A Survey of London. Reprinted From the Text of 1603. Originally published by Clarendon, Oxford, 1908.

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'Glossary', in A Survey of London. Reprinted From the Text of 1603, (Oxford, 1908) pp. 398-418. British History Online [accessed 24 April 2024]

In this section



abashed, afraid: 'the Queene remayned right sore abashed,' i. 244.

abbeyes, abbess, i. 126.

ABC or absey; primer, hornbook (N.E. D., quoting Shaks. K. John. 1. i. 196), ii. 256.

abiding house: 'this was the Abbot's abiding house when he came to London,' ii. 16.

aboundance, abundance: 'He prouided from beyond, the seas Corne in great aboundance, so that the Citie was able to serue the countrie,' ii. 169.

abstinecnie, i. 83.

aburn, auburn: the hair of his head aburn,' ii. 57.

achates (oates), provisions, i. 350; lit. 'things purchased.

acquit: 'The Queene was to acquite her Church therof,' i. 139. Cf. i. 199.

Actiuities, acrobatic performances, Comedies, &c., ii. 369.

—to show, i. 245.

adhorting, i. 4.

adiudged, sentenced, i, 51.

aduenture, v., venture, i. 100.

aduertized: 'whereof when the Earle was aduertized,'i. 67.

aduouterie, adultery, i. 189.

advowsion, advowson, i. 131. Lat. advocationem. Cf. Auotion.

afterclappes, later surprises; i.e. unwelcome contingencies in the shape of expense of npkeep, i. 142.

against, again, ii. 196.

agast, p. pple.; also agasted, i. 97.

alablaster, i. 330.

alay, alloy, i. 55.

aldermany, ward, i. 117; office of alderman, i. 310–11.

ale-cunners, -conners, 'examiners or inspectors of ale; earliest know use in Liber Albus' (N. E. D.), ii. 97.

Alhallon Eve, All Saints;' Eve (Oct. 31), i. 97.

allayed (of coins), i 55.

of alliance to, related to, i. 36.

Almaine, Haunce of, i. 136. See Hanse in Index III.

almaine rivets, i. 102; 'a kind of light armour, first used in Germany, in which great flexibility was obtained by overlapping plates sliding on rivets' (N. E. D.).

Almerie: 'the Almerie, or house of Almes for conuarts and poore children,' ii. 63.

almesehouses, i. 299, 302.

ambergris, amber, i. 80.

amblers, i. 80; trotters, ib.

amerce, v. a., ii. 7.

amerciaments, fines, ii. 119; amercements, i. 271.

ancris, ankerss, i. 164.

angelets (vis. viiid.), half angels and farthings (vs. vid.) coined, 1465, i. 56.

angell noble, the, sixth part of an onnce troy, i. 56.

annoyances, nuisances, ii. 124.

annoyed, injured, i. 196.

'Anthonie pigges' and 'pigenons of Paules' (schoolboy amenities), i. 75. See i. 184. and note on p. 301; and Halliwell. 'St. Anthonie was always figured with a pig following him' (Stow).

Apernes of Mayle, i. 103.

appeached, impeached, accused, i. 100.

appeached, of treason, ii. 75.

appellators, i. 189. See Articuli Cleri Anglicani oblati Edw. 2 Regian. 1316 cap. 10: Placet etiam Domino Regi ut Latrones et Appellatores, quandocumque voluerint, possint sacerdotibus sua facinora confiteri.

appendant, adj., vnto the said soken, i. 64.

apposers and answerers, i. 74.

apprehend, arrest, ii. 49.

appurtenances, i. 65.

—of a manor, i. 153 and passim.

—'the manor of Charlton, with the appurtenances,' ii. 66.

'Aroches, Court of the,i. 254.

'Archers in coats of white fustian, signed on the breast and back with the armes of the Cittie,' i. 102.

argent, Easterling money so called, i. 52.

aristocritie, the, aristocracy, ii. 199.

armors, armament, i. 158.

armour, sets of arms, i. 107.

arriue, v.n., to come to shore, i. 6.

arrows: standard, broad arrow, and flight; 'broad arrow, an arrow with a broad head for cleaving; flight, a long and well-feathered arrow for long-distance shooting' (N. E. D.). Cf. 'a good flight shoot,' ii. 74.

artiflicial, skilfully constructed, i. 18.

ascendings vp, staircases, ii. 118.

assay, v., essay, i. 100.

assesse, subs., assessment, ii. 213.

assise, law fixing the price of bread, meat, &c. The regulation or assessment of the weight or price of bread, &c. The ordinance in which such regulation is embodied. Cf. 'Assize of weights and measures,' ii. 97.

—inches of, i. 162.

—perches of, i. 10.

—tailor's yards of, i. 102.

assise of bread, the, ii. 156. See Index III.

assurance, to take of, i. 9.

attaint, p.p., attainted, ii. 76.

Auerell, April, i. 157.

auoid, v.n., depart, ii. 263; 'that all leprose persons should auoid within 15 daies.' Cf. ii. 146, and 'auoyd dyvel,' Introduction, p. liii.

v.a., ib., remove from; 'all leprose persons to be voided the citie & suburbs.' Cf. i. 214, 'which <charge> the Chancellor by oath on the Sacrament auoideth.'

auotion, advowson, i. 131; also avoweson. Cf. Advowsion.


backsyde, ii. 369.

banck[it]ing <Stow's error> on the Riuer Thames, standing on bank of, i. 68, 336; ii. 13.

banketting, banqueting, ii. 131.

'Banqueting houses, like Banqueroutes, bearing great show and little worth,' ii. 78 marg.

Bannerer of London, chief, i. 62.

barbican, i. 70, 302; 'an outer fortification or defence to a city or castle; of uncertain origin, perhaps from Arabic or Persian' (N.E.D.).

baronry of Little Dunmow, the, i. 61.

barons <freemen>, Londoners so called, i. 94, 315, 339. Cf. the Barons of the Cinque Ports, and see N.E.D.

barres, the, 'a marke shewing how farre the liberties of the Citie do extend,' i. 1270.

baselard, a sort of dagger, pugio, (Stratmann), i. 219. 'The Mayor having received his stroke, drew his basiliard <dagger, sica or pugio: 'traha sa baselarde,' Anom. Chron. 520>, and grievously wounded Wat.

basons, an offender rung with = 'rough music,' i. 190–1.

Bassenet, a light helmet, worn sometimes with a movable front (Halliwell): 'The Maior had on his head a Basonet,' i. 219.

baston, club, bat. 'The scholars of every school have their ball, or baston, in their hands,' i. 92. Cf. Swift's hugeous battoons' (J. to S.).

battailes, battalions, i. 103.

battle, a light river boat, i. 206; dimin. of Fr. bateau.

Bawdrike, a, of gold about his <the Mayor's> necke <trilling> down behind him, ii. 193.

bayled, having a half-hoop to support the cover of a wagon, &c., ii. 82 (of the Fraerie Cart).

Baylie, the Old, ii. 38, from Lat. balium or ballium. The Old Bailey was so called from the ancient bailey or ballium of the city wall between Ludgate and Newgate. Cf. Stow on 'Old Bayly,' ii. 37, and note on p. 362.

Baylywicke, Bailiff-wick, ii. 146. 'Bailie, baillie (Lat. balliva), bailiwick, the limit of the authority of a sheriff, bailiff, or other officer' (Nichols' Britton, Glossary).

beam, the common, i. 156; supportation and charges of, ib.; farmer of it, ib. 'The Common or King's Beam was the public standard balance formerly in the custody of the Grocers Company' (N.E.D.). See Index III.

beame-light and lamp, i. 271.

beasts of venery, of the chase, i. 306.

beautify, i. 103, 306: a word hated of Shakespeare: 'the most beautified Ophelia'; 'that's an ill phrase, a vile phrase; "beautified" is a vile phrase' (Hamlet, II. ii. 110).

became, came, i. 119.

bedred, bedridden, i. 128.

belike, possibly, ii. 49.

bell: 'That faire steeple hath but one bell, as Friers were wont to use,' i. 202.

beneficially, i. 43.

benevolence: 'The citizens gave first a great benevolence, and after that the fifteenes to be speedily paid,' i. 332.

beseechers, petitioners, i. 159.

bestow much, spend much, i. 80.

bestowing, contributing, i. 101.

bet, pret. of beat, Introd. p. liv; i. 279.

beweld, wield: 'no man can beweld it <Gerard's staff>,' ii. 353.

bewray, to betray, i. 266.

bin, been, ii. 70 and passim.

Biscay, Bay of, salt from, ii. 10; see N.E.D., and Kingsford, Chronicles of London, Glossary, s.v. 'baysalt.'

Bishops' alms dishes given to the poor, i. 89, 91.

bisket, to serue H. M. Shippes, i. 125.

Blacke Parliament, i. 340.

Blanch Charters, i. e. blank, i. 265.

blanks (coining term): 'round plates, called blanks, deliuered by weight', i. 52.

blowed: 'the Keeper blowed the death of the Bucke, and then the horners presently answered him,' i. 334. Cf. Madden's Diary of Master Silence (ed. 1907), pp. 49, 57.

bolion, bullion, i. 54.

boltas mootes, and putting of cases, i. 78; 'readinges, meetings, boltinges, and other learned exercises,' ib., I. 16. See note on p. 281.

bonelers: 'called as well of good amitie amongest neighbours, as also for the virtue that a great fire hath to purge the infection of the ayre,' i. 101. The obvious derivation (bone-fire) is now generally accepted.

Books in use formerly sold by Stationers in Paternoster Row: viz. A. B. C. with Paternoster, Aue, Creede, Graces, &c.

boorde, began the, i. 36. Cf. Chaucer, ed. Skeat, vol. v, Notes to C. T., The Knight, p. 6, 'had been placed at the head of the dais, or table of state.'

bosse, a head or reservoir of water, i. 208 and passim.

bottelers, butlers, i. 95.

Bouche of Court, ii. 117. 'An allowance of victual granted by a king or noble to his household, his attendants on a military expedition, &c. Only with reference to the phrase avoir bouche à (en, cour)' (N. E. D.).

bounder, i. 291: prob. a corruption of boundure (N. E. D.), boundary.

bows and arrows of silver (school prizes), i. 75.

bowyers, i. 81, almost worne out with the Fletchers. The phrase recurs constantly in the Survey, e.g. i. 336. See Index III.

brabble, quarrel, ii. 55.

brake (of a gun), burst, i. 222.

braky = broke (of Sir Thomas Lodge, Introd., xl), near bankruptey.

Branched, damaske, i. 249: 'adomed with a figured... pattern in embroideruy,' &c. (N.E.D.).

breast, p.t. burst, i. 148.

break up: 'Certaine Cittizens of London brake vp the Tunne vppon Cornhill, and took out prisoners,' ii. 161 (A. D. 1297). Cf. Matt. xxiv. 43 (A.V.).

brent, burnt, ii. 51.

bridge, a landing-stage. See 'Strand bridge'; and 'a fayre bridge and landing-place,' ii. 122.

bridgemaistors, i. 60.

bringers-in, of patients to a hospital, i. 165.

broad cloath rowed or striped thwart, ii. 190; broad cloathes, i. 250.

brokers, sellers of old apparel, and such like. i. 129.

bruited: 'many fables have been bruted,' i. 292.

budge, i. 86: 'A kind of fur, consisting of lamb's skin, with the wool dressed outwards' (N.E.D.).

budget, ii. 19: 'a pounch, bag, or wallet, usually of leather' (N. E. D.).

bulworkes, of the Tower, &c., i. 9. 47–8.

Burdious, Burdeous, Bordeaux, i. 240, 243.

burel: 'burels or cloth listed,' i. 286; var. of borrell, adj., buret, obs.; cf. Fr. burac, 'stuff that's halfe silke and half worsted' (Cotgrave); but this may be a dim. of bure. See French Book of Rates (1714), 36, 'Bures and Burets Stuff per 100 weight.' Cf. Bureau (N. E. D.).

burellers, or makers of the coarse stuff called 'burel', ii. 313.

burgage, to hold in, i. 35, 270: 'a form of Socage, 'Cowell's Interpreter; 'A tenure whereby lands or tenements in cities and towns were held of the king or other lord for a certain yearly rent' (N.E.D.).

—'Lands held of the King in burgage,' i. 288.

burganets, i. 102: 'burgonet, a very light casque or steel cap' (N. E. D.).

Burgh-Kenning, i. 70, 302: (acc. to Stow) = 'Barbican, as a bikenning is called a Beacon,' i. 302 [ghostword].

burial, burial-place, i. 114 and passim.

burnt tile, i. 193.


called down (of coins), value diminished by proclamation, i. 57; 'called to a lower rate.' ib.

calling, name, i. 43.

'came in with the Conqueror,' i. 68.

Candlemas, Feast of the Purification (Feb. 2), i. 55, 97.

Cane-stone, i. e. from Caen in Normandy, i. 137.

canons, secular, ii. 307; regular, i. 140; ii. 47.

cap or pot verses, to, i. 72: see N.E.D. The pot was a light helmet worn later in the Civil Wars.

Cappers and Hurrers form company of Haberdashers, i. 298.

carack: a Spanish carrack; a large ship of burden, also fitted for warfare: a galleon, i. 75. This refers to the Madre de Dios— taken off the Azores in 1592. A prize of extraordinary value—after much plunder yielded £150,000. The cargo was stored at Leadenhall.

cariage, Traffic, i. 35.

carit (carat), i. 56.

carriage, goods carried, i. 49; traffic, i. 34; cf. 'we took up our cariages, and went up to Jerusalem,' Acts xxi. 15 (A.V.).

carrie-load, i. 293: carrie, a small two-wheeled vehicle.

carted, carried in a cart through the streets by way of punishment, i. 190.

Carts of the Franchise of the Temple and S. Martin's le Grand; and of S. John of Jerusalem. i. 213.

carts, shodde, having iron rims to the wheels, i. 83, 169.

cast a trench, i. 8, &c. Cf. St. Luke xix. 43.

castellated, of a conduit, i. 300.

Castillon (Castellan), Robert, of London, ii. 14.

cattes lions, lion cubs, i. 48.

causeys, causeways, i. 112: Fr. chaussée, from via calciata, and Milton P.L.x. 415: so in Berners's trans. of Froissart (Skeat).

ceiled, provided with a ceiling, i. 145, 318.

'Celerer' to the Monastery, ii. 122.

cellarage, i. 138; cf. Hamlet, I. v. 151 (selleredge).

certaine, fixed: 'A certaine rent of x pound by the yeare,' ii. 50.

cessed, assessed, i. 129: cess, subs., assessment, tax, or levy; cf. Shaks. 1 Hen. IV, II. i. 8. (and see N. E. D.).

chafron, i. 33: 'the frontlet of a barded horse' (N.E.D.).

chanons, canons, i. 140.

chaplen, chaplain, i. 137.

chaptered, arranged in chapters: 'I had long since gathered notes to haue chaptered,' ii. 187.

chare coale, charcoal, i. 148.

chargeable, costly, i. 160; 'large summes of monies,' ib.; also ii. 118. Cf. Introduction, lxvi.

charges, to the, at the cost of, i. 317.

charges and discharges, incomings and outgoings, i. 24. Cf. Introduction, lxvii.

charnell: 'before the chernell and Chappel of S. Edmond the Bishop,' i. 167.

charter warren, ii. 132: 'Warren, a franchise or place privileged, either by prescription, or grant from the King, to keep beasts and fowl of Warren; which are Hares and Conies, Partridges and Pheasants' (Cowell).

Chastilarie (for Chastellanie), i. 62.

chatysyd, chastised, ii. 347.

chaunteries, i. 41.

cheared, treated: 'they cheared all the Knightes and the Burgesses,' ii. 100.

checke roll, i. 88: 'A Roll or Book containing the Names of such as are Attendants in Pay to great Personages, as their Household Servants, 19 Car. 2, cap. I. It is otherwise called The Chequer Roll, and seems to take its Chequer Roll, and seems to take its etymology from the Exchequer' (Cowell's Interpreter).

chest with three lockes, ii. 167.

Chief Butler of England, i. 143.

chirographer, i. 310: 'The officer appointed to engross fines in the Court of Common Pleas (abolished 1833)' (N.E.D.).

Church of England: 'Edward IV began his raigne the fourth of March in the yeare 1460 after the account of the Church of England,' ii. 175.

cider (also sidar), i. 87: in M.E. sicer, cyder, syder (N.E.D.); 'lit. strong drink (Judges xiii. 7), not necessarily from apples' (Skeat).

cistern, v.a., i. 17; cistern (sestern), subs., i. 17.

Citizen and paynter stayner of London, i. 302, 304; Serjeant Painter, i. 314.

City Courts enumerated, i. 271; Court of Requests commonly called the Court of Conscience, ib

clapboord, i. 137: 'a smaller size of split oak, imported from N. Germany, and used by coopers for making barrel-staves, &c.' (N.E.D.).

clarkes, scholars, learned men, i. 99.

cleane decayed, i. 300; clean worn out, i. 81; a gate clean taken downe, i. 39.

clearke conuit, ii. 122: convict not used in this sense till convict, ppl. adj., began to go out of use' (N.E.D.s.v.).

Clearkes of the Greene Cloathe, i. 131. One of the departments of the Royal Household, having control of various matters of expenditure, discipline, &c. (see N.E.D.); so called from the green-covered table at which its business was originally transacted.

'clipping' or 'washing' of coin, i. 55.

Cloath, coloured Mustard villars (a colour now out of use), and two yeardes of Cloath coloured blew, price two shillinges the yeard, in all eight shillings. More, paied to John Pope, Draper, for two Gowne clothes eight yards of two colours, lux ambo deux de roug (or red) medley brune and porre (or purple) colour price the yeard 2s., ii. 190.

clochard, a bell tower, ii. 120;

clochier, i. 330; clochiarde, i. 331.

clochiarde, i. 331.

clocke house, ii. 121.

cloystry, cloister, i. 319.

coaped: 'the spring was coaped in, and arched over with hard stone, i. 301. See also cooped.

cofferer, i. 85. 'An officer of the royal <or other great> household next under the Controller' (N.E.D).

coffin, siluer, case, casket, i. 86; cf. Plat, Delightes for Ladies (in N. E. D.), 'Coffins of white plate.'

cognisance of the Blew Bore, i. 89.

combe, a, of corn, i, 206: 'a dry measure = 4 bushels' (N. E. D.).

combersome, awkward, i. 35.

— tangled, i. 2, 3.

commaunded, commended: 'This Schoole was commaunded in the raigne of H. the sixt, and sithence also aboue other,' i. 185.

comminaltie of London, i. 153 (also communalitie, i. 319).

commoditie, advantage, i. 54: 'Commodity, the bias of the world' (Shaks. K. John II. 573).

commodity, convenience, ii. 169.

commons, to keep, i. 231: 'divers Judges and Sergeants at the law keep a Commons there,' ii. 47.

commune, commonalty, i. 157.

competently, adequately, i. 101.

composition, agreement, i. 237.

composition, arrangement, i. 166.

Compter (more recently Counter) 'The prison attached to a City Court. In this sense, the official spellin; from the 17th century was Compter (N.E.D.).

Compters, The, i. 37, 115, 308. Se Index III.

concluded, determined: 'it was con cluded, the Image of Iesus to be curiously painted on the wall in Paules Church,' i. 337.

conduct, i. 146: 'a salaried chaplain (N. E. D.).

conductes, conduits, i. 80.

Conduit vpon Cornhill was this yer <1401> made of an old prison hous called the Tunne, ii. 170.

conference, comparison, i. 81.

confidence, in, i. e. in trust. i. 116.

Congregations against the Fish mongers, i. 214-15.

conseruer, generall of the… Re cordes (i. e. the Tower), i. 59.

continuall, continuous, (passim).

continuation, continuance, i. 254.

controversies, to take vp, settle, ii. 97.

conuented before certain commissioners at Lambeth, ii. 135.

conuey, to appropriate: 'He firs dissolued the Quire, conneyer the plate and ornaments, then the bells,' i. 185. Cf. 'conuey, the wise it call' (Shaks. Merry Wives I. iii. 32).

conuict, p.p., convicted, i. 215.

cookerie or cookes row, i. 79.

cooped: 'the spring is cooped abou with stone,' i. 16; 'a bridge of stone faire coaped,' i. 25, 26: coping, i 26; curbed, i. 34.

cope, v. n.: 'the Champions coaper together,' i.e. contended, i. 33.

copy: 'S. Eyre, sometime an Vpholster then by changing of his copíe a Draper, i. 153 marg.

coriars, curriers, ii. 191.

corrected: 'Basset corrected (i. e. re formed) the Bakers,' '&c., ii. 177.

cottage: the Guildhall anciently: little cottage, i. 271.

Cotton, umple, 'fine lawne, Pari threed, Cotton, Vmple, and other linni clothes,' i. 217.

couched, put away, hidden, i. 38.

couent, convent, i. 35.

couerture <covering> of mens head was then hoodes, ii. 195.

counsell vnto, of: 'Sir John Aller sometime… of counsell vnto Kin Henry the eight,' i. 132.

countenance: 'for greater countenance of the wonder,' ii. 353; cf. ii. 203.

counters, nails, and points, played for at cards on festivals, i. 97 (all mentioned as things of little intrinsic value).

courses: 'the Justes began, and many commendable courses were run,' ii. 30-1.

Coursitors, ii. 88: 'The 34 Clerks of the Court of Chancery, whose office it was to make out all original writs de cursu' (N.E.D.).

Court and Leete, ii. 97: T. of S., Induction, ii. 89; cf. 'Keep courts and law days', Othello, III. iii. 140, and Leet, inf.

Court of the Arches: 'the Court of the Arches is kept in this (Bow) Church, and taketh name of the place, not the place of the Court,' i. 254.

coynes: 'Pophame dyed rich, leauing great treasure of strange coynes,' ii. 33.

coyning irons, i. 54: 'viz. Standard or Staple, and two Trussels or Punchons.'

cramping, pricking, cause to be seized with cramp, i. 59.

cranage up, drawing up by cranes, i. 135.

— of wares and merchandise, i. 135.

crane, v.: 'the merchants of Bordeaux craned their wines out of Lighters,' i. 238.

cresset, an iron vessel containing materials for burning, i. 102: N. E. D. quotes Milton, P.L. i. 728.

crest and vent: 'the Conduit of sweet water castellated with crest and vent,' i. 211.

Cross, the, on coins, i. 52.

—' An ancient ensigne of Christianitie', i. 267.

— an ancient, called 'The Standart without the north doore of S. Paul's Church,' ib.

— 'a cross, double to the ring, between fower rowals of sixe poyntes,' i. 52.

Crowched Friars, crutched friers, so called from wearing a cross, i. 139.

Crowdes (crypt) of the Cathedral Church of Pauls, i. 329; also Shrowdes.

Crown, pleas of the, i. 50.

Crowner, a, of the Lord Mayor's house, ii. 188; cf. Hml. v. i. 4.

Crownsilde or Tamarsilde, i. 257: selda = taberna mercatoria (Ducange).

cultars of iron, i. III; ploughshares; Lat. Culter.

currall (coral), i. 169.

curraunt, ii. 353.

cursing by the Cleargie, excommunication, i. 351.

curtelarge, curtilage, i. 200.

curtise, courteous, ii. 353.

curtoled, curtailed, ii. 125.

custom, of, customarily, i. 117.

customer, customs officer, i. 135.

customer of London outward, a custom-house officer for exports, i. 114.

Customers Key (Quay), i. 43.

custos set over the City, i. 51.

custos, as plur.: 'Nic. Marshall & Ri. Coxe were Custos (sic) or Wardens,' i. 147; 'Vnder flat stones do lye diuers Custos of the chappel,' i. 274.

cultars: 'Three Artes or sortes of workmen in Cultars' Company; viz. (1) Bladers; (2) Haftmakers; (3) Sheathmakers, later forming one fraternity,' i. 245.


Dairie houses, or Cottages, wherein they make butter and cheese, are vsually called Wickes, i. 218 <?>.

damasked: 'an habit of purple damasked down to his feet,' ii. 57.

damnified, injured, i. 101, 347.

Dance of Death (or of Paules), i. 109.

Deepe Ditch by Bethlehem, i. 165.

Defendants or Undertakers, opponents at Turney, ii. 99.

delators, informers, ii. 119.

delectable, ii. 347.

delicatenesse, delicacies, i. 79.

Demilaunces on great horses; light horsemen armed with demi-lances, i. 102, 103.

Demise, ii. 14; 'conveyance or transfer of an estate by will or lease' (N.E.D.).

Democratie, or Aristocratie, ii. 206.

denarii, Latin, i. 53.

dension (denizen), a, or free English, ii. 67.

denting in (of a wall), i. 9; opposed to 'as straight as the string of a bow.'

departed, parted, i. 33; 'how the… heraulds departed therewith I have not read,' i. 237.

depict, depicted, ii. 62.

deriue, to divert: 'deriue the river of Thames, with her tides, to haue flowed about it,' i. 28.

dilicately, i. 80.

dirte, dearth, i. 157.

disarmed, of launces, i. 84, 92.

discease, decease, i. 289 (bis).

discharged of assise and warde, i. 113.

discommoditie, inconvenience, i. 46.

disdainly, disdainfully, ii. 252.

disguisings, masques and masquerades, i. 97; ii. 116.

dispatch, to effect hastily, i. 44.

dispend, to spend, i. 340; 'This Hospital…was valued to dispend 478. pounds,' i. 167.

dispense, expense, ii. 225.

dispensed with: 'Dr. Bull is dispensed with to read the Musick lecture in English only,' i. 76.

dissimule, v.a., ii. 78.

distracted: 'an hospital for distracted people,' i. 164.

distraight, i. 165.

distraine: 'to distraine the said parishioners,' i. 14; ii. 114.

domesmen, or judges of the King's Court, ii. 149.

Doomesday book, the, ii. 147.

Dortar (-er, -our), dormitory, i. 319.

dowked, ducked, i. 94.

drawne: 'a new foundation was drawne,' i. 60; a Porter of the Tower drawne, hanged, and headed, i. 58.

Draye man: 'the Draye man sitteth …on his Drea,' i. 83.

drown (of ships), sink, ii. 71.

drowned with: 'Duke of Clarence drowned with Malmsey in the Tower,' i. 58.

drowning in Thames, execution by, i. 65.

dubbing the Maior knight, ii. 116.


easements, conveniences, accommodations, i. 135.

Eastarling pence, first made by the Easterlings in England, temp. Henry II, i. 53; other derivations of the name, i. 54; cf. i. 178.

edified, built, i. 39.

eftsoones, again; forthwith, immediately, i. 6.

eldarne (elder) trees, i. 34.

Elemosinary or Almory, at Westminster, now corruptly the Aumbry, ii. 123.

Elmes in Smithfield, the, place of execution, i. 48, 49, 51, 65; ii. 29.

eln, iron, the King's: containing in length 83, half, quarter, and half quartern of, i. 140.

embattoled, embattled, i. 66.

embezzled (imbeseled), stolen.

embrotherer, embroiderer, ii. 65.

emortising and propriation; amortising = alienation in mortmain (N. E. D.), i. 166.

encounter companion: 'I will no fayle an encounter companion,' ii. 33

encroachment, i. 119.

endamaged, i. 60.

engine, mechanism, i. 41.

engrosse: 'merchants engrosse old florins or nobles,' i. 55; 'coins of gold enhaunced, and allayed,' ib.

enhanced, p.p.; enhaunoing, v.s. to enhance, to raise the value of coin, commodity, &c., i. 56.

Enirode [?], ii. 104.

enormities, abuses needing reformation, i. 83.

— crimes of violence, i. 101.

enterlaced, ii. 208.

enterludes, i. 15.

Enthimems… imperfect sillogismes; a syllogism in which one premiss is suppressed, i. 72; see N. E. D.

erect, erected, i. 130.

Ermony, Armenia, i. 71.

Eacheator, ex-, an officer who received the escheats of the Crown (Stubbs), i. 35.

Esses, a collar of, ii. 57.

Estates of England, great personages, ii. 71.

esteemation, estimation, i. 319.

Esterling pence, plates to be coined into, ii. 259.

Esterlings, a riot made upon the, i. 178.

euerie <one> of these foure, i. 60.

euery <one of> these Wardes, i. 120.

Euil May Day, insurrection of prentices, &c., against aliens, May Day 1517, i. 99, 143, 152. See Index III.

Exchaunger, the King's, i. 49.

Exchetor, i. 35; from Escheat: 'an officer that taketh notice of, the escheats of the King in the county whereof he is Escheator, and certifieth them into the Exchequer' (Cowell's Interpreter). See also Escheator. Lands and goods of Jews excheated to the king, i. 279.

Exchetre, the King's, i. 39; Escaetor, i. 42; the King's exchetes, i. 280.

exhibited: 'a petition exhibited by the commons to the common councell, and by them allowed' (approved), i. 157.

exhibition, i. 77.

— funds supplied by parents and friends, i. 77.

exhibitors of petitions, i. 214.

expulsed: 'the number of Jews then expulsed were 15,060 persons,' i. 281.


fabule, to, i. 34, 305, 348.

fabulous book, a, i. 220.

fact, crime, i. 190; 'his detestable facts,' crimes, deeds, i. 90, 254.

Faculty, i.e. the King of Armes, Heraults, and Purseuantes, &c., ii. 17.

fadome, fathom, i. 160.

fall-gate, ii. 73: 'a gate across a public road' (N.E.D.).

false packing, conspiracy (in collections of money), ii. 216.

false roof against the weather, i. 332.

fantasied, as some have, i. 286.

far-fetch, v., i. 14.

fastnes, a fortres, i. 4; see N.E.D.

fautor, friend and, ii. 215.

fealty in free socage, ii. 69: Free socage, also called common socage, is opposed to base socage = villenage.

feared <terrified> by Prognostications, which declared that in the year of Christ 1524, there should be such Eclipses in watrie signes, and such conjunctions that by waters and floudes many people should perish … all things necessary within him <i.e. in his own house>, ii. 27.

feast folower: 'I [Stow] was neuer feast folower,' ii. 191.

fee farme <s>: 'Lands held in fee by rendering for them yearly the true value, or more or less; which rent if the feoffes cease to pay for two years together, an action thereby accrues to the feoffors their heirs, to demand the tenements in demesne; for which tenements neither homage, wardship, marriage, nor relief can be demanded without specialty in writing' (Britton, ed, Oxford, 1865, ii. 5, 6).

fee farme (Lat. feodi firma), 'a free tenure, the services of which were rendered in money' (Nichols's Britton, Glossary). Fee-farm rent of a borough (Gross).

feere: 'in feere' in company, i. 252.

feet, of St. Paul, i. 318.

feffement, i. 115, 349: 'the act of investing a person with a fief or fee' (N.E.D.)

feffles, feoffees, i. 115.

feleper, broker, ii. 361.

fellowship or companie incorporate, i. 158, 273.

Fellowships of the cittie (Companies), i. 273.

felmongers, skinners, i. 132.

fels, skins, i. 156.

feoffment, i. 349.

feoffment, feoffor, feoffee: see Stephen, quoted in Earle's L.C. p. xvii.

fereno, ironmonger, i. 281; see note, p. 335.

ferling, farthing, i. 53: 'the fourth part of a sterling' (Bp. Fleetwood in N.E.D.); 'the quarter of a denarius' (Gross).

ferer, a shoer of horses, a worker in iron, ii. 172.

feruently: 'The fire burst out again more feruently,' i. 326.

fewters (or idle people, lit, 'keepers of greyhounds' (N.E.D.), ii. 39. See note, p. 363.

flered out (of William Longbeard), ii. 216.

fifteene, a, a tax formerly imposed on all kinds of personal property, i. 13, 128.

filed, defiled, ii. 13.

finding <i.e. support> of 13 poor people for euer, ii. 168 and passim.

fishfull: 'the fishfull riuer of Thames,' i. 8.

Flanders tile brought from Normandy, i. 30; Britain or Roman Tile, i. 160.

floren of gold, called of the Florentines, makers thereof, i. 53; 'The old Floren or noble [c. 1351]… worth much above the taxed rate of the new,' i. 55.

florences, gold, i. 51, 57 bis.

fodder, fother, i. 153: 'a definite weight of some specified substance, e. g. lead; now usually 19½ cwt.' (N.E.D.).

Folke Mootes, i. 325, 331: 'a general assembly of the people of a town, city, or shire' (N.E.D.).

follilie, foolishly, i. 241.

follower, technical term for a mode of scouring the channel of Fleet dike into the Thames, i. 13.

Font in Poules, the, i. 225.

fooles whoode, a, i. 157.

foond, found, ii. 35.

foranenst, opposite to, facing, ii. 44.

forced ground, opp. to the mayne, i. 345.

forcier, n., contrivance for propelling water (N.E.D.), i. 18; 'an engine or forcier, for the winding up of water to serue the cittie,' i. 42.

foreigner (forinsecus), a person not enjoying the privileges of a borough (Gross); 'out of the manor,' ii. 69.

foreigns, i. 155; all maner f., i. 156.

forreins, outsiders, i. 156, ii. 69; 'decreed that no forrein or stranger should sell any wollen cloth,' i. 288.

forthright, straightforward, ii. 74.

fortuned, it, i. 100.

foyle, fine silver made into, i. 53 (called temp. Edw. I 'siluer of Guthuron's Lane').

foystor, a saddle-tree maker (N.E.D.), ii. 192.

Fraerie Cart, the, of the Priory of S. John of Jerusalem, ii. 82.

frame, i. 34: 'a structure of timbers, joists, &c., fitted together to form the skeleton of a building' (N.E.D., quoting Prompt. Parv., &c.); 'a large strong frame of timber and brick,' i. 131; 'a fair large frame of timber, containing [several] tenements,' i. 151.

franches, soke or court, i. 29.

franchises, privileges, i. 308.

Frankpledge, ii. 69: 'the French and Latin terms frauncplege, francus plegius, appear to have arisen from a misunderstanding of the A.S. Fridbohs or Fribohs = pledge of peace' (Nichols's Britton).

Fratres de sacca or de penitentia, i. 277; Friars of the Sack.

Fratrie, the, refectory, i. 317, 319.

fray: '1401. Souldiers made a fray against the Maior,' ii. 174; '1452. This yeare was a great fray at the wrastling,' ii. 174.

free quitted: 'that all men of the Realme should be free quitted and discharged of all Toll,' i. 207.

freese, i. 110; 'ye kyveringe which was but frise,' Introd. p. lix; 'coarse woollen cloth, with a nap, usually on one side only' (N.E.D.).

frequent, populous, ii. 206.

fripperers or vpholders, i. 199: 'fripper, a broker' (N.E.D.); cf. Introd. p. lxxxvii, 'broker and fripper': upholder means broker or auctioneer (see Skeat).

Froes of Flaunders, ii. 55 (i.e. Frows = loose women).

fullage, refuse, street sweepings, ii. 270.

furniture: 'for furniture of the Quire in divine service, and ministration of the sacraments, a College of 12 pety Chanons, &c., 'ii. 137.

furtherer: 'a great furtherer of the new work of Powles,' ii. 133.


gailekeeping: 'so that both the old and new worke of Ludgate aforesaid, be one prison, gailekeeping, and charge for euermore,' i. 39.

galley halfpence, forbidden 13 Henry IV and 4 Henry V, i. 132.

gallows were erect <ed>, i. 130.

galory, gallery, passim.

gardian or Warden, and a communaltie i. 237.

garland, i.e. victory, or its reward, i. 74.

garner, granary: 'the common Garner called Leaden Hall,' ii. 180.

gate, got, i. 128.

geason, scarce, ii. 296.

geld, the Flemish, i. 234.

gentlemanlike disposition, a, ii. 218.

Gerond, gironné, i. 287.

gersum, i. 311: 'a premium or fine paid to a feudal superior on entering upon a holding' (N.E.D.). See also Cowell, s. v.

gild, 'to gild withal:' for gilding purposes, i. 57.

gilliflowers, the clove pink: 'paying yearely one cloue of Gereflowers at Easter,' i. 245; 'one cloue or slip of Gilliflowers,' i. 311.

gin, contrivance, engine: 'a gin to convey Thames water to Dowgate conduit,' i. 232 marg.

glasier: 'Launcelot Young, Maister Glasier to her Majestie,' i. 298.

glass house: 'a … wherein was made glass of divers sorts to drink in,' i. 148.

goddards: 'from OF. Godart (1397), F. Godet, a drinking-cup; still so called in N. Wales' (N.E.D.), i. 343.

Goldyng Lyon, the, i. 312.

Gote on the Hope, Goat on the Hoop, ii. 91: 'Fr. cerceau, sercle, the hoop of a barrel, the sign of a brewster's occupation' (Gross, G.M).

goutes, plur., i. 152.

grant to, i. 121: 'granted to their request,' i. 120.

grayners, granaries, ii. 65.

Greene yard of the Leaden Hall, i. 151. Cf. green churchyard, Introd. p. vii.

grithe, sanctuary, refuge, shelter: 'took grithe of,' i. 308. Cf. Grithbriche, violation of sanctuary, i. 324.

groate and halfe groate, i. 55.

ground, made (opp, to main, natural), i. 43.

groundsell, i. 137: 'a doorsill, threshold' (N.E.D.).

g <u>arded, trimmed or turned up with some material, i. 88, 89 (v. N.E.D.).

Guildhall Teutonicorum: 'the Companie called the Guildhall Teutonicorum (or the Flemish Geld),' i. 234.


habiliments of war: munitions of war, warlike implements, weapons, equipment, &c., i. 126.

hability: 'euery man graunted liberally according to his hability,' ii. 25.

had rather than much good: 'the new serjeants had rather than much good it had not so happened,' ii. 36.

halfe-hakes, half-hackbuts, i. 102.

Hallmotes, i. 344.

Hanaper, the King's, in the Chancery, ii. 67: 'The department of the Chancery into which fees were paid for the sealing and enrolment of charters and other documents. Abolished. 1832' (N.E.D.). (Lat. hanaperium, hamper): 'The Hanaper of the Chancery, anno 10 R. 2, seems to signify the same that Fiscus doth originally in the Latin' (Cowell's Interpreter).

happened upon: 'a great fire happened upon … Leaden Hall,' i. 155.

happily, haply, i. 43; possibly, i. 82.

harbenger to the Queen, purveyor of lodgings, &c., i. 133.

harborow of… leprous persons, ii. 146.

harbouring: 'the blessed work of harbouring the harbourlesse,' i. 198.

hard beneath (cf. hard by), ii. 135.

harnised men, accountred, equippend, i. 103.

harth, 'made of Britain, or rather Roman, tile,' i. 160.

haw, yard: 'Wooll Church Haw,' i. 226.

haw yard, or garden, a great, i. 149.

hazard, to, to game, i. 149.

henchman, i. 102-3: 'a squire or page of honour to a great man, who walked or rode beside him in pageants, processions, &c.' (N.E.D.). See also Henxemen, ii. 193.

herebefore, i. 157.

heuenly make <mate>, ii. 335.

hide, hyde, 'the hyde or territory of Southwarke,' ii. 67.

hithertowardes, hitherto, ii. 132.

Hoisting, Husting, i. 292: a Court held in the Guildhall of London by the Lord Mayor, Recorder, and Sheriffs: long the Supreme Court of the City. For its etymology and history, see article in N.E.D., and Index III. 'A full hoystings,' i. 189.

holbard, halbert, i. 102.

holdefast's hands, a close-fisted person: 'that money being in holdefast's hands,' i. 114. Cf. Shaks., Henry V, 11. iii. 54 (Holdfast is the only dog); and the proverb, 'Bray is a good dog, but Holdfast is better.' See Schmidt's Shakespeare-Lexicon, s. v.

Hole, i. 115: 'The worst ward in the Counter Prisons.' See note on p. 285.

holme, holly, i. 97.

holydome, holiness, i. 115: 'The substitution of -dam, -dame was apparently due to popular etymology, the word being taken to denote "Our Lady"' (N.E.D.).

Honestly, honourably: '<He> was honestly buried in the churchyard,' i. 255.

honor: 'Euery man's house of Honor or Worship,' i. 98.

honor of Baynards Castell, the, i. 61; 'honor was "a seignory of several manors held under one baron or lord paramount"' (N.E.D.).

hood or head attire, who might not wear, except of reied or striped cloth, ii. 166.

Hoop, the Griffon on the, i. 323.

Horne, Sir W. Littlesbery, alias Horne: 'for K. Ed. the 4 so named him because he was a most excellent blower in a horne,' i. 246.

Horners of London: 'the horners that were about the cittie, presently aunswered in like manner,' i. 334. There were at least three classes of Horners: (1) a worker in horn: (2) a maker of musical horns; (3) a blower or winder of the horn. See Munday (1633, p. 638).

horse (plur.): '160 drawing horse,' i. 87.

horse-coursers, jobbing dealers in horses, i. 82.

Horsemill, the, in Grasse Street, i. 153.

hospitall: 'an Hospitall of great relief,' i. 167.

Hospitelar: 'the first Hospitelar or Proctor, for the poor of S. Bartilmew,' ii. 22.

Hostelar, the, innkeeper, i. 348.

hostery, hostelry, i. 38.

hourded up, hoorded, i. 57.

houses, religious: 'by whose wealth and haunt (= resort) many of those places were chiefly fedde and nourished,' ii. 211.

housing: 'much housing was there destroyed,' i. 155, 227.

hoysting, husting, i. 65, 189.

hurly burly, ii. 216.

Hurrer, i. 298: 'a dealer in, or maker of hats and caps; a haberdasher' (N.E.D.).

Husband, economist, ii. 210.


'idol' (the Maypole at S. Andrew Undershaft), sawn in pieces and burnt, i. 144. Philip Stubbs, ap. Strutt (ed. J. C. Cox, p. 277), calls the Maypole 'a stinking idol.'

images of Kings defaced under Edward VI, by such as judged every image to be an Idoll, i. 38.

imbeseled: 'Many jewels were burned, and more imbeseled,' i. 295.

impeach, to hinder, ii. 206.

impoysoning, i. 164.

in perpetual alms, in frank almoigne, ii. 65.

incastellate, v., i. 45.

'[water] incastellated in sufficient cisterns,' i. 293.

incorporate<d>, i. 180.

increased, enlarged: 'He increased the parish church of Saint Michael,' ii. 168. Cf. p. 177.

indighted: 'Cross in Cheap indighted' (i.e. 'presented by Juries or quests of Wardmote'), i. 266 marg.; cf. i. 350 marg.

(1) Infangethef (2) Outfangethef: '(1) a liberty granted from the King to some lords of a manor to try all thieves, their tenants, within their own court; (2) a liberty of trying foreigners apprehended for theft within their own fee' (Kennett, Glossary): see also Stubbs, Select Charters, ed. 1900, p. 78.

infirmitorie, infirmary, i. 317.

infranchised: 'This sir R. Knoles, thus worthily infranchised <to be> a citizen,' i. 107.

inmates: 'subtenants or lodgers tending to increase the number of paupers locally chargeable' (N.E.D.), ii. 124.

inned, gathered in: 'from the first of Aprill till new corne was inned,' i. 90. From v. 'to inn'; cf. innings (Skeat).

inquest, i. 303.

instinction, a godly, a divine impulse, ii. 126.

instore, to, the Grayners of the City with wheat, i. 208.

insulate: 'Long Ditch almost insulateth the City of Westminster, 'ii. 102.

interdiction, interdict, ii. 130.

intermit, interfere: 'so that none but they intermit within the Citie of their craft but he be of their Guild,' i. 285.

inuesture, investiture, i. 45.

inwall, v. a., i. 5.

Iseldon, Islington, i. 31.

isle, aisle, i, 294. See note on p. 349.


jebit, obs. form of gibbet, i. 144.

jornet, i. 102: 'a loose travelling cloak; in 15-16th cent. worn over armour' (N.E.D.).

judgment by water, water-dome (marg. ordalii), i. 100.

Jurie, the poor (of Jews dwelling there), i. 149.

Jurors, forsworn, ride to the pillory on Cornhill, with Miters of paper on their heads, i. 191.

just, to, v., a course or twaine, i. 61.

justes (1458), jousts, i. 58.

Justioer, i. 50: from med. Lat. iustitiarius, a judge, magistrate.


keddles, large fixed nets (stake nets?), A. Fr. Kidel, Act xii. Edw. IV (1472), O.F. Quidel, engin àpâcher (Lacurne) (Dialect Dict.), ii. 153.

kept, attended: 'This Mayor kept the Market so well that he would be at the Leaden hall by foure a clocke in the Sommers mornings,' i. 157; = remained, ii. 36.

Kiuerings, mentioned with Wolsteds, Stayes, Staimus, &c., i. 155; Introd., p. lix. See Index II.

Knape: Church of S. Andrew the Apostle, i. 143, called of the Knape or Undershaft, from the May-pole set up there yearly on May day morning. 'The real meaning is S. Andrew's on the Knap or Hill.' See Index II.

Knight Marshall, i. 144.

Knighthood, conferment of, i. 220.

Kyrlie Merlie, prob. a corruption of Kyrie eleison, i. 252.


landes euicted: 'if the landes should be evicted <i. e. recovered by a judicial process, &c.> … yet he and his Heyres should accomplish the gifte,' i. 334.

lapped: 'I have been shewed the same body (that of James IV. of Scots) so lapped in lead,' i. 298.

Larder, sargeant of the, i. 134.

'largeness of room,' i. 158; cf. 146.

Lateran, Patriarchate of the, i. 72.

lathar, ladder, ii. 353.

Laton workes; latten: 'a mixed metal of yellow colour, either identical with, or closely resembling, brass. The word occurs not infre quently as a trans. of Lat. orichalcum' (N.E.D.).

lauer of brass, the, in the cloyster of the Hospital of Bethlehem, i. 319.

Launder, a washerman or -woman, ii. 293.

Law-worth, ii. 148: worthy of, i. e. entitled to, the laws, &c.; having a standing in the law courts, possessed of full legal rights' (N.E.D.); Gross compares probi homines, good men and true.

Law-worthy. See Charter of William I to the City of London, apud Stubbs, Select Charters, p. 83.

laye, alloy, i. 53.

laystalle, a midden, manure-heap, i. 70.

lazar houses, lepers' hospitals, i. 110.

Leaden Hall, i. 153; meant to have been made a Bursse for the assembly of merchants, but without success; part reserved for the making and resting of the Midsummer pageants, &c., i. 159. See Index II.

leades: 'faire leades to walk upon well imbatailled,' i. 40.

least, lest, i. 47.

ledgier book, i. 161: 'a book containing records, a register, a cartulary' (N.E.D.). Cf. 'a fayre leager booke,' ii. 96.

leese, to lose or forfeit, i. 133.

Leet, ii. 97: 'a special kind of court of record which the lords of certain manors were empowered by charter or prescription to hold annually or semi-annually. =Court-leet' (N.E.D.).

left, left off, ceased, i. 5, 349.

Legiance, allegiance, i. 117.

Lepers to be removed into some outplaces of the fields, ii. 146. Cf. Index III.

letted, hesitated: 'men have not letted to speak their pleasure,' i. 166.

letten, pt. pa., i. 51.

—down, i. 49.

—out, i. 137.

letters insealed, i. 82.

Letters Patentes, i. 155; letters pattentes, ib.

lewde fellowe, a (a counterfeit physician), his subtiltie, i. 58.

Liberties, &c., of the City: King Edward III grants: (1) the Mayor 'to be Justice for the Gaole deliuery at Newgate; (2) that the Citizens should not be constrained to goe out of the Citty to any warre; (3) that the liberties and franchises of the citty should not after this time, for any cause, be taken into the Kinges hands; (4) that no Escheter should be in the citty, but the Mayor for his time,' ii. 164. Cf. i. 127.

light, alight: 'hundreds of Lampes light at once,' i. 101.

lighting the streets: 'This H. B. ordayned Lanthornes with lights to be hanged out on the Winter euening betwixt Hallontide and Candlemass, ii. 171. Cf. i. 271.

lightly, commonly, i. 99.

— gladly, readily, i. 98.

linces, lynxes, i. 48.

Lion Tower, the, i. 48; afterwards called 'The Bulwarke,' ib.

liuelode, livelihood, i. 308; ii, 112.

liuings, means of living, i. 62.

lodgings for the poor translated into stabling for horses, i. 294.

lofted, provided with lofts or upper stories: 'this Library is now lofted through,' i. 275.

Lomsbery, Bloomsbury, i. 217.

London called 'The Kinges Chamber,' i. 117. See Chronicles of London, pp. 99, 268; 'Camera regis,' ii. 202.

London Lickepennie, i. 217.

Londoners anciently called Barons, i. 94.

lordship and parish of Stebunheth, ii. 132.

lorimar, loriner or lorimer, bitmaker, i. 305: makers of bits and ornamental metal work for reins; distinct from saddlers. See Riley, Memorials, 156, and N.E.D.

louer, ii. 90.

lowsed, loosed, i, 179.

Luce of the sea, the hake, i. 96: N.E.D. quotes 'Luces, properly called Pikes of the Sea.'

'Lunatike or phrensie people,' i. 137 marg.

lyne right, straight, ii. 297. Ephyphanye in Tundale (15th cent.), 'The sterre hem brought to Beedlem And lyne right the chyldeaboue' (N.E.D.).


Machabray, dance of, meters or poesie, translated from French by John Lidgate, i. 327.

main and hard ground, ii. 77. See mayne.

maine, great: 'maine timber posts were scrat and cleft,' i. 196.

mainetides, huge tides: 'The Thames breaketh into the French Ocean by maine tides,' i. II.

maioralities, i. 152.

Maister of defence, i. e. fencing master, i. 276; ii. 86. This corporation was organized by Henry VIII in July 1540, under the title of 'Maisters of the Noble Science of Defence' (Strutt, p. 211).

maletolt, mala tolta: 'evil, unjust, or burdensome tax '(N.E.D.). See also Hubert Hall, Customs Revenue of England, i. 67.

malignant spirit, the, act of, i. 97.

Malmesies, imported by the Lombards, i. 241: 'a sweet, strong wine, originally the product of Monemvasia in the Morea; from Malvasia called Malvoisie in French and Malmsey in English' (N.E.D.).

'Mampudding, Mother,' i. 137. See Index I.

marble, gray: 'a livery of marble gray,' i. 89; cf. Machyn's Diary, Camden Soc., p. 462, 'made with wool or silk of various colours mixed together': see Gent. Mag. 1835, N.S. vi. 2, 114, 226; and N.E.D. (variegated or mottled).

Marchandise of three sorts—(1) Nauigation; (2) Inuection; (3) Negotiation, ii. 207.

marchants of Leauaunt, i. 210.

marchants vintners, of Gascoyne, i. 240.

marching watch, the, i. 102.

marrish, marsh; cf. merse, a marsh (Skeat, Etym. Dict.).

marshall (i. e. martial) law, i. 144.

Martin <Merton> College in Oxford, ii. 134, 135.

Martinmas, Feast of St. Martin (Nov. 11), i. 55.

mascle, ii. 90: 'three Mascles sable, between three cinquefoils argent, Lat. macula, also a net; in heraldry, a charge in the form of a lozenge, with a lozenge-shaped opening, through which the field appears' (N.E.D.).

mases <= maces> of siluer and guilt, ii. 165.

mayings, May festivities, i. 98.

mayne, solid or natural ground, i. 345. See N.E.D. 4. b.

mayor and communalty, i. 164.

Mayster of the Workes of money in the Tower of London, ii. 174.

Maze, the, Southwark, ii. 66.

measurer of the Queen's soke, i. 41: 'The Measurer (or the Meater) ought to have 8. chiefe Master porters,' ii. 9.

medley brune, and porre (or purple) colour, price the yeard 2s., ii. 190.

merced, amerced: six bakers merced in the Guild Hall for baking under the size appointed, i. 157.

Mercery in West Cheape, the, i. 257: 'The trade in mercery ware, or the place where it is carried on' (N.E.D.).

merchants ingrosse vp old coins, i. 55.

meyney, retinue, company; meynie, i. 98, 334.

middest, midst, i. 139.

minchuns, mincheons, nuns, i. 132.

minde-day, the anniversary of death, i. 109.

Misrule, Lord of, or Maister of merry disports, i. 97.

mistery, i. 305; ii. 357; Lat. ministerium: 'a corruption of ME. mistere, a trade, craft. Cf. OF. mestier, Ital. mestiere' (Skeat).

moities of Cold Harborough, i. 236.

moneys forbidden: 'galley halfepence, suskinges, or dodkins,' i. 132-3. Cf. Camden's Remaines ed. 1629, pp. 171-2.

monuments, public buildings, i. 313.

more larger, i. 119.

Morian, a Moor: 'his arms three water budgets, and his crest a Morians head,' i. 201.

morish ground, ii. 25.

morrow-mass, the mass on the moming after a festival, i. 261.

Mountgodard Street, etymology of name, i. 343.

mured up, walled up: 'the other two <arches> mured up,' i. 234.

murren, a, of kine, ii. 163.

murrey, dark red, ii. 195; properly mulberry coloured (Skeat).

mustard-villers, mustre-de-villiars, ii. 189: 'a kind of mixed grey woollen cloth, which continued in use up to Elizabeth's reign' (Halliwell). The name is due to Montivilliers (anciently called Monstredevillars) in Normandy. See under Cloath, supra.


namely, especially, i. 22, 132; ii. 113 and passim.

napery, linen for the table, i. 231.

nathelesses, nevertheless, ii. 273. Cf. Milton, P.L. i. 299; Spenser, Hymn to Celestial Beauty, l. 159.

naughty packs, a pack of rascals, ii. 206; vnthriftes, ne'er do wells, ib. Fabyan is called 'a nowghty Cronycle', Introd., p. li.

nayle: 'The nayle lying dry is by scaling greatly wasted,' i. 170.

near hand, well-nigh, i. 244.

'nipping and quipping their fellows, i. 72.

no… no: that no Butcher should kil no flesh, i. 317.

no mo <more>, i. 49.

nobilitating, subs., i. 34.

nocked, notched: 'Arrowes nocked in their hands,' ii. 117.

note, subs., mention, i. 31, 34: 'which Well is the only peculiar note belonging to that gate'; a note or sign, i. 38; v. i. 44.

noyances, injuries, i. 119.

noysance, offence, i. 209.


obedienciarie:'London is but a … subiect, and no free estate, an obedienciarie, and no place indowed with any distinct or absolute power,' ii. 206.

Obit, funeral obsequies, annual memorial service; 'an obite, or aniuersary, to be spent on the poore,' i. 197.

of new, anew, i. 34 and passim.

often (adj.) casualties by fire, i. 83.

or, ere: 'a bye worde, such a man will be Maior, or he be shiriffe,' ii. 187.

orchyard, ii. 102: for ortyard, formerly supposed to be derived from Greek õpxaros.

order, ordering, i. 302.

original, origin, i. 48.

osterie, a common, for travellers, i. 202; cf. hosterie, i. 216.

othersome, others, i. 333.

ouer, outright: 'sold it over,' i. 152.

ouerhayled: 'which Bell, named Rus, rung by one man for 150 years,… of late ouerhayled by four or five at once, hath been thrice broken and new cast within … ten years,' i. 196.

ouerpasse, v.a., i. 306 and passim.

ouerplus, i. 207.

'Our Lady of the Piew,' ii. 127.

out places of the fields, ii. 146.

outward, outer, i. 121.


pageant, 'an allegorical device carried on a fixed stage or car in a public show' (N.E.D.); 'the Mayor had besides his Giant three pageants,' i. 103.

pageants, midsummer, i. 102, 159.

paine, pecuniarie, penalty, ii. 202.

Palatine Tower, belonging to the sovereign, i. 44.

pale, paling, i. 20.

paled park, fenced in, i. 306.

papes: 'in some language Priests are called Papes,' i. 146.

parcelled, divided, i. 129.

Park, Woodstock, the first in England, i. 48. 'The word is English, being a contraction of M.E. parrok from A.S. pearroc, now also spelt paddock' (Skeat).

partie offender, the, ii. 120.

passed, excelled, i. 140.

passed not vpon the honor, cared not for: 'Hee said that he passed not vpon the honor, but came to visite them,' ii. 25.

pastelars, pastry-cooks, i. 81.

pastime, shewing: 'pastimes were shewed on the riuer of Thames,' i. 22; 97, 115.

Paternoster-makers, Bead-makers, and Text-writers, of late called Stationers, i. 81; one paire of Paternosters, i. 86, 338.

Patriarchie of Laterane (i. e. patriarchate), i. 72.

Patricksey, Battersea, i. 23.

Pattenmakers extinct, i. 81.

Paueline, i. 281 (a ghost word). 'Enery Vsurer should weare a Table on their breast, the breadth of a paueline.' i. 281, 1. 6, paueline. This is clearly a printer's error for 'palme', which is the reading of the corresponding passage in the Summarie Abridged both for 1598 and for 1604, and also in the Annales, p. 305, ed. 1605; probably Stow wrote 'paulme'. From the Annales it appears that Stow's authority was the Historia Regum of John Rous (p. 202, ed. Hearne), which reads, 'rex eximius Judaeis in regno suo ut ab aliis noscerentur tabulare ad unius palmae longitudinem signa ferrent in exterioribus indumentis.' Rous copied the Flores Historiarum (iii. 45). I am indebted to Mr. Walter Worrall for indicating the solution of this difficulty.

Paul, S., feet of, i. 318.

Pawne, the, at the Old Royal Exchange, ii. 303: 'richly furnished like a bazaar with all sorts of the finest wares in the Citie,' i. 193. The name is derived from Du. pand, a walk. See note, p. 303.

paynted table: 'A fayre paynted Table of hir picture was placed in the Chapple … which she had builded,' i. 116.

penny force, 25½ gs.; penny deble or feeble, 22½ gs., i. 53. See Foedera, x. 161-3, date 1421. 'French mercenaries were paid in money so feeble that it passeth not a good English noble a month.' See Kingsford, Henry V, p. 367.

Pens, the, (or folds) in Smithfield, ii. 21, 28-9.

pentises of one row of houses, eaves, i. 143; 'an appendix or outbuilding' (Skeat). See Much Ado, III. iii. 110.

Perchers: 'of lights for Paris candles, called Perchers,' i. 85. See N.E.D.; 'a large wax candle, generally used for the altar' (Halliwell).

perie plants, pear-trees, i. 48; so in Chaucer and Piers Plowman (Skeat).

perpetual alms, in, i. 181.

person, parson, i. 37 and passim.

persuade: 'to persuade <enforce> the Article of Christ's resurrection,' i. 167.

pestered: 'many houses builded with alleys backward <at the back> … too much pesterd with people (a great cause of infection),' i. 165; 'this house … being now of late years enclosed about or pestered with small tenements,' i. 124; a church 'pestered with loftes and seates,' i. 127; 'with diuerse Allyes,' ib.

Pew, Piew, Our Lady of the, ii. 121. See Index II.

phrensie: 'lunatic or phrensie people,' i. 137.

picked staff, a, pointed, i. 93.

pikes: 'A Bridge of stone faire coaped on either side with iron pikes, on the which be also certain lanthorns of stone,' i. 26.

pilgrim: 'They chose H. de Ryall to be their pilgrim, for the maister of this misterie (as one that trauelled for the whole companie (Merchant Taylors) was then so called … and the four wardens were then called Purueyors of almes (now called quarterage) of the said fraternitie,' i. 181.

pill, v., to plunder: '[William Rufus] pilled and shaued the people with tribute,' i. 45.

Pix, or Boxe of Assay, i. 54: Lat. pixis, chest, treasury (Gross).

Place of honour: 'In … 1238. King Henry kepte his feast of Christmas at Westminster in the great Hall, so did he in 1241, where he placed the Legate in the most honorable place of the Table, to wit in the midest,' ii. 113-4. Cf. begin the boord, supra.

plashed = pleached (Shaks. Much Ado, III. i. 7; Skeat, Etymol. Dict.), i. 3.

platform: 'the very platforme thereof [St. Bride's House] remayned for great part wast,' i. 69.

playne mockery, a, ii. 302.

Pleas, Common, or Place, i. 78 and passim.

Pleas of the Crowne, pleaded in the Tower; suits in the King's name against offences committed against his Crown and dignity, i. 51.

plot, site, i. 294: 'the plot of Aldgate, and the Soke thereunto belonging, i. 140.

pointed, appointed, i. 54.

popingey, a parrot, i. 166; here 'a mark like a parrot, put on a pole to be shot at' (Skeat).

porpentine, porcupine, i. 48; cf. Hamlet, I. v. 20.

porre, purple colour, ii. 190.

Port the, or entrie into the Hall, ii. 118.

portoloses, i. 29: 'portcullis, a sliding gate' (Skeat, Etymol. Dict.).

portgrave, portreeve, derivation of, ii. 147.

portrature, i. 337.

pory, porous, i. 293.

Postles chappell, the, i. 321.

Pothecarie, apothecary, i. 161.

Potmaker for the Mint (W. Foxley), his long sleep, i. 59.

Poulter, poulterer, i. 262.

pound starlings, i. 317.

poundage: 'they could not sell their wines, paying poundage,' i. 238.

power, force, i. 1, 107; ii. 171.

poynting, appointing: 'the King poynting a Custos,' i. 301.

practise, to intrigue: 'Richard, Duke of Gloucester, then Protector, practised for the Crown,' ii. 235.

pralle, app. variant of prolle, prowl, Lat. scrutor (N.E.D.), i. 160.

'Premunire, the,' Premunirey, Cardinal Wolsey condemned in, i. 340.

preposterous zeal, ii. 75.

Presbeterie, chancel, sanctuary, ii. 46.

Presbytery, the quire or chancel, ii. 132.

present, immediate: 'the people did nothing else but expect present death,' i. 24.

presented: 'the Crosse in Cheape presented (= indicted) by diuers Juries, or Quests of Wardmote,' i. 266.

president, precedent, i. 130.

prest, loan, ii. 214.

Pricesset on victuals, &c. (A.D. 1313), ii. 162-3.

prilling, trickling, i. 267.

Priores aliens, i. e. priories alien, i. 131.

Priories Aliens, suppressed 4 Henry V, i. 39.

Priors: 'these Priors <of Christ Church> have sitten and ridden amongst the Aldermen of London, in liuery like vnto them,' i. 141.

prise, price, i. 24; cf. Stratmann, M.E.D.

prises, goods taken from the French, i. 318.

procession-way, i. 227; 'the aisle in a cathedral or collegiate church behind the high altar, round which a procession could take its way' (Lee's Glossary).

procurators, or Wardens, of London Bridge, i. 31. Cf. St. Antonie's Procters, i. 184.

procurement, by, i. 272.

professed trade: 'till of late time euery man liued by his professed trade, not any one interrupting another,' i. 238.

proper, neat, handsome, i. 132 and passim.

prosecute, to follow up, i. 118.

protracted, wasted: 'as they stayed or protracted time,' i. 24.

Prusia: 'This man sent into Prusia, and caused to be brought from thence certaine ships laden with Rie,' ii. 173.

Purbecke, hard stone of, i. 272.

purprestures, 'enchrochmentes on highwayes, lanes, and common grounds,' i. 83.

pursiuaunt, i. 99: 'an attendant on Heralds' (Skeat); purseuants, i. 237.

purueyors of almes, i. 181. See pilgrim.

put foorth, to, <i.e. to put out> the lightes of this Chappel, i. 151.

put out, evicted, i. 151.

Pye-powders, Court of, ii. 69: 'travelling men, wayfarers, esp. an itinerant merchant or trader (Fr. pied-poundreux, Lat. pede pulverosus, dusty-foot)' (N.E.D.). See also Ben Jonson's Bartholomew Fair, and H. Morley's History.

Pyramis, a, to be set up in place of the top of the Cross in Cheap, i. 267.


quadrant, 'a proper, or squared court,' i. 134, 159; 'the large Southeast quadrant to the same gate <Ludgate> adioyning.'

quarterage, a quarter's wages or pension (N.E.D.), i. 181. See pilgrim.

Queen: 'The Tower Royall called the Queene's Wardrope,' i. 244.

Queen's Soke, measure and measurer of the, i. 41.

queristers, choristers, i. 154.

quinten, running at the, for prizes, i. 94.

quire or queere (of a church), i. 21, 134.

quitclaim, 'quietum clamare, to quitclaim, release' (Gloss. to Nichols's Britton).


ray, striped, i. 86. See 'reied or striped cloth,' ii. 166; 'ray gowns' of broad cloth rowed or striped athwart, ii. 189.

Readers, i. e. Lecturers, a college of, i. 75, 174.

Reading tawney: 'a livery of Reading tawney,' i. 88-9; 'Tawny =Tanny, a yellowish brown' (Skeat); a fabric formerly made at Reading.

ready, made himself: accoutred himself, i. 64.

rebatement of Bishops liuinges, ii. 20.

receipt, reception, i. 49.

— of travellers, also recept, reception, i. 164.

— capacity: 'an Hospital of great receipt,' ii. 143.

recluse or ankorage, a, ii. 22.

Recognition: 'since the said Recognition,' ii. 7; see Skeat s.v.: from recognizance, law term; Chaucer, C.T. 130260.

Recorder: He learnedly delivereth the sentences of the whole Court: 'G. H., Alderman, was elected to bee Recorder of London … and was appointed to weare his apparrell as an Alderman,' ii. 161-2.

red (p.p. of read): 'I haue not red of Basing,' i. 348 bis, ii. 147, and passim.

re-edifler, or new builder, ii. 306.

reformed corrected, i. 215.

reforme peace, to, i. 71.

reforming, restoration: 'the reforming of that church,' i. 173.

Registers (-trars), offices kept by, i. 342.

relief and harborow of … leprous persons, ii. 146.

reliefe (v.a.) them [viz. prisons], i. 154.

Remembrancer of the office of the first-fruits, i. 293. There were three Remembrancers: (I) the King's; (2) the Lord Treasurer's; (3) the Remembrancer of the First Fruits (see Cowell's Interpreter).

Remembrances, Book of, (Remembrancia in the Guildhall, i. 123. The City Letter-books were also called 'books of Remembrances.' Here it refers to Letter-Book C.

remised and quiteclaimed, ii. 64; see Cowell's Interpreter, s. vv., and under quitclaim.

remit, subs., ii. 65.

remove, subs., i. 351.

render, v., to surrender, i. 46.

renowmed, renowned, i. 71.

repayre, to make r. to, i. 84.

repayred, resorted: 'such Market people as repayred to prayer,' i. 155.

repayrers to this Citie, i. 84.

replenished, adorned: 'replenished … with beautiful houses of stone,' i. 302 and passim.

replenished with, full of: 'replenished with strangers,' ii. 66.

reprises, in all, i. 35: 'Deductions and duties which are yearly paid out of a Manor and Lands … Wherefore when we speak of the clear yearly value of a Manor, we say it is so much per annum ultra reprisas' (Cowell's Interpreter).

reuestry, sacristy, i. 347.

Rhodes, Knights of the, ii. 84 and passim.

rifeled: 'the Barons rifeled the Jews coffers,' i. 279.

rills or rillets, i. 14.

ring of nine bells, a, well tuned, i. 142.

Ringleaders of Inquests defined, i. 191.

Rippers or Rippiers of Rye, i. 187: so called from carrying fish for sale in a ripp or basket; pedlars in Kent used them in pairs and slung on each side of a horse for carrying loads, such as salt, fish, sand, &c. (Dialect Dict.).

rise against, to meet, i. 65: Lat. assurgere alicui, quoted by Steele in H. of C.

rising, accruing: 'C. li. so rising yearly,' i. 116.

roade (of ships), v. p. t., 'as if they r. at Queene Hith,' i. 41.

Roane <Rouen>, inscription on great bell at, ii. 120.

'Romish' order of sacraments, the, ii. 136.

romthes, rooms, ii. 353; see Skeat, s.v. room.

rood and tabernacle destroyed, i. 209.

rose nobles, i. 55.

Round walke, the, of the Temple Church '(which is the West part without the Quire) … the rest are coaped stones,' ii. 50, 51.

roundelets of hoods, ii. 197.

routs, tumults, ii. 120.

rowals, of six points (on coinage of William I), i. 52.

rowlocks (orelockes), boats provided with, i. 206.

royalty, royal state, i. 66; 'countenance (i.e. show) of insufficiencie,' ib.

rub it out, tide it over: '<he> did rub it out,' i. 351.

rugh and clench, shipnails so called: 'rugh and clenche, i.e. rugh nayles with broad round heades, and clenched on the other side with square plates of iron: the roofe of this hall is also wrought of the like boord, …and seemeth as it were a Gallie, the Keele turned upwards,' i. 137.

ruinated, i. 163; ii. 123.

russet, cloth of, i. 85; clothes of medley, i. 86.

— cotton, brown, i. 319.


Sabbaoth, the, and principall Feasts, i. 157.

sacke and soke, toll, and Theam, <and> infangthefe, i. 122. See Stubbs, Select Charters, p. 78.

Sacraments and sacramentals, i. 319: 'Sacramentals: a term for certain rites, ceremonies, and religious observances, … adopted as valuable adjuncts to the sacraments' (Lee, Glossary of Liturgical Terms.)

sacred, pple., consecrated (Stratmann), ii. 216.

St. Scithen, St. Swithin, i. 108.

Sake (or Sach) and Soke, toll, and theam, i. 43: 'The right to hold a court for one's tenants, and to have the amercements arising from this court' (Gross, G. M., ii. 417).

Sanctuary men, ii. 216.

sarpler, ii. 328. 'A sarpler of wool, a pocket or half a sack' (Halliwell).

say, serge, i. 96, 102-3.

Sayes, Stamins, Kiuerings, i. 155.

say-maister, assay-master, i. 306; ii. 159.

Scabine, échevin, a gild officer, alderman, judge, i. 323.

scantly, scarcely: 'four foote scantly remained above ground,' i. 254; ii. 131. Cf. Skant, i. 170.

schools … lately aduanced, set up, i. 73; decayed by suppression of religious houses whereof they were members, i. 73.

Scot and lot, i. 161: 'A customary contribution laid upon all subjects, according to their ability' (Cowell's Interpreter).

scour: 'Iohn Philpot sent shippes to the sea, and scoured it of Pirates,' ii. 168.

scrating, scratching, i. 277; scrat, i. 196.

scrine, screen, i. 350.

seacole forbidden to be burned in London, Southwark, &c. (A.D. 1306), ii. 162.

Seals of the Mayoralty, i. 221. See Index III.

seased, seized, i. 152.

seasor, seizer, i. 234.

Secondarie, a delegate, deputy (ToddJohnson, quoting Wakefield's Memoirs for meaning of usher), ii. 1770. The title is still held by one of the chief City officials.

seiser of liberties, seizure, ii. 216.

Seisin, corporal possession: 'they did put the … Prior in seisine thereof,' i. 122. 'Seisin in fact is when a corporal possession is taken; Seisin in law, when something is done, which the law accounteth a seisin, as an enrolment' (Cowell's Interpreter).

Seisin, Livery of: 'The documentary habit did not for many centuries extinguish the ceremony of personal giving and taking; the old custom survived into the period when Norman-French became the language of law, and then it was called livery of Seisin, and the feudal investitures were conducted with a solemn delivery of possession' (Earle, Land Charters, xvi-xvii, quoting also Stephen's Commentaries for feoffment, feoffor, feoffee).

selda, a shed, i. 257.

sell, cell: 'a sell to Burton Lager,' ii. 90.

sellar, cellar, i. 35.

Sellarer to the King, saddler (sellarius), i. 315. See note on p. 344.

separall, i. 41: 'separia, Separaria, a several, or divided Enclosure, severed or separated from other ground. Placia quae jacet juxta separiam Prioris et conventus de Burncestre' (Kennett, quoted from Paroch. Antiq. in Cowell's Interpreter).

Sergeants feast at Elie house: question of precedence, ii. 36.

seruiceable: 'a serviceable Gentleman,' ii. 19; 'officious; in a good as well as a bad sense' (Schmidt, Shakespeare-Lexicon). 'If it be so to do good service, never let me be counted serviceable' (Cymb. III. ii. 15).

seruitude, opp. to 'liberty of a guild,' i. 120.

set, arranged: 'set the guests,' ii. 114. 'The mummers set to the Prince three jewels—a boule of gold, a cup of gold, and a ring of gold,' i. 96.

settles, double, of wainscot (for a library), i. 318.

shank bone, a, 28½ inches of assisse long, i. 292-3.

sheades, sheds, i. 330.

shearman, shereman, 'one whose occupation is to shear cloth' (2 H. VI, IV. ii. 145), ii. 75.

shelues, sandbanks: 'shelues, and other stoppages of … Thames,' i. 208.

Sheremoniers, such as cut and rounded the plates to be coyned or stamped into Estarling pence, ii. 18.

Sheremoniers' Lane, ii. 259. See Index II.

sheweth, appeareth, i. 28.

ships with tops, i. 206.

shoppes, with solars, sellars, &c., i. 297.

Shriuewick, office of sheriff, ii. 149, 150.

siege, house called the common, i. 25; cf. ii. 232, 'common stage.'

signioritie, lordship, i. 64.

siluer of Guthuron's Lane, i. 53.

simetery, symmetry, i. 349.

sindals, i. 63: sendal, cendal, O.F. A kind of rich thin silk used for lining, very highly esteemed. Thynne says, 'a thinne stuff, like sarcenett.' Palsgrave, however, has cendell, thynne lynen, sendal' (Skeat, in Notes to Canterbury Tales, A. 440).

Sinke Portes, the, ii. 15.

sith, i. 233.

sithence, since, i. 71.

sithens, adv., since, i. 123.

sitten, pa. part., 129, &c.

skuncheon, a triangular projection of a wall, i. 162; ii. 197. Stow interprets 'scutcheon', which suggests that it was a shield-shaped piece of ground. See note, p. 297.

sleepie drink, a, sleeping draught, i. 51.

slue, pret., slew, i. 30.

so that, on condition that, i. 5.

soap <sope>-making in London, i. 251.

soke, i. 29: 'Jurisdiction, the right to hold a court; a district having this privilege' (Gross, ii. 418).

soke, the Queen's, i. 41. See Index III.

sokeman, i. 64: 'tenant in ancient demesne' (Nichols's Britton).

sokemanrie, i. 64; soken, or warde, ib.

sole women, unmarried, i. 125: 'single; legally independent' (Stanford Dict.).

soler, an upper story: 'sheds or shops, with solers over them,' i. 268.

sophisters … flowed with words, i. 72.

sorency, astrology, i. ix.

sort, number, i. 3.

Sothorey, Southrey, Surrey, ii. 365.

soundeth, signifies, i. 120.

Southwarke, 'Manor and borough of, with all the members, rights, and appurtenances,' ii. 68. See also Index II.

soylage, dirt, sewage, i. 164.

speere, spire: 'the steeple had sometime a fair speere of stone,' ii. 257.

spoyle, spoiling, i. 20.

stall boards, their first and later use, i. 343.

standard (of spring water), i. 38.

— 'a standard of tree set up full of Holme and Iuie,' i. 265.

staple: 'Lat. stapulum, a scaffold for the sale of wares; afterward, a town where alone by law certain goods might be vended' (Gross, Glossary). See ii. 102-4.

stare, starling, i. 54.

starling penny, the, i. 52; derivation of the name, i. 53.

— peny, starlings; Easterling, Esterling, i. 52; marks easterlings, Easterling pence, ib.

state, good estate: 'for the state of the King, the Queene, and their children,' ii. 113; 'stately tyred like a Pope,' i. 96: the Pope was a 'state', but a 'state' was not a 'Pope'. See 'estate' in Chron. Lond. Glossary and 'estatly'.

States of Nobilitie created at Bridewell, ii. 44.

staues in meter Royall, i. 99.

— ragged, imbrodered on coats of Earl Warwick, i. 88.

stayning: 'that workemanship of s. is departed out of use in England,' ii. 4; cf. i. 302-4.

steely, like steel, i. 293.

stered chamber, the Star Chamber, i. 308; starre chamber, ii. 119.

stilts: 'it leaneth vpon proppes or stilts,' ii. 2.

sintes, meete, to be well governed <a convenient limit of the population of a city if it is to be properly governed>, ii. 205.

stirring, prancing, i. 103.

stockes, for Gunnes, i. 155.

stookfishmongers, i. 81; opp. to wetfishmongers, ib.

strake, pret. of strike, i. 25.

Strand Bridge, 'with the lane under it,' ii. 93; for 'Iuie bridge,' cf. p. 96 infra, par. 2.

Strandage, a fee for landing from a boat, i. 206.

Stratford: '1491. Hugh Clopton builded the great stone bridge at Stratford vpon Hauen in Warwicke shire,' ii. 178.

strawne hat, a, i. 102.

streightened, straitened, i. 118 and passim.

strikes of iron, strips, bands, i. 323.

Striuelin (Stirling), i. 54.

stud, or nail of silver, i. 57.

stulpes, stulps, short stout posts fixed in the ground as a barrier.

sturs, the seditious, of the said John, i. 215.

subtiller, more, double comp., i. 54.

subtiltie, fraud, rouguery, i. 58.

sufficient, competent, i. 40.

— = substantial (of a pavement), i. 43.

summarie, in, summarily, i. 59.

summer houses …, like Midsommer Pageantes, with Towers, Turrets, and Chimney tops, ii. 78.

Suppression, the late general, i. 125.

supprior, the, ii. 26.

surceased, from surseoir, ceased: 'these disputations surceased,' i. 74.

surmaster, second master, i. 74.

surplesses, i. 230.

surplusage, excess, i. 55.

suskinges, or dodkins, i. 132-3: 'an early name for the doit, a small Dutch coin' (N.E.D., which quotes Act 3 Hen. V, c. i. § 2, 'Les Galyhalpens, et la Moneie appelle Seskyn et Doydekin').

sute, series, i. 315.

— suit, i. 155; ii. 67 bis.

sweating sickness, ii. 178.


tabard, or herald's coat, described, ii. 62.

tables, a game at, backgammon, i. 190.

talles, i. 191: 'a supply of men impannelled upon a Jury or Inquest, and not appearing, or at their appear ance challenged by either party as not indifferent; in which case the judge upon motion grants a supply to be made by the Sheriff of one or more such there present; and hereupon the very act of supplying is called a Tales de circumstantibus' (Cowell's Interpreter).

Tasell Close: 'a large Close called Tasell Close … for that there were Tasels planted for the use of Clothworkers,' i. 166. See Index III.

Tayler's yardes, i. 327; ii. 32.

tenement with purtenance in the lane, i. 242.

Theam (Team, Them, Theim), ii. 122: 'the right of compelling the person in whose hands lost property was found "to vouch to warranty," that is, to name the person from whom he received it' (Stubbs).

thwart, crosswise, ii. 78.

'Tintegall (Tintagel), in the confines of Cornwall,' i. 215.

tipplers of beere, publicans, i. 137.

toft, i. 249: 'a plantation, a green knoll (Scand.); a place marked out for a building' (Skeat).

Touch, a kind of very hard black granite (Halliwell); basalt (Todd-Johnson): 'a tombe of Touch,' i. 203.

Tower Royal, the, called the Queenes Wardrope, i. 244.

translated: 'Lodgings for the poore are translated into stabling for horses,' i. 294; 'His body was translated 1140, being richly shrined aboue the Quire,' i. 332.

trauailers, travellers: (a) 'poore people, trauailers and others that were diseased,' i. 82. (b) 'This most noble citizen … that had trauelled (laboraverat) for the commoditie of the whole Realme,' i. 107.

tree, wood, i. 97.

Trespasses, common, i. 33.

Trink, ii. 170: 'a narrow, open drain for the passage of water; the bed or channel of a river or stream; the water which flows in the channel' (Dialect Dict.). [?]

triumph: 'If any triumph or noblenesse were to be done,' i. 158.

tronage, tronagium, payment made for weighing goods at the public beam, i. 155; so tronare, to weigh at the public beam or steelyard; tronarium, public beam or steelyard by which heavy articles were weighed. Cf. Trongate of Edinburgh (see Gross, Glossary).

troupe: 'one large middle row or troupe of small tenementes,' ii. 91.

tutor, governor, i. 242.

tyred like a Pope, attired, i. 96.


vmbray: 'the shade for the eyes placed immediately over the sight of a helmet, and sometimes attached to the vizor' (Halliwell). See Kingsford, London Chronicles, Glossary. (Misprinted uniber, ii. 32.)

vnapt: 'the old Seale being very smal, vnapt, and vncomely,' i. 221.

vnder [subject to] correction, i. 57.

vndesevered: 'of bones undesevered,' i. 209.

Vniuersity of students of the Common Law in London, i. 77.

vnneath, scarcely: 'Famine and mortality, so that the quicke might vnneath bury the dead,' ii. 163.

vnprayseable, inestimable: 'vessels of gold and silver vnprayseable,' ii. 49.

vnright: 'I forbid that any man do to them any vnright or disease' <Stow's words, not those of the patent>, i. 286 (Patent of H. 2).

Vnwitting the Sergeants, and against their willes, ii. 36.

vpholster, broker, i. 153.

vre, kept in, practice, i. 104.

Vtter Barresters, degree of, i. 78.

vttered (of wares): 'to be shewed, sold, and vttered,' i. 156.


'vagabonde,' a common labourer, i. 20.

valour, value: 'two acres of wood … in valour 20s. and 3d. by yeare,' i. 249.

vawmure, an advanced wall, ii. 70; cf. vant-warde, &c. (Stratmann). Stow's trans. of FitzStephen's antemurale, i. 70.

vellem, i. 328.

verify to be true, confirm, i. 196, 226.

vertue vegitable, the, i. 99.

Vicecounties, Vicounties, or Shiriffes, ii. 149.

vinetree, vintry, i. 81.

Violets (violet robes): 'the Aldermen accustomed to be present in their Violets, and in their Scarlets at the Spittle,' i. 167.

Vlfrimhampton, Wolverhampton, i. III.

void, v. a., 'Leprouse persons to be voided the city,' ii. 145 marg.; v. n., 'that all leprose persons inhabiting there should avoid within fifteen days next.'

voluntarie, freewill: he resigned his bishopricke of his own voluntarie, ii. 130.


'Waddemole, now called woadmel, in Oxfordshire woddenell, a coarse sort of stuff used for the covering of the collars of cart-horses. Mr. Ray described it to be a hairy, coarse stuffe, made of Island wool, and brought thence by our seamen to Norfolk, Suffolk,' &c. (Kennett, Glossary, s. v.), i. 284.

waif, O. F. gaif, pl. waives, weives (Stratmann).

waifs and strays: 'Waif, a thing abandoned; also the right of a lord to appropriate such things found upon his manor' (Nichols's Britton).

Walling of Cities, i. 8.

wan upon: 'Knightes Hospitelars of … S. John of Jerusalem … after wan upon the sayd Turke dayly,' ii. 50.

wanne, pret., won, i. 51.

warden of the…Marches foranenst Scotland, facing, i. 44.

warder, a staff, truncheon: 'the King cast down his warder,' ii. 33. Cf. Shaks, Rich. II, I. iii. 118.

Wardrope: 'the Tower Royal called the Queenes Wardrope, i. 244.

waste of one Cocke [of water], i. 34, 38.

wasters, cudgels used in Fence schools (Halliwell), i. 95.

Water-Bayly, the, Bailiffe, i. 189.

water-bugges, casks (heraldic): 'Stephen Bugge Gent., his Armes be three water bugges, 1419,' i. 347.

waterdome, the (ordalii), i. 100. For this ordeal, see Hubert Hall, Court Life under the Plantagenets, 94 sq.

Watheling street: acc. to Leland, Atheling or Noble street. Stow rather takes it to be so named of the great high way 'of the same calling'. See Index II, and note, p. 352.

Watmols, i. 284, woollen bays, flannels, and such like. Cf. curtains of Wedmole lace in Hubert Hall, Society in the Elizabethan Age, p. 210; Rogers, Agriculture and Prices, ii. 542, 'Wadmal for collars'; and Kennett, Glossary.

Waytes of the City, the, i. 103. The City watchmen provided with trumpets (also known as waits) to give the alarm (Riley, Memorials, 420). Skeat explains the word as 'one who is awake to play music at night,' and compares wayte, a spy, wayte, waker, vigil (Prompt. Parv.).

wealthes, plur., ii. 78.

weapons ouergrown with foulness, i. 104.

weauers: 'In London formerly weauers of diuerse sorts … of Drapery, or Taperie, and Naperie,' i. 218.

weeke (wick), the cotton or yarn of candles, i. 218.

welbeloved to, i. 120.

were, weir, A.S. and M.E. wer, i. 45; 'qui dedit unum were Ecclesiae Rofen,' ib.

whiffler, i. 102: 'one who goes first in a procession; orig. a piper or fifer' (Skeat). Cf. Introd., p. viii.

whirlicotes or chariots, i. 83-4.

white money, silver, i. 55.

whoodes, hoods, i. 98.

wiar drawers, spinners of wire, i. 150.

'widdowes almes,' the leg-irons, i. 350.

Windgoose or Wildgoose Lane, i. 234. See Index II.

wine tunners, i. 242.

winning, to save space: 'for the winning of ground,' i. 295.

wirche, work, ii. 327.

with, a twisted tree, i. 98; cf. Judges xvi. II, and see Skeat's Etym. Dict.

woad, woades, trade in, i. 82.

wodden (wooden), i. 7.

wols, wools, i. 155.

wolsteads, to scour or calender, i. 152.

wolsted, worsted, i. 102-3. From Worstead Norfolk. 'Chaucer is perhaps the earlist author who mentions it' (Skeat).

woodmen, wildmen, satyrs, fauns, i. 314.

woodmen, wildmen, houses garnished with the likeness of, i. 296, 345.

woollen cloths to be in breadth two yards within the lists, i. 286.

wool-winders and packers wound and packed their wools in Leaden Hall, i. 160.

woon, p. p. of win, ii. 206.

woont, wont, i. 139.

worn out, extinct, i. 81, 136, 218 and passim.

Wose, Wapping in the, a low marshy place, ii. 70.

wrastling: '1452, a great fray at the wrastling,' ii. 174.


year, by the, yearly, i. 36.

Ymaginour, image-maker, ii. 331.