Key to Sources

Dictionary of Traded Goods and Commodities 1550-1820. Originally published by University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, 2007.

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In this section


These details are those of the source types in the Dictionary Archive that contain the headword or its variants.

There are nine source types represented in substantial sets in the Dictionary Archive.

Inventories (early) Probate inventories of tradespeople involved in retail trade and/or craft manufacture (up to 1660)
Inventories (mid-period) Probate inventories of tradespeople involved in retail trade and/or craft manufacture (1660-1700)
Inventories (late) Probate inventories of tradespeople involved in retail trade and/or craft manufacture (1700-1809)
Tradecards Hand bills and bill heads
Newspapers Advertisements, mainly from provincial newspapers, announcing trade information, property sales and descriptions of absconders
Rates Three Books of Rates
Acts Extracts from appropriate statutes and ordinances
Diaries Extracts from diaries, autobiographies and personal accounts (see full list below)
Recipes Domestic, medicinal and industrial recipes (see full list below)
Houghton John Houghton's Husbandry and Trade Improv'd
Patents Short titles of all patents of invention up to 1800

The value of knowing in which type of document or source a term may be found lies in the nature of these documents. Are they official records produced by literate experts in the field like ACTS and RATES, semi-official ones written by friends and neighbours (probate inventories), or wholly personal (DIARIES and some RECIPES)? Are they entirely factual or largely promotional (NEWSPAPERS and TRADECARDS), or largely investigative and informational (HOUGHTON)? Each provides the contextual evidence that allows the historian or researcher to make sense of the term, its use, and from it to reach conclusions as to the commodity it designated and the relevance of that to the material culture of its day.


Blundell Blundell, Nicholas (1968-1972), The Great Diurnal of Nicholas Blundell of Little Crosby, Lancashire, 1702-1728, in three volumes, edited by Frank Tyrer, Lancashire and Cheshire Record Society, Liverpool
Burrell Burrell, Timothy (1850), 'Extracts from the Journal and Account Book of Timothy Burrell, Esq., Barrister at Law, of Ockenden House, Cuckfield from the year 1683 to 1714' edited by Robert Willis Blencowe, Sussex Archaeological Collection III, London
Dudley Dudley, Robert (1995), Household Accounts and Disbursements Books of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 1558-1561, 1584-1586, edited by Simon Adams, Camden fifth series, volume 6, published by Cambridge University Press, Cambridge for the Royal Historical Society
Fell Fell, Sarah (1920), The Household Account Book of Sarah Fell of Swarthmoor Hall, edited by Norman Penney, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Josselyn Josselyn, John (1673), John Josselyn, colonial traveller, a critical edition of two voyages to New England, edited by Lindholdt, Paul J., U. Press of New England, Hanover & London, 1988
First published as An Account of two voyages to New England by John Josselyn, gent, London 1674
Josselin Josselin, Ralph (1976), The Diary of Ralph Josselin, 1616-1683, O.U.P. for the British Academy, London
Lichtenberg Lichtenberg, Georg (1938), Lichtenberg's Visits to England as described in his Letters and Diaries, edited by Margaret Mare and W.H. Quarrell, Clarendon Press, Oxford
Lindfield An Anonymous Account and Letter Book covering the years 1668-71, possibly connected to Lindfield, West Sussex Record Office, MSS 18,007
Moore Moore, Giles (1847), 'Extracts from the Journal and Account book of the Rev. Giles Moore, rector of Horstead Keynes, Sussex, from the year 1655 to 1679', edited by Robert Willis Blencowe, Sussex Archaeological Collection, I/65-127
Pepys Pepys, Samuel (1985), The Diary of Samuel Pepys, transcribed and edited by Robert Latham and William Matthews, Bell and Hyman, London
Schopenhauer Schopenhauer, Johanna (1988), A Lady Travels: Journeys in England and Scotland from the Diaries of Johanna Schopenhauer, translated from the German and edited by Ruth Michaelis-Jena and Willy Merson, Routledge, London
The present edition is mainly based on the second edition of Schopenhauer's own book on her travels based on her diaries and published in Germany in 1816
Saussure Saussure, Cesar de (1902), A Foreign View of England in the Reigns of George I and George II, translated and edited by Madame Van Muyden, John Murray, London
Stapley Stapley, Richard (1949), 'The Diary of Richard Stapley, Gent of Hickstead Place in Twineham, from 1682 to 1724; with a notice of the Stapley Family, partly read at the Lewes Meeting, 1848, by the Rev. Edward Turner', Sussex Archaeological. Collection, II/102 28
Turner Turner, Thomas (1984), The Diary of Thomas Turner, 1754-1765, edited by David Vaisey, Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York
White White, Gilbert (1982) Journals of Gilbert White, Clergyman, Selborne, Hants 1768-1793, edited by Walter Johnson, Futura, Macdonald, London
First published in Great Britain by George Routledge


Buchoz Buchoz, P.J. (1784), The Toilet of Flora: or, a Collection of the most simple and approved Methods of preparing Baths, Essences, Pomatums, ... with Receipts for Cosmetics of every kind, printed for J. Murray; and W. Nicoll, London
Extracts included in Ivan Day, Pomanders, Washballs and other scented Articles, The Herb Society
Bellers Bellers family (1968), In an Eighteenth Century Kitchen: A Receipt Book of Cookery Published from a manuscript in the possession of the Bellers family, edited, with an introduction, notes and glossary by Dennis Rhodes, Cecil and Amelia Woolf, London
Bradley, Richard Bradley, Richard (1980), The Country Housewife and Lady's Director, edited by Caroline Davidson, facsimile of first combined edition (1736), Prospect Books, London
Part I was first published in 1727 and Part II in 1732. The facsimile reproduction is of the 1736 edition, which combined both parts.
Bradley, M Bradley, Martha (1996), The British Housewife: or, the Cook, Housekeeper's and Gardiner's Companion, facsimile of the 1756 edition, Prospect Books, Totnes, Devon
Brookes Brookes, John (1683), Methley, Yorkshire, MSS, manuscript used by Peter Brears (ed.) for The Gentlewoman's Kitchen, Wakefield Historical Publications, Wakefield, 1984
Berington Berington family papers (undated, but late sixteenth century to the mid-eighteenth), 'Miscellaneous Collection of Recipes', Berington Collection, Worcestershire County Record Office (St Helen's), MSS 705:24/918
Culpeper Culpeper, Nicholas (1718), Pharmacopoeia Londiensis or, the London Dispensatory furthhr [sic] adorned by the Studies and Collections of the Fellows now living of the said College, printed for W. Churchill, London
Crossman Crossman, Moll (c1680s), Manuscript collection of recipes, now in private hands
Carter Carter, Charles (1984), The Complete Practical Cook: Or, a New System of the Whole Art and Mystery of Cookery, facsimile of the first edition (1730), Prospect Books, London
Digby Digby, Kenelm (1997), The Closet of Sir Kenelm Digby opened, edited by Jane Stevenson and Peter Davidson, facsimile of the first edition (1669), Prospect Books, London
Eales Eales, Mary (1985), Mrs. Mary Eales's Receipts, facsimile of the second edition (1733), Prospect Books, London
First published 1718
Evelyn Evelyn, John (1996), Acetaria: A Discourse of Sallets, edited by Christopher Driver from the 1699 edition, Prospect Books, Totnes, Devon
Glasse Glasse, Hannah (1983), The art of cookery made plain and easy, facsimile of the first edition (1760), Prospect Books, London
J.F. Anon (1696), The Way to Save Wealth shewing how a Man may live plentifully for Two Pence a Day, printed and sold by G. Conyers, London
It is the first of four tracts printed by G. Conyers of London, all on the same theme, and bound together [British Library 1506/520 (1), formerly 7074.b.42 (1-4)]
Kettilby Kettilby, Mary (1728), A Collection of above Three Hundred Receipts in Cookery Physick and Surgery; for the Use of all good Wives, tender Mothers, and careful Nurses, by several hands, fourth edition, to which is added a second Part containing a great Number of excellent Receipts, for Preserving and Conserving of Sweet-meats, &c., M. Kettilby and R. Wilkin, London
First edition published in 1714
Lowers Lowers, Dr. (not dated) Take the Ashes of a Swallow, edited by Miles Chetwynd-Stapylton, Zero Publications, Oxford
First published in 1702 as Dr Lowers Receipts, and several other Eminent Physicians Receipts
May May, Robert (1994), The Accomplisht Cook, edited by Alan Davidson et al., facsimile of the 1685 edition, Prospect Books, Totnes
First published in 1660
Murrell Murrell, John (1985), A New Booke of Cookerie and A New Booke of Carving and Serving, facsimile of fifth edition of 1638 published as 'Murrells Two Books of Cookerie and Carving', Jacksons, Ilkley, Yorks.
Mosley Mosley, Jane (1979), Jane Mosley's Derbyshire Recipes containing Recipes for the Baking, Boyling, Roasting & Stewing of Neates Tongue, Lady Elizabeth Cake, Pippin Tart and many other Recipes besides, including Jane Mosley's Derbyshire Remedies, edited by Joan Sinar, Derbyshire Museum Service, Derby
Moxon Moxon, Elizabeth, English Housewifery Exemplified, Pontefract, Yorkshire, used by Peter Brears (ed.) for The Gentlewoman's Kitchen, Wakefield Historical Publications, Wakefield, 1984
First published in 1741 the work passed through 12 editions
Nott Nott, John (1980), Cooks and Confectioners Dictionary, Lawrence Rivington, London
First edition published in 1726
Pemberton Pemberton, H. (editor) (1746), The Dispensatory of the Royal College of Physicians, London
Queens W.M. (1655, facsimile1984), The Compleat Cook and A Queens Delight, printed by E. Tyler and R. Holt for Nath. Brooks, London, facsimile Prospect Books, London
Recusant Anon (1987) 'A Recusant Cookbook', transcribed and edited by P. Dennison, M. Hodgetts, M. Wanklyn in The Worcestershire Recusant, the original compiler/owner is unknown. The manuscript (dated c1750) is in the Birmingham Diocesan Archives
Raffald Raffald, Elizabeth (1997), The Experienced English Housekeeper, facsimile of the first edition (1769), Southover Press, Lewes
Save Wealth Anon (1696-7), The Way to Save Wealth shewing how a Man may live plentifully for Two Pence a Day, second edition with Additions, printed by G. Conyers, London
The fourth of four tracts bound together [British Library 1506/520 (4), formerly 7074.b.42 (1-4)]
Smith Smith, Eliza (1994), The Compleat Housewife, facsimile of the 16th edition (1758), Studio Editions, London
First edition was published in 1727
Tasker Tasker, E., Brayton, Yorkshire, MSS, mid-eighteenth century manuscript used by Peter Brears (ed.) in The Gentlewoman's Kitchen, Wakefield Historical Publications, Wakefield, 1984
Whatman Whatman, Susanna (1956), The Housekeeping Book of Susanna Whatman, edited by Thomas Balston, Geoffrey Bles, London