A Survey of London. Reprinted From the Text of 1603. Originally published by Clarendon, Oxford, 1908.
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Next adioyning is Cheape Warde, and taketh name of the Market there kept, called West Cheping, this warde also beginneth in the East, on the course of Walbrooke, in Buckles Bury, and runneth vp on both the sides to the great Conduit in Cheape. Also on the south side of Buckles Berie, a lane turning vp by S. Sithes Church, and by S. Pancrates church through Needlers lane, on the north side thereof, and then through a peece of Sopars lane, on both sides vppe to Chepe, be all of Chepe ward. Then to begin again in the east vpon the said course of Walbrook, is S. Mildreds church in the Poultrie, on the north side, and ouer against the said church gate, on the south to passe vp al that hie street called the Poultrie, to the great conduit in Chepe, and then Chepe it self, which beginneth by the east end of the saide Conduit, and stretcheth vp to the north east corner of Bowlane, on the south side, and to the Standard on the north side, and thus far to the west is of Cheape ward. On the south side of this high street is no lane turning south out of this ward, more then some small portion of Sopars lane, where of I haue before written. But on the north side of this high streete is Conyhope lane, about one quarter of Olde Iury lane on the west side, and on the East side, almost as much to the signe of the Angell. Then is Ironmongers lane, all wholy on both sides, and from the North end thereof through Catton streete, West to the North ende of S. Lawrence lane, & some 4. houses west beyond the same on that side, and ouer against Ironmongers lane end on the North side of Catton streete vp by the Guildhal, and S. Lawrence church in the Iurie is altogether of Chepe ward. Then againe in Chepe more toward the west is S. Laurence lane before named, which is all wholie of this warde, and last of all is Hony lane, and vppe to the standarde on that North side of Chepe, and so stand the bounds of Chepe ward.
Buckles bury of one Buckle.; Barges towed vp Walbrook, vnto Bucklesbery.
Now for antiquities there, first is Buckles berie, so called of a Mannor, and tenementes pertayning to one Buckle, who there dwelled and kept his Courts. This Mannor is supposed to be the great stone building, yet in part remayning on the south side the streete, which of late time hath beene called the olde Barge, of such a signe hanged out, neare the gate thereof. This Mannor or great house hath of long time beene diuided and letten out into many tenementes: and it hath beene a common speech that when Walbrooke did lie open, barges were rowed out of the Thames, or towed vp so farre, and therefore the place hath euer since been called the Olde barge.
Cernets towre in Bucklesbery the kinges Exchange. Exchequer.
Also on the north side of this streete directly ouer against the said Buckles bery, was one ancient and strong tower of stone, the which Tower king E. the third, in the 18. of his raigne by the name of the kinges house, called Cernettes towre in London, did appoint to bee his Exchange of money there to bee kept. In the 29. he graunted it to Frydus Guynysane, and Landus Bardoile, Marchantes of Luke, for twenty pound the yeare. And in the 32. he gaue the same Tower to his Colledge, or free Chappell of Saint Stephen at Westminster, by the name of Cornettes toure at Buckles bery in London. This Tower of late yeares was taken downe by one Buckle a Grocer, meaning in place thereof, to haue set vppe and builded a goodly frame of timber, but the sayde Buckle greedily labouring to pull downe the olde tower, a parte thereof fell vpon him, which so sore brused him that his life was thereby shortened: and an other that married his widdow, set vppe the newe prepared frame of timber, and finished the worke.
Penerith streete. Parish church of S. Syth, or Benit shrog Needlars lane.
This whole streete called Buckles bury on both the sides throughout is possessed of Grocers and Apothecaries. Toward the west end thereof, on the south side, breaketh out one other shorte lane, called in Recordes Peneritch street, it reacheth but to Saint Sythes lane, and S. Sythes Church is the farthest part thereof, for by the west end of the saide Church beginneth Needlars lane, which reacheth to Sopars lane as is aforesaide: this small parrish Church of S. Sith hath also an addition of Bennet shorne, (or Shrog, or Shorehog) for by all these names haue I read it, but the auncientest is Shorne, wherefore it seemeth to take that name of one Benedict Shorne, sometime a Citizen and Stockefishmonger of London, a new builder, repayrer or Benefactor thereof in the raigne of E. the second, so that Shorne is but corruptlie called Shrog, and more corruptly Shorehog.
There lie buried in this church Iohn Froysh Mercer, Mayor 1394. Iohn Rochford and Robert Rochforde, Iohn Hold Alderman, Henry Froweke Mercer, Mayor 1435. Edward Warrington, Iohn Morrice, Iohn Huntley, Richard Lincoln Felmonger, 1548. Sir Raph Waren Mercer, Mayor, 1553. Sir Iohn Lion Grocer, Mayor 1554. these two last haue monuments, the rest are all defaced. Edward Hall, Gentleman, of Greyes Inne, common sergiant of this Cittie, and then Vnder Shiriffe of the same, hee wrote the large chronicles from Richard the second, till the end of Henry the eight, was buried in this church.
Parish church of S. Pancrate.; Justices charged to punish such as sel bels from their churches, Elizabeth, 14.
Then in Needelars lane haue yee the parrish church of Saint Pancrate, a proper small church, but diuers rich Parishioners therein, and hath had of olde time many liberall benefactors, but of late such as (not regarding the order taken by her Maiesty) the least bell in their church being broken, haue rather solde the same for halfe the value, then put the parish to charge with new casting: late experience hath proued this to bee true, besides the spoyle of monumentes there. In this Church are buried Sir Aker, Iohn Aker, Iohn Barnes, Mercer, Mayor 1370. Iohn Beston and his wife, Robert Rayland, Iohn Hamber, Iohn Gage, Iohn Rowley, Iohn Lambe, Iohn Hadley, Grocer, Mayor 1379. Richarde Gardener Mercer, Mayor 1478. Iohn Stockton Mercer, Mayor 1470. Iohn Dane, Mercer, Iohn Parker, Robert Marshall Alderman, 1439. Robert Corcheforde, Robert Hatfielde and Robert Hatfield, Nicholas Wilfilde and Thomas his sonne, the monumentes of all which bee defaced and gone. There doe remaine of Robert Burley, 1360. Richard Wilson, 1525. Robert Packenton, Mercer, slayne with a Gunne shot at him in a morning, as hee was going to morrow masse from his house in Chepe to S. Thomas of Acars in the yeare 1536. the murderer was neuer discouered, but by his owne confession made when he came to the gallowes at Banbury, to be hanged for fellony: T. Wardbury Haberdasher, 1545. Iames Huish Grocer, 1590. Ambrose Smith, &c. Then is a part of Sopers lane turning vp to Cheape.
Pepperers in Sopers lane.
By the assent of Stephen Abunden, Maior, the Pepperers in Sopers lane were admitted to sell all such spices and other wares as Grocers now vse to sell, retayning the old name of Pepperers in Sopers lane, till at length in the raigne of Henrie the sixt, the same Sopers lane was inhabited by Cordwainers and Curriars, after that the Pepperers or Grocers had seated themselves in a more open street, to wit, in Buckles bury, where they yet remain. Thus much for the south wing of Cheapewarde.
The Poultrie.; Parish church of S. Mildred.
Now to begin againe on the banke of the said Walbrooke, at the East end of the high streete, called the Poultrie on the north side thereof, is the proper Parish Church of S. Mildred, which Church was new builded vpon Walbrooke in the yeare 1457. Iohn Saxton then parson gaue 32. pounds towards the building of the new Quire, which now standeth vpon the course of Walbrooke. Louell and Puery, and Richard Keston, haue their arms in the East windowes as benefactors. The roofing of that church is garnished with the armes of Thomas Archehull, one of the Churchwardens, in the yeare 1455. who was there buried. Thomas Morsted Esquire and Chirurgion to king Henrie the fourth, fift, and sixt, one of the shiriffes of London, in the yeare 1436. gaue vnto this Church a parcell of ground, contayning in length from the course of Walbrooke, toward the West, 45. foot, and in bredth from the Church toward the north, 35. foot, beeing within the gate of Scalding wike in the said Parish, to make a Churchyard, wherein to burie their dead, Richard Shore Draper one of the shiriffes, 1505. gaue 15. pound for making a porch to this Church. Salomon Lanuare had a Chauntrie there in the 14. of Edward the second, Hugh Game had one other. Buried here as appeareth by monuments, Iohn Hildye Poulter, 1416. Iohn Kendall, 1468. Iohn Garland, 1476. Robert Bois, 1485. and Simon Lee Poulters, 1487. Thomas Lee of Essex Gentleman, William Hallingridge, Christopher Feliocke, 1494. Robert Draiton Skinner, 1484. Iohn Christopherson Doctor of Phisicke, 1524. William Turner Skinner, 1536. Blase White Grocer, 1558. Thomas Hobson Haberdasher, 1559. William Hobson Haberdasher, 1581. Tho. Tusser, 1580. with this Epitaph.
Here Thomas Tusser clad in earth doth lie,
That sometime made the poynts of husbandrie,
By him then learne thou maist, here learne we must,
When all is done we sleepe and turne to dust,
And yet through Christ to heauen we hope to go:
Who reades his bookes shall find his faith was so.
On the north side of the Churchyard remaine two Tombes of Marble, but not knowne of whom, or otherwise then by tradition, it is saide they were of Thomas Monshampe (fn. 1), and William Brothers, about 1547. &c.
Counter in the Poultrie.;Chappell of corpus Christi.
Some foure houses west from this Parish Church of saint Mildred, is a prison house pertaining to one of the shiriffes of London, and is called the Counter in the Poultrie. This hath beene there kept and continued time out of minde, for I haue not read of the originall thereof. West from this Counter was a proper Chappell, called of Corpus Christi, and saint Marie at Conie hope lane ende, in the Parish of saint Mildred, founded by one named Ionirunnes (fn. 2) a Citizen of London, in the raigne of Edward the third, in which Chappel was a Guild or fraternitie, that might dispend in lands, better then twentie pound by yeare: it was suppressed by Henrie the eight, and purchased by one Thomas Hobson, Haberdasher, he turned this Chappell into a faire Warehouse and shoppes, towardes the streete, with lodgings ouer them.
Conihope lane.; Grocers hall purchased and builded.
Then is Conyhope lane, of old time so called of such a signe of three Conies hanging ouer a Poulters stall at the lanes end. With in this Lane standeth the Grocers hall, which companie being of old time called Pepperers, were first incorporated by the name of Grocers, in the yeare 1345. at which time they elected for Custos or Gardian of their fraternitie, Richard Oswin, and Laurence Haliwell and twentic brethren were then taken in, to be of their societie. In the yere 1411. the Custos or Gardian, & the brethren of this companie, purchased of the Lord Ro. Fitzwaters, one plot of ground with the building therevpon in the said Conyhope lane, for 320. markes, and then layd the foundation of their new common hall.
Almes houses by the Grocers hall.
About the yere 1429. the Grocers had licence to purchase 500. Markes land, since the which time, neare adioyning vnto the Grocers hall the said companie hath builded seuen proper houses for seuen aged poore Almes people. Thomas Knowles, Grocer, Maior, gaue his tenement in saint Anthonies Churchyard to the Grocers, towardes the reliefe of the poore brethren in that companie. Also H. Keeble, Grocer, Maior, gaue to the seuen almes people, six pence the peece weekely for euer, which pension is now encrcased by the Maisters, to some of them two shillings the peece weekely, and to some of them lesse, &c. Henrie Ady Grocer, 1563. gaue 1000. markes to the Grocers to purchase lands. And sir Iohn Pechie knight banaret, free of that company, gaue them fiue hundred pound to certaine vses: he builded almes houses at Ludingstone in Kent, and was there buried.
Parish church of S. Mary Colechurch.
West from this Conyhope lane is the old Iurie, whereof some portion is of Cheape ward, as afore is shewed. At the south end of this lane, is the Parish church of saint Mary Colechurch, named of one Cole that builded it: this church is builded vpon a vault aboue ground, so that men are forced to goe to ascend vp therevnto by certain steppes. I find no monuments of this church more then that Henrie the fourth granted licence to William Marshal and others, to found a brotherhood of saint Katheren therein, because Thomas Becket, and saint Edmond the Archbishop, were baptized there. More I reade of Bordhangly lane, to be in that Parish: and thus much for the north side of the Poultrie. The south side of the sayd Poultrie, beginning on the banke of the said brooke ouer against the Parish church of Saint Mildred passing vp to the great Conduite hath diuerse fayre houses, which were sometimes inhabited by Poulters, but now by Grocers, Haberdashers, and Vpholsters.
West Cheepe a large market place.; Great conduit in west Cheap.
At the west end of this Poultrie, and also of Buckles berie, beginneth the large streete of West Cheaping, a Market place so called, which streete stretcheth west, till ye come to the little Conduit by Paules gate, but not all of Cheape warde. In the East part of this streete standeth the great Conduit, of sweete water, conueyed by pipes of Lead vnder ground from Paddington, for seruice of this citie, castellated with stone, and cesterned in leade, about the yeare 1285, and againe new builded and enlarged, by Thomas Ilam one of the shiriffes, 1479.
About the middest of this streete is the standard in Cheape, of what antiquitie the first foundation I haue not read. But H. the sixt by his Patent dated at Windsore the 21. of his raigne, which patent was confirmed by Parliament 1442, graunted licence to Thomas Knolles, Iohn Chichle, and other, executors to Iohn Wels Grocer, somtime Maior of London, with his goods to make new the high way, which leadeth from the city of London towards the palace of Westminster, before and nigh the mannor of Sauoy, percell of the Dutchie of Lancaster, a way then very ruinous, and the pauement broken, to the hurt & mischiefe of the subiects, which old pauement, then remaining in that way within the length of 300. foot, and all the breadth of the same before and nigh the site of the mannor aforesaid, they to breake vp, and with stone, grauel, and other stuffe, one other good and sufficient way there to make, for the commoditie of the subiects.
The old standard in Cheap with a Conduit therein, taken downe and new builded.
And further, that the Standard in Cheape, where diuerse executions of the law before time had beene performed, which standard at that present was verie ruinous with age, in which there was a Conduit, should be taken down, and an other competent Standard of stone, togither with a Conduit in the same, of new strongly to be builded for the commoditie and honor of the citie, with the goods of their said testator, without interruption, &c.
Executions at the standard in Cheape.
Of executions at the Standard in Cheape, we read that in the yeare 1293. three men had their right hands smitten off there, for rescuing of a prisoner arrested by an officer of the citie. In the yere 1326. the Burgesses of London caused Walter Stapleton bishop of Excester, treasurer to Edward the 2, and other, to be beheaded at the Standard in Cheape (but this was by Pauls gate). In the yere 1351. the 26. of Ed. the 3. two Fishmongers were beheaded at the standard in Cheape, but I read not of their offence. 1381. Wat Tiler beheaded Richard Lions, and other there. In the yere 1399. H. the 4. caused the blanch Charters made by Ri. the 2. to be burnt there. In the yeare 1450. Iacke Cade captaine of the Kentish Rebels, beheaded the Lord Say there. In the yere 1461. Iohn Dauy had his hand stricken off there, because he had stricken a man before the Iudges at Westminster, &c.
Great Crosse in west Cheap first builded.
Then next is the great Crosse in west Cheape, which crosse was there erected in the yeare 1290. by Ed. the first, vpon occasion thus: Queene Elianor his wife died at Hardeby (a towne neare vnto the citie of Lincolne), her bodie was brought from thence to Westminster, & the king in memorie of her, caused in euery place where her body rested in the way, a stately crosses of stone to be erected with the Queenes Image and armes vpon it, as at Grantham, Woborne, Northampton, stony Stratford, Dunstable, S. Albones, Waltham, west Cheape, and at Charing, from whence she was conueyed to Westminster, and there buried.
Crosse in Cheape new builded.; Crosse in Cheape indighted, the images broken.; Image of Diana set vpon the crosse in Chepe. Socrat. li. 1. Cap. 13. Toppe of the crosse being feared to fall, was taken downe; Crosse, in Chepe commaunded to be repayed.
This crosse in west Cheape being like to those other which remaine till this day, and being by length of time decayed, Iohn Hatherley Maior of London procured in the yeare 1441. licence of king H. the 6. to reedifie the same in more beautifull manner for the honor of the citie: and had licence also to take vp 200. fodder of lead for the building thereof of certaine Conduits, and a common Garnarie. This crosse was then curiously wrought at the charges of diuers citizens, Iohn Fisher Mercer gaue 600. marks toward it, the same was begun to be set vp, 1484. and finished 1486. the 2. of H. the 7. It was new gilt ouer in the year 1522. against the comming of Charles the 5. Emperor, in the yere 1533. (fn. 3) against the coronation of Queen Anne, new burnished against the coronation of Ed. the 6. and againe new gilt 1554 against the comming in of king Philip: since the which time, the said crosse hauing beene presented by diuers Iuries (or quests of Wardmote) to stand in the high way to the let of cariages (as they alledged) but could not haue it remoued, it followed that in the yeare 1581. the 21. of Iune, in the night, the lowest Images round about the said crosse (being of Christ his resurrection, of the virgin Mary, king Ed. the confessor, and such like) were broken, and defaced, proclamation was made, that who so would bewray the doers, should haue 40. crownes, but nothing came to light: the image of the blessed virgin, at that time robbed of her son, and her armes broken, by which she staid him on her knees: her whole body also was haled with ropes, and left likely to fall: but in the yeare 1595. was againe fastned and repaired, and in the yeare next following, a new misshapen son, as borne out of time, all naked was laid in her armes, the other images remayning broke as afore. But on the east side of ye same crosse, the steps taken thence, vnder the image of Christs resurrection defaced, was then set vp a curious wrought tabernacle of gray Marble, and in the same an Alabaster Image of Diana and water conuayed from the Thames, prilling from her naked breast for a time, but now decaied. In the yeare 1599. the timber of the crosse at the top being rotted within the lead, the armes thereof bending, were feared to haue fallen to the harming of some people, and therefore the whole body of the crosse was scaffolded about, and the top thereof taken down, meaning in place thereof to haue set vp a Piramis, but some of her Maiesties honorable counsellers directed their letters to sir Nicholas Mosley then Maior, by her highnes expresse commandement concerning the crosse, forthwith to be repaired, and placed againe as it formerly (fn. 4) stood, &c. Notwithstanding the said crosse stoode headles more then a yeare after: wherevpon the said counsellors in greater number, meaning not any longer to permit the continuance of such a contempt, wrote to William Rider then Maior, requiring him by vertue of her highnesse said former direction and commandement, [that] without any further delay to accomplish the same her Maiesties most princely care therein, respecting especially the antiquitie and continuance of that monument, an ancient ensigne of Christianitie, &c. dated the 24. of December, 1600. After this a crosse of Timber was framed, set vp, couered with lead and gilded, the body of the crosse downeward clensed of dust, the scaffold caried thence. About 12. nights following, the Image of our Lady was again defaced, by plucking off her crowne, and almost her head, taking from her her naked child, & stabbing her in the breast, &c. Thus much for the crosse in west Cheape. Then at the west ende of west Cheape street, was sometime a crosse of stone, called the old crosse. Raph Higden in his Policronicon, saith, that Waltar Stapleton Bishop of Excester treasurer to Ed. the 2. was by the Burgesses of London beheaded at this crosse called the standart without the north doore of S. Pauls church, & so is it noted in other writers that then liued. This old crosse stood and remained at the East ende of the parish Church called S. Michael in the corne by Paules gate, nere to the north end of the old Exchange till the yere 1390. the xiii of Richard the 2, in place of which old crosse then taken downe, the said church of S. Michael was enlarged, and also a faire water Conduit builded about the ninth of Henrie the sixt.
Iustings and turnament in west Cheape.; Edward the 3. held a turnament or iustes in west Cheap three dayes togither.; Queene Philip and her ladies fell from a scaffold in Cheape.; A shed or standing made for the king to behold the shews in Cheape.; South side of Cheape street, so far as Chepe ward reacheth.
In the raigne of Edward the 3. diuers Iustings were made in this streete, betwixt Sopars lane and the great Crosse, namely one in the yeare 1331 about the xxi. of September, as I find noted by diuerse writers of that time. In the middle of the city of London (say they) in a street called Cheape, the stone pauement being couered with sand, that the horse might not slide, when they strongly set their feete to the ground, the king held a tornament 3. dayes togither with the Nobilitie, valiant men of the realme, and other, some strange knights. And to the end, the beholders might with the better ease see the same, there was a woodden scaffold erected crosse the streete, like vnto a Tower, wherein Queene Philip, and many other Ladies, richly attyred, and assembled from all parts of the realme, did stand to behold the Iustes: but the higher frame in which the Ladies were placed, brake in sunder, wherby they were with some shame forced to fall downe, by reason wherof ye knights and such as were vnderneath were grieuously hurt, wherefore the Queene tooke great care to saue the Carpenters from punishment, and through her prayers (which she made vpon her knees) pacified the king and counsell, and thereby purchased great loue of the people. After which time, the king caused a shed to be strongly made of stone for himselfe, the Queene, and other states to stand on, & there to beholde the Iustings, and other shewes at their pleasure, by the church of S. Mary Bow, as is shewed in Cordwainer street warde. Thus much for the high streete of Cheape: now let vs returne to the south side of Cheape warde. From the great Conduit west be many faire and large houses, for the most part possessed of Mercers vp to the corner of Cordwainer street, corruptly called Bow lane, which houses in former times were but sheds or shops, with solers ouer them, as of late one of them remained at sopars lane end, wherein a woman sold seedes, rootes and herbes, but those sheds or shops, by incrochments on ye high street, are now largely builded on both sides outward, and also vpward, some 3. 4, or 5. stories high.
North side of Chepe warde.; Hospitall of S. Tho. of Acars.; Mercers Chappell.; A free schoole in the Hospitall of S. Thomas of Acars.; Locke his armes in the windowes.
Now of the north side of Cheape street & ward, beginning at the great Conduit, & by saint Mary Cole church where we left. Next therevnto westward is the Mercers chappel, sometime an hospital intituled of S. Thomas of Acon or Acars. for a master and brethren, Militia hospitalis, &c. saith the record of Ed. the 3. the xiiii. yere, it was founded by Thomas Fitzthebald de heili, & Agnes his wife, sister to T. Becket, in the raigne of H. the 2. They gaue to the master and brethren the lands with the appurtenances that sometimes were Gilbart Beckets, father to the said Thomas, in the which he was borne, there to make a church. There was a Charnell, and a Chappel ouer it, of S. Nicholas, and S. Stephen. This hospitall was valued to dispend 277. 1. 3 s. 4. d. surrendered the 30. of H. the 8. the xxi. of October, and was since purchased by the Mercers, by meanes of sir Richard Gresham, and was again set open on the Eue of S. Michael, 1541. the 33. of H. the 8. it is now called the Mercers Chappel, therein is kept a free Grammar schoole, as of old time had beene accustomed, commanded by Parliament. Here bee many monuments remaining, but more haue beene defaced: Iames Butler Earle of Ormond, and Dame Ioan his Countesse 1428. Iohn Norton Esquire, Stephen Cauendish Draper, Maior, 1362. Thomas Cauendish, William Cauendish, Thomas Ganon called Pike, one of the shiriffes, 1410. Hungate of Yorkshire, Ambrose Cresacre, Iohn Chester Draper, Iohn Trusbut Mercer. 1437. Tho. Norland, shiriffe 1483. sir Edmond Sha Goldsmith, Maior, 1482. sir Tho. Hill Maior, 1485. Thomas Ilam shiriffe, 1479. Lancelot Laken Esquire, Raph Tilney Shiriffe, 1488. Garth Esquire, Iohn Rich, Thomas Butler Earle of Ormond, 1515. sir W. Butler Grocer, Maior 1515. W. Browne mercer, Maior 1513. Iohn Loke 1519. sir T. Baldry mercer, Maior 1523. sir W. Locke mercer, shiriffe 1548. sir Iohn Allen mercer, Maior 1525. deceased 1544. sir T. Leigh mercer, Maior 1558. sir Ri. Malory mercer, Maior 1564. Humf. Baskeruile mercer, shiriffe 1561. sir G. Bond Maior, 1587. &c.
Crowne silde vnder Bow church.
Before this Hospital towards the street, was builded a faire and beautifull chappell, arched ouer with stone, and therevpon the Mercers hall, a most curious peece of worke: sir Iohn Allen Mercer being founder of that Chappell, was there buried, but since his Tombe is remoued thence into the Chappell (fn. 5) of the hospitall church, and his bodie (fn. 6) diuided into shops is letten out for rent. These Mercers were enabled to be a companie, and to purchase landes to the value of 20. l. the yeare, the 17. of Richard the 2. They had three messuages and shops in the parish of S. Martin Oteswitch in the ward of Bishopsgate, for the sustentation of the poore, and a chantrie the 22. of Ri. the 2. Henry the 4. in the xii. of his raigne, confirmed to Stephen Spilman, W. Marchford, and Ioh. Whatile mercers, by the name of one new seldam, shed, or building, with shops, Cellers and edifices whatsoeuer appertaining called Crownsild situate in the Mercerie in west Cheape, in the parish of S. Marie de Arcubus in London, &c. to be holden in burgage, as all the Citie of London is, and which were worth by yere in all issues, according to the true value of them, 7. l. 13. s. 4. d. as found by inquisition before Th. Knolles Maior, and Eschetor in the said Citie. H. the 6. in the 3. of his raigne, at the request of Iohn Couentrie, Iohn Carpenter, and William Groue, granted to the Mercers to haue a Chaplaine, and a brotherhoode for reliefe of such of their companie as came to decay by misfortune on the sea. In the yeare 1536. on S. Peters night, king H. the 8. and Queene Iane his wife, stoode in this Mercers hall then new builded, and beheld the marching watch of the Citie, most brauely set out, sir Iohn Allen mercer, one of the kings counsell, being Maior.
Ironmonger lane.; Parish church of S. Martins pomary.
Next beyond the Mercers Chappell, and their hall, is Ironmonger lane, so called of Ironmongers dwelling there, whereof I reade in the raigne of E. the first, &c. In this lane is the smal parish church of S. Martin called Pomary, vppon what occasion I certainely know not. It is supposed to be of Apples growing, where now houses are lately builded: for my selfe haue seene large void places. Monuments in that Church none to be accounted of.
S. Lawrence lane.; Blossoms Inne.
Farther west is S. Laurence lane, so called of S. Laurence church, which standeth directly ouer against the north end thereof: antiquities in this lane, I find none other, then that among many fayre houses, there is one large Inne for receipt of trauelers, called Blossoms Inne, but corruptly Bosoms Inne, and hath to signe Saint Laurence the Deacon, in a Border of blossoms or flowers.
Hony lane.; Parish church of Alhallowes, Hony lane.
Then neare to the Standarde in Chepe is Honey lane so called not of sweetenes thereof, being very narrow and somewhat darke, but rather of often washing and sweeping, to keepe it cleane. In this lane is the small parrish church called Alhallows in Honey lane, there be no monumentes in this church worth the nothing. I find that Iohn Norman Draper, Mayor 1453. was buried there: he gaue to the Drapers his tenements on the north side the saide church, they to allow for the Beame light and lamp, xiii.s. iiii.d. yearely, from this lane to the Standard, and thus much for Chepe warde in the high streete of Chepe, for it stretcheth no farther.
Now for the North Wing of Chepe warde haue yee Cattestreet, corruptly called Catteten streete, which beginneth at the North end of Ironmonger lane, and runneth to the West end of S. Lawrence church as is afore shewed.
The Guild hall and courts kept. Liber Fletwod.
On the North side of this streete is the Guild Hall, wherein the courts for the citty be kept, namely, I. the court of common counsaile, 2. The court of the Lord Mayor and his Brethren the Aldermen, 3. The court of Hustinges, 4. The court of Orphanes, 5. The two courtes of the Shiriffes, 6. The court of the Wardmote, 7. The court of Hallmote, 8. The court of requestes, commonly called the court of conscience, 9. The chamberlaines court for Prentises, and making them free. This Guilde Hall, sayeth Robert Fabian, was begunne to bee builded new in the yeare, 1411. the twelfth of Henry the fourth, by Thomas Knoles then Mayor, and his Brethren the Aldermen, the same was made of a little cottage, a large and great house as now it standeth: towards the charges whereof the companies gaue large beneuolences, also offences of men were pardoned for summes of money towards this worke, extraordinary fees were raysed, Fines, Amercements, and other thinges imployed during seauen yeares, with a continuation thereof three yeares more, all to be imployed to this building.
The first yeare of Henry the sixt, Iohn Couentrie and Iohn Carpentar Executors to Richard Whitington, gaue towardes the pauing of this great Hall twentie pound, and the next yeare fifteene pound more, to the saide pauement, with hard stone of Purbecke, they also glased some Windowes thereof and of the Mayors court, on euery which Windowe the armes of Richard Whitington are placed. The foundation of the Mayors court was laid in the thirde yeare of the raigne of Henry the sixt, and of the Porch on the South side of the Mayors courte, in the fourth of the saide King. Then was builded the Mayors chamber, and the counsell chamber with other roomes aboue the staires: last of all a stately porch entering the great Hall was erected, the front thereof towards the South being beautified with images of stone, such as is shewed by these verses following, made about some 30. yeares since by William Elderton, at that time an Atturney in the Shiriffes courts there.
Verses made on the images, ouer the Guild hall gate.; Names of Images.
Though most the images be pulled down,
And none be thought remayne in Towne,
I am sure there be in London yet,
Seuen images such, and in such a place,
As few or none I thinke will hit:
Yet every day they shew their face,
And thousands see them euery yeare,
But few I thinke can tell me where,
where Iesu Christ aloft doth stand,
Law and learning on eyther hand,
Discipline in the Deuils necke,
And hard by her are three direct,
There iustice, Fortitude and Temperance stand,
where find ye the like in all this land?
Kitchins by the Guildhall.
Diuers Aldermen glased the great Hall, and other courtes, as appeareth by their Arms in each window. William Hariot Draper, Mayor 1481. gaue 40. pound to the making of two loouers in the said Guildhal, and toward the glasing therof. The kitchens and other houses of office adioyning to this Guildhall were builded of latter time, to wit, about the yeare 1501. by procurement of Sir Iohn Sha Goldsmith, Mayor (who was the first that kepte his Feast there) towardes the charges of which worke the Mayor had of the Fellowshippes of the cittie, by their owne agreement certaine summes of money, as of the Mercers forty pound, the Grocers twenty pound, the Drapers thirty pound, and so of the other Fellowships through the citty, as they were of power. Also Widdowes and other well disposed persons gaue certain summes of money, as the Lady Hill ten pound, the Lady Austrie ten pound, and so of many other till the worke was finished, since the which time the Mayors Feastes haue beene yearely kepte there, which before time had beene kept in the Taylers Hall, and in the Grocers hall: Nicholas Alwyn Mercer, Mayor 1499. deceased 1505. gaue by his Testament for a hanging of Tapestrie to serue for principall dayes in the Guild hall 73.li. 6. s. 8.d. How this gift was performed I haue not heard, for Executors of our time hauing no conscience, (I speake of my own knowledge) proue more testaments then they performe.
Chappel or Colledge at Guildhall.; Patent.
Now for the chappell or colledge of our Lady Mary Magdalen, and of All-Saintes by the Guild hall called London colledge, I reade that the same was builded about the yeare 1299. and that Peter Fanelore, Adam Frauncis and Henry Frowike citizens gaue one Messuage with the appurtenances in the parrish of Saint Fawstar to William Brampton Custos of the Chauntrie, by them founded (fn. 7) in the said chappell with foure Chaplens, and one other house in the parrish of S. Giles without Criplegate, in the 27. of Edward the third, was giuen to them. Moreouer I find that Richard the 2. in the 20. of his raigne, graunted to Stephen Spilman Mercer, licence to giue one messuage, 3. shops, and one garden, with the appurtenances, being in the parish of Saint Andrew Hubbard, to the Custos and Chaplens of the said chappell and to their successors for their better reliefe and maintenance for euer.
Chappell or Colledge at Guildhall new builded.
King Henry the 6. in the eight of his raigne gaue licence to Iohn Barnard Custos, and the Chaplens to build of new the said chappell or colledge of Guild hall, and the same Henry the 6. in the 27. of his raigne, graunted to the parish Clearkes in London, a Guild of S. Nicholas, for two Chaplens by them to be kepte in the said Chappell of S. Mary Magdalen, neare vnto the Guild hall, and to keepe 7. Almes people. Henry Barton Skinner, Mayor, founded a chaplen there, Roger Depham Mercer, and Sir William Langford knight had also chaplens there. This Chappell or colledge had a Custos, 7. chaplens, 3. clearkes, and foure Quiristers.
Iohn Wels a principall benefactor to Guild hall Colledge.
Monumentes there haue been sundrie, as appeareth by the tombs of marble yet remayning, seuen in number, but al defaced. The vppermost in the quire on the South side thereof aboue the Reuestrie dore, was the tombe of Iohn Welles Grocer, Mayor 1431. The likenes of welles are grauen on the tombe, on the Reuestrie dore, and other places on that side the Quire. Also in the Glasse window ouer this tombe, and in the East Window is the likenes of Welles, with hands eleuated out of the same Welles, holding scrowles, wherein is written Mercy, the writing in the East window being broken yet remayneth Welles: I found his armes also in the South glasse window, all which doe shew that the East end and South side the Quire of this Chappell, and the Reuestrie were by him both builded and glased: on the North side the Quire the tombe of Thomas Knesworth Fishmonger, Mayor 1505. who deceased 1515. was defaced, and within these 44. yeares againe renewed by the Fishmongers: two other Tombs lower there are, the one of a Draper, the other of a Haberdasher, their names not knowne: Richard Stomine is written in the window by the Haberdasher, vnder flat stones do lye diuers Custos of the chappell, chaplens and officers to the chamber. Amongst others Iohn Clipstone priest, sometime Custos of the Librarie of the Guildhall, 1457. An other of Edmond Alison priest, one of the Custos of the Library, 1510. &c. Sir Iohn Langley Goldsmith, Mayor, 1576. lyeth buried in the vault, vnder the tombe of Iohn welles before named. This chappell or colledge, valued to dispend twelue pound, eight shillinges nine pence by the yeare, was surrendered amongst other, the chappell remayneth to the Mayor and Comminalty, wherein they haue seruice weekely, as also at the election of the Mayor, and at the Mayors fest, &c.
Library at Guilde hall
Adioyning to this chappell on the south side was sometime a fayre and large library, furnished with books, pertayning to the Guildhall and colledge: These books as it is said were in the raign of Edward the 6. sent for by Edward Duke of Somerset, Lorde Protector, with promise to be restored shortly: men laded from thence three Carries with them, but they were neuer returned. This Library was builded by the Executors of R. Whitington, and by William Burie: the armes of Whitington are placed on the one side in the stone worke, and two letters to wit, W. and B. for William Bury, on the other side: it is now lofted through, and made a store house for clothes.
parish church of S. Laurence in the Iury.; The tooth of some monstrous fish as I take it. A shanke bone of 25 inches long, of a man as is said, but might be of an Oliphant.
Southwest from this Guildhall is the fayre parrish church of Saint Laurence called in the Iury, because of olde time many Iewes inhabited there about. This church is fayre and large, and hath some monumentes, as shall bee shewed. I my selfe more then 70. yeares since haue seene in this church the shanke bone of a man (as it is taken) and also a tooth of a very greate bignes hanged vp for shew in chaines of iron, vppon a pillar of stone, the tooth (being aboute the bignes of a mans fist) is long since conueyed from thence: the thigh or shanke bone of 25. inches in length by the rule, remayneth yet fastened to a post of timber, and is not so much to be noted for the length, as for thicknes, hardnes and strength thereof, for when it was hanged on the stone pillar, it fretted with mouing the said pillar, and was not itselfe fretted, nor as seemeth, is not yet lightned by remayning drie: but where or when this bone was first found or discouered I haue not heard, and therefore reiecting the fables of some late writers I ouerpasse them. Walter Blundell had a Chaunterie there, the foureteenth of Edward the second. There lie buried in this church Elizabeth wife to Iohn Fortescue, Katherine Stoke ton, Iohn Statton, Phillip Albert, Iohn Fleming, Phillip Agmondesham, William Skywith, Iohn Norlong, Iohn Baker, Thomas Alleyne, William Barton Mercer, 1410. William Melrith, Mercer, one of the Sheriffes, 1425. Simon Bartlet Mercer, 1428. Walter Chartsey, Draper, one of the Shiriffes, 1430. Richard Rich Esquier of London the Father, & Richard Rich his sonne, Mercer, one of the Shiriffes, 1442. deceased 1469 with this Epitaph
Respice quod opus est præsentis temporis æuum. Omne quod est, nihil est præter amare Deum.
This Richard was Father to Iohn buried in S. Thomas Acars, which Iohn was Father to Thomas, father to Richard Lord Ritch, &c. Iohn Pickering, honorable for seruice of his prince and of the English marchantes beyond the seas, who deceased 1448. Godfrey Bollen Mercer, Mayor, 1457. Thomas Bollen his sonne Esquier of Norfolke, 1471. Iohn Atkenson Gentleman, Dame Mary S. Maure, Iohn Waltham, Roger Bonifant, Iohn Chayhee, Iohn Abbott, Geffrey Filding Mayor, 1452. and Angell his wife, Simon Benington Draper, and Ioan his wife, Iohn Marshal Mercer, 1493 (fn. 8). William Purchase Mayor, 1498. Thomas Burgoyne Gentleman, Mercer, 1517. The Wife of a Maister of defence, seruant to the Princes of Wales, Dutches of Cornewell, and Countesse of Chester, Sir Richard Gresham Mayor 1537. Sir Michell Dormer Mayor, 1541. Robert Charsey one of the Shiriffes, 1548. Sir William Row Ironmonger, mayor 1593. Samuell Thornhill 1597. Thus much for Chepe ward, which hath an Alderman, his Deputie, Common counsellors xi. Constables xi. Scauengers ix. for the Wardmote inquest xii. and a Beadle. It is taxed to the fifteene at 52. pound, sixteene shillinges, and in the Exchequer at seuenty two pound, eleuen shillinges.