Notes: Volume 1, pp.201-300

Pages 308-339

A Survey of London. Reprinted From the Text of 1603. Originally published by Clarendon, Oxford, 1908.

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Volume 1, pp. 201–300

201, l. 3. Lombard streete. See note on Langborne, on p. 307.

ll. 29–31. John Darby … buried about the yeare 1466. In his will, dated 17 Feb. 1478, and enrolled in Oct. 1480, he directed that he should be buried in the Chapel of St. John at St. Dionis, lately built by him, and bequeathed his hostel 'le Belle and le Chekyr on the hoop' in Fenchurch St. for the endowment of chantries there. (Cal. Wills, ii. 580; cf. ii. 195 above.) There is a note of him sub anno 1468, in Fabyan's Chronicle.

202, l. 7. Alhallowes Grasse church. Brithmer, a citizen, gave it as All Hallowes 'Gerscherche' to Christchurch, Canterbury, in 1054 (Mon. Angl. i. 97). It is called All Hallows 'Graschurch' in the Trinity Cartulary in 1251 (Guildhall MS. 122, f. 257). Harley MS. 538 read: 'The register bokes and monuments sometyme belonging to the late dissolued priory of the Holy Trinity within Aldgate so calleth it, bycause the Grasse market went downe that way, and was there kepte, but the strete was then broder.'

l. 27. the George. It is clearly identical with 'our great hospice in Lombard Street', which Edward III granted to St. Stephen's, Westminster, on 6 Aug. 1348 (Mon. Angl. vi. 1350, compare Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. 56 a, and Anc. Deeds, A. 13428). In 1402 the Greek ambassadors were entertained at the sign of St. George in Lombard St. (Q. R. Wardrobe Accounts— ap. Wylie, Henry IV, iv. 203). 'The George' Inn is several times mentioned in the paston Letters between 1472 and 1505 (viz. v. 144, vi. 11. 172). For the inn in 1596 see Inq. p. m. Lond. iii. 238. For Earl Ferrers see i. 100 and note on p. 283 above; 'Lombard Street' is not mentioned either in the Gesta Henrici or by Hoveden. William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby (d. 1249), had his house in St. Lawrence Jewry Lane (Cal. Charter Rolls, ii. 38).

203, l. 10. one other. For the house of Sir Michael de la Pole in Lombard Street in 1364 see Anc. Deeds, D. 411.

l. 36. Stane Church. The name is explained by a reference to 'parochia de Stanenetha' (stone-hithe) at London in 1194. (Cartularium de Colchester, 298. Roxburgh Club.) 'Stonwarf' in All Hallows, Barking, occurs in 1304 (Cal. Wills, i. 163). See also note on 'Cradocks lane' below.

204, l. 3. John Costin, Girdler … 1244. No doubt an error for John Costyn, girdler, who by will made in 1442 and proved in 1447 left property charged with religious and charitable uses for the poor of All Hallows Stane Church (Cal. Wills, ii. 513).

l. 9. Stiward. The list in Harley MS. 6069, f. 30, reads 'Steweard'.

l. 17. the Writhsleys, &c. The list of burials at St. Giles was revised accordingly. See i. 299–300 and ii. 245, 253 above. Another correction as to the burial-place of a Writhsley appears on ii. 39, see p. 260 above.

l. 20. Cradocks lane. In a deed of Stephen (1170–87), prior of Trinity, there is reference to 'Stanenchirche in Cradocheslane' (Anc. Deeds, A. 2406).

l. 24. Saint Nicholas Acon, or Hacon. The church of St. Nicholas was given by Godwyn to Malmesbury Abbey in 1083; in a later deed, about 1190, it is called 'St. Nicholas Achim'—probably an error for 'Achun' (Reg. Malmesburiense, i. 5, ii. 12). St. Nicholas 'Hacun' occurs in 1246 (Cal. Charter Rolls, i. 309) and St. Nicholas 'Acun' in 1280 (Cal. Wills, i. 43). Possibly the name is due to some person like Haco the Alderman of 1130 (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. 63, 66). Hacun was a not uncommon London surname in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries—see Anc. Deeds, A. 1070, 1075, 1078.

l. 27. Francis Boyer: … 1580. Munday (p. 233) gives the date from his tomb as 14 June, 1581.

l. 31. Saint Marie Woolnoth, &c. Probably, as suggested by Mr. J. H. Round (Athenaeum, 31 March, 1888), the name was due to some person called Wulfnoth. Perhaps to the Wulfnoth de Walebroc of 1114–33 (Chron. Ramsey, p. 248; Cartulary of Ramsey, i. 139). Mr. Round has noted the form 'Wlnot maricherche' in 1191; 'Wollenothe Maricherche' (Cotton MS., Faust., B. II, f. 71vo) and 'St. Mary Wulnothe Mariecherche' (Anc. Deeds, A. 2461) occur not much later. See also note on p. 317 below.

205, l. 5. Cardinals Hat. This tavern was demised by Simon Eyre on trust for the purpose stated, to Hugh Brice, who at his death bequeathed it with other property for pious uses in St. Mary Woolnoth (Cal. Wills, ii. 600, Brice's will dated 17 September, 1492, enrolled 25 Jan. 1498). 'Le Cardinals hat' is mentioned in 1364 (id. ii. 88).

l. 11. John Moager. Called 'Megre' in his will, dated 6 Aug. 1419, and proved 7 July, 1420. Apparently he was a Cornishman (Cal. Wills, ii. 422).

l. 12. Perciuall … about 1504. He died 19 April, 1503 (Inq. p. m. London, i. 21).

l. 19. Sir Martin Bowes, Maior, buried about 1569. His will, dated 10 August, 1565, was proved in the prerogative Court of Canterbury 21 Jan. 156 6/7. Another will was dated 29 July, 1566 (Cal. Wills, ii. 694–6, 728–9). The inscription on his tomb gave the date of his death as 4 August, 1566 (Survey, ed. 1633, p. 224).

207, l. 11. this Epitaph. In Harley MS. 538 the full epitaph is given, ending:

Unto this citie in givinge so liberally
Greate substaunce of livelode, wherefore now agre
To pray unto God that reynethe eternally
His soule to embrace and take to his mercy.
He died in October the xxiij
Of the reigne of the noble sixt Herry.

l. 22. he gaue landes, &c. The will of John Raynwell, dated 18 September, 1443, is recited at length in a deed of 2 May, 1466, printed in the Report on Foedera, Appendix C, pp. 22–7. See also Cal. Wills, ii. 576–7. In connexion with his bequest for the relief of fifteenths the following note from the London Memoranda for 1539, ap. Harley MS. 530, f. 119, is of interest:—

'Memorandum. That M. Wyllm. Forman, yt tyme beyng maior of London, at ye Counsell of the Chamberleyn and of the Allderman of the 'Warde of Dowgate, whyche he was yt the allderman of, hys name ys M. Cottys, and they concluded yt the seyd ward schuld pay for a nede dude (sic) whyche was left one-payd in ye bookys of the Exchekar many yeres afore, the some of viij li. st., the whyche they wolde haue made thys warde of Dowgate for to haue pd. hyt. And they of ye seyd ward seyd playnly they wolde pay none, in so moche yt the meare commaundyd sertyn of them to ye tower, and ther they ware a day and a nyȝght. They made aunswer yt they wolde styke to ye will of Master Raynwell, for yt ys hys wyll yt the warde of dowgat shall pay none money for no fyveten exsep ther be above iij fyvetens in one yere, and so by ye help of god they [paid] none. Deo gracias.'

Alderman Cottys was, I suppose, John Cotes, who was mayor in 1542–3.

208, l. 27. so called of a Bosse. In Samuel Rowlands' Humors Looking Glasse, p. 29, the country fool goes to see:
The Bosse at Billingsgate, and Londonstone,
And at Whitehall the monstrous great Whales bone.

l. 39. as Robert Fabian writeth. This, again, comes from the MS. The printed Continuation(p. 685) is bald. In the Vitellius Chronicle the notice is rather briefer than that quoted by Stow, but is clearly from the same source (Chron. London, p. 209). Richard de Hakeneye died in 1342, and his wife Alice in 1349 (Cal. Wills, i. 467, 625). For expenses 'for the obyt and settyng upe of the tombe, and buryenge of Richard Hackney and Alys his wyff' in March, 1496–7, see Nichols, Illustrations of Manners and Expences of Antient Times, p. 88. (Extracts from the Churchwardens' accounts of St. Mary Hill.)

209, l. 16. Robert Reuell. He gave 200 marks. Nichols, u. s.

l. 20. Queenes shippes. This is the reading of Harley MS. 538, and is clearly right. Holstocke was comptroller for many years under Elizabeth, see Cal. State Papers, 1581–90, and Stow's Annales, 1121, 1141, ed. 1605.

l. 23. S. Margaret Pattens. Stow's derivation seems to be purely conjectural: if there were ever any patten-makers here, they were clean worn out in his time (vol. i. p. 81). St. Margaret Patynz occurs in the time of King John (Mon. Angl. vi. 624), St. Margaret de Patins in 1272, and del Patynes in 1291 (Cal. Wills, i. 20, 96). In the list of 1303 it is S. Margaret Patynes. It is doubtful how far pattens were in common use so early: Ducange has a quotation of 'patina' in 1256, but the first' notice of patten-makers in London seems to be in 1379 (Letter-Book H, 135). The name might be due to a benefactor, as in so many other cases: Ranulph and Robert Patin are mentioned in twelfth-century deeds at St. Paul's (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. 62, 63). See also N. and Q, 9th ser. xii. 170, 253.

210, ll. 7–9. Roape Lane … Loue Lane. It occurs as 'Love Lane formerly called Roppelane' in 1393, and as 'Roperelane now Love Lane' in 1455. In 1428 there is reference to 'le Stuehous' in Love-lane, in St. Mary Hill parish (Cal. Wills, ii. 311, 464, 536). The last instance indicates that in this case, as in that of Love Lane, Cripplegate, the name was due to wantons (cf. i. 296, above). I have not found 'Lucas-lane'; but Walter Lucas, baker, of St. Botulph Lane occurs in 1310 (Letter-Book B, 230). See also N. and Q. 10th ser. v. 302.

l. 22. Marpor. In Harley MS. 538, his Christian name, Nicholas, is given.

l. 29. Southuckenton, i. e. South Ockendon in Essex.

l. 37. Rother Lane, or Red Rose Lane. 'Rederesgate' is mentioned on a deed of Prior Norman (d. 1147) of Trinity (Anc. Deeds, A. 7309). Later instances are the lane called 'Rederisgate' in 1279, 'Rede Rose lane' in 1318, 'Retheresgates lane' in 1322, 'Puddyng lane otherwise Retherlane' in 1372 (Cal. Wills, i. 44, 278, 299, ii. 153). 'Finches Lane' called Pudding Lane in 1398 (Cal. Inq. p. m. iii. 255). 'Fynkes lane now called Puddyng lane' in 1449 (Anc. Deeds, A. 1723); cf. Cal. Wills, ii. 535). 'Retherhethe Lane alias Podding Lane' in 1553 (Inq. p. m. Lond. ii. 51). Simon Puddynglane, a baker, occurs in 1375 (Mun. GildIII. 423).

211, l. 25. Mercers and Haberdashers. For a list of tenants on the bridge in 1633, see Gent. Mag. Library, xv. 308–9. They were chiefly Haberdashers, with some Mercers and Silkmen.

212, l. 5. Henry Yeuele Freemason. In his will, dated 25 May, and enrolled 28 October, 1400, he is described as 'mason, citizen and freeman of London' (Cal. Wills, ii. 346). For accounts of Yevele or Yevely, the greatest English architect of his day, see Trans. Lond. and Midd. ii. 259–66, Dict. Nat. Biog. lxiii. 321, and Lethaby, Westminster Abbey.

l. 7. William Brampton, stockfishmonger, February 1407 (Cal. Wills, ii. 368–9).

l. 12. Robert Blanch. Robert Braunche in his will; he died June 4, 1567 (Inq. p. m. Lond. ii. 64). Harley MS. 538, f. 70vo, reads: 'Robert, Braunche, 1567, with this epitaph following:
As nature yelds vs birth and lyf, so death draws on by kynde:
By deathe ageyne through faythe in Christ eternall lyfe we fynde.
A profe behold by me that ded enioy my mortal breathe
Full 50 yeres and 8 therto, and then gave place to deathe.
Of the company of girdelars fre I was, and Robert Braunch by name;
I was lyke yow and now am erthe, and you shall be the same.
Six children now supply my place, my soule is in the skye;
God send to them and the good life, and eke in Christ to dye.'

l. 13. Iohn Couper, &c. Stow corrects an error of his first edition (see p. 246 above). In Harley MS. 538, f. 71vo, he wrote: 'Also Iohn Cowper, fishmonger, one of the shrives of London in the year of Christ 1551, was put by his tyme of maioraltie upon some private displeasure of his brethren, the aldermen, deceased 1584, and was there buried. Sir William Garrard, haberdasher, maior of London in the year of Christ 1555, deceased 1571, in the parishe of Seint Christofer by the Stok Market, but was buried in this parishe churche of Seint Magnus, because he was borne in that parishe, and there babtized.'

l. 27. William Melker. Presumably the William Melker of Eastcheap, whose will was proved in 1273 (Cal. Wills, i. 15).

l. 31. Walter Dogget. Strype gives the epitaph of Walter Dogget, vintner, ob. July 19, 1480, and of Alice his wife. Walter Dogget, the sheriff of 1380, by his will enrolled January 25, 1388, founded a chantry here for himself and his wife, another Alice (Cal. Wills, ii. 263–4). Walter's son John, whose wife was also called Alice, died and was buried here in 1403 (id. ii. 354).

213, l. 1. Grasse Church. St. Benedict de Garcherche in 1181–1204 (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. 4).

214, l. 8. Recordes. See note on p. 357 below.

l. 16. Fishmongers were greatly troubled. These troubles were a part of the conflict between the victualling and clothing guilds, round which civic history centred during the reign of Richard II. The victualling guilds, whose leader was Nicholas Brembre, supported the King and Court party, whilst the clothing guilds headed by John Northampton sided with the opposition. See Dr. Sharpe's Introduction to Letter-Book H. The fishmonger referred to in 1. 24 was Walter Sibyle. See also references on p. 393 below.

215, l. 29. that he slue Jacke Straw. The London Chronicles (e.g. Nicolas, 73–4, and Gregory's Chronicle, p. 91) state that Jack Straw was the leader of the rebels in London, and was killed by Walworth. This is also the account of Adam of Usk (Chron. pp. 1–2) and Hardyng (p. 339). The continuation of Knighton (ii. 137) states definitely that Jack Straw was only a nickname for Wat Tyler. It is possible that neither of the names was genuine, but they certainly represent two distinct persons; this is shown clearly in the Rolls of Parliament and in the Chronicon Angliae, 308–9. (See also Anom. Chron. 519–20; Walsingham. Hist. Angl. ii. 9–14.) The man who passed by the name of Jack Straw was arrested and tried, as Stow states, some days after the killing of Wat Tyler. See Professor Oman's Great Revolt of 1381, pp. 44–5. Dr. F. W. Brie has, however, maintained in Eng. Hist. Rev. xxi that Straw and Tyler were really the same person.

216, l. 30. Eastcheape … a flesh Market of Butchers. So Ben Jonson in Every Man out of his Humour, Act II, sc. i: 'Well, an e'er I meet him in the City, I'll have him jointed; I'll pawn him in Eastcheap among the butchers else.'

217, l. 4. the kings sonnes … being in Eastcheape. This narrative probably comes from one of the London Chronicles, but none of the extant copies are so full (see Chron. Lond. 341). The Vitellius Chronicle (id. 268) adds that as a consequence 'it was ordeyned that neither Tavern ne Cook shuld hold open their hous no more after ix of the clok'. (Probably in allusion to the regulation made in 1412 as to closing cook-shops on St. John's Eve, ap. Memorials, 581.) The incident helped to give rise to the legends of Henry V's riotous youth, and in that connexion Stow's note of the intervention of Chief Justice Gascoyne and the King's pardon is interesting.

l. 25. he speaketh of no silks. This is an oversight. Lydgate writes:
Then to the Cheap I began me drawne,
Where much people I saw for to stande:
One offered me velvet, sylke, and lawne.
For London Lickpenny see Lydgate's Minor Poems (Percy Soc.) and Nicolas, London Chron. 260 sqq.

ll. 36, 37. Candlewright … or Candlewicke streete. It appears as 'Candelwrich strete' in 1180–7 (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. App. 16 b), 'Candelwiccestrate' in 1259, 'Candelwrihttestrate' in 1272 (Cal. Wills, i.4, 14). Later it was called Candelwyke Street, and this was corrupted to Canwick Street, and ultimately to Cannon Street. The transition of the name is shown in Nobody and Somebody: 'If my breeches had as much cloth in them as ever was drawn betwixt Kendal and Canning Street' (Simpson, School of Shakespeare, i. 292). Long before Edward III's time it was occupied by workers of cloth, and especially by 'burellers', or makers of the coarse stuff called 'burel'. In 1279 there is note of a 'bureller of Candlewystrate' (Cal. Wills, i. 39; and see numerous instances in the Mercers Cartulary, ap. Watney, Hospital of St. Thomas of Acon, 286–8). In 1335 the burellers of Candelwykstrete were in controversy with the Weavers (Letter-Book E, 291, 297). Cloth of Candelwykstrate is mentioned in 1322 and 1372 (id. 172; Cal. Wills, ii. 145), and Lydgate, in London Lickpenny, writes:—
Throughout all Canwyke Street
Drapers much cloth offered me anon.
But there were also Wax-chandlers in Candlewick Street from and early date. In 1311 mention occurs of 'John le Cierger de Kandelwikstrate', and chaundelers of Candelwykstrete in 1305 and 1326 (Letter-Books B, 163, D, 137, E, 210). In 1371 Thomas de Weston, chandler, refers in his will to a tenement in St. Swithin's, which he had bought of Robert de Hatfield, bureller; and wax-chandlers of Candelwykstrete occur in 1402 (Cal. Wills, ii. 141, 353).

For protection granted to foreign clothworkers in 1344 see Letter-Book F, III; and Foedera, iii. 23.

218, l. 30. saint Marie Abchurch, Apechurch or Upchurch. 'Robert the priest of Habechirce' occurs in a deed of the twelfth century (Anc. Deeds, A. 7821). Abchurch, which occurs as 'Abbechurche' in 1211 (id. A. 1449) is the normal form, but 'Apecherche lane' occurs in 1327, and 'Appecherche' in 1369 (Cal. Wills, i. 328, ii. 121). Riley says that Upchurch is found in early documents, citing Mun. Gild. I. 100—date 1240, where, however, Upchurch near Chatham is clearly intended.

For the chantries of Winchcomb and Littleton (d. 1457) see Cal. Wills, ii. 340, 532.

219, l. 7. the leaden porch. 'Le Leden Porche' in Crooked Lane occurs in 1398–9 (Cal. Inq. p. m. iii. 255). Afterwards in was held by William Philip, Lord Bardolf, for life, and on June 11, 1441, was granted to John Merston, who still held it in 1461 (C. P. R. Henry VI, iii. 544; Edw. IV, i. 43). In 1485 it was granted to Thomas Freeman on the attainder of John, Duke of Norfolk (Campbell, Mat. Hist. Henry VII, ii. 319, 449). Taylor the Water-poet, writing in 1636 (Travels through London), mentions four houses that sell Rhenish wine and are inhabited by Dutchmen only, viz. 'The Stilliyard, the Swan in Thames Street, The Swan in Crooked Lane, and The Sun at St. Mary Hill.'

l. 15. William de Burgo gaue, &c. Under the will of Edmund Horn, who left them for a chantrie (Cal. Wills, i. 254).

l. 23. tombe of Loueken was remoued. No doubt one of those defaced by bad people in the reign of Edward VI (vol. i. p. 220). The brass plate was taken away, and used for another tomb at Walkerne in Hertfordshire, where the original inscription was discovered on the hidden side in 1870. The Fishmongers had restored Loueken's and Walworth's tombs in 1562. The name is sometimes spelt Lofkin, but is Lovekyn on the brass and in his will (Cal. Wills, ii. 117). See notice by J. G. Nichols, ap. Trans. London and Middlesex, iii. 133–7, and also vi. 341–70. For list of monuments at St. Michael's (similar to that on pp. 221–2) see Harley MS. 6069, f. 29.

l. 31. arrested Wat Tyler. Stow's account is based on Knighton, ii. 138, Chron. Angliae, 297, and Anom. Chron. 519–20. The squire's true name was Ralph Standish; 'John Cavendish' or 'Candish' is an error, which appears also in the Annales, p. 463, ed. 1605. The knighting of Walworth is taken almost word for word from Anom. Chron., where, however, a blank is left for the third name. The City record (Memorials 451) shows that Stow is correct in naming Sir Robert Launde.

221, l. 32. Crosse and sworde of Saint Paul. Stow is right. See the description of The Banner of St. Paul (on i. 63 above), which was the ancient banner of the City. Stow translates from the record in LetterBook H. See Memorials, 447. The fable of Walworth's dagger got currency in Holinshed's Chronicles, ii. 747.

l. 37. John Radwell. Richard in his will (Cal. Wills, ii. 411).

222, l. 16. Sir John Brudge. In Harley MS. 538, 'maior of London 1520, deceased 1530.'

l. 32. Beachamps Inne. Reference to the tenement of Robert Beauchamp in St. Martin Orgar occurs in 1361 (Letter-BookG, 133).

l. 35. saint Martin Orgar. The name may be due to Orgar the deacon, who granted the church to St. Paul's in the twelfth century (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. 63).

223, l. 18. Alderman Beswicke. William Beswicke, d. May 5, 1567 (Inq. p. m. Lond. ii. 102).

l. 32. Licence … to new build. In 1408 Richard Thorpe, the parson, had licence for alienation in mortmain of a plot of land for the enlargement of St. Swithin's and making of a new belfry (C. P. R. Henry IV, iii. 414).

224, l. 6. Chaunteries. Thomas Aylesby (circa 1470), William Neve (d. 1392), and Matilda Caxton (d. 1342) (Cal. Wills, i. 458, ii. 295, 584).

l. 9. William White. In Herley MS. 538, 'sheriff 1482, alderman, was there buried about 1500.'

l. 12. prior of Tortington. In Feb., 1286, Sir Robert Aguylon bequeathed his mansion, with courtyard and garden, in the parish of St. Swithin, to the prior of Tortington (Cal. Wills, i. 75). Robert had inherited it from his mother Joan, grand-daughter of Henry Fitz-Alwin, the first mayor, who lived here, and is in consequence called 'Henricus filius Eylwini de Londene-stane' (Lib. de Ant. Legg. 1, and Preface, pp. ix–xi, lxxiv–vi). In 1490 Henry Eburton, draper, left some adjoining tenements called 'Draper's Halle', formerly belonging to Robert Auguylem, to his company (Cal. Wills, ii. 601). The Aguylons had land at Edburton in Sussex.

The above probably explains the statement made by Munday (Survey, 247, ed. 1633) under St. Mary Boathaw: 'The most memorable monument of all other there was that of Sir Henry Fitz-Alwine, Draper, the first Lord Mayor of London that ever was, and continued (by several elections) in the Maioraltie above 24 yeeres. His dwelling-house remaineth yet in the Parish, divided now into two or three houses. His Monument can be proved to be in that Church, as his Armes on the glasse windows and Gravestones doe sufficiently shew. Besides those houses were his gift to the Drapers, and they pay a quit-rent in his name yeerely for ever. All which are sufficient to testify that he was not buried in the Priorie of the holy Trinity within Ealdgate (now called the Dukes Place) as formerly hath been avowched by Mr. Stowe.'

Strype observed sagaciously: 'All this is not evidence enough against Stow's own eyes.' It is finally disposed of by the Trinity Cartulary (Guildhall MS. 122, ff. 337–8), where against the record of a quit-rent of 5s. on lands in St. Mary Boathaw, given by Henry Fitz-Alwin for the commemoration of his obit, is set the note: 'Iste Henricus, Maior primus London., obiit xiij Kal. Octobris [19 Sept.] et sepultus est infra introitum capituli in medio sub lamina (fn. 1) marmorea.' Henry died in 1212; his lands were taken into the king's hands by a writ dated 5 Oct. of that year (Rot. Pat. 14 John). There is nothing to connect him with the Drapers. Stow calls him a goldsmith (i. 306), perhaps from the beliet that his father was Alwine, son of Leofstanus the goldsmith (i. 122). In a deed of 1196 he is called Henry son of Ailwin, son of Leofstan, mayor of London', and in a deed of Henry II's time he is described as 'one of the nobles of the city' (Anc. Deeds, A. 2103, A. 2507). This supports Dr. Stubbs' suggestion that he was an hereditary baron of London (Const. Hist. i. 674). Henry the Alderman, son of Ailwin, occurs in 1177 (Anc. Deeds, A.7295).

The prior of Tortington's house in Candlewick Street was granted to john de Vere (d. 1540), fifteenth Earl of Oxford, on June 8, 1539 (Letters and Papers, xiv. 1192 (8)). John (d. 1562), sixteenth earl, kept great state here (see i. 89 above). Edward, seventeenth earl, moved to Fisher's Folly (see p. 298). Anne, daughter of Sir John Hart (d. 1603), married Humphrey Smith, Alderman, who was living at Oxford Place in 1633 (Survey, p. 243, ed. 1633). In 1641 the Salters' Company purchased 'the great house called London Stone or Oxford House' of Captain George Smith. This fixes the house of Henry Fitz-Alwin on the site of Salters Hall. See Lethaby, London before the Conquest, 177–9.

l. 18. Edmond Dudley. For Dudley's house in the parish of St. Swithin, beside London Stone, see Letters and Papers, i. 425, 4231.

l. 24. London stone, Camden first suggested that it was 'a miliary like that in the Forum of Rome'. Wren (Parentalia, 265) at the time of the Great Fire formed the opinion, based on the discovery of extensive Roman remains, that 'by reason of the large foundation, it was rather some more considerable monument in the Forum'. The position 'neare vnto the channel' described by Stow would have been in the middle of the street. In 1742 it was removed to the kerb against the buildings on the north, and in 1798, being then reduced to a mere stump, was built into a niche in the wall of St. Swithin's Church. For the history of London Stone and theories as to its origin and significance see Lethaby u. s. pp. 179–84; J. E. Price, Roman Pavement in Bucklersbury, 55–65; and Gomme, Governance of London. In Stow's time London Stone was one of the countryman's sights in the capital; see p. 310.

225, l. 10. Font in Poules Church. James Pilkington, bishop of Durham, denouncing the abuses of St. Paul's, wrote thus in 1561 (ap. Works, p. 210): 'The south alley for Popery and usury, the north for simony, and the horse fair in the midst for all kinds of bargains, meetings, brawlings, murders, conspiracies, and the font for ordinary payment of money, as well known to all men as the beggar knows his bush.' For a payment to be made at St. Paul's in 1362 see Anc. Deeds, A. 5869; one recognized place was 'the Rode' by the north door (id. C. 913); for a payment at the Font in 1537 (id. A. 693).

l. ll. now … at the Royall Exchange. See agreement in 1571 for an annuity to be payable 'at the Tendring House within the Ryall Exchaunge' (Anc. Deeds, A. 13489), and in 1597 for a payment to be made 'att or in the Telling howse usuallie appointed for receiptes and paimentes' (id. A. 13297).

l. 30. tooke name of these Stockes. In 1282 Henry le Waleis built 'domos apud Wolchirchehawe, quae vocantur Hales, anglice Stockes' (Ann. Lond. 90). This fixes the identity of the house called 'le Hales' which is recorded in the Liber Custumarum to have been given by Waleis for the support of the Bridge (Mun. Gild. II. i. 95; Letter-Book B, 217).

226, l. 5. This Stockes market, &c. Fabyan (p. 575) mentions only that it was begun. But see Nicolas, London Chronicle, p. 93, sub anno 1410: 'Also in this yere the stokkes betwen the Cornhull and the Pultrye was begone to make, and in the yere next folwnge it was ful complet and made.' The 'Stocks market' was on the site of the present Mansion House.

l. 18. S. Mary Wool church. An alleged charter of William I professed to confirm the gift to Westminster Abbey of St. Mary 'Newcirke' by Alfward 'cognomento Grossus' (Cotton Charter, vi. 3; it is a forgery, probably of the reign of Henry I). However, about 1104, Eudo 'dapifer' gave to Colchester Abbey, with the assent of Ailward Grossus the priest, the church of St. Mary 'de Westcheping, quae vocatur Niewechirche', which his father Hubert de Rie had bestowed on Ailward (Cart. de Colchester, 3–15, Roxburghe Club: cf. i. 253–4 above). The possession of the church by Colchester was disputed by the monks of Westminster (see Eng. Hist. Review, xvi. 726–8). As 'Newchurch' it was commonly known till about 1300, and even in 1410 it is described as 'St. Mary Newechirche otherwise Wolchirchehawe' (Anc. Deeds, A. 1958, B. 2110, 2112; Mun Gild. II. i. 236). But it appears as St. Mary of 'Wollechurchehawe' in 1260 (Cal. Charter Rolls, ii. 33); and the market at Wollechirchehawe is mentioned in 1268 (Madox, Hist. Exchequer, i. 779). Mr. J. H. Round (Athenaeum, 17 Aug. 1889), on the strength of the form 'Wlnotmaricherche', and the analogous 'Wolmaricherche', which occurs in 1281, has argued that 'Woolchurch-haw' is a corruption of 'Wulnothmaricherch-haw', or the churchyard belonging to St. Mary Wolnoth (assuming that this was the mother-church of St. Mary Newchurch). This, however, is conjectural, and Stow may after all be right as to the derivation. Walbrook was a centre of the wool-trade in the latter half of the thirteenth century, when the name 'Woolchurch' first appears, and William de Wulcherchawe was interested in that trade in 1293 (see note on p. 324 below). The sale of wool at St. Mary Woolchurch was regulated by La Custome de Wollchirchawe about 1300 (Mun. Gild. I. 246, from the Liber Horne).

227, l. 13. fayre Church of Saint Stephen. See history of the Church in Trans. London and Middlesex, v. 327–402. The documents there quoted show that Stow's account was accurately taken from the old church book written in the time of Edward IV. Henry Chichele was rector of St. Stephen's 1396–7. The patronage was given to Colchester Abbey by Eudo about 1100 (Cart. Colchester, p. 3).

228, l. 13. Sir Richard Baker. The uncle of the historian. he died in 1594. Thomas Gore, grocer, left his two messuages in Gracechurch Street and Lombard Street to the Grocers by will dated 11 July, 1586 (Cal. Wills, ii. 723).

l. 21. a street so called of Buckle. More accurately of the great city family of the Bukerels or Buckerells. A deed of 1270 shows that Thomas Buckerel had lately held property in Buckerelesbury (Watney, Hospital of St. Thomas of Acon, p. 262). The name occurs again as 'Bokerelesberi' in 1277, as 'Bokeleresbury' in 1376 and 1449, and as 'Boclersbury' in 1496 (Cal. Wills, i. 29, ii. 522, 599). See also notes on PP. 329–30.

229, l. 7. S. Mary Bothaw. Peter the priest gave his church of St. Mary Bothage to Christchurch, Canterbury, about 1150 (Litterae Cantuarienses, iii. 357).

l. 15. Armes in the Windowes. Munday identified some of them with the supposed arms of Henry Fitz-Ailwin, whom he alleged to have been buried here. See note on p. 315.

230, l. 20. Copped hall. It is mentioned in 1285; in 1292 Roger de Dreyton left his houses called 'La Coppedhalle' in the parish of St. John Walbrook, to be sold for the poor (Cal. Wills, i. 71, 106). For Ralph Cobham see Cal. Inq. p. m. ii. 328.

231, l. 26. the Erber. John de Hatfield, pepperer, dated his will on 12 August, 1368, at his house near lerber (Cal. Wills, ii. 122). His widow, Elena, in 1373 transferred to William, Lord Latimer, 'totum tenementum meum in London vocat.' le Erber'. Latimer's son-in-law, John Neville, of Raby, held it in 1384 (deeds in Husting Rolls, 101 (174), 106 (34), 112 (126), 117 (131); see also Cal. Inq. p. m. iii. 31). There was a Common-beam at the house called 'la Herber' in Walbrook in 1392 (Letter-Book H, 385). The Erber came into the possession of Geoffrey Scrope's grand-nephew William, Earl of Wiltshire, at whose forfeiture in December, 1399, it was granted to John Neville's son Ralph, Earl of Westmorland (C. P. R. Henry IV, i. 149). Ralph's son Richard, Earl of Salisbury, was lodged there in 1458 (Chron. Lond. 168). It came to George, Duke of Clarence, as part of his share of the Neville inheritance (C. P. R. Edw. IV, ii. 346, 457, 488). On his execution it fell to the crown, and on 22 July, 1486, was granted to John de Vere, thirteenth Earl of Oxford, who held it till 1513 (Campbell, Materials Hist. Henry VII, i. 11, 527; Letters and Papers, i. 1774). It was then restored to Clarence's daughter Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, who lived there till her execution in 1541 (id. ii. 1563; xvi. p. 459). In consequence it was sometimes called Salisbury Place.

l. 35. Bush lane, &c. Carter Lane and the Chequer are both named in 1541 (Letters and Papers, xvi. 459).

232, l. 4. Granthams lane. In 1343 it was reported that Grantham had blocked it with two great stones and two iron bars (Mun. Gild. II. ii. 449). It is now called Brewers Lane. For Dodmer see Anc. Deeds, A. 12629.

l. 17. Lambards messuage. As belonging to John Lambard, father of William Lambard, the Kentish antiquary (Inq. p. m. Lond. i. 134).

l. 21. the Steleyard. In the edition of 1598 Stow wrote, 'Stelehouse or Steleyard,' preserving the old alternative, which in his time had gone out of use. The origin and meaning of the name have been so much discussed that it will be well to give its history.

The merchants of Cologne had their house in London as early as 1157. This was probably identical with the Gilda Aula or Gildehalda Teutonicorum, which is the regular description of the house of the Hanse merchants in early deeds (see note on p. 278). The Gildehalds Teutonicorum, at the corner of Cosin Lane and Thames Street, was distinct from the original Stalhof or Steelyard proper, which was on the east of Windgoose Lane (Lappenberg, Urkundliche Geschichte des Hansischen Stahlhofes, II. 96, 142). But though the Hanse did not come into possession of the Steelyard till 1475, they were in occupation of it before 1320, when their earliest extant ordinance refers specifically to the booths and chambers in the Stalhof (id. I. 24, II. 119). The earliest instance of the name 'Steelyard' which I have found is in 1382, 'quedam terre et redditus apud le Steelyarde' (Cal. Inq. p. m. iii. 71). In 1382, 'quedam terre et redditus to 'Styleyerd Lane' (C. P. R Rich. II. ii. 516). In a bond executed by Sir Stephen Scroop at Dantzig in 1394 there is reference to the 'Curia Calibis' in London (Hansisches Urkundenbuch, v. 151, ed. Hohlbaum). During the early part of the fifteenth century I have no note of English references to the Steelyard, but in the Statutes of the London Hanse there is an order as to the closing of the door leading to the 'Stalhof' in 1410, and as to chambers therein in 1460 (Lappenberg, II. 120). Under their agreement with Edward IV the Hanse obtained possession of tenements between the old Gilda Aula and Windgoose Lane, and also of the 'Stilehof otherwise called the Stileyerd' (id. II. 142–3, Act of 1475; and in other deeds 'le Stolehof' alias 'le Styleyerd' id. II. 138–9). Up to this time the house of the Hanse had been called in English 'Easterlings Hall'; now Styleyerd came into use as a name for the whole curtilage (see Chron. Lond. 198, sub anno 1493). Still, in 1509 we get mention of 'tenements betweene the hall of Estlande called Guildehalda Theutonicorum, and the Stalehalfe, whych is theire dynyng hall' (Lappenberg, II. 170). But in Acts of Henry VIII 'Stilliard' and 'Gyldehalda Teutonicorum' are used as synonymous (cf. citations ap. N. and Q. 10th ser. vi. 331). At the end of the sixteenth century the regular from of the name was Stillyard or Stilliard.

The instances of 1382–94 are conclusive as to the meaning attached to the name 'Steelyard' or 'Stahlhof' in England at that time; but they do not prove that this interpretation was correct. It is true that the Hanse Merchants brought some steel to England (for a trifling instance in 1408 see Hansische Geschichtsquellen, vi. 300, ed. Kunze); but the trade was not of sufficient importance to explain or justify the name. Moreover, if the name were of English origin it should on the analogy of 'Tymberhawe' and 'Woolcherchehawe' have been 'Steel-hawe'; I have not found 'yard' in any other early London place-name. So it seems probable that 'Steelyard' is simply an erroneous translation of 'Stahlhof', a name which dates from 1320.

The meaning of 'Stahlhof' is itself obscure. Lappenberg (I. 174) suggests that it was a stall-place or market-place, where goods were exposed for which there was no room in the old Guildhall. Thus it would closely have resembled Blackwell Hall, or Winchester-seld and Tanners-seld (see pp. 324, 337). This interpretation is supported by the reference to chambers and booths in 1320. But 'Staal-hof' in Dutch anciently meant 'a pattern office where samples of cloth were stamped' (Calish, Dutch Dictionary.) Cloth was one of the chief articles of Hanseatic trade in London. One of the principal tenements comprised in the original Steelyard was called 'le Dyhouse' in 1386, and this led Lappenberg (I. 70, cf. II. 68, 138–40) to suggest that there might be some connexion with the Stahle or dye test-cloths of the merchants.

The connexion of 'Steelyard' the place with 'Steelyard' a beam or balance has been much debated. In 1531 there is reference to the 'great scales and balance, and of the Iron Beam, and of the beam of 'le Hanzes Hangis' called 'the Stilliarde Beme' (Letters and Papers, v. p. 104). For a discussion on this point see N. and Q. 10th ser. vi. 282, 369, 412.

In Stow's time the Steelyard was famous for its winehouse in Thames Street, which was a popular resort: 'I come to entreat you to meet him this afternoon at the Rhenish Winehouse in the Stilliard. Will you steal forth and taste of a Dutch bun and a key of sturgeon?' (Webster, Westward Ho! Act II. sc. i.)

For other copies of deeds relating to the Gildhalla Teutonicorum and the Steelyard see Mun. Gild. I. 485–8, and Report on Foedera, App. A. 150, and App. C. 16–32.

233, l. 7. the said marchants. Stow's list of names is not quite accurate. The Liber Albus has: 'Gerardus Merbode, aldermannus Hanse predicte, Ludulphus de Cussard, civis Coloniensis, Luderus de Dunevare, burgensis Tremoniae, Johannes de Areste, burgensis Tremoniae, Bertramus de Hamburgh, Godescalcus de Hudendale, burgensis Tremoniae, Johnnes de Dole, burgensis Monasterii.' In the copy from the Hamburg archives (Rep. on Foedera, C. 18) there are a few variations, viz.: 'Ludulphus de Cuffelde,'Luderus de Dunenar;' 'Trevirensis' for 'Tremoniae'.

234, l. 13. Richard Lions. His house and quay on the east side of the quay and garden of Easterlings Hall passed through various hands to the Abbey of St. Albans in 1456; the Hanse obtained full ownership in 1475 (Lappenberg, I. 59–66, with numerous deeds in the Urkunden.)

l. 19. Windgoose Alley, 'Wendegoslane' in 1343 (Mun. Gild. II. 449). The name suggests a German origin; a Benedict Wandegos occurs in the 13th century (Anc. Deeds, A. 1623). It is called Wendegayne Lane in Rainwell's will. In 1475 the Hanse acquired all the tenements on both sides of the lane, and closed the north end with a wall of stone (Lappenberg, II. 169).

l. 21. Abbot of S. Albons. See above, and Lappenberg, Unkunden xcv–civ.

l. 23. John Rainwell. His house and other tenements were on the east side of Windgoose lane, including the original Stahlhof or Steelyard, and bounded on the south by the Thames and on the north by the land of Robert Combarton; thus Rainwell's land did not reach as far as Thames Street. The property consisted of a mansion with 'le Dyehouse', and two mansions on steps, and a wine-cellar: it had belonged to John Northampton—mayor in 1381–3. See Lappenberg, I. 68–72 and Urkunden, xliii, cv, cxxvii, and cl, with a plan of the whole site.

235, l. 11. William Lichfield. Thomas Gascoigne (Loci e Libro Veritatum, 189) mentions him along with Gilbert Worthyngton of St. Andrew's, Holborn, amongst the famous preachers of his day. Lichfield and Worthyngton were two of the promoters of schools in London in February, 1447 (Rot. Parl. v. 137, see vol. i. p. 73 above). Lichfield's 'Complaint of God to Sinful man and the answer of Man', together with a 'Dialogue of the Passion between God and the Penitent Soul' are extant in Gonville and Caius Coll. MS. 174, ff. 469–82. In a deed relating to property in All Hallows parish, and dated 12 Dec. 1447, William Lichfield, clerk, is nominated as an attorney (Lappenberg, u. s. II. 73). The date of his death was given by Stow and Strype as 24 Oct. 1447; but this is clearly an erroneous reading of his epitaph:
Luce bis x, quater i, migrat Octobris sine panno,
C. quater, x quater, v semel, ter i, M. Karus. which gives xxiiii Oct. M cccc xxxx viii, or 1448.

Similarly the date of John Brickle's death was printed in error as 1451 instead of 1437, his epitaph reading:
C. quater, x, ter, v, semel, i, bis, et M. sociatis, which gives M. cccc. xxxvii.

Strype reads for 'C. quater' in both cases Equater, which is meaningless.

l. 24. one Pot. Henry Pott, about 1550, as tenant of Sir Ralph Dodmer (Anc. Deeds, A. 12629). See vol. i. 232 above. The site is now occupied by the City of London Brewery.

236, l. 1. Cold Harbrough. Stow's account is not quite accurate: see paper by Mr. Philip Norman in Archaeologia, lvii. 257–84. Poultney by his will directed the Cold Harbour to be sold. A deed of 1 Nov. 1353 shows that at his death the Earl of Hereford held two parts for life, and the third part was held by Sir Nicholas Loveyn (not Lovell as on p. 236), who had married Poultney's widow, as part of her dower; Poultney's executors sold the reversion of the whole to Loveyn. Afterwards it belonged to Edward the Black Prince. Henry IV granted it to his son Henry in 1410. Later it was owned by Sir John Cornwall, Lord Fanhope, after whose death, in 1443, it passed to his step-son John Holland, Duke of Exeter. The grant of Richard III to the Heralds (C. P. R. Edward IV, &c. iii. 422) was cancelled by Henry VII (cf. Campbell, Mat. Hist. Henry VII, i. 475–6), who gave the Cold Harbour to his mother Margaret Beaufort for life. On her death Henry VIII gave it, in July 1509, to George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury. (Letters and Papers, i. 253.) Presumably on Shrewsbury's death, in 1538, it reverted to the Crown, and was about that time bestowed on Cuthbert Tunstal, who held it till 1553, when it was restored to the then Earl of Shrewsbury.

For the lease to Henry Stow see Letter-Book E, 108, and for the Charter of 1347 Letter-Book F, 158.

l. 33. the lesse. It is All Hallows 'ad Fenn. in Roperia' in Cal. Inq. p. m. iii. 211.

237, l. 3. H. Holland, duke of Excester, and he was lodged there in the yeare 1472. In Harley MS. 538, f. 80 'Ro. Fabian' is written in the margin. This statement is not found in the printed Fabyan. The date seems to be wrong: cf. the Vitellius Chronicle under 1471:— 'And the xiiijth day of ffebruary the Duke of Exceter cam to London from beyond the see, … and after to his place in Tamystrete' (Chron. Lond. 183).

l. 19. a great number of smal tenements. The Cold Harbour became notorious as the dwelling-place of needy persons, and a sanctuary for debtors and vagabonds. So Ben Jonson in The Silent Woman, Act. II, sc. iii:— 'It knighthood shall do worse, take sanctuary in Cole Harbour and fast. It shall fright all it friends with borrowing letters; and when one of the fourscore hath brought it ten shillings, it knighthood shall go to the Cranes or the Bear at the Bridge-foot and be drunk in fear.'

And Webster, Westward Ho! Act IV, sc. ii:— 'Swore you would build me a lodging by Thames side with a watergate to it, or else take me a lodging in Cole Harbour.'

l. 38. Mannor of the Rose. Originally it belonged to Sir John Poultney, and is perhaps the house which he had licence to crenellate in 1341 (C. P. R. Edw. III, v. 331). It was called his principal messuage in his will. In 1384 Richard, Earl of Arundel acquired, 'Pulteneyesyn' from the Master and chaplains of St. Lawrence College (Anc. Deeds, D. 805). It is called 'My Lady's Inne of Arundel' in 1422 (Lappenberg, Stahlhof, II. 63). In 1450 it is described as 'Messuagium sive hospicium vocatum Poultenaysin'. It had been sold by John Holland, Duke of Exeter, to William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, who was living there about 1446 (Hist. MS. Comm., 9th Rep. 52). Suffolk's heirs retained it, with some vicissitudes, till 1506, when on the attainder of Edmund de la Pole it was granted to Edward, Duke of Buckingham (d. 1521) (Inq. p. m. Lond. i. 76). In Henry VIII, Act. i. sc. ii, reference is thus made to Buckingham: 'The Duke being at the Rose, within the parish St. Lawrence Pountney.' In 1526 it was granted to Henry Courtenay, Earl of Devon, after whose execution in 1538 it was granted in 1539 to Robert Ratcliffe, Earl of Sussex (Letters and Papers, xiv. 867, c. 17), whose son sold the greater part to the Merchant Taylors, and the rest to Alderman Beswicke. See Archaeologia, lvii. 268–9.

238, l. 32. a common cookerie or Cookes row. FitzStephen has simply publica coquina. But Stow is probably right in his interpretation of this as a Cooks' Row, and not merely a solitary cook-shop. The building Assize drawn up after the Great Fire in 1212 ordered all the cook-shops on Thames to be whitewashed and plastered inside and out (Mun. Gild. II. i. 86; see also Mr. Riley's Preface, p. xxxii). There is a reference to 'coquinae Vinetrie' in 1221 (Anc. Deeds, A. 1647).

239, l. 27. Herber lane or Brikels lane. Herbier lane in Vintry is mentioned in a fourteenth-century deed (Hist. MSS. Comm., 9th Rep. 16), and as late as 1448 (Cal. Wills, ii. 516). John Brikels is probably the John Brickles who died in 1437 (see p. 321 above). It is now Brickhill lane.

l. 31. three Cranes. Anciently there was only one Crane, and the inn was called 'The Crane in Vintry' (Chron. Lond. p. 81, sub anno 1425). Sir Walter Scott in Kenilworth (ch. ii) refers to it as 'the most topping tavern in London'. If not that, it was a well-known inn. Ben Jonson, in Bartholomew Fair, Act I, sc. i, associates it with the more famous 'Mermaid' and 'Mitre': 'A pox o' these pretenders to wit! Your Three Cranes, Mitre, and Mermaid men! not a corn of true salt, not a grain of right mustard amongst them all.' Pepys in Jan., 1662, had 'a sorry poor dinner' there in a 'narrow doghole of a room' (Diary, ii. 177). 'Le Peynted Aley' occurs in 1442 (Cal. Wills, ii. 513).

240, l. 1. Iohn Gisers, Vintner. This is the John Gisors who died in 1351. His grand-daughter Margaret married Henry Pycard, and inherited all his lands and tenements in St. Martin in the Vintry (Cal. Wills, i. 643–4). See further note on p. 354 below.

l. 19. The Vintners. On the history of the Company and their muniments see an article by J.G. Nichols in Trans. Lond. and Middlesex, iii. 432–47, with special reference to Stodie's bequest.

l. 32. sweet wines. By a patent dated Nov. 26, 1373, John Peachie or Pecche obtained a monopoly for the sale of sweet wines by retail (Letter-Book G, 318, 320). For this and his extortion in connexion therewith he was accused in the Good Parliament of 1376, and imprisoned (Rot. Parl. ii. 328). As a consequence he was, along with Richard Lions and Adam Bury, removed from his aldermanry and deprived of the freedom of the City (Letter-Book H, 38, 44). It was an incident in the political rivalry between the victualling and clothing Guilds. See note on p. 312 above.

241, l. 10. the Church booke. Unfortunately it no longer exists.

l. 17. so much for Wines. 'In the time of Henry the Eight, and Edward the Sixt, Vinteners and Taverners houses were not in any such measure, maner, nor plenteous store and variety of wines of all Nations in any one man's house, as now at this time there is in every Vintener's house; for in those days whosoever drew White, Claret, and red Wine, sold no more kindes of Wine; the Dutch then sold only Reinish wine, as now they doe; and at that time, when an Argosey came with Greeke and Spanish Wines, viz. Muscadell, Malmsey, Sacke, and Bassard, the Apothecaries of London then went unto those merchants, and every man bought such Rundlets, vessels, and quantities of those rich wines, as they thought they should Retayle, unto such as usually bought of them only for Physicke and for the Communion Table' (Annales, p. 867, ed. 1631). This is an addition made by Howes, but it looks so like a reminiscence of Stow's that it may very probably have been derived from his Collections.

242, l. 3. Palmers lane, now called Anchor lane. 'Palmereslane' in 1343 (Mun. Gild. II. ii. 450), and in 1439 and 1448 (Cal. Wills, ii. 487, 516).

l. 5. Worcester house. Worcester Place in St. James, Garlickhithe, was granted on May 6, 1551, by William Somerset, Earl of Worcester, to Thomas Parrys, who died seized thereof in 1563 (Inq. p. m. Lond., ii. 27).

l. 11. of olde time called Arches. The deed, dated 1276, is calendared in Ancient Deeds, A. 7823; there, and in Stow's own note from a Cartulary of St. Mary Overy (ap. Harley MS. 544, f. 100), it reads 'Walter de Forda' and 'seld called Wynchestre seld'. A little lane called 'Le Arche' in the parish of Paternoster cherche occurs in 1299 (Letter-Book C, 35).

For the Selda Wyntoniae at Queenhithe in 1244, see Mun. Gild. III. 448. In 1275–80 it belonged to the Hardels (Cal. Wills, i. 24, 46). In 1299 William de Wulcherchehawe owned 'la Wyncestreselde', where the merchants of Andover came to deal in wool (Mun. Gild. II. i. 115; cf. Letter-Book C, 13, for 1293), 'Andovreseld' and 'le Stonhous' adjoining thereto belonged to John le Blund in 1316. (Anc. Deeds, C. 586). John Stodeye had a lease of 'Wynchestre Seld' in Allhallows the Great in 1347 (Letter-Book F, 112). I have not found any reference to 'Stendenbridge'; but William de Staundon was patron of St. Mary Somerset in 1273 (Cal. Wills, i. 15), and William Stondon had land in Walbrook in 1428 (see i. 227 above).

243, l. 20. Sir Heere Tanke, or Hartancleux. This is Sir Hartank Van Clux, a Silesian knight, who entered the service of Henry IV about 1400, and was afterwards employed by Henry V as a diplomatic agent at the court of Sigismund.

There is a list of burials in Harley MS. 6069, f. 29, which reads: Thomas Wandefforde, Sir Edmond Moulso, Sir William Houldhall, William Bernok and Robert Sheuyngham (for 'Sherington').

ll. 36, 37. this Tower … so called, of pertayning to the kinges. Stow is in error. 'The Royal' was a corruption of 'la Ryole', a name which was due to occupation by wine-merchants from La Reole in Gascony. At the end of the reign of Henry III, Thomas Bat demised his tenement 'la Riole' to Simon de Beauvais (Stow's 'Beawmes'), who was surgeon to Edward I and had it confirmed to him in 1275 (Cal. Charter Rolls, ii. 202). At the great Iter in 1320 Simon's grandson failed to maintain his right to 'La Riole' (Placita de Que Warranto, 461). Edward III, in 1331, gave 'La Real' for a wardrobe to Queen Philippa, who was building there in 1349–53 (C. P. R. Edw. III, vii. 537, viii. 393, ix. 136, 342, 518). For grant of hospitium vocatum le Reole to St. Stephens in 1369, see Mon. Angl. vi. 1350.

244, l. 38. Richard de Wilehale, &c. Stow obtained this from the Cartulary of St. Mary Overy, cf. his note in Harley MS. 544, f. 100vo.

245, l. 13. Forgers of Blades, and therefore called Bladers. Presumably 'blader' was used in Stow's time as the equivalent of bladesmith. But when he employs 'blader' to translate 'bladarius', as he does in the case of Walter Nele, and of William Palmer on i. 347, there is no doubt that he was in error. In the Middle Ages 'bladarius' meant a cornmonger or dealer in corn (bladum). So in the Ordinances of the Crafts catalogued in the Liber Albus, Bladarii et Portitores bladi appear together, and other ordinances are for Cultellarii et Bladsmithes, and for Cultellarii et Vaginarii (sheath makers—Mun. Gild. I. 734–5, and III. 412, where 'bladarii' are called to give evidence on the price of corn). Walter Nele, as shown by Stow's citation from his will, had a wide agricultural connexion; of other bladers, William Palmer in 1349, and William de Thame in 1357 make bequests of granaries, and John de Eneveld in 1361 of a quantity of bread, corn, and malt (Cal. Wills, i. 538, 673, ii. 33). It is, however, noteworthy that he had been admitted as Warde, a 'cuteller' of York, complained that he had been admitted as a blader instead of as a cutler: here the word must surely mean bladesmith (Memorials, 474). Hamo le Barber (Cal. Wills, i. 533) was, like Palmer, connected with Henley; probably he was a cornmonger by profession, and a barber only by name. See for both Nele and Barber, Letter-Book E, 233.

ll. 36–8. H. Causton … 1396. Henry Causton, mercer, founded a chantry here in 1350 (Cal. Wills, i. 638).

246, l. 18. William Shipton. William Brampton by his will, dated 1456, founded a chantry here for William Shepton (Cal. Wills, ii. 559, 567).

l. 28. the king was then lodged. See notes on pp. 280 and 324.

247, l. 28. Ringed hall. In 1352 it occurs as the property of Benedict de Folsham, grocer (Anc. Deeds, C. 189). His company had met there in 1349 (Kingdon, Grocers' Archives, 38). Afterwards it belonged to Rewley Abbey, Oxford. Henry VIII granted it on February II, 1541, to Morgan Phelippe alias Wolfe, his goldsmith, who at once sold it to Sir Thomas Mildmay (Letters and Papers, xvi. 580). Later owners were Sir James Croft, and Stephen Woodroffe, who died seized thereof in 1576 (Inq. p. m. Lond. iii. 4).

248, l. 4. Kerion lane. 'Kyrune lane' in 1259, afterwards usually 'Kyron' or 'Kirone' lane (Cal. Wills, i. 3, 24, 80, ii. 64). John Kerion held land in St. Laurence, Candlewick St., in 1284 (Cotton MS., Faustina, A. viii, f. 164). There was a 'Kyrone lane' at Kingston (Anc. Deeds, B. 1612, 1651).

l. 9. saint Martin de Beremand. 'Bæmanne cyrc' is mentioned in an alleged charter of William I to Westminster in 1067 (Cotton Chart. vi. 3; this is, however, a fabrication, probably of the time of Henry I). Ranulph Peverel gave it to Gloucester Abbey in the time of William II (cart. S. pet. Glouc. i. 94, 390–1). It is called 'S. Martin de Baremannes chirche apud coquinas Vinetrie' in 1221 (Anc. Deeds, A. 1647). The name must be connected with O.E. 'bærman', a porter, or carrier. It can hardly be connected with the neighbouring 'Wermanecher' which Edward the Confessor gave to St. Peter Ghent in 1044 (Kemble, Cod. Dipl. dcclxxi), unless that name is a graphic error for 'Bermanecherche', which is somewhat improbable; in later deeds this place appears as 'Wermanacre' (cal. French Documents, 502–3, ed. Round), and at the Iter of 1320 as 'Terra de Wermenatra' (Placita de Quo Warranto, 462).

l. 10. Mathew Columbars. The only person of the name whom I have found is Sir Matthew de Columbars (d. 1282), a prominent citizen, who was the King's Chamberlain in London and taker of wines throughout England (Letter-Book B, 280; Cal. Wills, i.59).

l. 14. Sir Iohn Gisors. On the Gisors family see note on pp. 354–5.

l. 20. Bartholomew de la vauch. The list in Harley MS. 6069 reads 'de la Vernha'.

l. 23. Robert Dalusse. In Harley MS. 538 the epitaph is completed thus:—
The 29 day of September he toke the way.
Pray for us, we yow pray.
Lyke as you would be prayed for another day.

l. 33. Bartrand, wife to Grimond Descure. The Latin inscription preserved by Strype is: 'Hic jacet corpus Bertrandae quondam Uxoris Ormondi Descure, Armig. unius Hostiariorum Camerae inclytissimi Angliae et Franciae Regis Henrici VII. Quae obiitdie Aprilis 1494.'

249, l. I. Chantries there. Gilbert atte Merssh founded a chantry for himself and William de Stokesby and their wives in 1396 (Cal. Wills, ii.328).

l. 3. S. Iames, called at Garlick hith. For a notice of St. James Garlickhithe see Trans. Lond. and Midd. iii. 392–403. The list of chantries returned in 1547–8 does not agree with Stow's, but John Rodyng, or Rothyng, appears as the principal benefactor; he was the son of Richard de Rothyng (Letter-Book F, 233). For chantries of John de Oxenford, John de Whitthorne, 1349, Walter Nele, and Henry Montkoy 1362, see Cal. Wills, i. 460, 586, 673; ii. 66. Whitthorne commemorated Goodcheape and Cressingham. St. James 'versus vintariam' occurs about 1170 (Hist. MSS. Comm., 9th Rep. 13). For the lands of Oxenford's chantry see Inq. p. m. London, ii. 40. Stow's authority for Galfrid Moncley is the Liber S. Mariae Overy (cf. Harley MS. 544, f. 100).

l. 20. Nicholas Staham. So in all the early editions, but perhaps Nicholas Statham (d. 1472) the lawyer is meant. See Dict. Nat. Biog. liv. 112, and Errata, p. 258. The list in Harley MS. 6069, f. 29, has 'Stathum'. The same authority gives 'Stonor' for 'Stonarde' in l. 31.

250, l. 9. Corney streete. 'Corneysere strate' occurs in 1274 (Cal. Wills, i. 17). 'Corveyseres' street (Anc. Deeds, A. 2024) for Cordwainers Street is a better form.

l. 11. Budge Row. Budge was a kind of fur. See references to 'Furres of Budge' on i. 86 above. Milton has: 'those budge doctors of the Stoic fur' (Comus, 707) in allusion to the lambskin fur on graduates' hoods. Ben Jonson writes: 'Like the coneyskin woman of Budge Row' (Bartholomew Fair, Act I, sc.i).

l. 14. as Leyland termeth it. See note on p. 352.

l. 15. the red Lion, &c. No doubt the house called 'pe lyoun atte Dore' in Watling Street, which is mentioned 1362–66 (Letter-Book G, 151, 218).

l.26. Turnebase lane. It is 'Tornebaston lane' in 1328, but 'Turnebast lane' in 1436 (Cal. Wills, i. 341; ii. 481).

251, l. 14. Sopers lane. Stow is in error. The name occurs as early as 1259 (Cal. Wills, i. 4), and was, no doubt, due to Sopers or soapmakers, who dwelt there. See Mun. Gild. II. i. 97. Aleyn le soper was a disreputable person, without any obvious connexion with sopers lane (Memorials, 118). Sopers lane is now Queen Street.

l. 36. With Epitaphes. In Harley MS. 538, 85vo, the epitaphs are completed as follows:
Now be they gon and we them misse.
Christ bringe theyr sowles to heven's blisse.
On the younger thus:
Thomas Knoles lieth vnder this stone,
And his wife Isabell fleshe and bone.
They were together xix yere,
X children they had in fere.
His father and he to this chirche
Many good dedes they ded wirche.
Example by them here ye may see,
That the world is but a vanitie.
For whether ye be smale or greate,
All shall turne to wormes meate.
This sayde Thomas was layde on bere
The viij day of the moneth of feverer
The date of Jhesu Christ truly
A M.CCCC fyve and forty.
We may not pray, hartely pray ye
For our sowles pater noster et ave;
The sonne owre paynes lessed may be,
Graunt vs the Holy Trinitie.

252, ll. 7–12. Thomas Windout &c. In Harley MS.538, f. 86, several corrections are contained: 'Windout one of the shrives … Hind … and also to the steeple of Bow then in building; Hugh Acton … steeple of St. Anthonie's Chirche, he also glazed the west window of Aldermary Chirche, every fote of glass price xiid.'

l. 25. a thousand foure hundred it was, &c. street died in 1460 (Cal. Wills, ii. 540).

l. 31. Henrie Halton. In Harley MS. 538: 'and Robert Halton his son, 1433. John Wodiam merchaunt-taylor, 1513.'

l.33. Iohn Grantham. The mayor of 1328; founded a chantry in 1345 (Cal Wills, i. 476).

l.37. Aldemarie. The priory of Christchurch, Canterbury, held it by the gift of Living, the priest, in the reign of William I. (Mon. Angl i. 109, cf. Litterae Cantuarienses, ii. 175).

253, l. 6. building vp of that Church. In Harley MS. 538 the narrative continues: 'Besydes that he gave liberally to the prisons, hospitalls, lazar-houses, and to pore householders; to the mending of highe wayes betwixt London and Coventrye 200 li. To Rochester bridge 10 li. To Dover 10 markes. To pore maydes mariages 100 markes. To pore husbondmen in Oxfordshire and Warwikeshire 140 shares and 140 coultars of yron. Two serplars of his best woole to by a jewell for the Stapelers Hall. He gave to seven almsmen of the grocers company in London 6d. the pece wekely for ever; and to the pore of Aldermary parishe 13 shillings and four pence yerely for ever.'

The substance of this appears in the chapter on 'Honour of Citizens' (i. 111).

l.9. Richard Chawcer. He occurs as a Vintner as early as 1320; he died in 1349. He was not, however, Geoffrey Chaucer's father, though in 1323 he married as her third husband the widow of Robert Chaucer, the poet's grandfather. Richard and Robert were possibly cousins. See Skeat, Chaucer, I. pp. xi–xv. Richard Chaucer's will dated April 12, 1349, mentions Mary his wife and her son, Thomas Heyroun (Cal. Wills, i. 590).

l. 17. Aldermarie Church. In Harley MS. 558 here is inserted: 'Hewghe Acton, merchaunt-taylor, buried Seint Antonin's 1530, glazed the west window of this Aldermary chirche xiid. every fote of glasse. And these were the benefactors to this chirche the last that I can reade of. The foundation of a fayre steple or bell tower was layde and reysed up some xvi or xx fote above the ground, and so it restethe.'

l. 36. Newe Marie Church. Stow is in error in identifying this with St. mary-le-Bow. See note on P.317 above It will be observed that he has corrected his explanation of 'de Arcubus' given in 1598 (see p. 248 above). There is a St. Mary Arches Church at Exeter, of which Freeman (Exeter, p. 63, Historic Towns) wrote: 'The origin of St. Mary Arches is uncertain, but it has Norman columns, and is the only parish church [in Exeter] with regular aisles.' Florence of Worcester (ii. 29), in describing the storm of 1090, refers to Bow Church as 'ecclesia quae ad Arcum dicitur'.

254, l. 34. for his preferment In Harley MS. 538 stow has added the words: 'Such a brother have I. God make hym penitent.' see Introduction, p. xix.

255, l. 36. Bowe-bell. Stow does not connect Bow-bell with cockney, but Rowlands in his Letting of Humours, &c., p. 65, has: 'To let a Bow-bell cockney put me downe.' There is a reference to the curfew at 'nostre dame des Arches' in 1363 (Letter-Book G, 150).

256, l. 27. Grammar schoole. See vol. i. 73, and note on p. 321 above.

l. 36. Richard Lambert. He died on April 4, 1567, during his year of shrievalty. Stow's Memoranda, p. 141.

257, ll. 15, 16. this sild … for himselfe. The tradition was so strong that when Bow Church was rebuilt by Wren, a royal gallery overlooking the street was provided.

l. 25. Crounsilde, or Tamarsilde. Tamarsilde is no doubt a corruption of Tanners-seld, the building in Friday Street to which all 'foreign' tanners had to bring their hides (Letter-Book G, 260; Memorials, 343). The Tanners-seld in Westchepe, parish of St. Mary-le-Bow, occurs in 1280, and references to it are common down to 1370 (Cal. Wills, i. 46, ii. 135). In 1309–10 there was also a Tanners Seld in St. Lawrence, Jewry (Letter-Book C, 162, 169). 'La Selde Coronata' or Crowned Seld occurs in 1384 (Cal. Wills, ii. 242).

1. 37. the Kinges head. On June 18, 1498, Perkin Warbeck was stood on 'a scaffold made in Chepyssyde, foreagayn the Kynges hede' (Chron. Lond. 223).

258, l. 11. I read of three shops. Given to Trinity in the time of Prior John (1250–8) by Laurence de S. Michael, who held them at the rents named (Guildhall MS. 122, f. 410).

259, l. 26. Buckles berie, so called &c. See note on p. 318 above. Mr. W.H. Stevenson (Engl. Hist. Rev. xii. 491) has pointed out that in London 'bury' meant little more than a large house. This is clearly so in the case of Bucklersbury.

l. 31. The olde Barge Documents dealing with the history of this house from 1276 to 1440, when it became the property of the Hospital of St. Thomas Acon are calendared in Watney's Account of St. Thomas Acon, pp. 263–8 (see also C.P.R. Henry VI, iii. 511). For its later history see Inq. p.m. London, i. 149, ii. 74, 77. It is first called 'le Barge' in a deed of 1414. It was at one time the house of Henry le Waleis.

260, l. 2. Cernettes towre. The earliest reference I have found is to 'la Tower Servat' in 1331 (Anc. Deeds, A. 10948). This suggests some connexion with William Servat, who was an alderman in 1312 (Memorials, 94). In the grant to St. Stephen's of 1358 it is called 'Sewtes Tour in Bokelesbury' (Mon. Angl. vi. 1350). In 1365 it is described under the name of Surnetes-tour as the mansion of William Holbech, whose widow, Matilda, bequeathed it in 1393 as Sernetes-tour to John Clee, Draper (Cal. Wills, ii. 104, 303). Elsewhere it is called Servers tour, and Sylvestre tour in 1455 (Hist. MSS. Comm., 9th Rep. 56a). In the edition of 1598 Stow calls it Seruesse or Seruice Tower (see p. 250 above).

l. 18. possessed of Grocers and Apothecaries. So in Webster's Westward Ho! Act I, sc. ii: 'Go into Bucklersbury and fetch me two ounces of preserved melons: look there be no tobacco taken in the shop when he weighs it.' And Merry Wives of Windsor, Act III, sc. iii: 'Lisping hawthorn buds, that come like women in men's apparel, and smell like Bucklersbury in simple time.'

Thomas Becon writes in 1563: 'If one devil be in so little porcion of incense, what a number of divells be there in all the apothecaries shops that are in Bucklersbury.'

Walsingham wrote in 1581 to Burghley 'hoping that his absence will do him more good than all the drugs in Bucklersbury' (Cal. State Papers, 1581–90, p. 21).

l. 25. Bennet shorne, or Shrog, or Shorehog The name is very much older than Stow supposed. 'Alfwinus, sacerdos Scerehog' occurs in a deed dated IIII–31 (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. 61b). A wether is called a 'sherehog' when it has been once shorn. The name as applied to the church may be due to some person like William Serehog, or Alwin Serehog, who appear in early twelfth-century deeds (id. 63, 65). The church is called St. Bennet Sorhog before 1248 (Anc. Deeds, A. 1621).

l. 32. buried in this church. The list in Harley MS. 6069, f. 62, reads: 'Hooe' for Hold, and 'Warmyngton' for Warrington.

261, l. 11. In this Church. The list in Harley MS. 6069, f. 62, reads: John 'Bernes'; John 'Boston'; John 'Legage' (for 'Gage'); Robert Marshall alderman, 'and Elizabeth his wife'; 'Borhford' (for 'Corcheforde'); 'Nicholas Wyfolde twyse mayor of London, and Thomas his son.'

l. 29. Pepperers in Sopers lane, &c In 1365 there is reference to the Misteries of Grossers, Pepperers, and Apothecaries, both in Soperslane and in Bokeleresbury (Letter-Book G, 204). See note on above. For an ordinance on Pepperers of Soperslane in 1316 see Letter-Book E, 67, Memorials, 120.

262, l. 18. Salomon Lanuare. Presumably Salomon de Lanvare, Culter, who founded a chantry here by his will in 1312 (Cal. Wills, i. 227; Milbourn, Hist. of St. Mildred's, 19).

l. 19. Hugh Game. In 1436 (id. 19, 20; Cal. Wills, ii. 479).

l. 35. On the north side. In Harley MS. 538: 'On the north syde of the chirche remayne two tombes of marble; but the plates of inscriptions beinge taken from them, no man can tell who were buried vnder them, excepte only by the reporte of one man, who saythe they were the tombes of Thomas Monshampe and William Brothers: which William Brothers lived and was chirchewarden there in the yere 1519, and deceased 1547, as apereth by the chirche boke.' Brothers was buried here on 2 Aug. 1547 (Milbourn, u.s. 16, 20).

263, l. 3. Counter in the Poultrie. In 1441 'le Compter' in the parish of St. Mildred belonged to Thomas Haseley; it was bequeathed to the Mayor and Commonalty by Walter Hunt in 1477 (Cal. Wills, ii. 501, 575).

l. 7. saint Marie at Conie hope lane ende. Reference to St. Mary Conyhope occurs as early as 1279, when Thomas de Mymmes founded a chantry there. John Mymmes, 'ymaginour,' or image-maker, left money for a chaplain in 1348, and subsequently a Brotherhood was established there. 'Ion yrunnes' is no doubt a blunder for 'lo. mymmes'. The purchaser of the chapel was not Thomas but William Hobson, who died in Jan. 1582, seized of a 'messuage newly built called Corpus Christi Chappel, wherein he dwelt, with two shops thereto adjoining' (Inq. p. m. London, iii. 51; Cal. Wills, i. 41, 558; Milbourn, History of St. Mildred's, pp. 22–6.) Conyhope Lane is now called Grocers Hall Court.

l. 27. new common hall. See vol. i. 278, and note on pp. 334–5 below.

264, l. 16. Bordhangly lane. Probably a mistake for Bordhaugly lane. 'La Bordhawe in S. Mary de Colecherche' occurs in 1257 (Hist. MSS. Comm., 9th Rep. p. 17) and again in 1275; the name appears as 'Bordhawelane' in 1305, 'Burdellane' in 1405, and 'Barthawlane' in (Inq. p.m. London, ii. 68). Bordhawe would most likely by a timber1434 (Cal. Wills, i. 25, 170; ii. 365, 470); 'Brodhawlane' occurs in 1557 yard. Dr. Sharpe suggests as an alternative derivation 'bordel', a brothel; this may be supported by the form 'Burdellane'.

l. 30. about the yeare 1285. The conduit in St. Mary Colechurch in West Cheap is mentioned in 1261 (Cal. Charter Rolls, ii. 38), and the Fraternity of St. Thomas the Martyr at the Conduit of London in 1278 (Cal. Wills, i. 29, 70). The first building of the Conduit, authorized in 1236 (see i. 16 above), was begun in 1245 (Ann. Lond.44).

265. l. 24. In the yere 1351. This probably refers to the disturbances between the Fishmongers and Skinners, as a consequence of which two men were executed at the Cross in Chepe in 1340. An indemnity was granted to the Mayor on 18 March, 1346, and Stow may have taken his information from some later document, and so have made an error in the date. (See Letter-Book F, 58, 96–7, 138; Memorials, 210, 211; and Herbert, Livery Companies, ii. 306.)

266, l. 16. In the yere 1533, &c. The misprint of '1553', which appears in the edition of 1603, was repeated by Munday. Strype made a foolish correction by substituting 'Mary' for 'Anne'. The reference is to the coronation of Anne Boleyn, of whom Stow writes in his Annales, p. 952, ed. 1605: 'she went forward by the cross which was newly gilt.'

l. 32. againe fastned and repaired. This was done under an express order from the queen. See Remembrancia, pp. 65–6 (the document there given was before 1595).

Ben Jonson, writing in 1599 or 1600, refers to the muilation of Cheap Cross in Cynthia's Revels, Act I, sc. i: — 'To frame some encomiastic speech upon this our metropolis, or the wise magistrates thereof? Descend into a particular admiration of their justice, for the due measure of coals, burning of cans and such like? As also their religion in pulling down a superstitious cross and advancing a Venus or Priapus in place of it.'

267, l. 8. counsellers directed their letters, &c. Stow gives the gist of the letters very accurately. The first letter, dated 2 Feb. 1600, was signed by 'the Lord Archbishop and Mr. Secretary only'; it refers to the cross having been taken away, and to 'an intent instead thereof to sett up some other devise'. The second is 'signed by all their Lordships and the rest at this sitting excepting Mr. Comptroler', but dated 14 Dec. 1600; it repeats the order as given by Stow, 'not approving that weakness in any men that will take offence at the historicall and civill use of such an ancyent ensigne of Christianitie. In the discharge of your duety herein wee are of opinion that the lesse alteracion you make the better it is.' Acts of Privy Council, xxx. 27, and xxxi. 44.

l. 34. This old crosse. Erected by the Earl of Gloucester in the reign of Henry III; also called 'The Broken Cross'. Provision was made for the erection of a conduit in its place in 1390. See Memorials, 397, 435, 521; Letter-Book H, 343, 354, 358; and vol. i. 342 above.

268, l. 32. for the most part possessed of Mercers. for Mercers in Cheapside see Rowlands, Letting of Humours, &c., p. 45:—

Who have we here? Behold him and be mute.
Some mightie man I'll warrant by his sute.
If all the Mercers in Cheap side shew such,
Ile give them leave to give to me twice as much.

269, l. 4. S. Thomas of Acon. For its history see Some Account of the Hospital of St. Thomas of Acon, by Sir John Watney, F.S.A. The founder's name should be given as Thomas, son of Theobald de Helles. The list of monuments is nearly identical with one in Harley MS. 6069, f. 30, which, however, reads 'Gernon' for 'Ganon'.

ll. 31, 32. Locke and Allen, In Harley MS. 538: 'Sir W. Locke, Mercer, sheriff 1548, deceased 1550; Sir John Allen, mercer, mayor 1525 and 1535, deceased 1544' (1545 new style).

l. 39. Sir Iohn Allen… being founder. Allen did not build the Mercers Chapel, but contributed 300 l. towards the total of 2735l. on condition that he was buried there. In 1549 his tomb was moved to the converted Church of St. Thomas. (Account, u.s. pp. 102–5.)

270, l. 29. S. Martin called Pomary. In early deeds it is simply St. Martin in Ironmongers' Lane—as on i. 280. It is called St. Martin Pomer in 1252 (Watney, Account of St. Thomas Acon, 257), and St. Martin in Pomerio in 1303 (Mun. Gild.II.i. 237). After this St. Martin de Pomerio is usual. In mediaeval Latin pomerium means an apple-orchard. The suggestion adopted by Mr. Gomme (Governance of London, pp. 84–5) that pomerium has its classical meaning of the open space within and without the walls of a town, and that 'Pomary' preserves the memory of the old Roman city lacks confirmation.

271,, l. l. Blossoms Inne, but corruptly Bosoms Inne. The name is from the family of Blosme. 'Blosmes-hyn' and 'Blossemesin' occur in 1374–5 (Letter-Book F, 136), and 'Bosum-is-Inne' in 1466 (Cal. Wills, ii. 540). The name survives in Blossom Inn Yard.

ll. 4, 5. Honey lane. The name was probably due to the sale of honey; 'Huni lane' occurs as early as 1207 (Hist. MSS. Comm., 9th Rep. p. 18).

l. 16. Catte-street, corruptly called Catteten streete, occurs as Cattestrete in 1281. (Cal. Charter Rolls, ii. 253), and throughout the fourteenth century; as Catton Lane (cf. i. 259 above) in 1438 and 1483 (Cal. Wills, ii. 523, 585). Now Gresham Street. Catte Streets occur in Oxford and many other towns, see N.and Q. 10th ser. v and vi.

Margin. Liber Fletwod. It was compiled by the Recorder, William Fleetwood, and presented by him to the City on July 31, 1576. Probably its preparation was the occasion of Fleetwood being in possession of the Liber Custumarum and other City records (see Introduction, p. xxxii).

272, l. 15. William Elderton. A notorious tippler and writer of ballads from 1559. onwards. The description of him as an attorney in the Sheriff's Courts is peculiar to Stow. He may be the Master Elderton whom Machyn (Diary, 290) mentions as a magistrate at the Guildhall in 1562. He was also an actor and master of a company of comedians, and died about 1592. To Nash in Pierce Penilesse (Works, ii. 67) he is Elderton, who 'consumed his ale-crammed nose to nothing, in bear bayting with whole bundels of ballets'.

273, l. 1. had of the Fellowshippes. Stow's authority is clearly the London Chronicles (Chron. Lond.257). The full list of contributions is printed in Price's Account of the Guildhall, p. 64, from 'Repertory, I. ff. 1817–2'.

l. 13. hanging of Tapestrie. The record in the City Journal, xi. f. 28, shows that Alwyn's intention was that the 'iij Clothes of Arrays' which he left for the use of the commonalty should be kept by the Mercers, and his representatives made provision accordingly. (See Price, Account, p. 57.)

l. 34. to build of new. In April, 1430, the mayor, aldermen, &c., represented that the chapel of St. Mary by the Guildhall was small, ruinous, inconvenient, and dangerous, and except the site of the Guildhall, which had long been building, there was no site near whereon a larger chapel could be built, save the messuage given by Fanelore and Frauncis. Licence was therefore granted to pull down the old chapel, and build a larger on this site; and to refound the college with Sir John Bernard as warden. (C. P. R. Henry VI, ii. 57–8.)

274, l. 20. by him both builded and glased. John Wells, who in his will directed that he should be buried at St. Anthony's, made no such provision. But his executors covenanted with the City to build a great window at the east end of the Guildhall chapel, a presbytery, two niches for images, and an altar with marble steps (City Record, ap. Cal. Wills, ii. 499).

275, l. 17. the shanke bone of a man. William Harrison, in his Description of Britain (Holinshed, Chronicles, i. 19), writes of the bone thus: 'which in times past was 28 inches in length, but now it beginneth to decaie, so that it is shorter by foure inches than it was in the time of King Edward.'

l. 35. William Melrith, or Melreth, died in Jan.-Feb., 1446 (Cal. Wills, ii. 506). He gave an illuminated missal to St. Lawrence Church; now Arundel MS. 109 in the British Museum. There is a similar list of names in Harley MS. 6069, f.30, which, however, reads 'Chayham' for 'Chayhee' (p. 276, l. 10).

ll. 37–9. Richard Rich … 1469. Strype says his will was proved in 1464.

276, l. 12. Iohn Marshal …1493. Munday gives the inscription with date to Jan. 1498. (Survey, 286, ed. 1633).

l. 36. the Iron grates. The arch or sluice by which the Walbrook passed under the wall. Roach Smith describes its discovery thus: 'Opposite Finsbury Circus, at a depth of 19 feet, a well-turned Roman arch was discovered, at the entrance of which on the Finsbury side were iron bars placed apparently to restrain the sedge and weeds from choking the passage' (Archaeological Journal,i. III). See also Archaeologia, lx. 177, and compare vol. i. 175 above.

277, l. 2. Lothberie. It has been suggested that the name may be due to the Albert Lotering who held land about 1130 in 'Warda Haconis' (Hist. MSS. Comm., 9th Rep. 66). But there is no proof that 'Warda Haconis' is Broad Street. Moreover, St. Margaret 'de Lodebure' occurs 1181–1204 (id. 15), and 'Londeber' and 'Lothbery' occur 1222–48 (Anc. Deeds, A. 10391–2). The form 'Lothyngebire', which appears in 1275, is exceptional; though Broad Street ward was called 'Lodingeberi' in the list of 1285, it is 'Lotheberi' in 1293 (Cal. Wills, i. 20, 703).

For founders and candlesticks of Lothbury see Rowlands, A Foole's Bolt is soone shot, p. 9:—
And swore he had found out old Raymond's tricke,
To make good Gold of a brass Candlesticke:
Lothburie, where the Brasiers doe abide,
He would make ten times richer than Cheapside.

l. 28. Elianor… wife to Edward the first. An error for Eleanor of Provence, mother of Edward I, to whom Henry III had granted the custody of London Bridge in 1265(see Hundred Rolls, i. 403 sqq.). Dr. Sharpe informs me that the original of the document in Letter-Book C, 61, is headed, 'Carta Alianore quondam Regine Anglie, &c.

278, l. 10. their chappell. On March 8, 1305, the friars of the Sack assigned to Robert FitzWalter their chapel in Colemanstrete, lately a synagogue of Jews, for him and his heirs to find two chaplains there (C. P. R. Edw. I, iv. 317; Rot. Parl. i. 162). FitzWalter apparently absorbed it in his mansion. Stow seems to have confused it with St. Stephen's, see p. 336 below.

l. 12. place of the same Robert. In the Grocers' Archives (p. 162, ed. Kingdon) there is record of a payment made in 1427 'pur le purchas de nostre place appelle le Seignour VitzWater'. On Nov. 1, 1429, William Cambridge, Thomas Knolles the younger, and other grocers, had licence to grant in mortmain to the wardens their Inn in the Old Jewry, which lately was of Walter, Lord Fitz Wauter (C. P. R. Henry VI, ii.78). Robert FitzWalter (d. 1234) had his house here (Madox, Hist. Excheq. i. 235).

l. 22. hath to signe a Windmill. The Windmill was a famous tavern in the time of Queen Elizabeth. One of the scenes of Ben Jonson's Every Man in his Humour is placed there.

279, l. 30. Semayne or Balaster, &c. Stow has given the facts correctly enough, but has corrupted the names, which should be Semane the crossbowman (balistarius); Bonevia Mitun, Thomas Bukerell, John de Gyse ('Guso'); Lewis the painter; Walter Avener ('Turnar'); Hugh Hareman Mose de Cantabrigia (i.e. Cambridge); Ernard Ruffus (Arnold le Reus'). The date is July, 1227. (Cal. Charter Rolls, i. 54–5; see also Cal. Close Rolls, Henry III, i. 41, 55– reading 'Mosse Bugus' — and Watney, Account of St. Thomas of Acon, pp. 256, 276– reading 'Molseus Bugis de Grauntebrige'.) For the house of Bonevie, son of Samuel Muton, in Westcheap in 1221, see Ane. Deeds, A. 13423.

280, l. 35. a Iew at Tewkesbery. The story comes from the London Chronicles (Chron. Lond. 5). Camden (Remains, p.304) gives three lines in reference thereto:—
Tende manus, Salomon, ego te de stercore tollam.
Sabbata nostra colo de stercore surgere nolo.
Sabbata nostra, quidem, Salomon, celebrabis ibidem.

281, l. 34. Fereno. Presumbly a mistake for 'ferronarious', or 'ferroun', an ironmonger.

282, l. 10. Richard Chamberlaine. In Harley MS. 538: 'Richard Chamberlaine, ironmonger, one of the shrives of London in the yere 1562, deceased 1566, and was there buried with this epitaphe:—
To the pore he was liberall and gave for God's sake,
But now his fame is plentifull and he a hevenly make.
He was lyke to (fn. 2) one of us accordinge to our moulde,
But now he is unlyke (fn. 2) to us according to herroulde (fn. 3).
His tyme was short, in sycknes rare, as to all is knowne,
But now his tyme shall longe endure, and never be overthrowne.
Richard Chamberlain was father of John Chamberlain the letter-writer.

l. 23. principall palace. The grant, on March 27, 1438, was to John Stout and Robert Savage of the office of porter within the palace of the principality [of Wales] in the Old Jewry (C. P. R. Henry VI, iii. 196). Stout held his office by a grant of Henry V (id. i. 64).

l. 38. first builder or owner of Cloeman streete. Riley suggested that the name was due to coalmen or charcoal burners, who settled there in convenient proximity to the Moor (Memorials, p. xix). But the name may be traced back to the 'Ceolmundingehaga' or farm of Ceolmund, near the Westgate, which is mentioned in a charter of Burhred of Mercia (circa 857, ap. Thorpe, Diplomatarium, 118). Stow himself gives an instance of Coleman Street in 1227: see vol. i. 279. 'Coleman cheriche' occurs in a charter of Agnes Becket to the nuns of Clerkenwell (Cotton MS., Faustina, B. II. f. 72). Reginald Coleman's will is dated Nov. 11, 1383 (Cal. Wills, ii. 246). For the church see below.

284, l. 2. Rahere de Sopars lane. No doubt Richard de Refham, who was mayor in 1310–11. He is called Richard de Soperslane in the Short English Chronicle, ap. Three Fifteenth Century Chronicles, and Richer de Refham in his will; he had property in Coleman Street and Bassishaw (Cal. Wills, i. 339). Stow's authority is the church-book of St. Stephen, Coleman Street, cf. Archaeologia, l. 53.

l. 32. This Church In Newcourt's Repertorium, i. 535, it is shown that St. Stephen, Coleman Street, existed in the time of Ralph de Diceto (1181–1204), and that it was a chapel of St. Olaves in 1322, and finally constituted an independent parish church in 1456 (not in 1467 as stated by Stow). In describing it as at one time a Synagogue Stow seems to have confused it with the Chapel of the Friars of the Sack, see p. 334 above. For the church-books see Archaeologia, vol. l. pp. 17–57.

285, l. 9. Bassings hall, &c. The oldest note I find is of the parish of 'Bassingshage' in 1160–81 (Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. 20). It appears both as 'Basyngyshawe' and 'Bassishathe' in 1246 (Watney, Account of St. Thomas Acon, 274–5), 'Bassieshawe' in 1278, and 'Bassinghawe' in 1284. (Cal. Wills, i. 36, 70). Basings Haw means the enclosure of the Basings. Riley (Memorials, p. xix) is clearly mistaken in distinguishing 'Bassishaw', the ward, as the haw of the Bassets, from Basinghall (the later Blackwell Hall), or the house of the Basings. Basinghall is a corruption. The ward is called 'Bassingeshol' and 'Bassyeshaw' in the Hundred Rolls, i. 403, 431. The connexion of the Basings with Blackwell Hall is doubtful (see note below).

l. 22. a Charter of Henrie the second. This charter appears in two places in the Liber Custumarum(Mun. Gild. II. i. 33, 48), in the first in its original form, in the latter as confirmed by Henry III in 1243. Stow translates the former. The second witness appears in the original as 'Warino filio Gerardi, Camerario', and in the confirmation as 'Waltero, filio Gerin, Comite.' The Charter in the possession of the Weavers Company is attested by T. Canc. (i. e. Thomas—Becket—Cancellarius) and Warino Filio Geroldi Camerario; the date can be fixed as Sept. 1155. See Letter-Book D, 221.

286, l. 28. Bakewell hall. In 1280 Sir Roger Clifford gave to the City his great hall, next to the Guildhall in the parish of St. Michael Bassishaw (Ann. Lond. 89; Letter-Book A, 227, 229). From the Hundred Roll (i. 403 b, 431) it would appear that this house previously belonged to John FitzJohn, who built it on the site of Jews' houses destroyed during the war. In 1293 the City transferred this tenement, except for a part previously sold, to John de Bauquell (Cal. Charter Rolls, ii. 434; Letter Book C, 12). To the family of Bauquell or Backwell it owed its later name. In 1337 there is mention of the chamber of the late John de Baukewell (id. E, 304). Robert Bakwell held it some time before 1395 (Cal. Wills, ii.536n.). Stow seems to be mistaken in connecting it with the Basings. The only Basing arms I have found were; Or, five eagles displayed sable, two, two, and one, a canton ermine' (as given by Munday, ed. 1633, p. 539). The Clifford arms were: 'Chequer, azure and or.' I suspect it was these latter which Stow saw and described from memory, incorrectly, as: 'Gerond (gyronny) of twelve points, gold, and azure,' which were, it is true, used by some of the Bassingbornes (Papworth, Ordinary, ii. 901). Blackwell Hall was acquired by the City in 19 Richard II (1395–6, not 20 Richard II, as on i. 288). See Cal. Inq.p.m., iii. 195.

287, l. 39. Vnto this Adam de Bassing, &c. Confirmation to him of the dwelling-house of Gervase de Aldermanbury, and advowsons of S. Michael Bassishaw and other churches (Hist. MSS. Comm., 9th Rep. 17; Cal. Charter Rolls, i. 313). Adam and his son Thomas had lived in Aldermanbury for some years before 1275, when complaint was made of encroachments there (Hundred Rolls, i. 403b sqq.).

292, l. 10. Touching the antiquitie. 'Aldersmanesberi' is mentioned in a document drawn up about 1130 (Hist. MSS. Comm., 9th Rep.66). The Terra Gialle mentioned in the same place is probably the oldest reference to the Guildhall. 'Bury' in London meant little more than a large house, as notably in the case of Bucklersbury (see p. 329). So Stow's explanation of Aldermanbury, as the bury or Court-hall of the aldermen, now called the Guildhall, seems sound. Mr. Price (Account of the Guildhall, 34–40) has shown that the old Guild Hall was near the west end of the present one, as Stow describes. The Osney Register is now at Christ Church, Oxford; a facsimile of 'Richard Renery's grant' is given in Price's Account of the Guildhall, p. 35.

l. 22. I my selfe haue seene the ruines, &c. An early memory of Stow's In August, 1531, was begun the 'clensyng of certeyn olde ruinouse houses and grounde lying in Aldermanbury, sumtyme the Place of Sainct Aethelbert kyng' (Hist. MSS. Comm., 9th Rep.44).

l. 36. a shanke bone of a man. William Harrison, writing of the bones of giants in his Description of Britain (ap. Holinshed. Chronicles, i.19), says: 'Another also is to be seene in Alderman burie… of 32 inches and rather more, whereof the symmetrie hath beene taken by some skilfull in that practise, and an image made according to that proportion, which is fixt on the east end of the cloister of the same church, not farre from the said bone, and sheweth the person of a man full ten or eleven feet high, which as some say was found in the closter of Poules, that was neere to the librarie, at such time as the Duke of Somerset did pull it doune to the verie foundation, and carried the stones thereof to the Strand, where he did build his house.'

293, l. 17. Simon Winchcombe, Esquier, 1391. A Simon Winchcombe was buried here in 1399 (Cal. Wills, ii.340). He was an armourer: Stow may have confused armurarius and armiger.

l. 18. Iohn Wheatley. Whatele in his will (id.ii.458). Cf.i.257, 270.

294, l. 20. Henry Frowike. Died 1378. Cal. Wills, ii.201.

l. 26. Conuerted into a parrish Church. On the remains of this later St. Alphage, see articles by Mr. Philip Norman in Architectural Review, March, 1907, and Archaeologia, lx. 169.

l. 35. Sir Iohn Williams. He had a grant of Elsing Spittal in 1540 (Letters and Papers, xv. 612(7)). For the fire see Wriothesley, Chron i. 133.

295, l. 6. houses for wealthy Marchantes. Milk Street was an important residential quarter: see Dekker, Jests to make you Merry (ap. Works, ii. 323):— 'Conjecturing that at that time our worthiest citizens are from home, they goe into Milk Street, Bread Street, Lime Street, S.Mary Axe, or the most priviest places where they kept their residence.'

l. 26. Woodstreete. Probably so called from the sale of wood there. The name is ancient., St. Michael 'de Wodestrate' occurs 1160–81 (Hist. MSS.Comm., 9th Rep.21).

296, l. 2. Goldsmithes row. See note on p. 351.

l. 16. Monuments. There is a list in Harley MS. 6069, f. 58, which specifies Ralph, Thomas, Ralph, and Richard as the four sons of Ralph lllingworth, and reads 'Thomas Pipehurst' and 'Richard Tuke.'

297, l. 6. Simon de Berching. In Harley MS. 538, f. 105, the following is here inserted: 'Olde epitaphes on stones, where the names of the parties buried are gone, these:—
The world's worshipe and honor with favour and fortune wanyth day by day.
Who may withstand death's stowre, when riche and powre she closeth in clay.
Wherefore to God hartely we pray, to pardon us of our misdede,
And help us now in our moaste nede.

Another thus:—
Eche for other little syster and brother, to God we pray,
That you here and I els where may synge and say,
That God Almighty for his greate pitie mercy will have
On vs wretches, and from payne fetche vs, to make vs save.

l.22. Huggen lane. The name is older than Stow supposed. 'Hoggenelane' occurs in 1275, and 'S. Michael de Hoggesnelane in Vodestrate' in 1288 (Cal. Wills, i. 25, 83). As Hoggeslane in 1234 (Cotton MS., Faustina, B. II. f. 89vo).

l. 36. monuments. The list in Harley MS.6069, f. 58, is: 'William sonne of Thomas Bamburgh, squyre; William Mauf, squyre; William Tavener, squyre; John Coraunt.'

298, l. I. Iohn Nash. In Harley MS. f. 105vo the epitaph is given:—
For Jhesus love pray for me,
Such as I am so shall ye be.
John Nashe, citizen of London, sometyme was I,
More then yere forty and thre.
I pray yow for some charitie,
Remember hym and his wyves thre,
Which hight Elizabeth, Margaret, and Margerye.
I parted to God in the yere of grace
A thousand foure hundred six and sixty,
That day trewly.
God of his goodnes grant vs his mercy.
And in the worshipe of the Trinitye
For owre soules say a pater noster and ave.

l. 4. William Lambarde. The author of the Perambulation of Kent, which suggested to Stow the form of the Survey.

l. 29. Blacke Hall. 'Le Blakegate' is mentioned in 1348, and a tenement called, 'Blackhalle' in 1361; both of St. Michael, Wood St. (Cal. Wills, i. 514, ii. 67). As 'le Blake halle' it appears in 1384, in 1388, and again in 1410 when it was conveyed to William Sevenoke (Archaeologia, lviii. 206; Cal. Inq. p.m., iii. 102).

299, l. 9. was called Monks Wel and the street of the Wel. Stow is in error. Algarus de Muchewella is named in a deed of the early 12th century, and 'Mukewellestrate' occurs not much later (Hist. MSS. Comm., 9th Rep. 23, 61). It is Mukewellestrate in 1277, and Mugwell Street as late as 1578 (Cal. Wills, i.30; ii. 693).

l. 29. the monuments. There is a list in Harley MS. 6069, f. 54, which is fuller for the Wrothesleys. For 'Cherley' (1.38) it reads Chorley.

300, l. 21. Robert Crowley. Stow, in his Memoranda, 139, writes of him under date 1567 as 'Somtym a boke sellar, now redar at Sent Antholyns, person of S. Petar yePowre, prebend of Pawlls, vickar of S. Gills without Criplegate, and deane of Harfford (fn. 4) in Wales', and says that at the time of the order on the use of Surplices he compiled a book called 'YeUnffoldynge of yePopyshe atyr'. This book does not appear amongst Crowley's numerous printed works. Crowley died in 1588. See Dict. Nat. Biog. xiii.241.

l. 21. foure under one olde stone. According to the Latin inscription given by Munday (Survey, p. 313, ed. 1633) the stone was for three persons only, viz. William Bullen (d. 1576) physician, Richard Bullen (d.1563) preacher, and John Foxe (d. 1587). The inscription is dated 1587; Stow's reference to a 'W. Bolene, physician, 1587', is probably due to a misreading.


  • 1. The transcript has 'lan'a'. Hearne suggests 'lamina', ap. Wm. of Newborough, iii. 727.
  • 2. Munday omits to in both places.
  • 3. Munday reads: in heaven where he would.
  • 4. He was really archdeacon of Hereford.