empresse, daughter to Henry the first, and by Henry her sonne. One Pophame, gentleman of very fayre landes in Southampton shire, dyed without issue male, about Henry the sixt, and leauing foure daughters, they were maried to Fostar, Barentine, Wodham, and Hamden. Popham Deane (distant three miles from Clarendon, and three miles from Mortisham) was sometime the chiefe Lordship or Mannor house of these Pophames.
There lye buried in this Church, William Andrew, Stephen Clamparde, Lawrence Warcam, Iohn Dagworth, William Porter, Robert Scarlet Esquiers.
Next to this Church is a fayre and large Inne for receipt of trauellers, and hath to signe the Sarasens head.
Oldborne Condwite by Oldboorne Crosse.
There lyeth a streete from Newgate west, to the end of Turnagaine lane, and winding north to Oldborne Conduite. This Conduite by Oldborne Crosse was first builded 1498. Thomasin widdow to Iohn Perciuall, Mayor, gaue to the second making thereof 20. markes, Richard Shore 10.l. Thomas Knesworth and others also did giue towards it.
But of late, a new Conduit was there builded in place of the old, namely in the yeare 1577. by William Lamb, somtime a gentleman of the Chappell to king H. the 8. and afterward a Citizen and Clothworker of London, the water thereof he caused to be conueyed in lead, from diuers springs to one head, and from thence to the said Conduite, and waste of one Cocke at Oldborne bridge, more then 2000. yards in length, all which was by him performed at his owne charges, amounting to the summe of 1500.l.
From the west side of this Conduit is the high way, there called Snor hill, stretcheth out by Oldborne bridge ouer the oft named water of Turmill brooke, and so vp to Oldborne hill, all replenished with fayre building.
Scropes Inne sometime Sergeants, Inne, in Oldborne.
Without Oldborne bridge on the right hand is Gold lane, as is before shewed: vp higher on the hill be certayne Innes, and other fayre buildings, amongst the which of old time was a Messuage called Scropes Inne, for so I find the same recorded in the 37. of Henry the sixt.
This house was sometime letten out to Sergeants at the law, as appeareth, and was foond by inquisition taken in the Guild Hall of London, before William Purchase Mayor, and Exchetor for the king Henry the seuenth in the 14. of his raigne, after the death of Iohn Lord Scrope, that he dyed seized (fn. 4) in his demesne of fee, by the feofment of Guy Fairfax knight, one of the kings Iustices, made in the 9. of the same king, vnto <an> Esquier, the said Iohn Scrope knight, Lord Scrope of Bolton, and Robert Wingfield, of one house or tenement late called Sergeants Inne, scituate against the Church of Saint Andrew in Oldborne in the City of London, with two gardens and two Messuages to the same tenement belonging in the sayd Citie, to hold in burgage, valued by the yeare in all reprises, x.s.
Elie place in Oldborne.
Then is the Bishop of Elies Inne, so called of belonging and pertayning to the Bishops of Elye. William de Luda Bishop of Elye, deceased 1298. (fn. 5) gaue this house by the name of his Mannor, with the appurtenances in Oldborne, to his successors, with condition his next successor should pay 1000. markes to the finding of three Chaplaines in the Chappell there. More, Iohn Hotham Bishop of Elie did giue by the name of sixe Messuages two sellars, and forty Acres of land in the Suburbs of London, in the parish of Saint Andrew in Oldborne, to the Prior and couent of Elie as appeareth by patent, the 9. of Edward the third: this man was Bishop of Elye 20. yeares, and deceased 1336.
Thomas Arundell Bishoppe of Elie beautifully builded of new his Pallace at Elie, and likewise his Mannors in diuers places, especially this in Oldborne, which he did not onely repaire, but rather new builded, and augmented it with a large Port, gate house, or front towardes the streete or high way: his armes are yet to bee discerned in the stone worke thereof: he sate Bishop of Elie 14. yeares, and was translated to Yorke.
In this house for the large and commodious roomes thereof, diuers great and solemne feastes haue beene kept, especially by the Sergeants at the law, whereof twaine are to be noted for posterity.
Sergeants feast Elie house.
The first, in the yeare 1464. the fourth of Edward the fourth, in Michelmas tearme, the Sergeants at law held their feast in this house, to the which amongst other estates, Mathew Phillip Mayor of London, with the Aldermen, Shiriffes, and commons of diuers craftes being inuited, did repaire: but when the Mayor looked to keepe the state in the hall as it had beene vsed in all places within the Citie and liberties (out of the Kings presence) the Lord Gray of Ruthen, then Lord Treasurer of England, vnwitting the Sergeants and against their willes (as they sayd) was first placed: whereupon the Mayor, Aldermen, and commons departed home, and the Mayor made the Aldermen to dine with him: howbeit he & al the Citizens were wonderfully displeased, that he was so dealt with, and the new Sergeants and others were right sory therefore, and had rather then much good (as they said) it had not so happened.
One other feast was likewise there kept, in the yeare 1531, the 23. of king Henry the 8.: the Sergeants then made were in number ii. namely, Thomas Audeley, Walter Luke, I. Bawdwine, I. Hinde, Christopher Iennie, Iohn Dowsell, Edward Meruine, Edmond Knightley, Roger Chomley, Edward Montague, and Robert Yorke.
King Henry the 8. and Q. Katherine dined at the Sergeants feastes.
These also held their feast in this Elie house for fiue daies, to wit Fryday the 10. of Nouember, Saterday, Sunday, Munday, and Tuesday. On Munday (which was their principall day) King Henry and Queene Katherine dined there (but in two chambers) and the forraine Ambassadors in a third chamber. In the Hall at the high table, sate sir Nicholas Lambard Mayor of London, the Iudges, the Barons of the Exchequer, with certaine Aldermen of the Citie: At the boord on the south side, sate the Master of the Rowles, the Maister of the Chauncery, and worshipfull Citizens: On the North side of the Hall certayne Aldermen began the boorde, and then followed Merchants of the City: in the Cloistrie, Chappell and gallory, knights, Esquiers, and Gentlemen were placed: in the Halles, the Craftes of London: the Sergeantes of law and their wiues kept in their owne chambers.
It were tedious to set downe the preparation of fish, flesh, and other victuals spent in this feast, and would seeme almost incredible and (as to me it seemeth) wanted little of a feast at a coronation: neuerthelesse a little I will touch, for declaration of the change of prices. There were brought to the slaughter house 24. great Beefes, at 26. shillings 8. pence the peece from the shambles, one carkasse of an Oxe at 24.s., one hundred fat Muttons, ij.s. x.d. the peece, 51. great Veales at 4. shillings 8.d. the peece, 34. Porkes, 3. shillings 8.d. the peece, 91. pigs 6.d. the peece, Capons of Grece of one Poulter, (for they had three) 10. dozens at 20.d. the peece, Capons of Kent 9. dozens and sixe at 12.d. the peece, Capons course 19. dozen at 6.d. the peece, Cockes of grose 7. dozen and nine at 8.d. the peece, Cockes course 14. dozen and 8. at 3.d. the peece, Pullets the best 2.d. ob., other Pullets 2.d., Pigeons 37. dozen at x.d. the dozen, Swannes 14. dozen, larkes 340. dozen at v. d. the dozen, &c. Edward Neuill was Seneshall or Steward, Thomas Ratcliffe Controwler, Thomas Wildon, Clearke of the kitchin.
Lither lane, Furniuals Inne, an Inne of Chauncery.
Next beyond this Mannor of Elie house, is Lither lane, turning into the field. Then is Furniualles Inne, now an Inne of Chauncery, but sometime belonging to sir William Furniuall knight, & Thomesin his wife, who had in Oldborne two Messuages, and 13. shops, as appeareth by Record of Richard the 2. in the sixt of his raigne.
The Earle of Bathes Inne.
Then is the Earle of Bathes Inne, now called Bath place, of late for the most part new builded, and so to the barres.
Hounds ditch.; The Chamberlains house and court in the old Bayly.; The sessions hall.; S. Georges lane, an inne of Chauncery there.; Originall of New Inne. An Inne of Chauncery.; A standard of spring water in the olde Bayly.
Now againe from Newgate on the left hand or south side lyeth the old Bayly, which runneth downe by the wall vpon the ditch of the Cittie called Houndes ditch to Ludgate: I haue not read how this streete tooke that name, but is like to haue risen of some court of olde time there kept, and I finde that in the yeare 1356. the 34. of E. the 3. the tenement and ground vpon Houndes ditch, betweene Ludgate on the south, and Newgate on the north was appointed to Iohn Cambridge Fishmonger, Chamberlain of London, whereby it seemeth that the Chamberlaines of London haue there kept their courts, as now they doe by the Guildehall, and till this day the Mayor and Iustices of this city kept their sessions in a part thereof, now called the Sessions hal, both for the citty of London, and shire of Middlesex. Ouer against the which house on the right hand turneth down saint Georges lane, towardes Fleete lane. In this S. Georges lane on the north side thereof, remayneth yet an olde wall of stone, inclosing a peece of ground vp Seacole lane, wherin by report somtime stood an Inne of Chancery: which house being greatly decayed, and standing remote from other houses of that profession, the company remoued to a common hostery, called of the signe our Lady Inne, not far from Clements Inne, which they procured from Sir Iohn Fineux, Lord chiefe Iustice of the Kings bench, and since haue helde it of the owners, by the name of the new Inne, paying therefore vi.l. rent by the yeare, as tenants at their owne will: for more (as is said) cannot be gotten of them and much lesse will they be put from it. Beneath this S. Georges lane, <is> the lane called Fleet lane, winding south by the prison of the Fleet into Fleetstreete, by Fleete bridge. Lower downe into the Old Bayly, is at this present a standard of timber with a cocke or cockes, deliuering fayre spring water to the inhabitants, and is the wast of the water seruing the prisoners in Ludgate.
Seacole lane, or Limeburners lane, sometime so called.; Windagine lane.; Shore lane.; Shooe lane.; Oldborne hall.; Parish church of S. Andrew in Oldborne.; Grammer schoole in oldborne.; Hospitall in oldborne.
Next out of the high street turneth downe a lane, called the little Baylie, which runneth downe to the east ende of S. Georges lane. The next is Seacole lane, I thinke called Limeburners lane, of burning Lime there with Seacole. For I reade in record of such a Lane to haue beene in the parrish of saint Sepulcher & there yet remayneth in this lane an Alley called Limeburners Alley. Neare vnto this Seacoale lane in the turning towardes Oldboorne Conduit is Turnagaine lane, or rather, as in a record of the fift of Edward the third, Windagaine lane, for that it goeth downe west to Fleete dike, from whence men must turne againe the same way they came, for there it is stopped. Then the high street turneth down Snore hill, to Oldborne Conduit, and from thence to Oldborne bridge, beyond the which bridge, on the left hand, is Shooe lane by the which men passe from Oldborn to Fleetestreet, by the Conduit there. In this Shooe lane on the lefte hande is one olde house called Oldborne Hall, it is now letten out into diuers Tenementes. On the other side at the very corner standeth the parish church of S. Andrew, in the which church, or neare therevnto was somtime kept a Grammer schoole, as appeareth in an other place by a Patent, made as I haue shewed for the erection of schooles. There bee monumentes in this church of Thomas Lord Writhesley Earle of Southampton, buried 1550. Raph Rokeby of Lincolnes Inne Esquier, Maister of saint Katherines, and one of the Maysters of Requestes to the Queenes Maiestie, who deceased the 14. of Iune, 1596. He gaue by his Testament to Christes Hospitall in London 100.li., to the Colledge of the poore of Queene Elizabeth in east Greenwich, 100. pound, to the poore scollers in Cambridge, 100. pound, to the poore schollers in Oxford 100. pound, to the prisoners in the two Compters in London 200.li., to the prisoners in the Fleete 100. pound, to the prisoners in Ludgate 100. pound, to the prisoners in Newgate 100. pound, to the prisoners in the Kinges Bench 100. pound, to the prisoners in the Marshalsey an hundred pound, to the prisoners in the White Lion twenty pound, to the poore of saint Katherines twenty pound, and to euery brother and sister there, fortie shillings: William Sydnam founded a chauntry there. There was also of old time, (as I haue read in the thirde of Henry the fift) an Hospitall for the poore, which was a Cell to the house of Cluny in France, and was therefore suppressed among the Priories Aliens.
Crokhome Alley.; Thanies Inne.; Fewtars lane. (fn. 6)
From this church of S. Andrew vp Oldborne hill bee diuers fayre builded houses, amongst the which on the left hand there standeth three Innes of Chauncery, whereof the first adioyning vnto Crookhorn Alley is called Thaues Inne, and standeth opposite, or ouer against the said Elie house. Then is Fewtar lane which stretcheth south into Fleetestreet by the east end of S. Dunstones church, and is so called of Fewters(or idle people) lying there, as in a way leading to Gardens: but the same is now of latter yeares on both sides builded through with many fayre houses.
Barnards Inne.; Pat. H. 6. 32.; Staple Inne.
Beyond this Fewtars lane is Barnards Inne, alias Macworths (fn. 7); Inne, which is of Chauncery, belonging to the Deane and chapter of Lincolne, as sayth the Record of H. the 6. the 32. of his raigne, and was founded by Inquisition in the Guildhal of London before I. Norman Mayor the Kinges exchetre: the Iury sayde, that it was not hurtfull for the king to licence T. Atkens cittizen of London, & one of the Executors to Iohn Mackeworth Deane of Lincolne, to giue one messuage in Holborn in London with the appurtenances called Mackworthes Inne, but now commonlie knowne by the name of Barnardes Inne, to the Deane and chapter of Lincolne, to finde one sufficient Chaplaine to celebrate diuine seruice in the chapple of S. George in the Cathedrall church of Lincoln, where the body of the sayde Iohn is buried, to haue and to hold the sayde messuage to the sayde Deane and Chapter, and to their successors for euer, in part of satisfaction of 20.li. landes and rentes, which Edwarde the third licensed the sayde Deane and Chapter to purchase to their owne vse, eyther of their owne fee or tenor, or of any other, so the landes were not holden of the king in capite. Then is Staple Inne, also of Chancery, but whereof so named I am ignorant: the same of late is for a great part thereof fayre builded, and not a little augmented: And then at the Barre endeth this ward without newgate.
Ludgate hill.; The Fleete or Gaole in the raigne of Richard the first.
Without Ludgate on the right hand or North side from the saide gate lyeth the Old Bayly, as I sayde, then the high streete called Ludgate hill downe to Fleete lane, in which lane standeth the Fleete, a prison House, so called of the Fleet or Water running by it, and sometime flowing about it, but now vaulted ouer.
I read that Richard the first in the first of his raigne, confirmed to Osbert brother to William Longshampe Chancelor of England, and elect of Elie, and to his heyres for euer the custody of his house, or palace at Westminster, with the keeping of his gaole of the Fleet at London: also king Iohn by his patent dated the 3. of his raigne, gaue to S<imon> Archdeacon of Welles the custody of the said kings house at westminster, and of his Gaole of the Fleet, together with the Wardship of the daughter and heyre of Roberte Leueland &c. Then is Fleete Bridge, pitched ouer the sayd Water, whereof I haue spoken in an other place.
Conduit in Fleetestreete.
Then also against the South end of Shooe Lane standeth a fayre Water Conduit, whereof William Eastfield sometime Mayor, was founder: for the Mayor and Comminaltie of London being possessed of a Conduit heade, with diuers springs of Water gathered thereinto in the Parrish of Padington, and the water conueighed from thence by pypes of leade towardes London vnto Teyborne: where it had layne by the space of sixe yeares and more: The Executors of Sir William Eastefielde obtayned licence of the Mayor and Comminaltie, for them in the yeare 1453. with the goodes of Sir William, to conueigh the sayde waters: first in pypes of leade into a pype begunne to bee laide besides the greate Conduit heade at Maribone, which stretcheth from thence vnto a separall, late before made against the Chappell of Rounseuall by Charing Crosse, and no further, and then from thence to conuay the said water into the citie, & there to make receipt or receipts for the same vnto the common weale of the comminaltie, to wit, the poore to drinke, the rich to dresse their meats, which water was by them brought thus into Fleetstreet to a standard, which they had made and finished, 1471.
Conduit at Fleetbridge.
The inhabitantes of Fleetestreete in the yeare 1478. obtained licence of the Mayor, Aldermen and comminaltie to make at their owne charges two cesternes, the one to be set at the said standarde, the other at Fleete bridge for the receit of the wast water: this cesterne at the standard they builded, and on the same a fayre tower of stone, garnished with images of S. Christopher on the top, and Angels round about lower down, with sweet sounding bels before them, whereupon by an Engine placed in the Tower, they, diuers houres of the day and night, chymed such an Hymme as was appointed.
This conduit or standard was againe new builded with larger cestern, at the charges of the citie, in the yeare, 1582.
Parish church of saint Dunstones.
From this Conduit vp to Fewtars lane and further, is the parish church of S. Dunstan, called in the west, (for difference from S. Dunstone in the east) where lyeth buried T. Duke Skinner in S. Katherins chappel by him builded, 1421. Nicholas Coningston, Iohn Knape, and other founded chaunteries there. Raph Bane Bishop of Couentrie and Lichfield, 1559. and other.
Next beyond this church is Cliffords Inne, somtime belonging to Robert Clifford, by gift of Edward the second in these words. 'The king granteth to Robert Clifford that messuage with the appurtenances next the Church of S. Dunstane in the West in the suburbs of London, which messuage was sometime Malculines de Herley, and came to the hands of E. the I. by reason of certaine debts <in> which the said Malculine was bound at the time of his death to our sayde Father, from the time that hee was Escaetor on this side Trent: which house Iohn Earle of Richmount did holde at our pleasure, and is now in our possession, patent the 3. of Ed. the second.' After the death of this Robert Clifford, Isabel, his wife let the same messuage to Studients of the law, as by the Recorde following may appeare.
Isabel quæ fuit vxor Roberti Clifford, Messuagium unipartitum, quod Robertus Clifford habuit in parochia sci. Dunstoni West. in suburbio Londini, &c. tenuit, & illud dimisit post mortem dict. Roberti, apprenticiis de banco. pro x.li. annuatim, &c. Anno 18. Eduardi tertii, inquisitio post mortem Roberti Clifford.
This house hath since fallen into the kinges hands, as I haue heard, but returned againe to the Cliffordes, and is now letten to the said Studentes for foure pound by the yeare.
New street or Chanceler Lane. House of conuerts.; Rolles in Chancerie lane.
Somewhat beyond this Cliffordes Inne is the south ende of New streete (or Chancelar lane), on the right hande whereof is Sergeantes Inne called in Chauncery lane. And then nexte was sometime the house of the conuerted Iewes, founded by king Henry the third, in place of a Iewes house to him forfeited, in the yeare 1233. and the 17. of his raigne, who builded there for them a faire Church now vsed, and called the Chappell for the custodie of Rolles and Records of Chancerie. It standeth not farre from the old Temple, but in the midway betweene the olde Temple and the new, in the which house all such Iewes and infidels as were conuerted to the Christian faith, were ordained and appoynted vnder an honest rule of life, sufficient maintenance, whereby it came to passe, that in short time there were gathered a great number of conuerts, which were baptized, instructed in the doctrine of Christ, and there liued vnder a learned Christian appointed to gouerne them: since the which time, to wit, in the yeare 1290. all the Iewes in England were banished out of the Realme, whereby the number of conuerts in this place was decayed: and therefore in the yeare 1377. this house was annexed by patent to William Burstall Clearke, Custos Rotulorum, or keeper of the Rolles of the Chauncerie, by Edwarde the third in the 51. yeare of his raigne: and this first Maister of the Rolles was sworne in Westminster Hall, at the Table of Marble stone: since the which time, that house hath beene commonly called the Rolles in Chancerie land.
Notwithstanding such of the Iewes or other infidels, as haue in this realme beene conuerted to Christianitie, and baptised, haue beene relieued there: for I find in Record, that one William Piers a Iew that became a christian, was baptised in the fift of Richard the second, and had two pence the day allowed him during his life by the said king.
Prior of Nocton parke, his Inne or house of the sixe Clearks.; Fickets croft.; Shere lane.
On the west side sometime was an house pertaining to the prior of Nocton Parke, a house of Canons in Lincolnshire: this was commonly called Hereflete Inne, and was a Brewhouse, but now faire builded for the sixe Clearkes of the Chancerie, and standeth ouer against the said house called the Rolles, and neare vnto the lane which now entreth Fickets crost, or Fickets field. Then is Shere lane opening also into Fickets field, hard by the barres. On this north side of Fleetstreete, in the yeare of Christ 1595. I obserued, that when the laborers had broken vp the pauement, from agaynst Chancerie lanes end, vp towards Saint Dunstons Church, and had digged foure foote deepe, they found one other pauement of hard stone, more sufficient then the first, and therefore harder to bee broken, vnder the which they found in the made ground, pyles of Tymber, driuen verie thicke, and almost close togither, the same being as blacke as pitch or coale, and many of them rotten as earth, which prooueth that the ground there (as sundrie other places of the Citie) haue beene a Marish or full of springs.
Conduit at Fleete bridge.
On the South side from Ludgate before the wall of the Citie be faire builded houses to Fleetebridge, on the which bridge a Cesterne for receite of spring water was made by the men of Fleetstreet, but the watercourse is decayed and not restored.
Bridewell the Kinges house.
Next is Bridelane, and there in Bridewell, of olde time the kings house: for the kings of this realme haue beene there lodged, and till the ninth of Henrie the thirde, the Courtes were kept in the kings house wheresoeuer he was lodged, as may appeare by ancient records, whereof I haue seene many, but for example set forth one in the Chapter of Towers and Castles.
States created at Bridewell.
King Henrie the eight builded there a stately and beautifull house of new, for receit of the Emperor Charles the 5. who in the yeare of Christ 1522. was lodged himselfe at the blacke Friers, but his Nobles in this new builded Bridewell, a Gallery being made out of the house ouer the water, and through the wall of the Cittie into the Emperours lodging at the Blacke Friers: King Henrie himselfe oftentimes lodged there also, as namely in the yeare 1525. a Parliament being then holden in the black Friers, he created states of Nobilitie there, to wit, Henrie Fitz Roy, a child (which he had by Elizabeth Blunt) to be Earle of Nottingham, Duke of Richmond, and of Somerset, Lieutenant Generall from Trent Northward, warden of the East, middle, and West Marches foranenst Scotland, Henry Courtney Earle of Deuonshire, Coosen German to the king, to be Marques of Excester, Henrie Brandon a childe of two yeares olde, sonne to the Earle of Suffolke, to be Earle of Lincolne: Sir Thomas Mannars, Lord Rose to be Earle of Rutland, Sir Henrie Clifforde to bee Earle of Cumberland, Sir Robert Ratcliffe to be Vicont Fitzwater, and Sir Thomas Boloine Treasurer of the Kings householde, to be Vicont Rochford.
In the yeare 1528. Cardinall Campeius was brought to the kings presence being then at Bridewell, whither hee had called all his Nobilitie, Iudges and Councellers, &c. And there the eight of Nouember in his great Chamber hee made vnto them an oration touching his mariage with Queene Katheren, as ye may read in Edward Hall.
In the yeare 1529. the same king Henrie and Queene Katherine were lodged there, whilest the question of their marriage was argued in the Blacke Friers, &c.
Bridewell giuen to the citie of London, to be a workehouse for the poore.
But now you shall heare how this house became a house of correction. In the yeare 1553. the seuenth of king Edwarde the sixt, the tenth of Aprill: Sir George Barne, (fn. 8) being Maior of this Citie, was sent for to the Court at White hall, and there at that time the king gaue vnto him for the Comminaltie and Citizens to be a Workehouse for the poore and idle persons of the Citie, his house of Bridewell, and 700. Markes land late of the possessions of the house of the Sauoy, and all the bedding and other furniture of the said Hospitall of the Sauoy, towards the maintenance of the sayd Workehouse of Bridewell, and the Hospitall of S. Thomas in Southwarke.
This gift king Edward, confirmed by his Charter, dated the 26. of Iune next following: and in the yeare 1555. in the moneth of Februarie, Sir William Gerarde Maior, and the Aldermen entred Bridwell, and tooke possession thereof according to the gift of the said king Edward, the same being confirmed by Queen Marie.
The Bishop of S.Dauids house.
The Bishop of S. Dauids had his Inne ouer against the north side of this Bridwell, as I haue said.
Parish church of S. Bride.
Then is the Parish church of Saint Bridges, or Bride, of olde time a small thing, which now remaineth to be the quire, but since encreased with a large bodie and side Iles, towards the West, at the charges of William Venor Esquire, Warden of the Fleete, about the yeare 1480. all which he caused to be wrought (fn. 9) about in the stone in the figure of a vine with Grapes and leaues, &c. The partition betwixt the olde worke and the new, sometime prepared as a screne to be set vp in the hall of the Duke of Somersets house at Strand, was bought for eight score pound, & set vp in the yeare 1557. One wilfull bodie began to spoyle and breake the same, in the yeare 1596. but was by the high Commissioners forced to make it vp againe, and so it resteth. Iohn Vlsthorpe, William Euesham, Iohn Wigan, and other founded Chauntries there.
The Bishop of Salisburie his house.
The next is Salisburie Court, a place so called for that it belonged to the Bishops of Salisburie, and was their Inne, or London house at such time as they were summoned to come to the Parliament, or came for other businesse: it hath of late time beene the dwelling, first of Sir Richard Sackuile, and now of sir Thomas Sackuile his sonne, Baron of Buckhurst, Lord Treasurer, who hath greatly enlarged it with stately buildings.
Then is water lane running downe by the west side of a house called the Hanging sword, to the Thames.
White Friers. Iohn Baconthorpe.; Crokers lane.
Then was the white Friers church, called Fratres beatæ Mariæ de monte Carmeli, first founded (saith Iohn Bale) by sir Richard Gray Knight, auncester to the Lord Gray <of> Codnor, in the yeare 1241. King Edward the first gaue to the Prior and brethren of that house a plot of ground in Fleete street, whereupon to build their house, which was since reedified or new builded, by Hugh Courtney Earle of Deuonshire. About the yeare 1350. the 24. of Edward the third, Iohn Lufken Maior of London, and the Comminaltie of the Citie, graunted a lane called Crockers lane, reaching from Fleetestreete to the Thames to builde in the West end of that Church. Sir Robert Knoles knight was a great builder there also, in the raigne of Richarde the second, and of Henry the fourth: hee deceased at his Mannor of Sculthorpe (fn. 10) in Norffolke, in the yeare 1407. and was brought to London, and honorably buried by the Lady Constance his wife, in the bodie of the said White Friers Church, which he had newly builded.
Robert Marshall (fn. 11) Bishop of Hereford, builded the Quire, Presbeterie, steeple, and many other partes, and was there buried, about the yeare 1420. There were buried also in the new Quire, sir Iohn Mowbery Earle of Nottingham, 1398. sir Edwarde Cortney, sir Hugh Mongomerie, and sir Iohn his brother, Iohn Wolle, sonne to sir Iohn Wolle, Thomas Bayholt, Esquire, Elizabeth Countesse of Athole, Dame Iohan wife to sir Thomas Say of Alden, sir Pence Castle, Baron, Iohn Lord Gray, sonne to Regnald Lord Gray of Wilton, 1418. sir Iohn Ludlow knight, sir Richard Derois knight, Richarde Gray knight, Iohn Ashley knight, Robert Bristow Esquire, Thomas Perry Esquire, Robert Tempest Esquire, William Call, William Neddow.
In the old Quire were buried, Dame Margaret, &c. Elianor Gristles, sir Iohn Browne knight, and Iohn his sonne and heyre, Sir Simon de Berforde knight, Peter Wigus Esquire, Robert Mathew Esquire, Sir Iohn Skargell Knight, Sir Iohn Norice knight, Sir Geffrey Roose knight, Mathew Hadocke Esquire, William Clarell Esquire, Iohn Aprichard Esquire, William Wentworth Esquire, Thomas Wicham Esquire, sir <Robert> Terwit knight, sir Stephen Popham knight, Bastard de Scales, Henrie Blunt Esquire, Elizabeth Blunt, Iohn Swan Esquire, Alice Foster one of the heyres of sir Stephen Popham, sir Robert Brocket knight, Iohn Drayton Esquire, Iohn, sonne to Robert Chanlowes, and his daughter Katherine, Iohn Saluin, William Hampton, Iohn Bampton, Iohn Winter, Edmond Oldhall, William Appleyard, Thomas Dabby Esquires, sir Hugh Courtney knight, Iohn Drury, sonne to Robert Drurie, Elizabeth Gemersey gentlewoman, Sir Thomas Townsend knight, sir Richard Greene knight, William Scot Esquire, Thomas Federinghey, I. Fulforde Esquire, Edwarde Eldsmere Gentleman, W. Hart Gentleman, Dame Mary Senclare, daughter to sir Thomas Talbot knight, Ancher Esquire, sir William Moris knight, and Dame Christian his wife, sir Peter de Mota knight, Richard Hewton Esquire, sir I. Heron knight, Richard Eton Esquire, Hugh Stapleton Gentleman, William Copley Gentleman, sir Raph Saintowen knight, sir Hugh Bromeflete knight, Lord Vessey, principall founder of that order, the sixt of Edward the fourth, &c.
This house was valued at 62.li. 7.s. 3.d. and was surrendred the tenth of Nouember, the 30. of Henrie the eight.
In place of this Friers Church be now many fayre houses builded, lodgings for Noble men and others.
Sarieants Inne in Fleetstreet.
Then is the Sargeants Inne, so called for that diuers iudges and Sargeants at the law, keepe a Commons, and are lodged there in Terme time.
Next is the newe Temple, so called because the Templars, before the building of this house, had their Temple in Oldborne. This house was founded by the knights Templars in England, in the raigne of Henrie the second, and the same was dedicated to God and our blessed Ladie, by Heraclius, Patriarke of the church called the holy Resurrection in Ierusalem, in the yeare of Christ, 1185.
Original of the Templers.
These knights Templars tooke their beginning about the yeare 1118. in maner following. Certaine Noble men, horsemen, religiously bent, bound by vow themselues in the handes of the Patriarke of Ierusalem, to serue Christ after the manner of Regular Canons in chastitie and obedience, and to renounce their owne proper willes for euer: the first of which order were Hugh Paganus, and Geffrey de S. Andromare. And whereas at the first they had no certaine habitation, Baldwin king of Ierusalem granted vnto them a dwelling place in his pallace by the Temple, and the Canons of the same Temple gaue them the streete thereby, to build therein their houses of office, and the Patriarke, the king, the Nobles and Prelates, gaue vnto them certaine reuenues out of their Lordships.
Profession of the Templars.
Their first profession was for safegarde of the Pilgrimes comming to visite the sepulchre, and to keepe the high wayes agaynst the lying in wayte of theeues, &c. About ten yeares after they had a rule appointed vnto them, and a white Habite, by Honorius the second then Pope, and whereas they had but nine in number, they began to encrease greatly. Afterward in Pope Eugenius time, they bare crosses of red cloth on their vppermost garments, to be knowne from others: and in short time because they had their first mansion hard by the Temple of our Lord in Ierusalem, they were called knights of the Temple.
Many Noble men in all partes of Christendome became Brethren of this order, and builded for themselues Temples in euerie Citie or great Towne in England, but this at London was their chiefe house, which they builded after the forme of the temple nere to the sepulchre of our Lord at Ierusalem: they had also other temples in Cambridge, Bristow, Canterbury, Douer, Warwick. This Temple in London was often made a storehouse of mens treasure, I meane such as feared the spoile thereof in other places.
Hubert Earle of Kent, his treasure in the new Temple.
Mathew Paris noteth that in the yeare 1232. Hubert de Burgh Earle of Kent beeing prisoner in the Tower of London, the king was enformed that he had much Treasure layde vp in this new Temple, vnder the custodie of the Templars, whereupon hee sent for the Master of the Temple, and examined him straightly, who confessed that money being deliuered vnto him and his brethren to be kept, he knew not how much there was of it. The king demaunded to haue the same deliuered, but it was answered that the money being committed vnto their trust, could not be deliuered without the licence of him that committed it to Ecclesiastical pro tection, wherevpon the king sent his Treasurer and Iusticiar of the Exchequer vnto Hubert to require him to resigne the money wholly into his hands, who answeared that he would gladly submit himselfe, and all his vnto the kings pleasure, and therevpon desired the knights of the Temple in his behalfe to present all the keyes vnto the king to doe his pleasure, with the goods which hee had commited vnto them. Then the king commaunded the money to be faithfully told and layde vp in his Treasure, by Inuentory, wherein was found (besides ready money) vessels of gold, and siluer vnprayseable, and many precious stones which would make all men wonder, if they knew the worth of them.
This Temple was againe dedicated 1240. belike also newly reedified then.
Mathew Paris.; Seale of the Templars.
These Templars at this time were in so great glory, that they entertayned the Nobility, forraine Ambassadors, and the Prince himselfe, very often: insomuch that Mathew Paris crieth out on them for their pride, who being at the first so poore, as they had but one horse to serue two of them, (in token whereof they gaue in their Seale, two men riding of one horse) yet sodainly they waxed so insolent, that they disdayned other orders, and sorted themselues with Noblemen.
King Edward the first in the yeare 1263. (fn. 12) taking with him Robert Waleran, and other, came to the Temple, where calling for the keeper of the Treasure house, as if he meant to see his mothers Iewels, that were layde vp there to be safely kept, hee entred into the house, breaking the Coffers of certaine persons that had likewise brought their money thither, and hee tooke away from thence to the value of a thousand pound.
Parliament at the new Temple.
Many Parliaments and great Counsails haue beene there kept, as may appeare by our histories. In the yeare 1308. all the Templars in England as also in other parts of Christendome were apprehended and committed to diuers prisons. In 1310. a prouinciall Counsell was holden at London against the Templars, in England, vpon herisie, and other Articles whereof they were accused, but denied all except one or two of them, notwithstanding they all did confesse that they could not purge themselves fully, as faultlesse, and so they were condemned to perpetuall pennance, in seuerall Monasteries, where they behaued themselues modestly.
The order of Templars condemned. Templars burned.; Robert Fabian.
PhillipKing of France procured their ouerthrow throughout the whole world, and caused them to be condemned by a generall Counsell, to his aduantage, as he thought, for he beleeued to haue had all their lands in France, and therefore seazed the same in his handes, (as I haue reade) caused the Templars to the number of foure and fiftie, (or after Fabian threescore) to bee burned at Paris.
Patent.; The Temple giuen to Aimer de Valence.
Edward 2. in the yeare 1313. gaue vnto Aimor de Valence Earle of Pembrooke, the whole place and houses called the new Temple at London, with the ground called Ficquetes Croft, and all the tenements and rentes with the appurtenances that belonged to the Templars in the City of London, and Suburbes thereof.
Temple giuen to the Hospitalers of S. Iohn of Ierusalem.
After Aimer de Valence (sayeth some) Hugh Spencer vsurping the same held it during his life, by whose death it came againe to the hands of Edwarde the third, but in the meane time, to wit, 1324. by a counsell holden at Vienna, all the landes of the Templars (least the same should be put to prophane vses) were giuen to the knightes Hospitelars of the order of Saint Iohn Baptist, called S. Iohn of Ierusalem, which knights had put the Turkes out of the Isle of Rhodes, and after wan vpon the sayd Turke dayly for a long time.
Patent 2. E. 3. Close, 18. E. 3.; The Temple granted to the students of the law and made an Inne of Court.; Monuments in the Temple.; Images of knights buried crosse legged, the cause why.
The said Edward the third therefore granted the same to the saide knights, who possessed it, and in the eighteenth yeare of the saide kinges raigne, were forced to repaire the Bridge of the saide Temple. These knights had their head house for England by west Smithfield, and they in the raigne of the same Edward the third granted (for a certayne rent of x. pound by the yeare) the said Temple with the appurtenances therevnto adioyning, to the students of the common lawes of England: in whose possession the same hath euer sithence remained, and is now diuided into two houses of seuerall students, by the name of Innes of Court, to wit, the Inner Temple and the middle Temple, who kept two seuerall halles, but they resort all to the said Temple Church, in the round walke whereof (which is the West part without the Quire) there remaineth monuments of Noblemen buried, to the number of II. eight of them are Images of armed knights, fiue lying crosse legged as men vowed to the holy land, against the infidels and vnbeleeuing Iewes: the other three straight legged: the rest are coaped stones al of gray Marble: the first of the crosse legged was W. Marshall the elder Earle of Pembrooke, who dyed 1219. Wil. Marshall his sonne Earle of Pembrooke was the second, he died 1231. and Gilbert Marshall his brother, Earle of Pembrooke, slayne in a Turnement at Hertford, besides Ware, in the yeare 1241.
After this Robert Rose, otherwise called Fursan, being made a Templar in the yeare 1245. dyed and was buried there, and these are all that I can remember to haue read of. Sir Nicholas Hare, Maister of the Roles, was buried there in the yeare 1557.
Recordes of the Temple destroyed and burnt.; Gate house of the Temple new builded. Great hall of the Temple new builded.
In the yeare 1381. the Rebelles of Essex, and of Kent, destroyed and plucked downe the houses and lodgings of this Temple, tooke out of the Church the bookes and Recordes that were in Hutches, of the apprentizes of the law, carried them into the streetes, and brent them: the house they spoyled and brent for wrath, that they bare sir Robert Hales Lord Prior of S. Iohns in Smithfield, but it was since againe at diuers times repaired, namely the gate house of the middle Temple in the raigne of Henry the eight, by Sir Amias Paulet knight, vpon occasion, as in my Annales I haue shewed. The great hall of the middle Temple was newly builded in the yeare 1572. in the raigne of our Queene Elizabeth.
Order for diuine seruice in the Temple.
This Temple Church hath a Maister, and foure Stipendiary Priestes, with a Clarke, these for the ministration of diuine seruice there haue stipendes allowed vnto them, out of the possessions and reuenewes of the late Hospitall and house of S. Iohns of Ierusalem in England, as it had beene in the raigne of Edward the sixt. And thus much for the said new Temple, the farthest west part of this Warde, and also of this Citie for the liberties thereof, which ward hath an Alderman, and his Deputies three. In Sepulchers parrish common Counsaile sixe, Constables foure, Scauengers foure, Wardemote inquest twelue: S. Bridgetes parrish, common Councellors eight, Constables eight, Scauengers eight, Wardmote inquest twentie. In Saint Andrewes, common Councell two, Constables two, Scauengers three, Wardemote inquest twelue. It is taxed to the fifteene at thirty fiue pound one shilling.
Bridge warde without, the 26. in number, consisting of the Borough of Southwarke in the County of Surrey.